Armenia

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This article is about the country. Armenia_sentence_0

For other uses, see Armenia (disambiguation). Armenia_sentence_1

"Hayastan" and "Hayasdan" redirect here. Armenia_sentence_2

For other uses, see Hayastan (disambiguation). Armenia_sentence_3

"Zangezur" redirects here. Armenia_sentence_4

For other uses, see Zangezur (disambiguation). Armenia_sentence_5

Armenia_table_infobox_0

Republic of ArmeniaArmenia_header_cell_0_0_0
Capital

and largest cityArmenia_header_cell_0_1_0

YerevanArmenia_cell_0_1_1
Official languagesArmenia_header_cell_0_2_0 ArmenianArmenia_cell_0_2_1
Ethnic groups (2011)Armenia_header_cell_0_3_0 Armenia_cell_0_3_1
ReligionArmenia_header_cell_0_4_0 Christianity (Armenian Apostolic Church)Armenia_cell_0_4_1
Demonym(s)Armenia_header_cell_0_5_0 ArmenianArmenia_cell_0_5_1
GovernmentArmenia_header_cell_0_6_0 Unitary parliamentary republicArmenia_cell_0_6_1
PresidentArmenia_header_cell_0_7_0 Armen SarkissianArmenia_cell_0_7_1
Prime MinisterArmenia_header_cell_0_8_0 Nikol PashinyanArmenia_cell_0_8_1
President of the National AssemblyArmenia_header_cell_0_9_0 Ararat MirzoyanArmenia_cell_0_9_1
LegislatureArmenia_header_cell_0_10_0 National AssemblyArmenia_cell_0_10_1
EstablishmentArmenia_header_cell_0_11_0
Orontid dynastyArmenia_header_cell_0_12_0 6th century BCArmenia_cell_0_12_1
Artaxiad DynastyArmenia_header_cell_0_13_0 190 BCArmenia_cell_0_13_1
Arsacid dynastyArmenia_header_cell_0_14_0 52–428Armenia_cell_0_14_1
Bagratid ArmeniaArmenia_header_cell_0_15_0 885–1045Armenia_cell_0_15_1
Kingdom of CiliciaArmenia_header_cell_0_16_0 1198–1375Armenia_cell_0_16_1
Independence declared from RussiaArmenia_header_cell_0_17_0 22 April 1918Armenia_cell_0_17_1
Soviet conquestArmenia_header_cell_0_18_0 29 November 1920Armenia_cell_0_18_1
Independence restoredArmenia_header_cell_0_19_0 23 September 1991Armenia_cell_0_19_1
CIS AccessionArmenia_header_cell_0_20_0 21 December 1991Armenia_cell_0_20_1
Admitted to the United NationsArmenia_header_cell_0_21_0 2 March 1992Armenia_cell_0_21_1
Current constitutionArmenia_header_cell_0_22_0 5 July 1995Armenia_cell_0_22_1
Area Armenia_header_cell_0_23_0
TotalArmenia_header_cell_0_24_0 29,743 km (11,484 sq mi) (138th)Armenia_cell_0_24_1
Water (%)Armenia_header_cell_0_25_0 4.71Armenia_cell_0_25_1
PopulationArmenia_header_cell_0_26_0
2020 estimateArmenia_header_cell_0_27_0 2,956,900 (137th)Armenia_cell_0_27_1
2011 censusArmenia_header_cell_0_28_0 3,018,854Armenia_cell_0_28_1
DensityArmenia_header_cell_0_29_0 101.5/km (262.9/sq mi) (99th)Armenia_cell_0_29_1
GDP (PPP)Armenia_header_cell_0_30_0 2019 estimateArmenia_cell_0_30_1
TotalArmenia_header_cell_0_31_0 $32.893 billionArmenia_cell_0_31_1
Per capitaArmenia_header_cell_0_32_0 $10,995Armenia_cell_0_32_1
GDP (nominal)Armenia_header_cell_0_33_0 2019 estimateArmenia_cell_0_33_1
TotalArmenia_header_cell_0_34_0 $13.444 billion (127th)Armenia_cell_0_34_1
Per capitaArmenia_header_cell_0_35_0 $4,527 (104th)Armenia_cell_0_35_1
Gini (2018)Armenia_header_cell_0_36_0 34.4

mediumArmenia_cell_0_36_1

HDI (2018)Armenia_header_cell_0_37_0 0.760

high · 81stArmenia_cell_0_37_1

CurrencyArmenia_header_cell_0_38_0 Dram (֏) (AMD)Armenia_cell_0_38_1
Time zoneArmenia_header_cell_0_39_0 UTC+4 (AMT)Armenia_cell_0_39_1
Driving sideArmenia_header_cell_0_40_0 rightArmenia_cell_0_40_1
Calling codeArmenia_header_cell_0_41_0 +374Armenia_cell_0_41_1
ISO 3166 codeArmenia_header_cell_0_42_0 AMArmenia_cell_0_42_1
Internet TLDArmenia_header_cell_0_43_0 Armenia_cell_0_43_1

Armenia (/ɑːrˈmiːniə/ (listen); Armenian: Հայաստան, romanized: Hayastan, IPA: [hɑjɑsˈtɑn), officially the Republic of Armenia (Armenian: Հայաստանի Հանրապետություն, romanized: Hayastani Hanrapetut'yun, IPA: [hɑjɑstɑˈni hɑnɾɑpɛtutʰˈjun), is a landlocked country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia. Armenia_sentence_6

Located in Western Asia, on the Armenian Highlands, it is bordered by Turkey to the west, Georgia to the north, the de facto independent Republic of Artsakh and Azerbaijan to the east, and Iran and Azerbaijan's exclave of Nakhchivan to the south. Armenia_sentence_7

Armenia is a unitary, multi-party, democratic nation-state with an ancient cultural heritage. Armenia_sentence_8

Urartu was established in 860 BC and by the 6th century BC it was replaced by the Satrapy of Armenia. Armenia_sentence_9

The Kingdom of Armenia reached its height under Tigranes the Great in the 1st century BC and became the first state in the world to adopt Christianity as its official religion in the late 3rd or early 4th century AD. Armenia_sentence_10

The official date of state adoption of Christianity is 301. Armenia_sentence_11

The ancient Armenian kingdom was split between the Byzantine and Sasanian Empires around the early 5th century. Armenia_sentence_12

Under the Bagratuni dynasty, the Bagratid Kingdom of Armenia was restored in the 9th century. Armenia_sentence_13

Declining due to the wars against the Byzantines, the kingdom fell in 1045 and Armenia was soon after invaded by the Seljuk Turks. Armenia_sentence_14

An Armenian principality and later a kingdom Cilician Armenia was located on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea between the 11th and 14th centuries. Armenia_sentence_15

Between the 16th and 19th centuries, the traditional Armenian homeland composed of Eastern Armenia and Western Armenia came under the rule of the Ottoman and Persian empires, repeatedly ruled by either of the two over the centuries. Armenia_sentence_16

By the 19th century, Eastern Armenia had been conquered by the Russian Empire, while most of the western parts of the traditional Armenian homeland remained under Ottoman rule. Armenia_sentence_17

During World War I, 1.5 million Armenians living in their ancestral lands in the Ottoman Empire were systematically exterminated in the Armenian Genocide. Armenia_sentence_18

In 1918, following the Russian Revolution, all non-Russian countries declared their independence after the Russian Empire ceased to exist, leading to the establishment of the First Republic of Armenia. Armenia_sentence_19

By 1920, the state was incorporated into the Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, and in 1922 became a founding member of the Soviet Union. Armenia_sentence_20

In 1936, the Transcaucasian state was dissolved, transforming its constituent states, including the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic, into full Union republics. Armenia_sentence_21

The modern Republic of Armenia became independent in 1991 during the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Armenia_sentence_22

Armenia is a developing country and ranks 81st on the Human Development Index (2018). Armenia_sentence_23

Its economy is primarily based on industrial output and mineral extraction. Armenia_sentence_24

While Armenia is geographically located in the South Caucasus, it is generally considered geopolitically European. Armenia_sentence_25

Since Armenia aligns itself in many respects geopolitically with Europe, the country is a member of numerous European organizations including the Council of Europe, the Eastern Partnership, Eurocontrol, the Assembly of European Regions, and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development. Armenia_sentence_26

Armenia is also a member of certain regional groups throughout Eurasia, including the Asian Development Bank, the Collective Security Treaty Organization, the Eurasian Union, and the Eurasian Development Bank. Armenia_sentence_27

Armenia supports the de facto independent Artsakh, which was proclaimed in 1991. Armenia_sentence_28

Armenia also recognises the Armenian Apostolic Church, the world's oldest national church, as the country's primary religious establishment. Armenia_sentence_29

The unique Armenian alphabet was created by Mesrop Mashtots in 405 AD. Armenia_sentence_30

Etymology Armenia_section_0

Main article: Name of Armenia Armenia_sentence_31

The original native Armenian name for the country was Հայք (); however, it is currently rarely used. Armenia_sentence_32

The contemporary name Հայաստան () became popular in the Middle Ages by addition of the Persian suffix -stan (place).. Armenia_sentence_33

However the origins of the name Hayastan trace back to much earlier dates and were first attested in circa 5th century in the works of Agathangelos, Faustus of Byzantium, Ghazar Parpetsi, Koryun, and Sebeos. Armenia_sentence_34

The name has traditionally been derived from Hayk (Հայկ), the legendary patriarch of the Armenians and a great-great-grandson of Noah, who, according to the 5th-century AD author Moses of Chorene (Movsis Khorenatsi), defeated the Babylonian king Bel in 2492 BC and established his nation in the Ararat region. Armenia_sentence_35

The further origin of the name is uncertain. Armenia_sentence_36

It is also further postulated that the name Hay comes from one of the two confederated, Hittite vassal states – the Ḫayaša-Azzi (1600–1200 BC). Armenia_sentence_37

The exonym Armenia is attested in the Old Persian Behistun Inscription (515 BC) as ( ). Armenia_sentence_38

The Ancient Greek terms (Armenía) and (Arménioi, "Armenians") are first mentioned by Hecataeus of Miletus (c. 550 BC – c. 476 BC). Armenia_sentence_39

Xenophon, a Greek general serving in some of the Persian expeditions, describes many aspects of Armenian village life and hospitality in around 401 BC. Armenia_sentence_40

Some scholars have linked the name Armenia with the Early Bronze Age state of Armani (Armanum, Armi) or the Late Bronze Age state of Arme (Shupria). Armenia_sentence_41

These connections are inconclusive as it is not known what languages were spoken in these kingdoms. Armenia_sentence_42

Additionally, while it is agreed that Arme was located to the immediate west of Lake Van (and therefore in the greater Armenia region), the location of the older site of Armani is a matter of debate. Armenia_sentence_43

Some modern researchers have placed it in the same general area of Arme, near modern Samsat, and have suggested it was populated, at least partially, by an early Indo-European-speaking people. Armenia_sentence_44

It has also been speculated that the land of Ermenen (located in or near Minni), mentioned by the Egyptian pharaoh Thutmose III in 1446 BC, could be a reference to Armenia. Armenia_sentence_45

According to the histories of both Moses of Chorene and Michael Chamchian, Armenia derives from the name of Aram, a lineal descendant of Hayk. Armenia_sentence_46

The Table of Nations lists Aram as the son of Shem, to whom the Book of Jubilees attests, Armenia_sentence_47

Jubilees 8:21 also apportions the Mountains of Ararat to Shem, which Jubilees 9:5 expounds to be apportioned to Aram. Armenia_sentence_48

The historian Flavius Josephus also states in his Antiquities of the Jews, Armenia_sentence_49

History Armenia_section_1

Main article: History of Armenia Armenia_sentence_50

Antiquity Armenia_section_2

Main articles: Prehistoric Armenia, Prehistory of the Armenians, Satrapy of Armenia, Kingdom of Armenia (antiquity), Roman Armenia, Sasanian Armenia, Lesser Armenia, and Armenian archeology Armenia_sentence_51

Armenia lies in the highlands surrounding the mountains of Ararat. Armenia_sentence_52

There is evidence of an early civilisation in Armenia in the Bronze Age and earlier, dating to about 4000 BC. Armenia_sentence_53

Archaeological surveys in 2010 and 2011 at the Areni-1 cave complex have resulted in the discovery of the world's earliest known leather shoe, skirt, and wine-producing facility. Armenia_sentence_54

According to the story of Hayk, the legendary founder of Armenia, around 2107 BC Hayk fought against Belus, the Babylonian God of War, at Çavuştepe along the Engil river to establish the very first Armenian state. Armenia_sentence_55

Historically, this event coincides with the destruction of Akkad by the Gutian dynasty of Sumer in 2115 BC, a time when Hayk may have left with the "more than 300 members of his household" as told in the legend, and also during the beginning of when a Mesopotamian Dark Age was occurring due to the fall of the Akkadian Empire in 2154 BC which may have acted as a backdrop for the events in the legend making him leave Mesopotamia. Armenia_sentence_56

Several Bronze Age cultures and states flourished in the area of Greater Armenia, including the Trialeti-Vanadzor culture, Hayasa-Azzi, and Mitanni (located in southwestern historical Armenia), all of which are believed to have had Indo-European populations. Armenia_sentence_57

The Nairi confederation and its successor, Urartu, successively established their sovereignty over the Armenian Highlands. Armenia_sentence_58

Each of the aforementioned nations and confederacies participated in the ethnogenesis of the Armenians. Armenia_sentence_59

A large cuneiform lapidary inscription found in Yerevan established that the modern capital of Armenia was founded in the summer of 782 BC by King Argishti I. Armenia_sentence_60

Yerevan is the world's oldest city to have documented the exact date of its foundation. Armenia_sentence_61

During the late 6th century BC, the first geographical entity that was called Armenia by neighbouring populations was established under the Orontid Dynasty within the Achaemenid Empire, as part of the latters' territories. Armenia_sentence_62

The kingdom became fully sovereign from the sphere of influence of the Seleucid Empire in 190 BC under King Artaxias I and begun the rule of the Artaxiad dynasty. Armenia_sentence_63

Armenia reached its height between 95 and 66 BC under Tigranes the Great, becoming the most powerful kingdom of its time east of the Roman Republic. Armenia_sentence_64

In the next centuries, Armenia was in the Persian Empire's sphere of influence during the reign of Tiridates I, the founder of the Arsacid dynasty of Armenia, which itself was a branch of the Parthian Empire. Armenia_sentence_65

Throughout its history, the kingdom of Armenia enjoyed both periods of independence and periods of autonomy subject to contemporary empires. Armenia_sentence_66

Its strategic location between two continents has subjected it to invasions by many peoples, including Assyria (under Ashurbanipal, at around 669–627 BC, the boundaries of Assyria reached as far as Armenia and the Caucasus Mountains), Medes, Achaemenid Empire, Greeks, Parthians, Romans, Sasanian Empire, Byzantine Empire, Arabs, Seljuk Empire, Mongols, Ottoman Empire, the successive Safavid, Afsharid, and Qajar dynasties of Iran, and the Russians. Armenia_sentence_67

Religion in ancient Armenia was historically related to a set of beliefs that, in Persia, led to the emergence of Zoroastrianism. Armenia_sentence_68

It particularly focused on the worship of Mithra and also included a pantheon of gods such as Aramazd, Vahagn, Anahit, and Astghik. Armenia_sentence_69

The country used the solar Armenian calendar, which consisted of 12 months. Armenia_sentence_70

Christianity spread into the country as early as AD 40. Armenia_sentence_71

Tiridates III of Armenia (238–314) made Christianity the state religion in 301, partly, in defiance of the Sasanian Empire, it seems, becoming the first officially Christian state, ten years before the Roman Empire granted Christianity an official toleration under Galerius, and 36 years before Constantine the Great was baptised. Armenia_sentence_72

Prior to this, during the latter part of the Parthian period, Armenia was a predominantly Zoroastrian country. Armenia_sentence_73

After the fall of the Kingdom of Armenia in 428, most of Armenia was incorporated as a marzpanate within the Sasanian Empire. Armenia_sentence_74

Following the Battle of Avarayr in 451, Christian Armenians maintained their religion and Armenia gained autonomy. Armenia_sentence_75

Middle Ages Armenia_section_3

Early Modern era Armenia_section_4

Further information: Iranian Armenia (1502–1828), Armenians in the Ottoman Empire, and Russian Armenia Armenia_sentence_76

During the 1230s, the Mongol Empire conquered Zakarid Armenia and then the remainder of Armenia. Armenia_sentence_77

The Mongolian invasions were soon followed by those of other Central Asian tribes, such as the Kara Koyunlu, Timurid dynasty and Ağ Qoyunlu, which continued from the 13th century until the 15th century. Armenia_sentence_78

After incessant invasions, each bringing destruction to the country, with time Armenia became weakened. Armenia_sentence_79

In the 16th century, the Ottoman Empire and the Safavid dynasty of Iran divided Armenia. Armenia_sentence_80

From the early 16th century, both Western Armenia and Eastern Armenia fell to the Safavid Empire. Armenia_sentence_81

Owing to the century long Turco-Iranian geopolitical rivalry that would last in Western Asia, significant parts of the region were frequently fought over between the two rivalling empires during the Ottoman–Persian Wars. Armenia_sentence_82

From the mid 16th century with the Peace of Amasya, and decisively from the first half of the 17th century with the Treaty of Zuhab until the first half of the 19th century, Eastern Armenia was ruled by the successive Safavid, Afsharid and Qajar empires, while Western Armenia remained under Ottoman rule. Armenia_sentence_83

From 1604, Abbas I of Iran implemented a "scorched earth" policy in the region to protect his north-western frontier against any invading Ottoman forces, a policy that involved a forced resettlement of masses of Armenians outside of their homelands. Armenia_sentence_84

In the 1813 Treaty of Gulistan and the 1828 Treaty of Turkmenchay, following the Russo-Persian War (1804–13) and the Russo-Persian War (1826–28), respectively, the Qajar dynasty of Iran was forced to irrevocably cede Eastern Armenia, consisting of the Erivan and Karabakh Khanates, to Imperial Russia. Armenia_sentence_85

This period is known as Russian Armenia. Armenia_sentence_86

While Western Armenia still remained under Ottoman rule, the Armenians were granted considerable autonomy within their own enclaves and lived in relative harmony with other groups in the empire (including the ruling Turks). Armenia_sentence_87

However, as Christians under a strict Muslim social structure, Armenians faced pervasive discrimination. Armenia_sentence_88

When they began pushing for more rights within the Ottoman Empire, Sultan Abdul Hamid II, in response, organised state-sponsored massacres against the Armenians between 1894 and 1896, resulting in an estimated death toll of 80,000 to 300,000 people. Armenia_sentence_89

The Hamidian massacres, as they came to be known, gave Hamid international infamy as the "Red Sultan" or "Bloody Sultan". Armenia_sentence_90

During the 1890s, the Armenian Revolutionary Federation, commonly known as Dashnaktsutyun, became active within the Ottoman Empire with the aim of unifying the various small groups in the empire that were advocating for reform and defending Armenian villages from massacres that were widespread in some of the Armenian-populated areas of the empire. Armenia_sentence_91

Dashnaktsutyun members also formed Armenian fedayi groups that defended Armenian civilians through armed resistance. Armenia_sentence_92

The Dashnaks also worked for the wider goal of creating a "free, independent and unified" Armenia, although they sometimes set aside this goal in favour of a more realistic approach, such as advocating autonomy. Armenia_sentence_93

The Ottoman Empire began to collapse, and in 1908, the Young Turk Revolution overthrew the government of Sultan Hamid. Armenia_sentence_94

In April 1909, the Adana massacre occurred in the Adana Vilayet of the Ottoman Empire resulting in the deaths of as many as 20,000–30,000 Armenians. Armenia_sentence_95

The Armenians living in the empire hoped that the Committee of Union and Progress would change their second-class status. Armenia_sentence_96

The Armenian reform package (1914) was presented as a solution by appointing an inspector general over Armenian issues. Armenia_sentence_97

World War I and the Armenian Genocide Armenia_section_5

Main article: Armenian Genocide Armenia_sentence_98

The outbreak of World War I led to confrontation between the Ottoman Empire and the Russian Empire in the Caucasus and Persian Campaigns. Armenia_sentence_99

The new government in Istanbul began to look on the Armenians with distrust and suspicion, because the Imperial Russian Army contained a contingent of Armenian volunteers. Armenia_sentence_100

On 24 April 1915, Armenian intellectuals were arrested by Ottoman authorities and, with the Tehcir Law (29 May 1915), eventually a large proportion of Armenians living in Anatolia perished in what has become known as the Armenian Genocide. Armenia_sentence_101

The genocide was implemented in two phases: the wholesale killing of the able-bodied male population through massacre and subjection of army conscripts to forced labour, followed by the deportation of women, children, the elderly and infirm on death marches leading to the Syrian desert. Armenia_sentence_102

Driven forward by military escorts, the deportees were deprived of food and water and subjected to periodic robbery, rape, and massacre. Armenia_sentence_103

There was local Armenian resistance in the region, developed against the activities of the Ottoman Empire. Armenia_sentence_104

The events of 1915 to 1917 are regarded by Armenians and the vast majority of Western historians to have been state-sponsored mass killings, or genocide. Armenia_sentence_105

Turkish authorities deny the genocide took place to this day. Armenia_sentence_106

The Armenian Genocide is acknowledged to have been one of the first modern genocides. Armenia_sentence_107

According to the research conducted by Arnold J. Toynbee, an estimated 600,000 Armenians died during deportation from 1915 to 1916. Armenia_sentence_108

This figure, however, accounts for solely the first year of the Genocide and does not take into account those who died or were killed after the report was compiled on 24 May 1916. Armenia_sentence_109

The International Association of Genocide Scholars places the death toll at "more than a million". Armenia_sentence_110

The total number of people killed has been most widely estimated at between 1 and 1.5 million. Armenia_sentence_111

Armenia and the Armenian diaspora have been campaigning for official recognition of the events as genocide for over 30 years. Armenia_sentence_112

These events are traditionally commemorated yearly on 24 April, the Armenian Martyr Day, or the Day of the Armenian Genocide. Armenia_sentence_113

First Republic of Armenia Armenia_section_6

Main article: First Republic of Armenia Armenia_sentence_114

Although the Russian Caucasus Army of Imperial forces commanded by Nikolai Yudenich and Armenians in volunteer units and Armenian militia led by Andranik Ozanian and Tovmas Nazarbekian succeeded in gaining most of Ottoman Armenia during World War I, their gains were lost with the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917. Armenia_sentence_115

At the time, Russian-controlled Eastern Armenia, Georgia, and Azerbaijan attempted to bond together in the Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic. Armenia_sentence_116

This federation, however, lasted from only February to May 1918, when all three parties decided to dissolve it. Armenia_sentence_117

As a result, the Dashnaktsutyun government of Eastern Armenia declared its independence on 28 May as the First Republic of Armenia under the leadership of Aram Manukian. Armenia_sentence_118

The First Republic's short-lived independence was fraught with war, territorial disputes, and a mass influx of refugees from Ottoman Armenia, bringing with them disease and starvation. Armenia_sentence_119

The Entente Powers sought to help the newly founded Armenian state through relief funds and other forms of support. Armenia_sentence_120

At the end of the war, the victorious powers sought to divide up the Ottoman Empire. Armenia_sentence_121

Signed between the Allied and Associated Powers and Ottoman Empire at Sèvres on 10 August 1920, the Treaty of Sèvres promised to maintain the existence of the Armenian republic and to attach the former territories of Ottoman Armenia to it. Armenia_sentence_122

Because the new borders of Armenia were to be drawn by United States President Woodrow Wilson, Ottoman Armenia was also referred to as "Wilsonian Armenia". Armenia_sentence_123

In addition, just days prior, on 5 August 1920, Mihran Damadian of the Armenian National Union, the de facto Armenian administration in Cilicia, declared the independence of Cilicia as an Armenian autonomous republic under French protectorate. Armenia_sentence_124

There was even consideration of making Armenia a mandate under the protection of the United States. Armenia_sentence_125

The treaty, however, was rejected by the Turkish National Movement, and never came into effect. Armenia_sentence_126

The movement used the treaty as the occasion to declare itself the rightful government of Turkey, replacing the monarchy based in Istanbul with a republic based in Ankara. Armenia_sentence_127

In 1920, Turkish nationalist forces invaded the fledgling Armenian republic from the east. Armenia_sentence_128

Turkish forces under the command of Kazım Karabekir captured Armenian territories that Russia had annexed in the aftermath of the 1877–1878 Russo-Turkish War and occupied the old city of Alexandropol (present-day Gyumri). Armenia_sentence_129

The violent conflict finally concluded with the Treaty of Alexandropol on 2 December 1920. Armenia_sentence_130

The treaty forced Armenia to disarm most of its military forces, cede all former Ottoman territory granted to it by the Treaty of Sèvres, and to give up all the "Wilsonian Armenia" granted to it at the Sèvres treaty. Armenia_sentence_131

Simultaneously, the Soviet Eleventh Army, under the command of Grigoriy Ordzhonikidze, invaded Armenia at Karavansarai (present-day Ijevan) on 29 November. Armenia_sentence_132

By 4 December, Ordzhonikidze's forces entered Yerevan and the short-lived Armenian republic collapsed. Armenia_sentence_133

After the fall of the republic, the February Uprising soon took place in 1921, and led to the establishment of the Republic of Mountainous Armenia by Armenian forces under command of Garegin Nzhdeh on 26 April, which fought off both Soviet and Turkish intrusions in the Zangezur region of southern Armenia. Armenia_sentence_134

After Soviet agreements to include the Syunik Province in Armenia's borders, the rebellion ended and the Red Army took control of the region on 13 July. Armenia_sentence_135

Armenian SSR Armenia_section_7

Main article: Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic Armenia_sentence_136

Armenia was annexed by the Red Army and along with Georgia and Azerbaijan, was incorporated into the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics as part of the Transcaucasian SFSR (TSFSR) on 4 March 1922. Armenia_sentence_137

With this annexation, the Treaty of Alexandropol was superseded by the Turkish-Soviet Treaty of Kars. Armenia_sentence_138

In the agreement, Turkey allowed the Soviet Union to assume control over Adjara with the port city of Batumi in return for sovereignty over the cities of Kars, Ardahan, and Iğdır, all of which were part of Russian Armenia. Armenia_sentence_139

The TSFSR existed from 1922 to 1936, when it was divided up into three separate entities (Armenian SSR, Azerbaijan SSR, and Georgian SSR). Armenia_sentence_140

Armenians enjoyed a period of relative stability within USSR. Armenia_sentence_141

They received medicine, food, and other provisions from Moscow, and communist rule proved to be a soothing balm in contrast to the turbulent final years of the Ottoman Empire. Armenia_sentence_142

The situation was difficult for the church, which struggled with secular policies of USSR. Armenia_sentence_143

After the death of Vladimir Lenin and events occurred during Russian Civil War, Joseph Stalin became the general secretary of the CPSU, the most powerful position in the USSR of the time. Armenia_sentence_144

Armenia was not the scene of any battles in World War II. Armenia_sentence_145

An estimated 500,000 Armenians (nearly a third of the population) served in the Red Army during the war, and 175,000 died. Armenia_sentence_146

It is claimed that the freedom index in the region had seen an improvement after the death of Joseph Stalin in 1953 the and emergence of Nikita Khrushchev as the new general secretary of the CPSU. Armenia_sentence_147

Soon, life in Armenia's SSR began to see rapid improvement. Armenia_sentence_148

The church, which was limited during the secretaryship of Stalin, was revived when Catholicos Vazgen I assumed the duties of his office in 1955. Armenia_sentence_149

In 1967, a memorial to the victims of the Armenian Genocide was built at the Tsitsernakaberd hill above the Hrazdan gorge in Yerevan. Armenia_sentence_150

This occurred after mass demonstrations took place on the tragic event's fiftieth anniversary in 1965. Armenia_sentence_151

During the Gorbachev era of the 1980s, with the reforms of Glasnost and Perestroika, Armenians began to demand better environmental care for their country, opposing the pollution that Soviet-built factories brought. Armenia_sentence_152

Tensions also developed between Soviet Azerbaijan and its autonomous district of Nagorno-Karabakh, a majority-Armenian region. Armenia_sentence_153

About 484,000 Armenians lived in Azerbaijan in 1970. Armenia_sentence_154

The Armenians of Karabakh demanded unification with Soviet Armenia. Armenia_sentence_155

Peaceful protests in Yerevan supporting the Karabakh Armenians were met with anti-Armenian pogroms in the Azerbaijani city of Sumgait. Armenia_sentence_156

Compounding Armenia's problems was a devastating earthquake in 1988 with a moment magnitude of 7.2. Armenia_sentence_157

Gorbachev's inability to alleviate any of Armenia's problems created disillusionment among the Armenians and fed a growing hunger for independence. Armenia_sentence_158

In May 1990, the New Armenian Army (NAA) was established, serving as a defence force separate from the Soviet Red Army. Armenia_sentence_159

Clashes soon broke out between the NAA and Soviet Internal Security Forces (MVD) troops based in Yerevan when Armenians decided to commemorate the establishment of the 1918 First Republic of Armenia. Armenia_sentence_160

The violence resulted in the deaths of five Armenians killed in a shootout with the MVD at the railway station. Armenia_sentence_161

Witnesses there claimed that the MVD used excessive force and that they had instigated the fighting. Armenia_sentence_162

Further firefights between Armenian militiamen and Soviet troops occurred in Sovetashen, near the capital and resulted in the deaths of over 26 people, mostly Armenians. Armenia_sentence_163

The pogrom of Armenians in Baku in January 1990 forced almost all of the 200,000 Armenians in the Azerbaijani capital Baku to flee to Armenia. Armenia_sentence_164

On 23 August 1990, Armenia declared its sovereignty on its territory. Armenia_sentence_165

On 17 March 1991, Armenia, along with the Baltic states, Georgia and Moldova, boycotted a nationwide referendum in which 78% of all voters voted for the retention of the Soviet Union in a reformed form. Armenia_sentence_166

Restoration of independence Armenia_section_8

Main article: History of Armenia § Independent Armenia (1991-today) Armenia_sentence_167

On 21 September 1991, Armenia officially declared its statehood after the failed August coup in Moscow, RSFSR. Armenia_sentence_168

Levon Ter-Petrosyan was popularly elected the first President of the newly independent Republic of Armenia on 16 October 1991. Armenia_sentence_169

He had risen to prominence by leading the Karabakh movement for the unification of the Armenian-populated Nagorno-Karabakh. Armenia_sentence_170

On 26 December 1991, the Soviet Union ceased to exist and Armenia's independence was recognised. Armenia_sentence_171

Ter-Petrosyan led Armenia alongside Defense Minister Vazgen Sargsyan through the First Nagorno-Karabakh War with neighbouring Azerbaijan. Armenia_sentence_172

The initial post-Soviet years were marred by economic difficulties, which had their roots early in the Karabakh conflict when the Azerbaijani Popular Front managed to pressure the Azerbaijan SSR to instigate a railway and air blockade against Armenia. Armenia_sentence_173

This move effectively crippled Armenia's economy as 85% of its cargo and goods arrived through rail traffic. Armenia_sentence_174

In 1993, Turkey joined the blockade against Armenia in support of Azerbaijan. Armenia_sentence_175

The Karabakh war ended after a Russian-brokered cease-fire was put in place in 1994. Armenia_sentence_176

The war was a success for the Karabakh Armenian forces who managed to capture 16% of Azerbaijan's internationally recognised territory including Nagorno-Karabakh itself. Armenia_sentence_177

Since then, while Armenia and Azerbaijan have held peace talks mediated by the Organisation for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), they have not reached a conclusion and the status of Karabakh has yet to be determined. Armenia_sentence_178

The economies of both countries have been hurt in the absence of a complete resolution and Armenia's borders with Turkey and Azerbaijan remain closed. Armenia_sentence_179

By the time both Azerbaijan and Armenia had finally agreed to a ceasefire in 1994, an estimated 30,000 people had been killed and over a million had been displaced. Armenia_sentence_180

2018 Revolution Armenia_section_9

See also: 2018 Armenian revolution Armenia_sentence_181

The 2018 Armenian Revolution was a series of anti-government protests in Armenia from April to May 2018 staged by various political and civil groups led by a member of the Armenian parliament — Nikol Pashinyan (head of the Civil Contract party). Armenia_sentence_182

Protests and marches took place initially in response to Serzh Sargsyan's third consecutive term as President of Armenia and later against the Republican Party controlled government in general. Armenia_sentence_183

Pashinyan declared it a "velvet revolution." Armenia_sentence_184

Today Armenia_section_10

As it enters the 21st century, Armenia faces many hardships. Armenia_sentence_185

It has made a full switch to a market economy. Armenia_sentence_186

One study ranks it the 41st most "economically free" nation in the world, as of 2014. Armenia_sentence_187

Its relations with Europe, the Arab League, and the Commonwealth of Independent States have allowed Armenia to increase trade. Armenia_sentence_188

Gas, oil, and other supplies come through two vital routes: Iran and Georgia. Armenia_sentence_189

Armenia maintains cordial relations with both countries. Armenia_sentence_190

On 27 September 2020, new clashes in the unresolved Nagorno-Karabakh conflict resumed along the Nagorno-Karabakh Line of Contact. Armenia_sentence_191

Both the armed forces of Armenia and Azerbaijan reported military and civilian casualties. Armenia_sentence_192

The Nagorno-Karabakh ceasefire agreement to end the six-week war between Armenia and Azerbaijan was seen by many as Armenia's defeat and capitulation. Armenia_sentence_193

Geography Armenia_section_11

Main article: Geography of Armenia Armenia_sentence_194

Armenia is a landlocked country in the geopolitical Transcaucasus (South Caucasus) region, that is located in the Southern Caucasus Mountains and their lowlands between the Black Sea and Caspian Sea, and northeast of the Armenian Highlands. Armenia_sentence_195

Located in Western Asia, on the Armenian Highlands, it is bordered by Turkey to the west, Georgia to the north, the de facto independent Republic of Artsakh and Azerbaijan to the east, and Iran and Azerbaijan's exclave of Nakhchivan to the south. Armenia_sentence_196

Armenia lies between latitudes 38° and 42° N, and meridians 43° and 47° E. Armenia_sentence_197

Topography Armenia_section_12

Armenia has a territorial area of 29,743 square kilometres (11,484 sq mi). Armenia_sentence_198

The terrain is mostly mountainous, with fast flowing rivers, and few forests. Armenia_sentence_199

The land rises to 4,090 metres (13,419 feet) above sea level at Mount Aragats, and no point is below 390 metres (1,280 ft) above sea level. Armenia_sentence_200

Average elevation of the country area is 10th highest in the world and it has 85.9% mountain area, more than Switzerland or Nepal. Armenia_sentence_201

Armenia_description_list_0

Mount Ararat, which was historically part of Armenia, is the highest mountain in the region at 5,137 meters (16,854 feet). Armenia_sentence_202

Now located in Turkey, but clearly visible from Armenia, it is regarded by the Armenians as a symbol of their land. Armenia_sentence_203

Because of this, the mountain is present on the Armenian national emblem today. Armenia_sentence_204

Climate Armenia_section_13

Main article: Climate of Armenia Armenia_sentence_205

The climate in Armenia is markedly highland continental. Armenia_sentence_206

Summers are hot, dry and sunny, lasting from June to mid-September. Armenia_sentence_207

The temperature fluctuates between 22 and 36 °C (72 and 97 °F). Armenia_sentence_208

However, the low humidity level mitigates the effect of high temperatures. Armenia_sentence_209

Evening breezes blowing down the mountains provide a welcome refreshing and cooling effect. Armenia_sentence_210

Springs are short, while autumns are long. Armenia_sentence_211

Autumns are known for their vibrant and colourful foliage. Armenia_sentence_212

Winters are quite cold with plenty of snow, with temperatures ranging between −10 and −5 °C (14 and 23 °F). Armenia_sentence_213

Winter sports enthusiasts enjoy skiing down the hills of Tsakhkadzor, located thirty minutes outside Yerevan. Armenia_sentence_214

Lake Sevan, nestled up in the Armenian highlands, is the second largest lake in the world relative to its altitude, at 1,900 metres (6,234 ft) above sea level. Armenia_sentence_215

Environmental protection Armenia_section_14

Armenia ranked 63rd out of 180 countries on Environmental Performance Index (EPI) in 2018. Armenia_sentence_216

Its rank on subindex Environmental Health (which is weighted at 40% in EPI) is 109, while Armenia's rank on subindex of Ecosystem Vitality (weighted at 60% in EPI) is 27th best in the world. Armenia_sentence_217

This suggests that main environmental issues in Armenia are with population health, while environment vitality is of lesser concern. Armenia_sentence_218

Out of sub-subindices contributing to Environmental Health subindex ranking on Air Quality to which population is exposed is particularly unsatisfying. Armenia_sentence_219

Waste management in Armenia is underdeveloped, as no waste sorting or recycling takes place at Armenia's 60 landfills. Armenia_sentence_220

A waste processing plant is scheduled for construction near Hrazdan city, which will allow for closure of 10 waste dumps. Armenia_sentence_221

Despite the availability of abundant renewable energy sources in Armenia (especially hydroelectric and wind power) and calls from EU officials to shut down the nuclear power plant at Metsamor, the Armenian Government is exploring the possibilities of installing new small modular nuclear reactors. Armenia_sentence_222

In 2018 existing nuclear plant is scheduled for modernization to enhance its safety and increase power production by about 10%. Armenia_sentence_223

Armenian Ministry of Nature Protection introduced taxes for air and water pollution and solid-waste disposal, whose revenues are used for environmental protection activities. Armenia_sentence_224

Government and politics Armenia_section_15

Main articles: Government of Armenia and Politics of Armenia Armenia_sentence_225

Armenia is a representative parliamentary democratic republic. Armenia_sentence_226

The Armenian constitution adhered to the model of a semi-presidential republic until April 2018. Armenia_sentence_227

According to the current Constitution of Armenia, the President is the head of state holding largely representational functions, while the Prime Minister is the head of government and exercises executive power. Armenia_sentence_228

Legislative power is vested in the Azgayin Zhoghov or National Assembly, which is a unicameral parliament. Armenia_sentence_229

Fragile states index since its first report in 2006 until most recent in 2019 consistently ranked Armenia better than all its neighboring countries (with one exception in 2011). Armenia_sentence_230

Armenia has universal suffrage above the age of eighteen. Armenia_sentence_231

Foreign relations Armenia_section_16

Main articles: Foreign relations of Armenia, Armenia and the European Union, and Armenia–Turkey relations Armenia_sentence_232

Armenia became a member of the United Nations on 2 March 1992, and is a signatory to a number of its organizations and other international agreements. Armenia_sentence_233

It is also a member of international organisations such as the Council of Europe, the Asian Development Bank, the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, the International Monetary Fund, the World Trade Organization, the World Customs Organization, the Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation and La Francophonie. Armenia_sentence_234

It is a member of the CSTO military alliance, and also participates in NATO's Partnership for Peace program and the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council. Armenia_sentence_235

In 2004 its forces joined KFOR, a NATO-led international force in Kosovo. Armenia_sentence_236

Armenia is also an observer member of the Arab League, the Organization of American States, the Pacific Alliance, the Non-Aligned Movement, and a dialogue partner in the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation. Armenia_sentence_237

As a result of its historical ties to France, Armenia was selected to host the biennial Francophonie summit in 2018. Armenia_sentence_238

Armenia has a difficult relation with neighbouring countries Azerbaijan and Turkey. Armenia_sentence_239

Tensions were running high between Armenians and Azerbaijanis during the final years of the Soviet Union. Armenia_sentence_240

The Nagorno-Karabakh conflict dominated the region's politics throughout the 1990s. Armenia_sentence_241

To this day, Armenia's borders with Turkey and Azerbaijan are under severe blockade. Armenia_sentence_242

In addition, a permanent solution for the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict has not been reached despite the mediation provided by organizations such as the OSCE. Armenia_sentence_243

Turkey also has a long history of poor relations with Armenia over its refusal to acknowledge the Armenian Genocide, even though it was one of the first countries to recognize the Republic of Armenia (the 3rd republic) after its independence from the USSR in 1991. Armenia_sentence_244

Despite this, for most of the 20th century and early 21st century, relations remain tense and there are no formal diplomatic relations between the two countries due to Turkey's refusal to establish them for numerous reasons. Armenia_sentence_245

During the first Nagorno-Karabakh War, and citing it as the reason, Turkey closed its border with Armenia in 1993. Armenia_sentence_246

It has not lifted its blockade despite pressure from the powerful Turkish business lobby interested in Armenian markets. Armenia_sentence_247

On 10 October 2009, Armenia and Turkey signed protocols on the normalisation of relations, which set a timetable for restoring diplomatic ties and reopening their joint border. Armenia_sentence_248

The ratification of those had to be made in the national parliaments. Armenia_sentence_249

In Armenia, before sending the protocols to the parliament, it was sent to the Constitutional Court to have their constitutionality to be approved. Armenia_sentence_250

The Constitutional Court made references to the preamble of the protocols underlying three main issues. Armenia_sentence_251

One of them stated that the implementation of the protocols did not imply Armenia's official recognition of the existing Turkish-Armenian border established by the Treaty of Kars. Armenia_sentence_252

By doing so, the Constitutional Court rejected one of the main premises of the protocols, i.e. “the mutual recognition of the existing border between the two countries as defined by relevant treaties of international law". Armenia_sentence_253

This was for the Turkish Government the reason to back down from the Protocols. Armenia_sentence_254

The Armenian President had made multiple public announcements, both in Armenia and abroad, that, as the leader of the political majority of Armenia, he assured the parliamentary ratification of the protocols if Turkey also ratified them. Armenia_sentence_255

Despite this, the process stopped, as Turkey continuously added more preconditions to its ratification and also "delayed it beyond any reasonable time-period". Armenia_sentence_256

Due to its position between two unfriendly neighbours, Armenia has close security ties with Russia. Armenia_sentence_257

At the request of the Armenian government, Russia maintains a military base in the city of Gyumri located in Northwestern Armenia as a deterrent against Turkey. Armenia_sentence_258

Despite this, Armenia has also been looking toward Euro-Atlantic structures in recent years. Armenia_sentence_259

It maintains good relations with the United States especially through its Armenian diaspora. Armenia_sentence_260

According to the US Census Bureau, there are 427,822 Armenians living in the country. Armenia_sentence_261

Because of the illicit border blockades by Azerbaijan and Turkey, Armenia continues to maintain solid relations with its southern neighbour Iran especially in the economic sector. Armenia_sentence_262

Economic projects are being developed between the two nations, including a gas pipeline going from Iran to Armenia. Armenia_sentence_263

Armenia is a member of the Council of Europe and maintains friendly relations with the European Union; especially with its member states such as France and Greece. Armenia_sentence_264

In January 2002, the European Parliament noted that Armenia may enter the EU in the future. Armenia_sentence_265

A 2005 survey reported that 64% of Armenia's population would be in favour of joining the EU. Armenia_sentence_266

Several Armenian officials have also expressed the desire for their country to eventually become an EU member state, some predicting that it will make an official bid for membership in a few years. Armenia_sentence_267

A former republic of the Soviet Union, Armenia is an emerging democracy and as of 2011 was negotiating with the European Union to become an associate partner. Armenia_sentence_268

Legally speaking, it has the right to be considered as a prospective EU member provided it meets necessary standards and criteria, although officially such a plan does not exist in Brussels. Armenia_sentence_269

The Government of Armenia, however, has joined the Eurasian Customs Union and the Eurasian Economic Union. Armenia_sentence_270

Armenia is included in the European Union's European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) and participates in both the Eastern Partnership and the Euronest Parliamentary Assembly, which aims at bringing the EU and its neighbours closer. Armenia_sentence_271

The Armenia-EU Comprehensive and Enhanced Partnership Agreement (CEPA) was signed on 24 November 2017. Armenia_sentence_272

The agreement further develops cooperation in economic, trade and political areas, aims to improve investment climate, and is designed to bring Armenian law gradually closer to the EU acquis. Armenia_sentence_273

Human rights and freedom Armenia_section_17

Main article: Human rights in Armenia Armenia_sentence_274

Human rights in Armenia tend to be better than those in most former Soviet republics and have drawn closer to acceptable standards, especially economically. Armenia_sentence_275

Nonetheless, there are still several considerable problems. Armenia_sentence_276

Armenia scored 4.79 on The Economist Intelligence Unit Democracy Index published in January 2019 (data for 2018). Armenia_sentence_277

Although still classified as "hybrid regime", Armenia recorded the strongest improvement among European countries and reached its ever-best score since calculation began in 2006. Armenia_sentence_278

Armenia is classified as "partly free" in the 2019 report (with data from 2018) by Freedom House, which gives it a score of 51 out of 100, which is 6 points ahead of the previous estimate. Armenia_sentence_279

Armenia has recorded an unprecedented progress in the 2019 World Press Freedom Index published by Reporters Without Borders, improving its position by 19 points and ranking 61st on the list. Armenia_sentence_280

The publication also confirms the absence of cases of killed journalists, citizen journalists or media assistants. Armenia_sentence_281

Armenia ranks 54th in the 2017 report The Human Freedom Index (with data from 2016) published by Canada's Fraser Institute. Armenia_sentence_282

Armenia ranked 29th for economic freedom and 76th for personal freedom among 159 countries in the 2017 Human Freedom Index published by the Cato Institute . Armenia_sentence_283

These classifications may improve when data from 2018, including the period of the velvet revolution and thereafter, is analyzed. Armenia_sentence_284

Military Armenia_section_18

Main article: Armed Forces of Armenia Armenia_sentence_285

See also: Military history of Armenia Armenia_sentence_286

The Armenian Army, Air Force, Air Defence, and Border Guard comprise the four branches of the Armed Forces of Armenia. Armenia_sentence_287

The Armenian military was formed after the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 and with the establishment of the Ministry of Defence in 1992. Armenia_sentence_288

The Commander-in-Chief of the military is the Prime Minister of Armenia, Nikol Pashinyan. Armenia_sentence_289

The Ministry of Defence is in charge of political leadership, headed by Davit Tonoyan, while military command remains in the hands of the general staff, headed by the Chief of Staff, who is Lieutenant-General Onik Gasparyan. Armenia_sentence_290

Active forces now number about 81,000 soldiers, with an additional reserve of 32,000 troops. Armenia_sentence_291

Armenian border guards are in charge of patrolling the country's borders with Georgia and Azerbaijan, while Russian troops continue to monitor its borders with Iran and Turkey. Armenia_sentence_292

In the case of an attack, Armenia is able to mobilize every able-bodied man between the age of 15 and 59, with military preparedness. Armenia_sentence_293

The Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe, which establishes comprehensive limits on key categories of military equipment, was ratified by the Armenian parliament in July 1992. Armenia_sentence_294

In March 1993, Armenia signed the multilateral Chemical Weapons Convention, which calls for the eventual elimination of chemical weapons. Armenia_sentence_295

Armenia acceded to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) as a non-nuclear weapons state in July 1993. Armenia_sentence_296

Armenia is member of Collective Security Treaty Organisation (CSTO) along with Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. Armenia_sentence_297

It participates in NATO's Partnership for Peace (PiP) program and in Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council (EAPC). Armenia_sentence_298

Armenia has engaged in a peacekeeping mission in Kosovo as part of non-NATO KFOR troops under Greek command. Armenia_sentence_299

Armenia also had 46 members of its military peacekeeping forces as a part of the Coalition Forces in Iraq War until October 2008. Armenia_sentence_300

In 2019 Armenia has sent 83 soldiers to Syria for mine-cleaning and humanitarian mission there. Armenia_sentence_301

Administrative divisions Armenia_section_19

Main article: Administrative divisions of Armenia Armenia_sentence_302

Armenia is divided into ten provinces (marzer, singular marz), with the city (kaghak) of Yerevan (Երևան) having special administrative status as the country's capital. Armenia_sentence_303

The chief executive in each of the ten provinces is the marzpet (marz governor), appointed by the government of Armenia. Armenia_sentence_304

In Yerevan, the chief executive is the mayor, elected since 2009. Armenia_sentence_305

Within each province there are communities (hamaynkner, singular hamaynk). Armenia_sentence_306

Each community is self-governing and consists of one or more settlements (bnakavayrer, singular bnakavayr). Armenia_sentence_307

Settlements are classified as either towns (kaghakner, singular kaghak) or villages (gyugher, singular gyugh). Armenia_sentence_308

As of 2007, Armenia includes 915 communities, of which 49 are considered urban and 866 are considered rural. Armenia_sentence_309

The capital, Yerevan, also has the status of a community. Armenia_sentence_310

Additionally, Yerevan is divided into twelve semi-autonomous districts. Armenia_sentence_311

Armenia_table_general_1

ProvinceArmenia_header_cell_1_0_0 CapitalArmenia_header_cell_1_0_2 Area (km)Armenia_header_cell_1_0_4 Population †Armenia_header_cell_1_0_5
AragatsotnArmenia_cell_1_1_0 ԱրագածոտնArmenia_cell_1_1_1 AshtarakArmenia_cell_1_1_2 ԱշտարակArmenia_cell_1_1_3 2,756Armenia_cell_1_1_4 132,925Armenia_cell_1_1_5
AraratArmenia_cell_1_2_0 ԱրարատArmenia_cell_1_2_1 ArtashatArmenia_cell_1_2_2 ԱրտաշատArmenia_cell_1_2_3 2,090Armenia_cell_1_2_4 260,367Armenia_cell_1_2_5
ArmavirArmenia_cell_1_3_0 ԱրմավիրArmenia_cell_1_3_1 ArmavirArmenia_cell_1_3_2 ԱրմավիրArmenia_cell_1_3_3 1,242Armenia_cell_1_3_4 265,770Armenia_cell_1_3_5
GegharkunikArmenia_cell_1_4_0 ԳեղարքունիքArmenia_cell_1_4_1 GavarArmenia_cell_1_4_2 ԳավառArmenia_cell_1_4_3 5,349Armenia_cell_1_4_4 235,075Armenia_cell_1_4_5
KotaykArmenia_cell_1_5_0 ԿոտայքArmenia_cell_1_5_1 HrazdanArmenia_cell_1_5_2 ՀրազդանArmenia_cell_1_5_3 2,086Armenia_cell_1_5_4 254,397Armenia_cell_1_5_5
LoriArmenia_cell_1_6_0 ԼոռիArmenia_cell_1_6_1 VanadzorArmenia_cell_1_6_2 ՎանաձորArmenia_cell_1_6_3 3,799Armenia_cell_1_6_4 235,537Armenia_cell_1_6_5
ShirakArmenia_cell_1_7_0 ՇիրակArmenia_cell_1_7_1 GyumriArmenia_cell_1_7_2 ԳյումրիArmenia_cell_1_7_3 2,680Armenia_cell_1_7_4 251,941Armenia_cell_1_7_5
SyunikArmenia_cell_1_8_0 ՍյունիքArmenia_cell_1_8_1 KapanArmenia_cell_1_8_2 ԿապանArmenia_cell_1_8_3 4,506Armenia_cell_1_8_4 141,771Armenia_cell_1_8_5
TavushArmenia_cell_1_9_0 ՏավուշArmenia_cell_1_9_1 IjevanArmenia_cell_1_9_2 ԻջևանArmenia_cell_1_9_3 2,704Armenia_cell_1_9_4 128,609Armenia_cell_1_9_5
Vayots DzorArmenia_cell_1_10_0 Վայոց ՁորArmenia_cell_1_10_1 YeghegnadzorArmenia_cell_1_10_2 ԵղեգնաձորArmenia_cell_1_10_3 2,308Armenia_cell_1_10_4 52,324Armenia_cell_1_10_5
YerevanArmenia_cell_1_11_0 ԵրևանArmenia_cell_1_11_1 Armenia_cell_1_11_2 Armenia_cell_1_11_3 223Armenia_cell_1_11_4 1,060,138Armenia_cell_1_11_5

† 2011 census Sources: Area and population of provinces. Armenia_sentence_312

Economy Armenia_section_20

Main article: Economy of Armenia Armenia_sentence_313

The economy relies heavily on investment and support from Armenians abroad. Armenia_sentence_314

Before independence, Armenia's economy was largely industry-based – chemicals, electronics, machinery, processed food, synthetic rubber, and textile – and highly dependent on outside resources. Armenia_sentence_315

The republic had developed a modern industrial sector, supplying machine tools, textiles, and other manufactured goods to sister republics in exchange for raw materials and energy. Armenia_sentence_316

Agriculture accounted for less than 20% of both net material product and total employment before the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991. Armenia_sentence_317

After independence, the importance of agriculture in the economy increased markedly, its share at the end of the 1990s rising to more than 30% of GDP and more than 40% of total employment. Armenia_sentence_318

This increase in the importance of agriculture was attributable to food security needs of the population in the face of uncertainty during the first phases of transition and the collapse of the non-agricultural sectors of the economy in the early 1990s. Armenia_sentence_319

As the economic situation stabilised and growth resumed, the share of agriculture in GDP dropped to slightly over 20% (2006 data), although the share of agriculture in employment remained more than 40%. Armenia_sentence_320

Armenian mines produce copper, zinc, gold, and lead. Armenia_sentence_321

The vast majority of energy is produced with fuel imported from Russia, including gas and nuclear fuel (for its one nuclear power plant); the main domestic energy source is hydroelectric. Armenia_sentence_322

Small deposits of coal, gas, and petroleum exist but have not yet been developed. Armenia_sentence_323

Access to biocapacity in Armenia is lower than world average. Armenia_sentence_324

In 2016, Armenia had 0.8 global hectares of biocapacity per person within its territory, much less than the world average of 1.6 global hectares per person. Armenia_sentence_325

In 2016 Armenia used 1.9 global hectares of biocapacity per person - their ecological footprint of consumption. Armenia_sentence_326

This means they use double as much biocapacity as Armenia contains. Armenia_sentence_327

As a result, Armenia is running a biocapacity deficit. Armenia_sentence_328

Like other newly independent states of the former Soviet Union, Armenia's economy suffers from the breakdown of former Soviet trading patterns. Armenia_sentence_329

Soviet investment in and support of Armenian industry has virtually disappeared, so that few major enterprises are still able to function. Armenia_sentence_330

In addition, the effects of the 1988 Spitak earthquake, which killed more than 25,000 people and made 500,000 homeless, are still being felt. Armenia_sentence_331

The conflict with Azerbaijan over Nagorno-Karabakh has not been resolved. Armenia_sentence_332

Shutdown of the nuclear power plant in 1989 lead to the Armenian energy crisis of 1990s. Armenia_sentence_333

The GDP fell nearly 60% between 1989 and 1993, but then resumed robust growth after the power plant was reopened in 1995. Armenia_sentence_334

The national currency, the dram, suffered hyperinflation for the first years after its introduction in 1993. Armenia_sentence_335

Nevertheless, the government was able to make wide-ranging economic reforms that paid off in dramatically lower inflation and steady growth. Armenia_sentence_336

The 1994 cease-fire in the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict has also helped the economy. Armenia_sentence_337

Armenia has had strong economic growth since 1995, building on the turnaround that began the previous year, and inflation has been negligible for the past several years. Armenia_sentence_338

New sectors, such as precious-stone processing and jewelry making, information and communication technology and tourism are beginning to supplement more traditional sectors of the economy, such as agriculture. Armenia_sentence_339

This steady economic progress has earned Armenia increasing support from international institutions. Armenia_sentence_340

The International Monetary Fund (IMF), World Bank, European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), and other international financial institutions (IFIs) and foreign countries are extending considerable grants and loans. Armenia_sentence_341

Loans to Armenia since 1993 exceed $1.1 billion. Armenia_sentence_342

These loans are targeted at reducing the budget deficit and stabilising the currency; developing private businesses; energy; agriculture; food processing; transportation; the health and education sectors; and ongoing rehabilitation in the earthquake zone. Armenia_sentence_343

The government joined the World Trade Organization on 5 February 2003. Armenia_sentence_344

But one of the main sources of foreign direct investments remains the Armenian diaspora, which finances major parts of the reconstruction of infrastructure and other public projects. Armenia_sentence_345

Being a growing democratic state, Armenia also hopes to get more financial aid from the Western World. Armenia_sentence_346

A liberal foreign investment law was approved in June 1994, and a law on privatization was adopted in 1997, as well as a program of state property privatization. Armenia_sentence_347

Continued progress will depend on the ability of the government to strengthen its macroeconomic management, including increasing revenue collection, improving the investment climate, and making strides against corruption. Armenia_sentence_348

However, unemployment, which was 18.5% in 2015, still remains a major problem due to the influx of thousands of refugees from the Karabakh conflict. Armenia_sentence_349

International rankings Armenia_section_21

In the 2020 report of Index of Economic Freedom by Heritage Foundation, Armenia is classified as "mostly free" and ranks 34th, improving by 13 positions and ahead of all other Eurasian Economic Union countries and many EU countries including Cyprus, Bulgaria, Romania, Poland, Belgium, Spain, France, Portugal and Italy. Armenia_sentence_350

In the 2019 report (data for 2017) of Economic Freedom of the World published by Fraser Institute Armenia ranks 27th (classified most free) out of 162 economies. Armenia_sentence_351

In the 2019 report of Global Competitiveness Index Armenia ranks 69th out of 141 economies. Armenia_sentence_352

In the 2020 report (data for 2019) of Doing Business Index Armenia ranks 47th with 10th rank on "starting business" sub-index. Armenia_sentence_353

In the 2018 report (data for 2017) of Human Development Index by UNDP Armenia ranked 83rd and is classified into "high human development" group. Armenia_sentence_354

In the 2019 report of Corruption Perceptions Index by Transparency International Armenia ranked 77 of 179 countries. Armenia_sentence_355

In the "Freedom on the Net 2019" report by Freedom House Armenia scored best in the region and was classified as a free country. Armenia_sentence_356

Science, technology and education Armenia_section_22

Science and technology Armenia_section_23

Main article: Science and technology in Armenia Armenia_sentence_357

Research spending is low in Armenia, averaging 0.25% of GDP over 2010–2013. Armenia_sentence_358

However, the statistical record of research expenditure is incomplete, as expenditure by privately owned business enterprises is not surveyed in Armenia. Armenia_sentence_359

The world average for domestic expenditure on research was 1.7% of GDP in 2013. Armenia_sentence_360

The country's Strategy for the Development of Science 2011–2020 envisions that 'by 2020, Armenia is a country with a knowledge-based economy and is competitive within the European Research Area with its level of basic and applied research.' Armenia_sentence_361

It fixes the following targets: Armenia_sentence_362

Armenia_unordered_list_1

  • Creation of a system capable of sustaining the development of science and technology;Armenia_item_1_0
  • Development of scientific potential, modernization of scientific infrastructure;Armenia_item_1_1
  • Promotion of basic and applied research;Armenia_item_1_2
  • Creation of a synergistic system of education, science and innovation; andArmenia_item_1_3
  • Becoming a prime location for scientific specialization in the European Research Area.Armenia_item_1_4

Based on this strategy, the accompanying Action Plan was approved by the government in June 2011. Armenia_sentence_363

It defines the following targets: Armenia_sentence_364

Armenia_unordered_list_2

  • Improve the management system for science and technology and create the requisite conditions for sustainable development;Armenia_item_2_5
  • Involve more young, talented people in education and research, while upgrading research infrastructure;Armenia_item_2_6
  • Create the requisite conditions for the development of an integrated national innovation system; andArmenia_item_2_7
  • Enhance international co-operation in research and development.Armenia_item_2_8

Although the Strategy clearly pursues a 'science push' approach, with public research institutes serving as the key policy target, it nevertheless mentions the goal of establishing an innovation system. Armenia_sentence_365

However, the main driver of innovation, the business sector, is not mentioned. Armenia_sentence_366

In between publishing the Strategy and Action Plan, the government issued a resolution in May 2010 on Science and Technology Development Priorities for 2010–2014. Armenia_sentence_367

These priorities are: Armenia_sentence_368

Armenia_unordered_list_3

  • Armenian studies, humanities and social sciences;Armenia_item_3_9
  • Life sciences;Armenia_item_3_10
  • Renewable energy, new energy sources;Armenia_item_3_11
  • Advanced technologies, information technologies;Armenia_item_3_12
  • Space, Earth sciences, sustainable use of natural resources; andArmenia_item_3_13
  • Basic research promoting essential applied research.Armenia_item_3_14

The Law on the National Academy of Sciences was adopted in May 2011. Armenia_sentence_369

This law is expected to play a key role in shaping the Armenian innovation system. Armenia_sentence_370

It allows the National Academy of Sciences to extend its business activities to the commercialization of research results and the creation of spin-offs; it also makes provision for restructuring the National Academy of Sciences by combining institutes involved in closely related research areas into a single body. Armenia_sentence_371

Three of these new centres are particularly relevant: the Centre for Biotechnology, the Centre for Zoology and Hydro-ecology and the Centre for Organic and Pharmaceutical Chemistry. Armenia_sentence_372

The government is focusing its support on selected industrial sectors. Armenia_sentence_373

More than 20 projects have been cofunded by the State Committee of Science in targeted branches: pharmaceuticals, medicine and biotechnology, agricultural mechanization and machine building, electronics, engineering, chemistry and, in particular, the sphere of information technology. Armenia_sentence_374

Over the past decade, the government has made an effort to encourage science–industry linkages. Armenia_sentence_375

The Armenian information technology sector has been particularly active: a number of public–private partnerships have been established between companies and universities, in order to give students marketable skills and generate innovative ideas at the interface of science and business. Armenia_sentence_376

Examples are Synopsys Inc. and the Enterprise Incubator Foundation. Armenia_sentence_377

Education Armenia_section_24

Main articles: Education in Armenia and List of universities in Armenia Armenia_sentence_378

In medieval times, the University of Gladzor and University of Tatev took an important role for whole Armenia. Armenia_sentence_379

A literacy rate of 100% was reported as early as 1960. Armenia_sentence_380

In the communist era, Armenian education followed the standard Soviet model of complete state control (from Moscow) of curricula and teaching methods and close integration of education activities with other aspects of society, such as politics, culture, and the economy. Armenia_sentence_381

In the 1988–89 school year, 301 students per 10,000 were in specialized secondary or higher education, a figure slightly lower than the Soviet average. Armenia_sentence_382

In 1989, some 58% of Armenians over age fifteen had completed their secondary education, and 14% had a higher education. Armenia_sentence_383

In the 1990–91 school year, the estimated 1,307 primary and secondary schools were attended by 608,800 students. Armenia_sentence_384

Another seventy specialised secondary institutions had 45,900 students, and 68,400 students were enrolled in a total of ten postsecondary institutions that included universities. Armenia_sentence_385

In addition, 35% of eligible children attended preschools. Armenia_sentence_386

In 1992 Armenia's largest institution of higher learning, Yerevan State University, had eighteen departments, including ones for social sciences, sciences, and law. Armenia_sentence_387

Its faculty numbered about 1,300 teachers and its student population about 10,000 students. Armenia_sentence_388

The National Polytechnic University of Armenia is operating since 1933. Armenia_sentence_389

In the early 1990s, Armenia made substantial changes to the centralised and regimented Soviet system. Armenia_sentence_390

Because at least 98% of students in higher education were Armenian, curricula began to emphasise Armenian history and culture. Armenia_sentence_391

Armenian became the dominant language of instruction, and many schools that had taught in Russian closed by the end of 1991. Armenia_sentence_392

Russian was still widely taught, however, as a second language. Armenia_sentence_393

In 2014, the National Program for Educational Excellence embarked on creating an internationally competitive and academically rigorous alternative educational program (the Araratian Baccalaureate) for Armenian schools and increasing the importance and status of the teacher's role in society. Armenia_sentence_394

The Ministry of Education and Science is responsible for regulation of the sector. Armenia_sentence_395

Primary and secondary education in Armenia is free, and completion of secondary school is compulsory. Armenia_sentence_396

Higher education in Armenia is harmonized with the Bologna process and the European Higher Education Area. Armenia_sentence_397

The Armenian National Academy of Sciences plays an important role in postgraduate education. Armenia_sentence_398

Schooling takes 12 years in Armenia and breaks down into primary (4 years), middle (5 years) and high school (3 years). Armenia_sentence_399

Schools engage a 10-grade mark system. Armenia_sentence_400

The government also supports Armenian schools outside of Armenia. Armenia_sentence_401

Gross enrollment in tertiary education at 44% in 2015 surpassed peer countries of the South Caucasus but remained below the average for Europe and Central Asia. Armenia_sentence_402

However, public spending per student in tertiary education in GDP-ratio terms is one of the lowest for post-USSR countries (for which data was available). Armenia_sentence_403

Demographics Armenia_section_25

Main articles: Demographics of Armenia and Armenians Armenia_sentence_404

Armenia has a population of 2,951,745 (2018 est.) and is the third most densely populated of the former Soviet republics. Armenia_sentence_405

There has been a problem of population decline due to elevated levels of emigration after the break-up of the USSR. Armenia_sentence_406

In the past years emigration levels have declined and some population growth is observed since 2012. Armenia_sentence_407

Armenia has a relatively large external diaspora (8 million by some estimates, greatly exceeding the 3 million population of Armenia itself), with communities existing across the globe. Armenia_sentence_408

The largest Armenian communities outside of Armenia can be found in Russia, France, Iran, the United States, Georgia, Syria, Lebanon, Australia, Canada, Greece, Cyprus, Israel, Poland, Ukraine and Brazil. Armenia_sentence_409

40,000 to 70,000 Armenians still live in Turkey (mostly in and around Istanbul). Armenia_sentence_410

About 1,000 Armenians reside in the Armenian Quarter in the Old City of Jerusalem, a remnant of a once-larger community. Armenia_sentence_411

Italy is home to the San Lazzaro degli Armeni, an island located in the Venetian Lagoon, which is completely occupied by a monastery run by the Mechitarists, an Armenian Catholic congregation. Armenia_sentence_412

Approximately 139,000 Armenians live in the de facto independent country Republic of Artsakh where they form a majority. Armenia_sentence_413

Ethnic groups Armenia_section_26

Ethnic Armenians make up 98.1% of the population. Armenia_sentence_414

Yazidis make up 1.2%, and Russians 0.4%. Armenia_sentence_415

Other minorities include Assyrians, Ukrainians, Greeks (usually called Caucasus Greeks), Kurds, Georgians, Belarusians, and Jews. Armenia_sentence_416

There are also smaller communities of Vlachs, Mordvins, Ossetians, Udis, and Tats. Armenia_sentence_417

Minorities of Poles and Caucasus Germans also exist though they are heavily Russified. Armenia_sentence_418

As of 2016, there are an estimated 35,000 Yazidis in Armenia. Armenia_sentence_419

During the Soviet era, Azerbaijanis were historically the second largest population in the country (forming about 2.5% in 1989). Armenia_sentence_420

However, due to the conflict over Nagorno-Karabakh, virtually all of them emigrated from Armenia to Azerbaijan. Armenia_sentence_421

Conversely, Armenia received a large influx of Armenian refugees from Azerbaijan, thus giving Armenia a more homogeneous character. Armenia_sentence_422

According to Gallup research conducted in 2017 Armenia has one of the highest migrant acceptance (welcoming) rates in eastern Europe. Armenia_sentence_423

Languages Armenia_section_27

Main article: Languages of Armenia Armenia_sentence_424

Armenian is the only official language. Armenia_sentence_425

The main foreign languages that Armenians know are Russian and English. Armenia_sentence_426

Due to its Soviet past, most of the old population can speak Russian quite well. Armenia_sentence_427

According to a 2013 survey, 95% of Armenians said they had some knowledge of Russian (24% advanced, 59% intermediate) compared to 40% who said they knew some English (4% advanced, 16% intermediate and 20% beginner). Armenia_sentence_428

However, more adults (50%) think that English should be taught in public secondary schools than those who prefer Russian (44%). Armenia_sentence_429

Cities Armenia_section_28

See also: Municipalities of Armenia Armenia_sentence_430

Religion Armenia_section_29

See also: Religion in Armenia Armenia_sentence_431

Armenia was the first nation to adopt Christianity as a state religion, an event traditionally dated to AD 301. Armenia_sentence_432

The predominant religion in Armenia is Christianity. Armenia_sentence_433

Its roots go back to the 1st century AD, when it was founded by two of Jesus' twelve apostlesThaddaeus and Bartholomew – who preached Christianity in Armenia between AD 40–60. Armenia_sentence_434

Over 93% of Christians in Armenia belong to the Armenian Apostolic Church, which is in communion only with the churches comprising Oriental Orthodoxy—of which it is itself a member. Armenia_sentence_435

Catholics also exist in Armenia, both Latin rite and Armenian rite. Armenia_sentence_436

The latter group, the Armenian Catholic Church, is headquartered in Bzoummar, Lebanon. Armenia_sentence_437

Of note are the Mechitarists (also spelled "Mekhitarists" Armenian: Մխիթարեան), a congregation of Benedictine monks in the Armenian Catholic Church, founded in 1712 by Mekhitar of Sebaste. Armenia_sentence_438

They are best known for their series of scholarly publications of ancient Armenian versions of otherwise lost ancient Greek texts. Armenia_sentence_439

The Armenian Evangelical Church has several thousand members throughout the country. Armenia_sentence_440

Other Christian denominations in Armenia are the Pentecostal branches of Protestant community such as the Word of Life, the Armenian Brotherhood Church, the Baptists which are known as of the oldest existing denominations in Armenia and were permitted by the authorities of Soviet Union, and Presbyterians. Armenia_sentence_441

Armenia is also home to a Russian community of Molokans which practice a form of Spiritual Christianity originated from the Russian Orthodox Church. Armenia_sentence_442

The Yazidis, who live in the western part of the country, practice Yazidism. Armenia_sentence_443

As of 2016, the world's largest Yazidi temple is under construction in the small village of Aknalish. Armenia_sentence_444

There are also Kurds who practice Sunni Islam. Armenia_sentence_445

There is a Jewish community in Armenia diminished to 750 persons since independence with most emigrants leaving for Israel. Armenia_sentence_446

There are currently two synagogues in Armenia – in the capital, Yerevan, and in the city of Sevan located near Lake Sevan. Armenia_sentence_447

Health care Armenia_section_30

Main article: Health in Armenia Armenia_sentence_448

Culture Armenia_section_31

Main article: Culture of Armenia Armenia_sentence_449

Armenians have their own distinctive alphabet and language. Armenia_sentence_450

The alphabet was invented in AD 405 by Mesrop Mashtots and consists of thirty-nine letters, three of which were added during the Cilician period. Armenia_sentence_451

96% of the people in the country speak Armenian, while 75.8% of the population additionally speaks Russian, although English is becoming increasingly popular. Armenia_sentence_452

Media Armenia_section_32

Main article: Media of Armenia Armenia_sentence_453

Television, magazines, and newspapers are all operated by both state-owned and for-profit corporations which depend on advertising, subscription, and other sales-related revenues. Armenia_sentence_454

The Constitution of Armenia guarantees freedom of speech and Armenia ranks 61st in the 2020 Press Freedom Index report compiled by Reporters Without Borders, between Georgia and Poland. Armenia_sentence_455

Armenia's press freedom rose considerably following the 2018 Velvet Revolution. Armenia_sentence_456

As of 2020, the biggest issue facing press freedom in Armenia is judicial harassment of journalists, specifically defamation suits and attacks on journalists' right to protect sources, as well as excessive responses to combat disinformation spread by social media users. Armenia_sentence_457

Reporters Without Borders also cites continued concerns about lack of transparency regarding ownership of media outlets. Armenia_sentence_458

Music and dance Armenia_section_33

Main article: Music of Armenia Armenia_sentence_459

Armenian music is a mix of indigenous folk music, perhaps best-represented by Djivan Gasparyan's well-known duduk music, as well as light pop, and extensive Christian music. Armenia_sentence_460

Instruments like the duduk, dhol, zurna, and kanun are commonly found in Armenian folk music. Armenia_sentence_461

Artists such as Sayat Nova are famous due to their influence in the development of Armenian folk music. Armenia_sentence_462

One of the oldest types of Armenian music is the Armenian chant which is the most common kind of religious music in Armenia. Armenia_sentence_463

Many of these chants are ancient in origin, extending to pre-Christian times, while others are relatively modern, including several composed by Saint Mesrop Mashtots, the inventor of the Armenian alphabet. Armenia_sentence_464

Whilst under Soviet rule, the Armenian classical music composer Aram Khatchaturian became internationally well known for his music, for various ballets and the Sabre Dance from his composition for the ballet Gayane. Armenia_sentence_465

The Armenian Genocide caused widespread emigration that led to the settlement of Armenians in various countries in the world. Armenia_sentence_466

Armenians kept to their traditions and certain diasporans rose to fame with their music. Armenia_sentence_467

In the post-Genocide Armenian community of the United States, the so-called "kef" style Armenian dance music, using Armenian and Middle Eastern folk instruments (often electrified/amplified) and some western instruments, was popular. Armenia_sentence_468

This style preserved the folk songs and dances of Western Armenia, and many artists also played the contemporary popular songs of Turkey and other Middle Eastern countries from which the Armenians emigrated. Armenia_sentence_469

Richard Hagopian is perhaps the most famous artist of the traditional "kef" style and the Vosbikian Band was notable in the 1940s and 1950s for developing their own style of "kef music" heavily influenced by the popular American Big Band Jazz of the time. Armenia_sentence_470

Later, stemming from the Middle Eastern Armenian diaspora and influenced by Continental European (especially French) pop music, the Armenian pop music genre grew to fame in the 1960s and 1970s with artists such as Adiss Harmandian and Harout Pamboukjian performing to the Armenian diaspora and Armenia; also with artists such as Sirusho, performing pop music combined with Armenian folk music in today's entertainment industry. Armenia_sentence_471

Other Armenian diasporans that rose to fame in classical or international music circles are world-renowned French-Armenian singer and composer Charles Aznavour, pianist Sahan Arzruni, prominent opera sopranos such as Hasmik Papian and more recently Isabel Bayrakdarian and Anna Kasyan. Armenia_sentence_472

Certain Armenians settled to sing non-Armenian tunes such as the heavy metal band System of a Down (which nonetheless often incorporates traditional Armenian instrumentals and styling into their songs) or pop star Cher. Armenia_sentence_473

In the Armenian diaspora, Armenian revolutionary songs are popular with the youth. Armenia_sentence_474

These songs encourage Armenian patriotism and are generally about Armenian history and national heroes. Armenia_sentence_475

Art Armenia_section_34

Main article: Armenian art Armenia_sentence_476

See also: List of museums in Armenia Armenia_sentence_477

Yerevan Vernissage (arts and crafts market), close to Republic Square, bustles with hundreds of vendors selling a variety of crafts on weekends and Wednesdays (though the selection is much reduced mid-week). Armenia_sentence_478

The market offers woodcarving, antiques, fine lace, and the hand-knotted wool carpets and kilims that are a Caucasus speciality. Armenia_sentence_479

Obsidian, which is found locally, is crafted into assortment of jewellery and ornamental objects. Armenia_sentence_480

Armenian gold smithery enjoys a long tradition, populating one corner of the market with a selection of gold items. Armenia_sentence_481

Soviet relics and souvenirs of recent Russian manufacture – nesting dolls, watches, enamel boxes and so on – are also available at the Vernisage. Armenia_sentence_482

Across from the Opera House, a popular art market fills another city park on the weekends. Armenia_sentence_483

Armenia's long history as a crossroads of the ancient world has resulted in a landscape with innumerable fascinating archaeological sites to explore. Armenia_sentence_484

Medieval, Iron Age, Bronze Age and even Stone Age sites are all within a few hours drive from the city. Armenia_sentence_485

All but the most spectacular remain virtually undiscovered, allowing visitors to view churches and fortresses in their original settings. Armenia_sentence_486

The National Art Gallery in Yerevan has more than 16,000 works that date back to the Middle Ages, which indicate Armenia's rich tales and stories of the times. Armenia_sentence_487

It houses paintings by many European masters as well. Armenia_sentence_488

The Modern Art Museum, the Children's Picture Gallery, and the Martiros Saryan Museum are only a few of the other noteworthy collections of fine art on display in Yerevan. Armenia_sentence_489

Moreover, many private galleries are in operation, with many more opening every year, featuring rotating exhibitions and sales. Armenia_sentence_490

On 13 April 2013, the Armenian government announced a change in law to allow freedom of panorama for 3D works of art. Armenia_sentence_491

Cinema Armenia_section_35

Main article: Cinema of Armenia Armenia_sentence_492

Cinema in Armenia was born on 16 April 1923, when the Armenian State Committee of Cinema was established by a decree of the Soviet Armenian government. Armenia_sentence_493

However, the first Armenian film with Armenian subject called "Haykakan Sinema" was produced earlier in 1912 in Cairo by Armenian-Egyptian publisher Vahan Zartarian. Armenia_sentence_494

The film was premiered in Cairo on 13 March 1913. Armenia_sentence_495

In March 1924, the first Armenian film studio; Armenfilm (Armenian: Հայֆիլմ "Hayfilm," Russian: Арменкино "Armenkino") was established in Yerevan, starting with a documentary film called Soviet Armenia. Armenia_sentence_496

Namus was the first Armenian silent black-and-white film, directed by Hamo Beknazarian in 1925, based on a play of Alexander Shirvanzade, describing the ill fate of two lovers, who were engaged by their families to each other since childhood, but because of violations of namus (a tradition of honor), the girl was married by her father to another person. Armenia_sentence_497

The first sound film, Pepo was shot in 1935 and directed by Hamo Beknazarian. Armenia_sentence_498

Sport Armenia_section_36

Main articles: Sport in Armenia and Chess in Armenia Armenia_sentence_499

A wide array of sports are played in Armenia, the most popular among them being wrestling, weightlifting, judo, association football, chess, and boxing. Armenia_sentence_500

Armenia's mountainous terrain provides great opportunities for the practice of sports like skiing and climbing. Armenia_sentence_501

Being a landlocked country, water sports can only be practised on lakes, notably Lake Sevan. Armenia_sentence_502

Competitively, Armenia has been successful in chess, weightlifting and wrestling at the international level. Armenia_sentence_503

Armenia is also an active member of the international sports community, with full membership in the Union of European Football Associations (UEFA) and International Ice Hockey Federation (IIHF). Armenia_sentence_504

It also hosts the Pan-Armenian Games. Armenia_sentence_505

Prior to 1992, Armenians would participate in the Olympics representing the USSR. Armenia_sentence_506

As part of the Soviet Union, Armenia was very successful, winning plenty of medals and helping the USSR win the medal standings at the Olympics on numerous occasions. Armenia_sentence_507

The first medal won by an Armenian in modern Olympic history was by Hrant Shahinyan (sometimes spelled as Grant Shaginyan), who won two golds and two silvers in gymnastics at the 1952 Summer Olympics in Helsinki. Armenia_sentence_508

To highlight the level of success of Armenians in the Olympics, Shahinyan was quoted as saying: Armenia_sentence_509

"Armenian sportsmen had to outdo their opponents by several notches for the shot at being accepted into any Soviet team. Armenia_sentence_510

But those difficulties notwithstanding, 90 percent of Armenian athletes on Soviet Olympic teams came back with medals." Armenia_sentence_511

Armenia first participated at the 1992 Summer Olympics in Barcelona under a unified CIS team, where it was very successful, winning three golds and one silver in weightlifting, wrestling and sharp shooting, despite only having five athletes. Armenia_sentence_512

Since the 1994 Winter Olympics in Lillehammer, Armenia has participated as an independent nation. Armenia_sentence_513

Armenia participates in the Summer Olympic Games in boxing, wrestling, weightlifting, judo, gymnastics, track and field, diving, swimming and sharp shooting. Armenia_sentence_514

It also participates in the Winter Olympic Games in alpine skiing, cross-country skiing and figure skating. Armenia_sentence_515

Football is also popular in Armenia. Armenia_sentence_516

The most successful team was the FC Ararat Yerevan team of the 1970s who won the Soviet Cup in 1973 and 1975 and the Soviet Top League in 1973. Armenia_sentence_517

The latter achievement saw FC Ararat gain entry to the European Cup where – despite a home victory in the second leg – they lost on aggregate at the quarter final stage to eventual winner FC Bayern Munich. Armenia_sentence_518

Armenia competed internationally as part of the USSR national football team until the Armenian national football team was formed in 1992 after the split of the Soviet Union. Armenia_sentence_519

Armenia have never qualified for a major tournament although recent improvements saw the team to achieve 44th position in the FIFA World Rankings in September 2011. Armenia_sentence_520

The national team is controlled by the Football Federation of Armenia. Armenia_sentence_521

The Armenian Premier League is the highest level football competition in Armenia, and has been dominated by FC Pyunik in recent seasons. Armenia_sentence_522

The league currently consists of eight teams and relegates to the Armenian First League. Armenia_sentence_523

Armenia and the Armenian diaspora have produced many successful footballers, including Henrikh Mkhitaryan, Youri Djorkaeff, Alain Boghossian, Andranik Eskandarian, Andranik Teymourian, Edgar Manucharyan and Nikita Simonyan. Armenia_sentence_524

Djokaeff and Boghossian won the 1998 FIFA World Cup with France, Teymourian competed in the 2006 World Cup for Iran and Manucharyan played in the Dutch Eredivisie for Ajax. Armenia_sentence_525

Mkhitaryan has been one of the most successful Armenian footballers in recent years, playing for international clubs such as Borussia Dortmund, Manchester United, Arsenal and currently for A.S. Armenia_sentence_526 Roma. Armenia_sentence_527

Wrestling has been a successful sport in the Olympics for Armenia. Armenia_sentence_528

At the 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta, Armen Nazaryan won the gold in the Men's Greco-Roman Flyweight (52 kg) category and Armen Mkrtchyan won the silver in Men's Freestyle Paperweight (48 kg) category, securing Armenia's first two medals in its Olympic history. Armenia_sentence_529

Traditional Armenian wrestling is called Kokh and practised in traditional garb; it was one of the influences included in the Soviet combat sport of Sambo, which is also very popular. Armenia_sentence_530

The government of Armenia budgets about $2.8 million annually for sports and gives it to the National Committee of Physical Education and Sports, the body that determines which programs should benefit from the funds. Armenia_sentence_531

Due to the lack of success lately on the international level, in recent years, Armenia has rebuilt 16 Soviet-era sports schools and furnished them with new equipment for a total cost of $1.9 million. Armenia_sentence_532

The rebuilding of the regional schools was financed by the Armenian government. Armenia_sentence_533

$9.3 million has been invested in the resort town of Tsaghkadzor to improve the winter sports infrastructure because of dismal performances at recent winter sports events. Armenia_sentence_534

In 2005, a cycling centre was opened in Yerevan with the aim of helping produce world class Armenian cyclists. Armenia_sentence_535

The government has also promised a cash reward of $700,000 to Armenians who win a gold medal at the Olympics. Armenia_sentence_536

Armenia has also been very successful in chess, winning the World Champion in 2011 and the World Chess Olympiad on three occasions. Armenia_sentence_537

Cuisine Armenia_section_37

Main article: Armenian cuisine Armenia_sentence_538

Armenian cuisine is closely related to eastern and Mediterranean cuisine; various spices, vegetables, fish, and fruits combine to present unique dishes. Armenia_sentence_539

The main characteristics of Armenian cuisine are a reliance on the quality of the ingredients rather than heavily spicing food, the use of herbs, the use of wheat in a variety of forms, of legumes, nuts, and fruit (as a main ingredient as well as to sour food), and the stuffing of a wide variety of leaves. Armenia_sentence_540

The pomegranate, with its symbolic association with fertility, represents the nation. Armenia_sentence_541

The apricot is the national fruit. Armenia_sentence_542

See also Armenia_section_38

Armenia_unordered_list_4


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Armenia.