Arkansas

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This article is about the State of Arkansas. Arkansas_sentence_0

For the U.S. territory that existed from 1819 to 1836, see Arkansas Territory. Arkansas_sentence_1

For the river, see Arkansas River. Arkansas_sentence_2

For other uses, see Arkansas (disambiguation). Arkansas_sentence_3

Arkansas_table_infobox_0

ArkansasArkansas_header_cell_0_0_0
CountryArkansas_header_cell_0_1_0 United StatesArkansas_cell_0_1_1
Before statehoodArkansas_header_cell_0_2_0 Arkansas TerritoryArkansas_cell_0_2_1
Admitted to the UnionArkansas_header_cell_0_3_0 June 15, 1836 (25th)Arkansas_cell_0_3_1
Capital

(and largest city)Arkansas_header_cell_0_4_0

Little RockArkansas_cell_0_4_1
Largest metroArkansas_header_cell_0_5_0 Central ArkansasArkansas_cell_0_5_1
GovernmentArkansas_header_cell_0_6_0
GovernorArkansas_header_cell_0_7_0 Asa Hutchinson (R)Arkansas_cell_0_7_1
Lieutenant GovernorArkansas_header_cell_0_8_0 Tim Griffin (R)Arkansas_cell_0_8_1
LegislatureArkansas_header_cell_0_9_0 Arkansas General AssemblyArkansas_cell_0_9_1
Upper houseArkansas_header_cell_0_10_0 SenateArkansas_cell_0_10_1
Lower houseArkansas_header_cell_0_11_0 House of RepresentativesArkansas_cell_0_11_1
JudiciaryArkansas_header_cell_0_12_0 Arkansas Supreme CourtArkansas_cell_0_12_1
U.S. senatorsArkansas_header_cell_0_13_0 John Boozman (R)

Tom Cotton (R)Arkansas_cell_0_13_1

U.S. House delegationArkansas_header_cell_0_14_0 4 Republicans (list)Arkansas_cell_0_14_1
AreaArkansas_header_cell_0_15_0
TotalArkansas_header_cell_0_16_0 53,179 sq mi (137,732 km)Arkansas_cell_0_16_1
LandArkansas_header_cell_0_17_0 52,035 sq mi (134,771 km)Arkansas_cell_0_17_1
WaterArkansas_header_cell_0_18_0 1,143 sq mi (2,961 km)  2.15%Arkansas_cell_0_18_1
Area rankArkansas_header_cell_0_19_0 29thArkansas_cell_0_19_1
DimensionsArkansas_header_cell_0_20_0
LengthArkansas_header_cell_0_21_0 240 mi (386 km)Arkansas_cell_0_21_1
WidthArkansas_header_cell_0_22_0 270 mi (435 km)Arkansas_cell_0_22_1
ElevationArkansas_header_cell_0_23_0 650 ft (200 m)Arkansas_cell_0_23_1
Highest elevation (Mount Magazine)Arkansas_header_cell_0_24_0 2,753 ft (839 m)Arkansas_cell_0_24_1
Lowest elevation (Ouachita River at Louisiana border)Arkansas_header_cell_0_25_0 55 ft (17 m)Arkansas_cell_0_25_1
Population (2019)Arkansas_header_cell_0_26_0
TotalArkansas_header_cell_0_27_0 3,017,804Arkansas_cell_0_27_1
RankArkansas_header_cell_0_28_0 33rdArkansas_cell_0_28_1
DensityArkansas_header_cell_0_29_0 56.4/sq mi (21.8/km)Arkansas_cell_0_29_1
Density rankArkansas_header_cell_0_30_0 34thArkansas_cell_0_30_1
Median household incomeArkansas_header_cell_0_31_0 $45,869Arkansas_cell_0_31_1
Income rankArkansas_header_cell_0_32_0 49thArkansas_cell_0_32_1
Demonym(s)Arkansas_header_cell_0_33_0 Arkansan Arkansawyer ArkaniteArkansas_cell_0_33_1
LanguageArkansas_header_cell_0_34_0
Official languageArkansas_header_cell_0_35_0 EnglishArkansas_cell_0_35_1
Time zoneArkansas_header_cell_0_36_0 UTC−06:00 (Central)Arkansas_cell_0_36_1
Summer (DST)Arkansas_header_cell_0_37_0 UTC−05:00 (CDT)Arkansas_cell_0_37_1
USPS abbreviationArkansas_header_cell_0_38_0 ARArkansas_cell_0_38_1
ISO 3166 codeArkansas_header_cell_0_39_0 US-ARArkansas_cell_0_39_1
Traditional abbreviationArkansas_header_cell_0_40_0 Ark.Arkansas_cell_0_40_1
LatitudeArkansas_header_cell_0_41_0 33° 00′ N to 36° 30′ NArkansas_cell_0_41_1
LongitudeArkansas_header_cell_0_42_0 89° 39′ W to 94° 37′ WArkansas_cell_0_42_1
WebsiteArkansas_header_cell_0_43_0 Arkansas_cell_0_43_1

Arkansas_table_infobox_1

Arkansas state symbolsArkansas_header_cell_1_0_0
Living insigniaArkansas_header_cell_1_1_0
BirdArkansas_header_cell_1_2_0 MockingbirdArkansas_cell_1_2_1
ButterflyArkansas_header_cell_1_3_0 Diana fritillaryArkansas_cell_1_3_1
FlowerArkansas_header_cell_1_4_0 Apple blossomArkansas_cell_1_4_1
InsectArkansas_header_cell_1_5_0 Western honeybeeArkansas_cell_1_5_1
MammalArkansas_header_cell_1_6_0 White-tailed deerArkansas_cell_1_6_1
TreeArkansas_header_cell_1_7_0 Pine treeArkansas_cell_1_7_1
Inanimate insigniaArkansas_header_cell_1_8_0
BeverageArkansas_header_cell_1_9_0 MilkArkansas_cell_1_9_1
DanceArkansas_header_cell_1_10_0 Square danceArkansas_cell_1_10_1
FoodArkansas_header_cell_1_11_0 PecanArkansas_cell_1_11_1
GemstoneArkansas_header_cell_1_12_0 DiamondArkansas_cell_1_12_1
MineralArkansas_header_cell_1_13_0 QuartzArkansas_cell_1_13_1
RockArkansas_header_cell_1_14_0 BauxiteArkansas_cell_1_14_1
SoilArkansas_header_cell_1_15_0 StuttgartArkansas_cell_1_15_1
OtherArkansas_header_cell_1_16_0 South Arkansas vine ripe pink tomato (state fruit and vegetable)Arkansas_cell_1_16_1
State route markerArkansas_header_cell_1_17_0
State quarterArkansas_header_cell_1_18_0

Arkansas (/ˈɑːrkənsɔː/) is a state in the south central region of the United States, home to more than three million people as of 2018. Arkansas_sentence_4

Its name is from the Osage language, of Siouan derivation; it denoted their related kin, the Quapaw people. Arkansas_sentence_5

The state's diverse geography ranges from the mountainous regions of the Ozark and the Ouachita Mountains, which make up the U.S. Arkansas_sentence_6 Interior Highlands, to the densely forested land in the south known as the Arkansas Timberlands, to the eastern lowlands along the Mississippi River and the Arkansas Delta. Arkansas_sentence_7

Arkansas is the 29th largest by area and the 33rd most populous of the 50 United States. Arkansas_sentence_8

The capital and most populous city is Little Rock, located in the central portion of the state, a hub for transportation, business, culture, and government. Arkansas_sentence_9

The northwestern corner of the state, such as the Fayetteville–Springdale–Rogers Metropolitan Area and Fort Smith metropolitan area, is a population, education, and economic center. Arkansas_sentence_10

The largest city in the state's eastern part is Jonesboro. Arkansas_sentence_11

The largest city in the state's southeastern part is Pine Bluff. Arkansas_sentence_12

The Territory of Arkansas was admitted to the Union as the 25th state on June 15, 1836. Arkansas_sentence_13

Much of the Delta had been developed for cotton plantations, and the state landowners there largely depended on enslaved African Americans as workers. Arkansas_sentence_14

In 1861, Arkansas seceded from the United States and joined the Confederate States of America during the Civil War. Arkansas_sentence_15

On returning to the Union in 1868, the state continued to suffer due to its reliance on the large-scale plantation economy. Arkansas_sentence_16

Cotton continued as the leading commodity crop, although the cotton market declined. Arkansas_sentence_17

Because farmers and businessmen did not diversify and there was little industrial investment, the state fell behind in terms of its economy and opportunities for residents. Arkansas_sentence_18

White rural interests dominated the state's politics by disenfranchisement of African Americans and by refusal to reapportion the legislature. Arkansas_sentence_19

It was not until after the civil rights movement and federal intervention that more African Americans were able to vote. Arkansas_sentence_20

The Supreme Court overturned rural domination in the South and other states that had refused to reapportion their state legislatures, or retained rules based on geographic districts. Arkansas_sentence_21

In the landmark ruling of one man, one vote, it ruled that states had to organize both houses of their legislatures by districts that held approximately equal populations, and that these had to be redefined as necessary after each decade's census. Arkansas_sentence_22

Following World War II, Arkansas began to diversify its economy. Arkansas_sentence_23

In the 21st century, its economy is based on service industries, aircraft, poultry, steel, and tourism; along with important commodity crops of cotton, soybeans and rice. Arkansas_sentence_24

The culture of Arkansas is observable in museums, theaters, novels, television shows, restaurants, and athletic venues across the state. Arkansas_sentence_25

Notable people from the state include politician and educational advocate William Fulbright; former president Bill Clinton, who also served as the 40th and 42nd governor of Arkansas; general Wesley Clark, former NATO Supreme Allied Commander; Walmart founder and magnate Sam Walton; singer-songwriters Johnny Cash, Charlie Rich, Jimmy Driftwood, and Glen Campbell; actor-filmmaker Billy Bob Thornton; poet C. Arkansas_sentence_26 D. Wright; and physicist William L. McMillan, who was a pioneer in superconductor research. Arkansas_sentence_27

Etymology and pronunciation Arkansas_section_0

The name Arkansas was initially applied to the Arkansas River. Arkansas_sentence_28

It derives from a French term, Arcansas, their plural term for their transliteration of akansa, an Algonquian term for the Quapaw people. Arkansas_sentence_29

These were a Dhegiha Siouan-speaking people who settled in Arkansas around the 13th century. Arkansas_sentence_30

Akansa is likely also the root term for Kansas. Arkansas_sentence_31

The name has been pronounced and spelled in a variety of fashions. Arkansas_sentence_32

In 1881, the state legislature defined the official pronunciation of Arkansas as having the final "s" be silent (as it would be in French). Arkansas_sentence_33

A dispute had arisen between the state's two senators over the pronunciation issue. Arkansas_sentence_34

One favored pronunciation as /ˈɑːrkənsɔː/ AR-kən-saw while the other favored /ɑːrˈkænzəs/ ar-KAN-zəs. Arkansas_sentence_35

In 2007, the state legislature passed a non-binding resolution declaring that the possessive form of the state's name is Arkansas's, which has been followed increasingly by the state government. Arkansas_sentence_36

Geography Arkansas_section_1

Main article: Geography of Arkansas Arkansas_sentence_37

Boundaries Arkansas_section_2

Arkansas borders Louisiana to the south, Texas to the southwest, Oklahoma to the west, Missouri to the north, and Tennessee and Mississippi to the east. Arkansas_sentence_38

The United States Census Bureau classifies Arkansas as a southern state, sub-categorized among the West South Central States. Arkansas_sentence_39

The Mississippi River forms most of Arkansas's eastern border, except in Clay and Greene counties, where the St. Arkansas_sentence_40 Francis River forms the western boundary of the Missouri Bootheel, and in many places where the channel of the Mississippi has meandered (or been straightened by man) from its original 1836 course. Arkansas_sentence_41

Terrain Arkansas_section_3

Arkansas can generally be split into two halves, the highlands in the northwest half and the lowlands of the southeastern half. Arkansas_sentence_42

The highlands are part of the Southern Interior Highlands, including The Ozarks and the Ouachita Mountains. Arkansas_sentence_43

The southern lowlands include the Gulf Coastal Plain and the Arkansas Delta. Arkansas_sentence_44

This dual split can yield to general regions named northwest, southwest, northeast, southeast, or central Arkansas. Arkansas_sentence_45

These directionally named regions are broad and not defined along county lines. Arkansas_sentence_46

Arkansas has seven distinct natural regions: the Ozark Mountains, Ouachita Mountains, Arkansas River Valley, Gulf Coastal Plain, Crowley's Ridge, and the Arkansas Delta, with Central Arkansas sometimes included as a blend of multiple regions. Arkansas_sentence_47

The southeastern part of Arkansas along the Mississippi Alluvial Plain is sometimes called the Arkansas Delta. Arkansas_sentence_48

This region is a flat landscape of rich alluvial soils formed by repeated flooding of the adjacent Mississippi. Arkansas_sentence_49

Farther away from the river, in the southeast portion of the state, the Grand Prairie consists of a more undulating landscape. Arkansas_sentence_50

Both are fertile agricultural areas. Arkansas_sentence_51

The Delta region is bisected by a geological formation known as Crowley's Ridge. Arkansas_sentence_52

A narrow band of rolling hills, Crowley's Ridge rises from 250 to 500 feet (76 to 152 m) above the surrounding alluvial plain and underlies many of the major towns of eastern Arkansas. Arkansas_sentence_53

Northwest Arkansas is part of the Ozark Plateau including the Ozark Mountains, to the south are the Ouachita Mountains, and these regions are divided by the Arkansas River; the southern and eastern parts of Arkansas are called the Lowlands. Arkansas_sentence_54

These mountain ranges are part of the U.S. Arkansas_sentence_55 Interior Highlands region, the only major mountainous region between the Rocky Mountains and the Appalachian Mountains. Arkansas_sentence_56

The highest point in the state is Mount Magazine in the Ouachita Mountains, which rises to 2,753 feet (839 m) above sea level. Arkansas_sentence_57

Arkansas is home to many caves, such as Blanchard Springs Caverns. Arkansas_sentence_58

More than 43,000 Native American living, hunting and tool making sites, many of them Pre-Columbian burial mounds and rock shelters, have been cataloged by the State Archeologist. Arkansas_sentence_59

Crater of Diamonds State Park near Murfreesboro is the world's only diamond-bearing site accessible to the public for digging. Arkansas_sentence_60

Arkansas is home to a dozen Wilderness Areas totaling 158,444 acres (641.20 km). Arkansas_sentence_61

These areas are set aside for outdoor recreation and are open to hunting, fishing, hiking, and primitive camping. Arkansas_sentence_62

No mechanized vehicles nor developed campgrounds are allowed in these areas. Arkansas_sentence_63

Hydrology Arkansas_section_4

Arkansas has many rivers, lakes, and reservoirs within or along its borders. Arkansas_sentence_64

Major tributaries of the Mississippi River include the Arkansas River, the White River, and the St. Arkansas_sentence_65 Francis River. Arkansas_sentence_66

The Arkansas is fed by the Mulberry River and the Fourche LaFave River in the Arkansas River Valley, which is also home to Lake Dardanelle. Arkansas_sentence_67

The Buffalo River, Little Red River, Black River and Cache River all serve as tributaries to the White River, which also empties into the Mississippi. Arkansas_sentence_68

The Saline River, Little Missouri River, Bayou Bartholomew, and the Caddo River all serve as tributaries to the Ouachita River in south Arkansas, which eventually empties into the Mississippi in Louisiana. Arkansas_sentence_69

The Red River briefly serves as the state's boundary with Texas. Arkansas_sentence_70

Arkansas has few natural lakes and many reservoirs, such as Bull Shoals Lake, Lake Ouachita, Greers Ferry Lake, Millwood Lake, Beaver Lake, Norfork Lake, DeGray Lake, and Lake Conway. Arkansas_sentence_71

Flora and fauna Arkansas_section_5

Arkansas's temperate deciduous forest is divided into three broad ecoregions; the Ozark, Ouachita-Appalachian Forests, the Mississippi Alluvial and Southeast USA Coastal Plains, and the Southeastern USA Plains. Arkansas_sentence_72

The state is further divided into seven subregions: the Arkansas Valley, Boston Mountains, Mississippi Alluvial Plain, Mississippi Valley Loess Plain, Ozark Highlands, Ouachita Mountains, and the South Central Plains. Arkansas_sentence_73

A 2010 United States Forest Service survey determined 18,720,000 acres (7,580,000 ha) of Arkansas's land is forestland, or 56% of the state's total area. Arkansas_sentence_74

Dominant species in Arkansas's forests include Quercus (oak), Carya (hickory), Pinus echinata (shortleaf pine) and Pinus taeda (loblolly pine). Arkansas_sentence_75

Arkansas's plant life varies with its climate and elevation. Arkansas_sentence_76

The pine belt stretching from the Arkansas delta to Texas consists of dense oak-hickory-pine growth. Arkansas_sentence_77

Lumbering and paper milling activity is active throughout the region. Arkansas_sentence_78

In eastern Arkansas, one can find Taxodium (cypress), Quercus nigra (water oaks), and hickories with their roots submerged in the Mississippi Valley bayous indicative of the deep south. Arkansas_sentence_79

Nearby Crowley's Ridge is the only home of the tulip tree in the state, and generally hosts more northeastern plant life such as the beech tree. Arkansas_sentence_80

The northwestern highlands are covered in an oak-hickory mixture, with Ozark white cedars, cornus (dogwoods), and Cercis canadensis (redbuds) also present. Arkansas_sentence_81

The higher peaks in the Arkansas River Valley play host to scores of ferns, including the Woodsia scopulina and Adiantum (maidenhair fern) on Mount Magazine. Arkansas_sentence_82

Climate Arkansas_section_6

Arkansas generally has a humid subtropical climate. Arkansas_sentence_83

While not bordering the Gulf of Mexico, Arkansas, is still close enough to this warm, large body of water for it to influence the weather in the state. Arkansas_sentence_84

Generally, Arkansas, has hot, humid summers and slightly drier, mild to cool winters. Arkansas_sentence_85

In Little Rock, the daily high temperatures average around 93 °F (34 °C) with lows around 73 °F (23 °C) in July. Arkansas_sentence_86

In January highs average around 51 °F (11 °C) and lows around 32 °F (0 °C). Arkansas_sentence_87

In Siloam Springs in the northwest part of the state, the average high and low temperatures in July are 89 and 67 °F (32 and 19 °C) and in January the average high and low are 44 and 23 °F (7 and −5 °C). Arkansas_sentence_88

Annual precipitation throughout the state averages between about 40 and 60 inches (1,000 and 1,500 mm); somewhat wetter in the south and drier in the northern part of the state. Arkansas_sentence_89

Snowfall is infrequent but most common in the northern half of the state. Arkansas_sentence_90

The half of the state south of Little Rock is more apt to see ice storms. Arkansas_sentence_91

Arkansas's all-time record high is 120 °F (49 °C) at Ozark on August 10, 1936; the all-time record low is −29 °F (−34 °C) at Gravette, on February 13, 1905. Arkansas_sentence_92

Arkansas is known for extreme weather and frequent storms. Arkansas_sentence_93

A typical year brings thunderstorms, tornadoes, hail, snow and ice storms. Arkansas_sentence_94

Between both the Great Plains and the Gulf States, Arkansas, receives around 60 days of thunderstorms. Arkansas_sentence_95

Arkansas is located in Tornado Alley, and as a result, a few of the most destructive tornadoes in U.S. history have struck the state. Arkansas_sentence_96

While sufficiently far from the coast to avoid a direct hit from a hurricane, Arkansas can often get the remnants of a tropical system, which dumps tremendous amounts of rain in a short time and often spawns smaller tornadoes. Arkansas_sentence_97

Arkansas_table_general_2

Monthly Normal High and Low Temperatures For Various Arkansas CitiesArkansas_cell_2_0_0
CityArkansas_header_cell_2_1_0 JanArkansas_header_cell_2_1_1 FebArkansas_header_cell_2_1_2 MarArkansas_header_cell_2_1_3 AprArkansas_header_cell_2_1_4 MayArkansas_header_cell_2_1_5 JunArkansas_header_cell_2_1_6 JulArkansas_header_cell_2_1_7 AugArkansas_header_cell_2_1_8 SepArkansas_header_cell_2_1_9 OctArkansas_header_cell_2_1_10 NovArkansas_header_cell_2_1_11 DecArkansas_header_cell_2_1_12 AvgArkansas_header_cell_2_1_13
FayettevilleArkansas_header_cell_2_2_0 44/24

(7/-4)Arkansas_cell_2_2_1

51/29

(10/-2)Arkansas_cell_2_2_2

59/38

(15/3)Arkansas_cell_2_2_3

69/46

(20/8)Arkansas_cell_2_2_4

76/55

(24/13)Arkansas_cell_2_2_5

84/64

(29/18)Arkansas_cell_2_2_6

89/69

(32/20)Arkansas_cell_2_2_7

89/67

(32/19)Arkansas_cell_2_2_8

81/59

(27/15)Arkansas_cell_2_2_9

70/47

(21/9)Arkansas_cell_2_2_10

57/37

(14/3)Arkansas_cell_2_2_11

48/28

(9/-2)Arkansas_cell_2_2_12

68/47

(20/8)Arkansas_cell_2_2_13

JonesboroArkansas_header_cell_2_3_0 45/26

(7/-3)Arkansas_cell_2_3_1

51/30

(11/-1)Arkansas_cell_2_3_2

61/40

(16/4)Arkansas_cell_2_3_3

71/49

(22/9)Arkansas_cell_2_3_4

80/58

(26/15)Arkansas_cell_2_3_5

88/67

(31/19)Arkansas_cell_2_3_6

92/71

(34/22)Arkansas_cell_2_3_7

91/69

(33/20)Arkansas_cell_2_3_8

84/61

(29/16)Arkansas_cell_2_3_9

74/49

(23/9)Arkansas_cell_2_3_10

60/39

(15/4)Arkansas_cell_2_3_11

49/30

(10/-1)Arkansas_cell_2_3_12

71/49

(21/9)Arkansas_cell_2_3_13

Little RockArkansas_header_cell_2_4_0 51/31

(11/-1)Arkansas_cell_2_4_1

55/35

(13/2)Arkansas_cell_2_4_2

64/43

(18/6)Arkansas_cell_2_4_3

73/51

(23/11)Arkansas_cell_2_4_4

81/61

(27/16)Arkansas_cell_2_4_5

89/69

(32/21)Arkansas_cell_2_4_6

93/73

(34/23)Arkansas_cell_2_4_7

93/72

(34/22)Arkansas_cell_2_4_8

86/65

(30/18)Arkansas_cell_2_4_9

75/53

(24/12)Arkansas_cell_2_4_10

63/42

(17/6)Arkansas_cell_2_4_11

52/34

(11/1)Arkansas_cell_2_4_12

73/51

(23/11)Arkansas_cell_2_4_13

TexarkanaArkansas_header_cell_2_5_0 53/31

(11/-1)Arkansas_cell_2_5_1

58/34

(15/1)Arkansas_cell_2_5_2

67/42

(19/5)Arkansas_cell_2_5_3

75/50

(24/10)Arkansas_cell_2_5_4

82/60

(28/16)Arkansas_cell_2_5_5

89/68

(32/20)Arkansas_cell_2_5_6

93/72

(34/22)Arkansas_cell_2_5_7

93/71

(34/21)Arkansas_cell_2_5_8

86/64

(30/18)Arkansas_cell_2_5_9

76/52

(25/11)Arkansas_cell_2_5_10

64/41

(18/5)Arkansas_cell_2_5_11

55/33

(13/1)Arkansas_cell_2_5_12

74/52

(23/11)Arkansas_cell_2_5_13

MonticelloArkansas_header_cell_2_6_0 52/30

(11/-1)Arkansas_cell_2_6_1

58/34

(14/1)Arkansas_cell_2_6_2

66/43

(19/6)Arkansas_cell_2_6_3

74/49

(23/10)Arkansas_cell_2_6_4

82/59

(28/15)Arkansas_cell_2_6_5

89/66

(32/19)Arkansas_cell_2_6_6

92/70

(34/21)Arkansas_cell_2_6_7

92/68

(33/20)Arkansas_cell_2_6_8

86/62

(30/17)Arkansas_cell_2_6_9

76/50

(25/10)Arkansas_cell_2_6_10

64/41

(18/5)Arkansas_cell_2_6_11

55/34

(13/1)Arkansas_cell_2_6_12

74/51

(23/10)Arkansas_cell_2_6_13

Fort SmithArkansas_header_cell_2_7_0 48/27

(8/-2)Arkansas_cell_2_7_1

54/32

(12/0)Arkansas_cell_2_7_2

64/40

(17/4)Arkansas_cell_2_7_3

73/49

(22/9)Arkansas_cell_2_7_4

80/58

(26/14)Arkansas_cell_2_7_5

87/67

(30/19)Arkansas_cell_2_7_6

92/71

(33/21)Arkansas_cell_2_7_7

92/70

(33/21)Arkansas_cell_2_7_8

84/62

(29/17)Arkansas_cell_2_7_9

75/50

(23/10)Arkansas_cell_2_7_10

61/39

(16/4)Arkansas_cell_2_7_11

50/31

(10/0)Arkansas_cell_2_7_12

72/50

(22/10)Arkansas_cell_2_7_13

Average high °F/average low °F (average high °C/average low°C)Arkansas_cell_2_8_0

History Arkansas_section_7

Main article: History of Arkansas Arkansas_sentence_98

Early Arkansas Arkansas_section_8

Main articles: New France, Louisiana (New France), French and Indian War, Treaty of Paris (1763), New Spain, Louisiana (New Spain), and Treaty of Aranjuez (1801) Arkansas_sentence_99

Before European settlement of North America, Arkansas, was inhabited by indigenous peoples for thousands of years. Arkansas_sentence_100

The Caddo, Osage, and Quapaw peoples encountered European explorers. Arkansas_sentence_101

The first of these Europeans was Spanish explorer Hernando de Soto in 1541, who crossed the Mississippi and marched across central Arkansas and the Ozark Mountains. Arkansas_sentence_102

After finding nothing he considered of value and encountering native resistance the entire way, he and his men returned to the Mississippi River where de Soto fell ill. From his deathbed he ordered his men to massacre all the men of the nearby village of Anilco, who he feared had been plotting with a powerful polity down the Mississippi River, Quigualtam. Arkansas_sentence_103

His men obeyed and did not stop with the men, but were said to have massacred women and children as well. Arkansas_sentence_104

He died the following day in what is believed to be the vicinity of modern-day McArthur, Arkansas, in May 1542. Arkansas_sentence_105

His body was weighted down with sand and he was consigned to a watery grave in the Mississippi River under cover of darkness by his men. Arkansas_sentence_106

De Soto had attempted to deceive the native population into thinking he was an immortal deity, sun of the sun, in order to forestall attack by outraged Native Americans on his by then weakened and bedraggled army. Arkansas_sentence_107

In order to keep the ruse up, his men informed the locals that de Soto had ascended into the sky. Arkansas_sentence_108

His will at the time of his death listed "four Indian slaves, three horses and 700 hogs" which were auctioned off. Arkansas_sentence_109

The starving men, who had been living off maize stolen from natives, immediately started butchering the hogs and later, commanded by former aide-de-camp Moscoso, attempted an overland return to Mexico. Arkansas_sentence_110

They made it as far as Texas before running into territory too dry for maize farming and too thinly populated to sustain themselves by stealing food from the locals. Arkansas_sentence_111

The expedition promptly backtracked to Arkansas. Arkansas_sentence_112

After building a small fleet of boats they then headed down the Mississippi River and eventually on to Mexico by water. Arkansas_sentence_113

Later explorers included the French Jacques Marquette and Louis Jolliet in 1673, and Frenchmen Robert La Salle and Henri de Tonti in 1681. Arkansas_sentence_114

Tonti established Arkansas Post at a Quapaw village in 1686, making it the first European settlement in the territory. Arkansas_sentence_115

The early Spanish or French explorers of the state gave it its name, which is probably a phonetic spelling of the Illinois tribe's name for the Quapaw people, who lived downriver from them. Arkansas_sentence_116

The name Arkansas has been pronounced and spelled in a variety of fashions. Arkansas_sentence_117

The region was organized as the Territory of Arkansaw on July 4, 1819, with the territory admitted to the United States as the state of Arkansas on June 15, 1836. Arkansas_sentence_118

The name was historically /ˈɑːrkənsɔː/, /ɑːrˈkænzəs/, and several other variants. Arkansas_sentence_119

Historically and modernly, the people of Arkansas call themselves either "Arkansans" or "Arkansawyers". Arkansas_sentence_120

In 1881, the Arkansas General Assembly passed Arkansas Code 1-4-105 (official text): Arkansas_sentence_121

Citizens of the state of Kansas often pronounce the Arkansas River as /ɑːrˈkænzəs ˈrɪvər/, in a manner similar to the common pronunciation of the name of their state. Arkansas_sentence_122

Settlers, such as fur trappers, moved to Arkansas in the early 18th century. Arkansas_sentence_123

These people used Arkansas Post as a home base and entrepôt. Arkansas_sentence_124

During the colonial period, Arkansas changed hands between France and Spain following the Seven Years' War, although neither showed interest in the remote settlement of Arkansas Post. Arkansas_sentence_125

In April 1783, Arkansas saw its only battle of the American Revolutionary War, a brief siege of the post by British Captain James Colbert with the assistance of the Choctaw and Chickasaw. Arkansas_sentence_126

Purchase by the United States Arkansas_section_9

Main articles: Louisiana Purchase, District of Louisiana, Louisiana Territory, Missouri Territory, Organic act § List of organic acts, and Arkansas Territory Arkansas_sentence_127

Napoleon Bonaparte sold French Louisiana to the United States in 1803, including all of Arkansas, in a transaction known today as the Louisiana Purchase. Arkansas_sentence_128

French soldiers remained as a garrison at Arkansas Post. Arkansas_sentence_129

Following the purchase, the balanced give-and-take relationship between settlers and Native Americans began to change all along the frontier, including in Arkansas. Arkansas_sentence_130

Following a controversy over allowing slavery in the territory, the Territory of Arkansas was organized on July 4, 1819. Arkansas_sentence_131

Gradual emancipation in Arkansas was struck down by one vote, the Speaker of the House Henry Clay, allowing Arkansas to organize as a slave territory. Arkansas_sentence_132

Slavery became a wedge issue in Arkansas, forming a geographic divide that remained for decades. Arkansas_sentence_133

Owners and operators of the cotton plantation economy in southeast Arkansas firmly supported slavery, as they perceived slave labor as the best or "only" economically viable method of harvesting their commodity crops. Arkansas_sentence_134

The "hill country" of northwest Arkansas was unable to grow cotton and relied on a cash-scarce, subsistence farming economy. Arkansas_sentence_135

As European Americans settled throughout the East Coast and into the Midwest, in the 1830s the United States government forced the removal of many Native American tribes to Arkansas and Indian Territory west of the Mississippi River. Arkansas_sentence_136

Additional Native American removals began in earnest during the territorial period, with final Quapaw removal complete by 1833 as they were pushed into Indian Territory. Arkansas_sentence_137

The capital was relocated from Arkansas Post to Little Rock in 1821, during the territorial period. Arkansas_sentence_138

Statehood Arkansas_section_10

Main articles: Admission to the Union and List of U.S. states by date of admission to the Union Arkansas_sentence_139

When Arkansas applied for statehood, the slavery issue was again raised in Washington, D.C.. Arkansas_sentence_140

Congress eventually approved the Arkansas Constitution after a 25-hour session, admitting Arkansas on June 15, 1836, as the 25th state and the 13th slave state, having a population of about 60,000. Arkansas_sentence_141

Arkansas struggled with taxation to support its new state government, a problem made worse by a state banking scandal and worse yet by the Panic of 1837. Arkansas_sentence_142

Civil War and Reconstruction Arkansas_section_11

Main articles: Ordinance of Secession, Confederate States of America, and Arkansas in the American Civil War Arkansas_sentence_143

In early antebellum Arkansas, the southeast Arkansas slave-based economy developed rapidly. Arkansas_sentence_144

On the eve of the Civil War in 1860, enslaved African Americans numbered 111,115 people, just over 25% of the state's population. Arkansas_sentence_145

Plantation agriculture set the state and region behind the nation for decades. Arkansas_sentence_146

The wealth developed among planters of southeast Arkansas caused a political rift to form between the northwest and southeast. Arkansas_sentence_147

Many politicians were elected to office from the Family, the Southern rights political force in antebellum Arkansas. Arkansas_sentence_148

Residents generally wanted to avoid a civil war. Arkansas_sentence_149

When the Gulf states seceded in early 1861, Arkansas voted to remain in the Union. Arkansas_sentence_150

Arkansas did not secede until Abraham Lincoln demanded Arkansas troops be sent to Fort Sumter to quell the rebellion there. Arkansas_sentence_151

On May 6, a state convention voted to terminate Arkansas's membership in the Union and join the Confederate States of America. Arkansas_sentence_152

Arkansas held a very important position for the Rebels, maintaining control of the Mississippi River and surrounding Southern states. Arkansas_sentence_153

The bloody Battle of Wilson's Creek just across the border in Missouri shocked many Arkansans who thought the war would be a quick and decisive Southern victory. Arkansas_sentence_154

Battles early in the war took place in northwest Arkansas, including the Battle of Cane Hill, Battle of Pea Ridge, and Battle of Prairie Grove. Arkansas_sentence_155

Union general Samuel Curtis swept across the state to Helena in the Delta in 1862. Arkansas_sentence_156

Little Rock was captured the following year. Arkansas_sentence_157

The government shifted the state Confederate capital to Hot Springs, and then again to Washington from 1863 to 1865, for the remainder of the war. Arkansas_sentence_158

Throughout the state, guerrilla warfare ravaged the countryside and destroyed cities. Arkansas_sentence_159

Passion for the Confederate cause waned after implementation of programs such as the draft, high taxes, and martial law. Arkansas_sentence_160

Under the Military Reconstruction Act, Congress declared Arkansas restored to the Union in June 1868, after the Legislature accepted the 14th Amendment. Arkansas_sentence_161

The Republican-controlled reconstruction legislature established universal male suffrage (though temporarily disfranchising former Confederate Army officers, who were all Democrats), a public education system for blacks and whites, and passed general issues to improve the state and help more of the population. Arkansas_sentence_162

The State soon came under control of the Radical Republicans and Unionists, and led by Governor Powell Clayton, they presided over a time of great upheaval as Confederate sympathizers and the Ku Klux Klan fought the new developments, particularly voting rights for African Americans. Arkansas_sentence_163

End of the Reconstruction Arkansas_section_12

In 1874, the Brooks-Baxter War, a political struggle between factions of the Republican Party shook Little Rock and the state governorship. Arkansas_sentence_164

It was settled only when President Ulysses S. Grant ordered Joseph Brooks to disperse his militant supporters. Arkansas_sentence_165

Following the Brooks-Baxter War, a new state constitution was ratified, re-enfranchising former Confederates. Arkansas_sentence_166

In 1881, the Arkansas state legislature enacted a bill that adopted an official pronunciation of the state's name, to combat a controversy then simmering. Arkansas_sentence_167

(See Law and Government below.) Arkansas_sentence_168

After Reconstruction, the state began to receive more immigrants and migrants. Arkansas_sentence_169

Chinese, Italian, and Syrian men were recruited for farm labor in the developing Delta region. Arkansas_sentence_170

None of these nationalities stayed long at farm labor; the Chinese especially quickly became small merchants in towns around the Delta. Arkansas_sentence_171

Many Chinese became such successful merchants in small towns that they were able to educate their children at college. Arkansas_sentence_172

Some early 20th-century immigration included people from eastern Europe. Arkansas_sentence_173

Together, these immigrants made the Delta more diverse than the rest of the state. Arkansas_sentence_174

In the same years, some black migrants moved into the area because of opportunities to develop the bottomlands and own their own property. Arkansas_sentence_175

Construction of railroads enabled more farmers to get their products to market. Arkansas_sentence_176

It also brought new development into different parts of the state, including the Ozarks, where some areas were developed as resorts. Arkansas_sentence_177

In a few years at the end of the 19th century, for instance, Eureka Springs in Carroll County grew to 10,000 people, rapidly becoming a tourist destination and the fourth-largest city of the state. Arkansas_sentence_178

It featured newly constructed, elegant resort hotels and spas planned around its natural springs, considered to have healthful properties. Arkansas_sentence_179

The town's attractions included horse racing and other entertainment. Arkansas_sentence_180

It appealed to a wide variety of classes, becoming almost as popular as Hot Springs. Arkansas_sentence_181

Rise of the Jim Crow laws Arkansas_section_13

See also: Elaine massacre Arkansas_sentence_182

In the late 1880s, the worsening agricultural depression catalyzed Populist and third party movements, leading to interracial coalitions. Arkansas_sentence_183

Struggling to stay in power, in the 1890s the Democrats in Arkansas followed other Southern states in passing legislation and constitutional amendments that disfranchised blacks and poor whites. Arkansas_sentence_184

In 1891 state legislators passed a requirement for a literacy test, knowing it would exclude many blacks and whites. Arkansas_sentence_185

At the time, more than 25% of the population could neither read nor write. Arkansas_sentence_186

In 1892, they amended the state constitution to require a poll tax and more complex residency requirements, both of which adversely affected poor people and sharecroppers, forcing most blacks and many poor whites from voter rolls. Arkansas_sentence_187

By 1900 the Democratic Party expanded use of the white primary in county and state elections, further denying blacks a part in the political process. Arkansas_sentence_188

Only in the primary was there any competition among candidates, as Democrats held all the power. Arkansas_sentence_189

The state was a Democratic one-party state for decades, until after passage of the federal Civil Rights Act of 1964 and Voting Rights Act of 1965 to enforce constitutional rights. Arkansas_sentence_190

Between 1905 and 1911, Arkansas began to receive a small immigration of German, Slovak, and Scots-Irish from Europe. Arkansas_sentence_191

The German and Slovak peoples settled in the eastern part of the state known as the Prairie, and the Irish founded small communities in the southeast part of the state. Arkansas_sentence_192

The Germans were mostly Lutheran and the Slovaks were primarily Catholic. Arkansas_sentence_193

The Irish were mostly Protestant from Ulster, of Scots and Northern Borders descent. Arkansas_sentence_194

Black sharecroppers began to try to organize a farmers' union after World War I. Arkansas_sentence_195

They were seeking better conditions of payment and accounting from white landowners of the area cotton plantations. Arkansas_sentence_196

Whites resisted any change and often tried to break up their meetings. Arkansas_sentence_197

On September 30, 1919, two white men, including a local deputy, tried to break up a meeting of black sharecroppers who were trying to organize a farmers' union. Arkansas_sentence_198

After a white deputy was killed in a confrontation with guards at the meeting, word spread to town and around the area. Arkansas_sentence_199

Hundreds of whites from Phillips and neighboring areas rushed to suppress the blacks, and started attacking blacks at large. Arkansas_sentence_200

Governor Charles Hillman Brough requested federal troops to stop what was called the Elaine massacre. Arkansas_sentence_201

White mobs spread throughout the county, killing an estimated 237 blacks before most of the violence was suppressed after October 1. Arkansas_sentence_202

Five whites also died in the incident. Arkansas_sentence_203

The governor accompanied the troops to the scene; their use had been approved by U.S. Arkansas_sentence_204 President Woodrow Wilson. Arkansas_sentence_205

Based on the order of President Franklin D. Roosevelt given shortly after Imperial Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor, nearly 16,000 Japanese Americans were forcibly removed from the West Coast of the United States and incarcerated in two internment camp located in the Arkansas Delta. Arkansas_sentence_206

The Rohwer Camp in Desha County operated from September 1942 to November 1945 and at its peak interned 8,475 prisoners. Arkansas_sentence_207

The Jerome War Relocation Center in Drew County operated from October 1942 to June 1944 and held about 8,000. Arkansas_sentence_208

Fall of segregation Arkansas_section_14

After the Supreme Court's decision in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas in 1954 that segregation in public schools is unconstitutional, some students worked to integrate schools in the state. Arkansas_sentence_209

The Little Rock Nine brought Arkansas to national attention in 1957 when the Federal government had to intervene to protect African-American students trying to integrate a high school in the Arkansas capital. Arkansas_sentence_210

Governor Orval Faubus had ordered the Arkansas National Guard to aid segregationists in preventing nine African-American students from enrolling at Little Rock's Central High School. Arkansas_sentence_211

After attempting three times to contact Faubus, President Dwight D. Eisenhower sent 1000 troops from the active-duty 101st Airborne Division to escort and protect the African-American students as they entered school on September 25, 1957. Arkansas_sentence_212

In defiance of federal court orders to integrate, the governor and city of Little Rock decided to close the high schools for the remainder of the school year. Arkansas_sentence_213

By the fall of 1959, the Little Rock high schools were completely integrated. Arkansas_sentence_214

Prominent American figures from Arkansas Arkansas_section_15

Bill Clinton, the 42nd president of the United States, was born in Hope. Arkansas_sentence_215

Before his presidency, Clinton served as the 40th and 42nd governor of Arkansas, a total of nearly 12 years. Arkansas_sentence_216

Cities and towns Arkansas_section_16

See also: List of cities and towns in Arkansas, Arkansas metropolitan areas, and List of townships in Arkansas Arkansas_sentence_217

Little Rock has been Arkansas's capital city since 1821 when it replaced Arkansas Post as the capital of the Territory of Arkansas. Arkansas_sentence_218

The state capitol was moved to Hot Springs and later Washington during the Civil War when the Union armies threatened the city in 1862, and state government did not return to Little Rock until after the war ended. Arkansas_sentence_219

Today, the Little Rock–North Little Rock–Conway metropolitan area is the largest in the state, with a population of 724,385 in 2013. Arkansas_sentence_220

The Fayetteville–Springdale–Rogers Metropolitan Area is the second-largest metropolitan area in Arkansas, growing at the fastest rate due to the influx of businesses and the growth of the University of Arkansas and Walmart. Arkansas_sentence_221

The state has eight cities with populations above 50,000 (based on 2010 census). Arkansas_sentence_222

In descending order of size, they are: Little Rock, Fort Smith, Fayetteville, Springdale, Jonesboro, North Little Rock, Conway, and Rogers. Arkansas_sentence_223

Of these, only Fort Smith and Jonesboro are outside the two largest metropolitan areas. Arkansas_sentence_224

Other cities are located in Arkansas such as Pine Bluff, Crossett, Bryant, Lake Village, Hot Springs, Bentonville, Texarkana, Sherwood, Jacksonville, Russellville, Bella Vista, West Memphis, Paragould, Cabot, Searcy, Van Buren, El Dorado, Blytheville, Harrison, Dumas, Rison, Warren, and Mountain Home. Arkansas_sentence_225

Demographics Arkansas_section_17

Main article: Demographics of Arkansas Arkansas_sentence_226

Population Arkansas_section_18

The United States Census Bureau estimates that the population of Arkansas was 3,017,804 on July 1, 2019, a 3.49% increase since the 2010 United States Census. Arkansas_sentence_227

As of 2019, Arkansas has an estimated population of 3,017,804. Arkansas_sentence_228

From fewer than 15,000 in 1820, Arkansas's population grew to 52,240 during a special census in 1835, far exceeding the 40,000 required to apply for statehood. Arkansas_sentence_229

Following statehood in 1836, the population doubled each decade until the 1870 Census conducted following the Civil War. Arkansas_sentence_230

The state recorded growth in each successive decade, although it gradually slowed in the 20th century. Arkansas_sentence_231

It recorded population losses in the 1950 and 1960 Censuses. Arkansas_sentence_232

This outmigration was a result of multiple factors, including farm mechanization, decreasing labor demand, and young educated people leaving the state due to a lack of non-farming industry in the state. Arkansas_sentence_233

Arkansas again began to grow, recording positive growth rates ever since and exceeding two million by the 1980 Census. Arkansas_sentence_234

Arkansas's rate of change, age distributions, and gender distributions mirror national averages. Arkansas_sentence_235

Minority group data also approximates national averages. Arkansas_sentence_236

There are fewer people in Arkansas of Hispanic or Latino origin than the national average. Arkansas_sentence_237

The center of population of Arkansas for 2000 was located in Perry County, near Nogal. Arkansas_sentence_238

Ancestry Arkansas_section_19

In terms of race and ethnicity, the state was 80.1% white (74.2% non-Hispanic white), 15.6% black or African American, 0.9% American Indian and Alaska Native, 1.3% Asian, and 1.8% from two or more races. Arkansas_sentence_239

Hispanics or Latinos of any race made up 6.6% of the population. Arkansas_sentence_240

As of 2011, 39.0% of Arkansas's population younger than age 1 were minorities. Arkansas_sentence_241

Arkansas_table_general_3

Arkansas Racial Breakdown of PopulationArkansas_table_caption_3
Racial compositionArkansas_header_cell_3_0_0 1990Arkansas_header_cell_3_0_1 2000Arkansas_header_cell_3_0_2 2010Arkansas_header_cell_3_0_3
WhiteArkansas_cell_3_1_0 82.7%Arkansas_cell_3_1_1 80.0%Arkansas_cell_3_1_2 77.0%Arkansas_cell_3_1_3
African AmericanArkansas_cell_3_2_0 15.9%Arkansas_cell_3_2_1 15.7%Arkansas_cell_3_2_2 15.4%Arkansas_cell_3_2_3
AsianArkansas_cell_3_3_0 0.5%Arkansas_cell_3_3_1 0.8%Arkansas_cell_3_3_2 1.2%Arkansas_cell_3_3_3
NativeArkansas_cell_3_4_0 0.5%Arkansas_cell_3_4_1 0.7%Arkansas_cell_3_4_2 0.8%Arkansas_cell_3_4_3
Native Hawaiian and

other Pacific IslanderArkansas_cell_3_5_0

Arkansas_cell_3_5_1 0.1%Arkansas_cell_3_5_2 0.2%Arkansas_cell_3_5_3
Other raceArkansas_cell_3_6_0 0.3%Arkansas_cell_3_6_1 1.5%Arkansas_cell_3_6_2 3.4%Arkansas_cell_3_6_3
Two or more racesArkansas_cell_3_7_0 Arkansas_cell_3_7_1 1.3%Arkansas_cell_3_7_2 2.0%Arkansas_cell_3_7_3

European Americans have a strong presence in the northwestern Ozarks and the central part of the state. Arkansas_sentence_242

African Americans live mainly in the southern and eastern parts of the state. Arkansas_sentence_243

Arkansans of Irish, English and German ancestry are mostly found in the far northwestern Ozarks near the Missouri border. Arkansas_sentence_244

Ancestors of the Irish in the Ozarks were chiefly Scots-Irish, Protestants from Northern Ireland, the Scottish lowlands and northern England part of the largest group of immigrants from Great Britain and Ireland before the American Revolution. Arkansas_sentence_245

English and Scots-Irish immigrants settled throughout the backcountry of the South and in the more mountainous areas. Arkansas_sentence_246

Americans of English stock are found throughout the state. Arkansas_sentence_247

A 2010 survey of the principal ancestries of Arkansas's residents revealed the following: Arkansas_sentence_248

Arkansas_unordered_list_0

Most of the people identifying as American are of English descent and/or Scots-Irish descent. Arkansas_sentence_249

Their families have been in the state so long, in many cases since before statehood, that they choose to identify simply as having American ancestry or do not in fact know their own ancestry. Arkansas_sentence_250

Their ancestry primarily goes back to the original 13 colonies and for this reason many of them today simply claim American ancestry. Arkansas_sentence_251

Many people who identify themselves as Irish descent are in fact of Scots-Irish descent. Arkansas_sentence_252

According to the 2006–2008 American Community Survey, 93.8% of Arkansas's population (over the age of five) spoke only English at home. Arkansas_sentence_253

About 4.5% of the state's population spoke Spanish at home. Arkansas_sentence_254

About 0.7% of the state's population spoke any other Indo-European languages. Arkansas_sentence_255

About 0.8% of the state's population spoke an Asian language, and 0.2% spoke other languages. Arkansas_sentence_256

Religion Arkansas_section_20

Arkansas, like most other Southern states, is part of the Bible Belt and is predominantly Protestant. Arkansas_sentence_257

The largest denominations by number of adherents in 2010 were the Southern Baptist Convention with 661,382; the United Methodist Church with 158,574; non-denominational Evangelical Protestants with 129,638; the Catholic Church with 122,662; and The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints with 31,254. Arkansas_sentence_258

There are some residents of the state who live by other religions such as Islam, Judaism, Wicca, Paganism, Hinduism, Buddhism or who claim no religious affiliation. Arkansas_sentence_259

Economy Arkansas_section_21

See also: Economy of Arkansas, List of Arkansas companies, and Arkansas locations by per capita income Arkansas_sentence_260

Once a state with a cashless society in the uplands and plantation agriculture in the lowlands, Arkansas's economy has evolved and diversified. Arkansas_sentence_261

The state's gross domestic product (GDP) was $119 billion in 2015. Arkansas_sentence_262

Six Fortune 500 companies are based in Arkansas, including the world's #1 retailer, Walmart; Tyson Foods, J.B. Arkansas_sentence_263 Hunt, Dillard's, Murphy USA, and Windstream are also headquartered in the state. Arkansas_sentence_264

The per capita personal income in 2015 was $39,107, ranking forty-fifth in the nation. Arkansas_sentence_265

The median household income from 2011 to 2015 was $41,371, ranking forty-ninth in the nation. Arkansas_sentence_266

The state's agriculture outputs are poultry and eggs, soybeans, sorghum, cattle, cotton, rice, hogs, and milk. Arkansas_sentence_267

Its industrial outputs are food processing, electric equipment, fabricated metal products, machinery, and paper products. Arkansas_sentence_268

Mines in Arkansas produce natural gas, oil, crushed stone, bromine, and vanadium. Arkansas_sentence_269

According to CNBC, Arkansas ranks as the 20th best state for business, with the 2nd-lowest cost of doing business, 5th-lowest cost of living, 11th best workforce, 20th-best economic climate, 28th-best educated workforce, 31st-best infrastructure and the 32nd-friendliest regulatory environment. Arkansas_sentence_270

Arkansas gained twelve spots in the best state for business rankings since 2011. Arkansas_sentence_271

As of 2014, Arkansas was the most affordable U.S. state to live in. Arkansas_sentence_272

As of October 2019, the state's unemployment rate is 3.5%. Arkansas_sentence_273

Industry and commerce Arkansas_section_22

Arkansas's earliest industries were fur trading and agriculture, with development of cotton plantations in the areas near the Mississippi River. Arkansas_sentence_274

They were dependent on slave labor through the American Civil War. Arkansas_sentence_275

Today only about three percent of the population are employed in the agricultural sector, it remains a major part of the state's economy, ranking 13th in the nation in the value of products sold. Arkansas_sentence_276

Arkansas is the nation's largest producer of rice, broilers, and turkeys, and ranks in the top three for cotton, pullets, and aquaculture (catfish). Arkansas_sentence_277

Forestry remains strong in the Arkansas Timberlands, and the state ranks fourth nationally and first in the South in softwood lumber production. Arkansas_sentence_278

Automobile parts manufacturers have opened factories in eastern Arkansas to support auto plants in other states. Arkansas_sentence_279

Bauxite was formerly a large part of the state's economy, mined mostly around Saline County. Arkansas_sentence_280

Tourism is also very important to the Arkansas economy; the official state nickname "The Natural State" was created for state tourism advertising in the 1970s, and is still used to this day. Arkansas_sentence_281

The state maintains 52 state parks and the National Park Service maintains seven properties in Arkansas. Arkansas_sentence_282

The completion of the William Jefferson Clinton Presidential Library in Little Rock has drawn many visitors to the city and revitalized the nearby River Market District. Arkansas_sentence_283

Many cities also hold festivals, which draw tourists to Arkansas culture, such as The Bradley County Pink Tomato Festival in Warren, King Biscuit Blues Festival, Ozark Folk Festival, Toad Suck Daze, and Tontitown Grape Festival. Arkansas_sentence_284

Media Arkansas_section_23

See also: :Category:Arkansas media Arkansas_sentence_285

As of 2010 many Arkansas local newspapers are owned by WEHCO Media, Alabama-based Lancaster Management, Kentucky-based Paxton Media Group, Missouri-based Rust Communications, Nevada-based Stephens Media, and New York-based GateHouse Media. Arkansas_sentence_286

Culture Arkansas_section_24

Main article: Culture of Arkansas Arkansas_sentence_287

Arkansas_table_infobox_4

Arkansas state symbolsArkansas_header_cell_4_0_0
Living insigniaArkansas_header_cell_4_1_0
BirdArkansas_header_cell_4_2_0 Northern mockingbirdArkansas_cell_4_2_1
ButterflyArkansas_header_cell_4_3_0 Diana fritillaryArkansas_cell_4_3_1
FlowerArkansas_header_cell_4_4_0 Apple blossomArkansas_cell_4_4_1
InsectArkansas_header_cell_4_5_0 Western honey beeArkansas_cell_4_5_1
MammalArkansas_header_cell_4_6_0 White-tailed deerArkansas_cell_4_6_1
TreeArkansas_header_cell_4_7_0 Loblolly pineArkansas_cell_4_7_1
Inanimate insigniaArkansas_header_cell_4_8_0
BeverageArkansas_header_cell_4_9_0 MilkArkansas_cell_4_9_1
DanceArkansas_header_cell_4_10_0 Square danceArkansas_cell_4_10_1
DinosaurArkansas_header_cell_4_11_0 ArkansaurusArkansas_cell_4_11_1
FoodArkansas_header_cell_4_12_0 South Arkansas vine ripe pink tomatoArkansas_cell_4_12_1
GemstoneArkansas_header_cell_4_13_0 DiamondArkansas_cell_4_13_1
InstrumentArkansas_header_cell_4_14_0 FiddleArkansas_cell_4_14_1
MineralArkansas_header_cell_4_15_0 QuartzArkansas_cell_4_15_1
RockArkansas_header_cell_4_16_0 BauxiteArkansas_cell_4_16_1
SoilArkansas_header_cell_4_17_0 StuttgartArkansas_cell_4_17_1
SongArkansas_header_cell_4_18_0 "Arkansas",

"Arkansas (You Run Deep in Me)", "Oh, Arkansas", "The Arkansas Traveler"Arkansas_cell_4_18_1

TartanArkansas_header_cell_4_19_0 Arkansas_cell_4_19_1
State route markerArkansas_header_cell_4_20_0
State quarterArkansas_header_cell_4_21_0

The culture of Arkansas includes distinct cuisine, dialect, and traditional festivals. Arkansas_sentence_288

Sports are also very important to the culture of Arkansas, ranging from football, baseball, and basketball to hunting and fishing. Arkansas_sentence_289

Perhaps the best-known piece of Arkansas's culture is the stereotype of its citizens as shiftless hillbillies. Arkansas_sentence_290

The reputation began when the state was characterized by early explorers as a savage wilderness full of outlaws and thieves. Arkansas_sentence_291

The most enduring icon of Arkansas's hillbilly reputation is The Arkansas Traveller, a painted depiction of a folk tale from the 1840s. Arkansas_sentence_292

Although intended to represent the divide between rich southeastern plantation Arkansas planters and the poor northwestern hill country, the meaning was twisted to represent a Northerner lost in the Ozarks on a white horse asking a backwoods Arkansan for directions. Arkansas_sentence_293

The state also suffers from the racial stigma common to former Confederate states, with historical events such as the Little Rock Nine adding to Arkansas's enduring image. Arkansas_sentence_294

Art and history museums display pieces of cultural value for Arkansans and tourists to enjoy. Arkansas_sentence_295

Crystal Bridges Museum of American Art in Bentonville was visited by 604,000 people in 2012, its first year. Arkansas_sentence_296

The museum includes walking trails and educational opportunities in addition to displaying over 450 works covering five centuries of American art. Arkansas_sentence_297

Several historic town sites have been restored as Arkansas state parks, including Historic Washington State Park, Powhatan Historic State Park, and Davidsonville Historic State Park. Arkansas_sentence_298

Arkansas features a variety of native music across the state, ranging from the blues heritage of West Memphis, Pine Bluff, Helena–West Helena to rockabilly, bluegrass, and folk music from the Ozarks. Arkansas_sentence_299

Festivals such as the King Biscuit Blues Festival and Bikes, Blues, and BBQ pay homage to the history of blues in the state. Arkansas_sentence_300

The Ozark Folk Festival in Mountain View is a celebration of Ozark culture and often features folk and bluegrass musicians. Arkansas_sentence_301

Literature set in Arkansas such as I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings by Maya Angelou and A Painted House by John Grisham describe the culture at various time periods. Arkansas_sentence_302

Sports and recreation Arkansas_section_25

Sports have become an integral part of the culture of Arkansas, and her residents enjoy participating in and spectating various events throughout the year. Arkansas_sentence_303

Team sports and especially collegiate football have been important to Arkansans. Arkansas_sentence_304

College football in Arkansas began from humble beginnings. Arkansas_sentence_305

The University of Arkansas first fielded a team in 1894 when football was a very dangerous game. Arkansas_sentence_306

Recent studies of the damage to team members from the concussions common in football make it clear that the danger persists. Arkansas_sentence_307

"Calling the Hogs" is a cheer that shows support for the Razorbacks, one of the two NCAA Division I Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS) teams in the state. Arkansas_sentence_308

High school football also began to grow in Arkansas in the early 20th century. Arkansas_sentence_309

Over the years, many Arkansans have looked to the Razorbacks football team as the public image of the state. Arkansas_sentence_310

Although the University of Arkansas is based in Fayetteville, the Razorbacks have always played at least one game per season at War Memorial Stadium in Little Rock in an effort to keep fan support in central and south Arkansas. Arkansas_sentence_311

Arkansas State University joined the University of Arkansas in FBS (then known as Division I-A) in 1992 after playing in lower divisions for nearly two decades. Arkansas_sentence_312

The two schools have never played each other, due to the University of Arkansas's policy of not playing intrastate games. Arkansas_sentence_313

Two other campuses of the University of Arkansas System are Division I members. Arkansas_sentence_314

The University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff is a member of the Southwestern Athletic Conference, a league whose members all play football in the second-level Football Championship Subdivision (FCS). Arkansas_sentence_315

The University of Arkansas at Little Rock is a member of the FBS Sun Belt Conference, but is one of two conference schools that have no football program. Arkansas_sentence_316

The state's other Division I member is the University of Central Arkansas, which is a full member (including football) of the FCS Southland Conference. Arkansas_sentence_317

Seven of Arkansas's smaller colleges play in NCAA Division II, with six in the Great American Conference and one in the Lone Star Conference. Arkansas_sentence_318

Two other small Arkansas colleges compete in NCAA Division III, in which athletic scholarships are prohibited. Arkansas_sentence_319

Baseball runs deep in Arkansas and has been popular before the state hosted Major League Baseball (MLB) spring training in Hot Springs from 1886 to the 1920s. Arkansas_sentence_320

Two minor league teams are based in the state. Arkansas_sentence_321

The Arkansas Travelers play at Dickey–Stephens Park in North Little Rock, and the Northwest Arkansas Naturals play in Arvest Ballpark in Springdale. Arkansas_sentence_322

Both teams compete in the Texas League. Arkansas_sentence_323

Related to the state's frontier past, hunting continues in the state. Arkansas_sentence_324

The state created the Arkansas Game and Fish Commission in 1915 to regulate hunting and enforce those regulations. Arkansas_sentence_325

Today a significant portion of Arkansas's population participates in hunting duck in the Mississippi flyway and deer across the state. Arkansas_sentence_326

Millions of acres of public land are available for both bow and modern gun hunters. Arkansas_sentence_327

Fishing has always been popular in Arkansas, and the sport and the state have benefited from the creation of reservoirs across the state. Arkansas_sentence_328

Following the completion of Norfork Dam, the Norfork Tailwater and the White River have become a destination for trout fishers. Arkansas_sentence_329

Several smaller retirement communities such as Bull Shoals, Hot Springs Village, and Fairfield Bay have flourished due to their position on a fishing lake. Arkansas_sentence_330

The Buffalo National River has been preserved in its natural state by the National Park Service and is frequented by fly fishers annually. Arkansas_sentence_331

Health Arkansas_section_26

See also: List of hospitals in Arkansas Arkansas_sentence_332

As of 2012, Arkansas, as with many Southern states, has a high incidence of premature death, infant mortality, cardiovascular deaths, and occupational fatalities compared to the rest of the United States. Arkansas_sentence_333

The state is tied for 43rd with New York in percentage of adults who regularly exercise. Arkansas_sentence_334

Arkansas is usually ranked as one of the least healthy states due to high obesity, smoking, and sedentary lifestyle rates. Arkansas_sentence_335

However, a Gallup poll demonstrates that Arkansas made the most immediate progress in reducing its number of uninsured residents following the passage of the Affordable Care Act. Arkansas_sentence_336

The percentage of uninsured in Arkansas dropped from 22.5 percent in 2013 to 12.4 percent in August 2014. Arkansas_sentence_337

The Arkansas Clean Indoor Air Act went into effect in 2006, a statewide smoking ban excluding bars and some restaurants. Arkansas_sentence_338

Healthcare in Arkansas is provided by a network of hospitals as members of the Arkansas Hospital Association. Arkansas_sentence_339

Major institutions with multiple branches include Baptist Health, Community Health Systems, and HealthSouth. Arkansas_sentence_340

The University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (UAMS) in Little Rock operates the UAMS Medical Center, a teaching hospital ranked as high performing nationally in cancer and nephrology. Arkansas_sentence_341

The pediatric division of UAMS Medical Center is known as Arkansas Children's Hospital, nationally ranked in pediatric cardiology and heart surgery. Arkansas_sentence_342

Together, these two institutions are the state's only Level I trauma centers. Arkansas_sentence_343

Education Arkansas_section_27

See also: List of colleges and universities in Arkansas, List of high schools in Arkansas, and List of school districts in Arkansas Arkansas_sentence_344

Arkansas has 1,064 state-funded kindergartens, elementary, junior and senior high schools. Arkansas_sentence_345

The state supports a network of public universities and colleges, including two major university systems: Arkansas State University System and University of Arkansas System. Arkansas_sentence_346

The University of Arkansas, flagship campus of the University of Arkansas System in Fayetteville was ranked #63 among public schools in the nation by U.S. Arkansas_sentence_347 News & World Report. Arkansas_sentence_348

Other public institutions include University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff, Arkansas Tech University, Henderson State University, Southern Arkansas University, and University of Central Arkansas across the state. Arkansas_sentence_349

It is also home to 11 private colleges and universities including Hendrix College, one of the nation's top 100 liberal arts colleges, according to U.S. News & World Report. Arkansas_sentence_350

In the 1920s the state required all children to attend public schools. Arkansas_sentence_351

The school year was set at 131 days, although some areas were unable to meet that requirement. Arkansas_sentence_352

Generally prohibited in the West at large, school corporal punishment is not unusual in Arkansas, with 20,083 public school students paddled at least one time, according to government data for the 2011–2012 school year. Arkansas_sentence_353

The rate of corporal punishment in public schools is higher only in Mississippi. Arkansas_sentence_354

Educational attainment Arkansas_section_28

Arkansas is one of the most under-educated states in the Union. Arkansas_sentence_355

It ranks near the bottom in terms of percentage of the population with either a high school or college degree. Arkansas_sentence_356

The state's educational system has a history of under-funding, low teachers' salaries and political meddling in the curriculum. Arkansas_sentence_357

Educational statistics during these early days are fragmentary and unreliable. Arkansas_sentence_358

Many counties did not submit full reports to the secretary of state who did double-duty as commissioner of common schools. Arkansas_sentence_359

However, the percentage of whites over twenty years of age who were illiterate was given as: Arkansas_sentence_360

Arkansas_description_list_1

  • 1840, 21%Arkansas_item_1_11
  • 1850, 25%Arkansas_item_1_12
  • 1860, 17%Arkansas_item_1_13

In 2010 Arkansas students earned an average score of 20.3 on the ACT exam, just below the national average of 21. Arkansas_sentence_361

These results were expected due to the large increase in the number of students taking the exam since the establishment of the Academic Challenge Scholarship. Arkansas_sentence_362

Top high schools receiving recognition from the U.S. Arkansas_sentence_363 News & World Report are spread across the state, including Haas Hall Academy in Fayetteville, KIPP Delta Collegiate in Helena-West Helena, Bentonville, Rogers, Rogers Heritage, Valley Springs, Searcy, and McCrory. Arkansas_sentence_364

A total of 81 Arkansas high schools were ranked by the U.S. News & World Report in 2012. Arkansas_sentence_365

Arkansas ranks as the 32nd smartest state on the Morgan Quitno Smartest State Award, 44th in percentage of residents with at least a high school diploma, and 48th in percentage of bachelor's degree attainment. Arkansas_sentence_366

Arkansas has been making strides in education reform. Arkansas_sentence_367

Education Week has praised the state, ranking Arkansas in the top 10 of their Quality Counts Education Rankings every year since 2009 while scoring it in the top 5 during 2012 and 2013. Arkansas_sentence_368

Arkansas specifically received an A in Transition and Policy Making for progress in this area consisting of early-childhood education, college readiness, and career readiness. Arkansas_sentence_369

Governor Mike Beebe has made improving education a major issue through his attempts to spend more on education. Arkansas_sentence_370

Through reforms, the state is a leader in requiring curricula designed to prepare students for postsecondary education, rewarding teachers for student achievement, and providing incentives for principals who work in lower-tier schools. Arkansas_sentence_371

Funding Arkansas_section_29

As an organized territory, and later in the early days of statehood, education was funded by the sales of federally controlled public lands. Arkansas_sentence_372

This system was inadequate and prone to local graft. Arkansas_sentence_373

In an 1854 message to the legislature, Governor Elias N. Conway said, "We have a common-school law intended as a system to establish common schools in all part of the state; but for the want of adequate means there are very few in operation under this law." Arkansas_sentence_374

At the time, only about a quarter of children were enrolled in school. Arkansas_sentence_375

By the beginning of the American Civil War, the state had only twenty-five publicly funded common schools. Arkansas_sentence_376

In 1867, the state legislature was still controlled by ex-Confederates. Arkansas_sentence_377

It passed a Common Schools Law that allowed public funded but limited schools to white children. Arkansas_sentence_378

The 1868 legislature banned former Confederates and passed a more wide-ranging law detailing funding and administrative issues and allowing black children to attend school. Arkansas_sentence_379

In furtherance of this, the postwar 1868 state constitution was the first to permit a personal-property tax to fund the lands and buildings for public schools. Arkansas_sentence_380

With the 1868 elections, the first county school commissioners took office. Arkansas_sentence_381

In 2014, the state spent $9,616 per student, compared with a national average of about $11,000 putting Arkansas in nineteenth place. Arkansas_sentence_382

Timeline Arkansas_section_30

Arkansas_unordered_list_2

Transportation Arkansas_section_31

Main articles: List of Arkansas railroads, Aviation in Arkansas, and Arkansas Highway System Arkansas_sentence_383

See also: List of Arkansas railroads and List of airports in Arkansas Arkansas_sentence_384

Transportation in Arkansas is overseen by the Arkansas Department of Transportation (ArDOT), headquartered in Little Rock. Arkansas_sentence_385

Several main corridors pass through Little Rock, including Interstate 30 (I-30) and I-40 (the nation's 3rd-busiest trucking corridor). Arkansas_sentence_386

Arkansas first designated a state highway system in 1924, and first numbered its roads in 1926. Arkansas_sentence_387

Arkansas had one of the first paved roads, the Dollarway Road, and one of the first members of the Interstate Highway System. Arkansas_sentence_388

The state maintains a large system of state highways today, in addition to eight Interstates and 20 U.S. Arkansas_sentence_389 Routes. Arkansas_sentence_390

In northeast Arkansas, I-55 travels north from Memphis to Missouri, with a new spur to Jonesboro (I-555). Arkansas_sentence_391

Northwest Arkansas is served by the segment of I-49 from Fort Smith to the beginning of the Bella Vista Bypass. Arkansas_sentence_392

This segment of I-49 currently follows mostly the same route as the former section of I-540 that extended north of I-40. Arkansas_sentence_393

The state also has the 13th largest state highway system in the nation. Arkansas_sentence_394

Arkansas is served by 2,750 miles (4,430 km) of railroad track divided among twenty-six railroad companies including three Class I railroads. Arkansas_sentence_395

Freight railroads are concentrated in southeast Arkansas to serve the industries in the region. Arkansas_sentence_396

The Texas Eagle, an Amtrak passenger train, serves five stations in the state Walnut Ridge, Little Rock, Malvern, Arkadelphia, and Texarkana. Arkansas_sentence_397

Arkansas also benefits from the use of its rivers for commerce. Arkansas_sentence_398

The Mississippi River and Arkansas River are both major rivers. Arkansas_sentence_399

The United States Army Corps of Engineers maintains the McClellan-Kerr Arkansas River Navigation System, allowing barge traffic up the Arkansas River to the Port of Catoosa in Tulsa, Oklahoma. Arkansas_sentence_400

There are four airports with commercial service: Clinton National Airport (formerly Little Rock National Airport or Adams Field), Northwest Arkansas Regional Airport, Fort Smith Regional Airport, and Texarkana Regional Airport, with dozens of smaller airports in the state. Arkansas_sentence_401

Public transit and community transport services for the elderly or those with developmental disabilities are provided by agencies such as the Central Arkansas Transit Authority and the Ozark Regional Transit, organizations that are part of the Arkansas Transit Association. Arkansas_sentence_402

Law and government Arkansas_section_32

Main article: Politics and government of Arkansas Arkansas_sentence_403

As with the federal government of the United States, political power in Arkansas is divided into three branches: executive, legislative, and judicial. Arkansas_sentence_404

Each officer's term is four years long. Arkansas_sentence_405

Office holders are term-limited to two full terms plus any partial terms before the first full term. Arkansas_sentence_406

Executive Arkansas_section_33

Main article: Governor of Arkansas Arkansas_sentence_407

See also: List of Governors of Arkansas and Arkansas Cabinet Arkansas_sentence_408

The governor of Arkansas is Asa Hutchinson, a Republican, who was inaugurated on January 13, 2015. Arkansas_sentence_409

The six other elected executive positions in Arkansas are lieutenant governor, secretary of state, attorney general, treasurer, auditor, and land commissioner. Arkansas_sentence_410

The governor also appoints qualified individuals to lead various state boards, committees, and departments. Arkansas_sentence_411

Arkansas governors served two-year terms until a referendum lengthened the term to four years, effective with the 1986 general election. Arkansas_sentence_412

In Arkansas, the lieutenant governor is elected separately from the governor and thus can be from a different political party. Arkansas_sentence_413

Legislative Arkansas_section_34

Main article: Arkansas General Assembly Arkansas_sentence_414

The Arkansas General Assembly is the state's bicameral bodies of legislators, composed of the Senate and House of Representatives. Arkansas_sentence_415

The Senate contains 35 members from districts of approximately equal population. Arkansas_sentence_416

These districts are redrawn decennially with each US census, and in election years ending in "2", the entire body is put up for reelection. Arkansas_sentence_417

Following the election, half of the seats are designated as two-year seats and are up for reelection again in two years, these "half-terms" do not count against a legislator's term limits. Arkansas_sentence_418

The remaining half serve a full four-year term. Arkansas_sentence_419

This staggers elections such that half the body is up for re-election every two years and allows for complete body turnover following redistricting. Arkansas_sentence_420

Arkansas voters selected a 21–14 Republican majority in the Senate in 2012. Arkansas_sentence_421

Arkansas House members can serve a maximum of three two-year terms. Arkansas_sentence_422

House districts are redistricted by the Arkansas Board of Apportionment. Arkansas_sentence_423

Following the 2012 elections, Republicans gained a 51–49 majority in the House of Representatives. Arkansas_sentence_424

The Republican Party majority status in the Arkansas State House of Representatives following the 2012 elections is the party's first since 1874. Arkansas_sentence_425

Arkansas was the last state of the old Confederacy to never have Republicans control either chamber of its house since the Civil War. Arkansas_sentence_426

Following the term limits changes, studies have shown that lobbyists have become less influential in state politics. Arkansas_sentence_427

Legislative staff, not subject to term limits, have acquired additional power and influence due to the high rate of elected official turnover. Arkansas_sentence_428

Judicial Arkansas_section_35

Main article: Courts of Arkansas Arkansas_sentence_429

Arkansas's judicial branch has five court systems: Arkansas Supreme Court, Arkansas Court of Appeals, Circuit Courts, District Courts and City Courts. Arkansas_sentence_430

Most cases begin in district court, which is subdivided into state district court and local district court. Arkansas_sentence_431

State district courts exercise district-wide jurisdiction over the districts created by the General Assembly, and local district courts are presided over by part-time judges who may privately practice law. Arkansas_sentence_432

25 state district court judges preside over 15 districts, with more districts created in 2013 and 2017. Arkansas_sentence_433

There are 28 judicial circuits of Circuit Court, with each contains five subdivisions: criminal, civil, probate, domestic relations, and juvenile court. Arkansas_sentence_434

The jurisdiction of the Arkansas Court of Appeals is determined by the Arkansas Supreme Court, and there is no right of appeal from the Court of Appeals to the high court. Arkansas_sentence_435

The Arkansas Supreme Court can review Court of Appeals cases upon application by either a party to the litigation, upon request by the Court of Appeals, or if the Arkansas Supreme Court feels the case should have been initially assigned to it. Arkansas_sentence_436

The twelve judges of the Arkansas Court of Appeals are elected from judicial districts to renewable six-year terms. Arkansas_sentence_437

The Arkansas Supreme Court is the court of last resort in the state, composed of seven justices elected to eight-year terms. Arkansas_sentence_438

Established by the Arkansas Constitution in 1836, the court's decisions can be appealed to only the Supreme Court of the United States. Arkansas_sentence_439

Federal Arkansas_section_36

Both Arkansas's U.S. senators, John Boozman and Tom Cotton, are Republicans. Arkansas_sentence_440

The state has four seats in U.S. Arkansas_sentence_441 House of Representatives. Arkansas_sentence_442

All four seats are held by Republicans: Rick Crawford (1st district), French Hill (2nd district), Steve Womack (3rd district), and Bruce Westerman (4th district). Arkansas_sentence_443

Politics Arkansas_section_37

Main article: Politics and government of Arkansas Arkansas_sentence_444

Arkansas governor Bill Clinton brought national attention to the state with a long speech at the 1988 Democratic National Convention endorsing Michael Dukakis. Arkansas_sentence_445

Some journalists suggested the speech was a threat to his ambitions; Clinton defined it "a comedy of error, just one of those fluky things". Arkansas_sentence_446

Clinton won the Democratic nomination for president the following cycle. Arkansas_sentence_447

Presenting himself as a "New Democrat" and using incumbent George H. W. Bush's broken promise against him, Clinton won the 1992 presidential election (43.0% of the vote) against Republican Bush (37.4% of the vote) and billionaire populist Ross Perot, who ran as an independent (18.9% of the vote). Arkansas_sentence_448

Most Republican strength traditionally lay mainly in the northwestern part of the state, particularly Fort Smith and Bentonville, as well as North Central Arkansas around the Mountain Home area. Arkansas_sentence_449

In the latter area, Republicans have been known to get 90 percent or more of the vote, while the rest of the state was more Democratic. Arkansas_sentence_450

After 2010, Republican strength expanded further to the Northeast and Southwest and into the Little Rock suburbs. Arkansas_sentence_451

The Democrats are mostly concentrated to central Little Rock, the Mississippi Delta, the Pine Bluff area, and the areas around the southern border with Louisiana. Arkansas_sentence_452

Arkansas has elected only three Republicans to the U.S. Senate since Reconstruction: Tim Hutchinson, who was defeated after one term by Mark Pryor; John Boozman, who defeated incumbent Blanche Lincoln; and Tom Cotton, who defeated Mark Pryor in the 2014 elections. Arkansas_sentence_453

Before 2013, the General Assembly had not been controlled by the Republican Party since Reconstruction, with the GOP holding a 51-seat majority in the state House and a 21-seat (of 35) in the state Senate following victories in 2012. Arkansas_sentence_454

Arkansas was one of just three states among the states of the former Confederacy that sent two Democrats to the U.S. Senate (the others being Florida and Virginia) for any period during the first decade of the 21st century. Arkansas_sentence_455

In 2010, Republicans captured three of the state's four seats in the U.S. Arkansas_sentence_456 House of Representatives. Arkansas_sentence_457

In 2012, Republicans won election for all four House seats. Arkansas_sentence_458

Arkansas held the distinction of having a U.S. House delegation composed entirely of military veterans (Rick Crawford, Army; Tim Griffin, Army Reserve; Steve Womack, Army National Guard; Tom Cotton, Army). Arkansas_sentence_459

In 2014, the last Democrat in Arkansas's congressional delegation, Mark Pryor, was defeated in his campaign to win a third term in the U.S. Senate, leaving the entire congressional delegation in GOP hands for the first time since Reconstruction. Arkansas_sentence_460

Reflecting the state's large evangelical population, the state has a strong social conservative bent. Arkansas_sentence_461

Under the Arkansas Constitution Arkansas is a right to work state, its voters passed a ban on same-sex marriage with 75% voting yes, and the state is one of a handful with legislation on its books banning abortion in the event Roe v. Wade is ever overturned. Arkansas_sentence_462

White supremacy, hate crimes Arkansas_section_38

Arkansas is one of only four states (Georgia, South Carolina, Wyoming) in the U.S. to not have any legal protection against hate crimes. Arkansas_sentence_463

An anti-hate crimes measure passed the state Senate in 2001 but failed before a House panel; a similar bill failed in 2017. Arkansas_sentence_464

The forests of Arkansas and the Ozark mountain region have provided cover for clandestine hate groups. Arkansas_sentence_465

White nationalist groups such as The Covenant, The Sword, and the Arm of the Lord had a compound in the Ozarks in the 1980s, later raided by the authorities. Arkansas_sentence_466

The Knights of the KKK and the Kingdom Identity Ministries (a Christian identity organization) have also established headquarters in this area of the state, specifically in the town of Harrison. Arkansas_sentence_467

A series of riots in Harrison in the early 1900s led to most of that town's African-American population being forced from the area. Arkansas_sentence_468

In February 2018, prosecutors in Little Rock unsealed indictments against 54 members of the New Aryan Empire (a white supremacist group that began as a prison gang). Arkansas_sentence_469

Most of the NEE members indicted in 2019 are from Russellville. Arkansas_sentence_470

Its leader briefly escaped from a Pine Bluff jail in August of that year. Arkansas_sentence_471

In May, another group of white supremacists protesters carrying the flag of Nazi Germany also disrupted a Holocaust remembrance event in Russellville. Arkansas_sentence_472

Billboards have appeared in the state displaying white supremacist slogans (e.g. "anti-racist is a code word for anti-white") or promoting white pride websites. Arkansas_sentence_473

In 2018, the Southern Poverty Law Center (an organization which tracks hate groups) identified 14 distinct hate groups in the state. Arkansas_sentence_474

In 2019, Republican Governor Asa Hutchinson (who as federal prosecutor in the 1980s was involved in negotiations with the CSA) and Democratic Senator Joyce Elliott have called on lawmakers in the state to approve harsher penalties for hate crimes. Arkansas_sentence_475

Military Arkansas_section_39

The Strategic Air Command facility of Little Rock Air Force Base was one of eighteen silos in the command of the 308th Strategic Missile Wing (308th SMW), specifically one of the nine silos within its 374th Strategic Missile Squadron (374th SMS). Arkansas_sentence_476

The squadron was responsible for Launch Complex 374–7, site of the 1980 explosion of a Titan II Intercontinental Ballistic Missile (ICBM) in Damascus, Arkansas. Arkansas_sentence_477

Taxation Arkansas_section_40

Taxes are collected by the Arkansas Department of Finance and Administration. Arkansas_sentence_478

Attractions Arkansas_section_41

Arkansas is home to many areas protected by the National Park System. Arkansas_sentence_479

These include: Arkansas_sentence_480

Arkansas_unordered_list_3

See also Arkansas_section_42

Arkansas_unordered_list_4


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arkansas.