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For other uses, see Arrangement (disambiguation). Arrangement_sentence_0

"Arranged" redirects here. Arrangement_sentence_1

For the 2007 film, see Arranged (film). Arrangement_sentence_2

In music, an arrangement is a musical reconceptualization of a previously composed work. Arrangement_sentence_3

It may differ from the original work by means of reharmonization, melodic paraphrasing, orchestration, or development of the formal structure. Arrangement_sentence_4

Arranging differs from orchestration in that the latter process is limited to the assignment of notes to instruments for performance by an orchestra, concert band, or other musical ensemble. Arrangement_sentence_5

Arranging "involves adding compositional techniques, such as new thematic material for introductions, transitions, or modulations, and endings... Arrangement_sentence_6

Arranging is the art of giving an existing melody musical variety". Arrangement_sentence_7

Classical music Arrangement_section_0

Arrangement and transcriptions of classical and serious music go back to the early history of this genre. Arrangement_sentence_8

Eighteenth century Arrangement_section_1

J.S. Arrangement_sentence_9 Bach frequently made arrangements of his own and other composers’ pieces. Arrangement_sentence_10

One striking example is the arrangement that he made of the Prelude from his Partita No. Arrangement_sentence_11 3 for solo violin, BWV 1006. Arrangement_sentence_12

Bach transformed this solo piece into an orchestral Sinfonia that introduces his Cantata BWV29. Arrangement_sentence_13

“The initial violin composition was in E major but both arranged versions are transposed down to D, the better to accommodate the wind instruments.” Arrangement_sentence_14

“The transformation of material conceived for a single string instrument into a fully orchestrated concerto-type movement is so successful that it is unlikely that anyone hearing the latter for the first time would suspect the existence of the former.” Arrangement_sentence_15

Nineteenth and twentieth centuries Arrangement_section_2

In particular, music written for the piano has frequently undergone this treatment, as it has been arranged for orchestra, chamber ensemble or concert band. Arrangement_sentence_16

Beethoven made an arrangement of his Piano Sonata No.9 for string quartet. Arrangement_sentence_17

Conversely, Beethoven also arranged his Grosse Fuge (a movement from one of his late string quartets) for piano duet. Arrangement_sentence_18

Pictures at an Exhibition, a suite of ten piano pieces by Modest Mussorgsky, has been arranged over twenty times, notably by Maurice Ravel. Arrangement_sentence_19

Due to his lack of expertise in orchestration, the American composer George Gershwin had his Rhapsody in Blue arranged and orchestrated by Ferde Grofé. Arrangement_sentence_20

Erik Satie wrote his three Gymnopédies for solo piano in 1888. Arrangement_sentence_21

Eight years later, Debussy arranged two of them, exploiting the range of instrumental timbres available in a late 19th century orchestra. Arrangement_sentence_22

"It was Debussy whose 1896 orchestrations of the Gymnopédies put their composer on the map." Arrangement_sentence_23

A number of Franz Schubert's songs, originally for voice with piano accompaniment, were arranged by other composers. Arrangement_sentence_24

For example, Schubert’s “highly charged, graphic” song Erlkönig (the Erl King) has a piano introduction that conveys “unflagging energy” from the start: Arrangement_sentence_25

The arrangement of this song by Hector Berlioz uses strings to convey faithfully the driving urgency and threatening atmosphere of the original. Arrangement_sentence_26

Berlioz adds colour in bars 6-8 through the addition of woodwind, horns and ominously rumbling timpani. Arrangement_sentence_27

With typical flamboyance, Berlioz adds spice to the harmony in bar 6 with an E flat in the horn part, creating a half-diminished seventh chord which is not in Schubert’s original piano part. Arrangement_sentence_28

There are subtle differences between this and the arrangement of the song by Franz Liszt. Arrangement_sentence_29

The upper string sound is thicker, with violins and violas playing the fierce repeated octaves in unison and bassoons compensating for this by doubling the cellos and basses. Arrangement_sentence_30

There are no timpani, but trumpets and horns add a small jolt to the rhythm of the opening bar, reinforcing the bare octaves of the strings by playing on the second main beat. Arrangement_sentence_31

Unlike Berlioz, Liszt does not alter the harmony, but changes the emphasis somewhat in bar 6, with the note A in the oboes and clarinets grating against rather than blending with the G in the strings. Arrangement_sentence_32

“Schubert has come in for his fair share of transcriptions and arrangements. Arrangement_sentence_33

Most, like Liszt’s transcriptions of the Lieder or Berlioz’s orchestration for Erlkönig, tell us more about the arranger that about the original composer, but they can be diverting so long as they are in no way a replacement for the original.” Arrangement_sentence_34

Popular music Arrangement_section_3

Popular music recordings often include parts for brass horn sections, bowed strings, and other instruments that were added by arrangers and not composed by the original songwriters. Arrangement_sentence_35

Some pop arrangers even add sections using full orchestra, though this is less common due to the expense. Arrangement_sentence_36

Popular music arrangements may also be considered to include new releases of existing songs with a new musical treatment. Arrangement_sentence_37

These changes can include alterations to tempo, meter, key, instrumentation, and other musical elements. Arrangement_sentence_38

Well-known examples include Joe Cocker's version of the Beatles' "With a Little Help from My Friends," Cream's "Crossroads", and Ike and Tina Turner's version of Creedence Clearwater Revival's "Proud Mary". Arrangement_sentence_39

The American group Vanilla Fudge and British group Yes based their early careers on radical re-arrangements of contemporary hits. Arrangement_sentence_40

Bonnie Pointer performed disco and Motown-themed versions of "Heaven Must Have Sent You." Arrangement_sentence_41

Remixes, such as in dance music, can also be considered arrangements. Arrangement_sentence_42

Though arrangers may contribute substantially to finished musical products, they usually hold no legal claim to their work for the purpose of copyright and royalty payments. Arrangement_sentence_43

Jazz Arrangement_section_4

Arrangements for small jazz combos are usually informal, minimal, and uncredited. Arrangement_sentence_44

Larger ensembles have generally had greater requirements for notated arrangements, though the early Count Basie big band is known for its many head arrangements, so called because they were worked out by the players themselves, memorized ("in the player's head"), and never written down. Arrangement_sentence_45

Most arrangements for big bands, however, were written down and credited to a specific arranger, as with arrangements by Sammy Nestico and Neal Hefti for Count Basie's later big bands. Arrangement_sentence_46

Don Redman made innovations in jazz arranging as a part of Fletcher Henderson's orchestra in the 1920s. Arrangement_sentence_47

Redman's arrangements introduced a more intricate melodic presentation and soli performances for various sections of the big band. Arrangement_sentence_48

Benny Carter became Henderson's primary arranger in the early 1930s, becoming known for his arranging abilities in addition to his previous recognition as a performer. Arrangement_sentence_49

Beginning in 1938, Billy Strayhorn became an arranger of great renown for the Duke Ellington orchestra. Arrangement_sentence_50

Jelly Roll Morton is sometimes considered the earliest jazz arranger. Arrangement_sentence_51

While he toured around the years 1912 to 1915, he wrote down parts to enable "pickup bands" to perform his compositions. Arrangement_sentence_52

Big-band arrangements are informally called charts. Arrangement_sentence_53

In the swing era they were usually either arrangements of popular songs or they were entirely new compositions. Arrangement_sentence_54

Duke Ellington's and Billy Strayhorn's arrangements for the Duke Ellington big band were usually new compositions, and some of Eddie Sauter's arrangements for the Benny Goodman band and Artie Shaw's arrangements for his own band were new compositions as well. Arrangement_sentence_55

It became more common to arrange sketchy jazz combo compositions for big band after the bop era. Arrangement_sentence_56

After 1950, the big bands declined in number. Arrangement_sentence_57

However, several bands continued and arrangers provided renowned arrangements. Arrangement_sentence_58

Gil Evans wrote a number of large-ensemble arrangements in the late 1950s and early 1960s intended for recording sessions only. Arrangement_sentence_59

Other arrangers of note include Vic Schoen, Pete Rugolo, Oliver Nelson, Johnny Richards, Billy May, Thad Jones, Maria Schneider, Bob Brookmeyer, Lou Marini, Nelson Riddle, Ralph Burns, Billy Byers, Gordon Jenkins, Ray Conniff, Henry Mancini, Ray Reach, Vince Mendoza, and Claus Ogerman. Arrangement_sentence_60

In the 21st century, the big-band arrangement has made a modest comeback. Arrangement_sentence_61

Gordon Goodwin, Roy Hargrove, and Christian McBride have all rolled out new big bands with both original compositions and new arrangements of standard tunes. Arrangement_sentence_62

See also: List of jazz arrangers Arrangement_sentence_63

For instrumental groups Arrangement_section_5

Strings Arrangement_section_6

The string section is a body of instruments composed of various bowed stringed instruments. Arrangement_sentence_64

By the 19th century orchestral music in Europe had standardized the string section into the following homogeneous instrumental groups: first violins, second violins (the same instrument as the first violins, but typically playing an accompaniment or harmony part to the first violins, and often at a lower pitch range), violas, cellos, and double basses. Arrangement_sentence_65

The string section in a multi-sectioned orchestra is sometimes referred to as the "string choir." Arrangement_sentence_66

The harp is also a stringed instrument, but is not a member of nor homogeneous with the violin family and is not considered part of the string choir. Arrangement_sentence_67

Samuel Adler classifies the harp as a plucked string instrument in the same category as the guitar (acoustic or electric), mandolin, banjo, or zither. Arrangement_sentence_68

Like the harp these instruments do not belong to the violin family and are not homogeneous with the string choir. Arrangement_sentence_69

In modern arranging these instruments are considered part of the rhythm section. Arrangement_sentence_70

The electric bass and upright string bass—depending on the circumstance—can be treated by the arranger as either string section or rhythm section instruments. Arrangement_sentence_71

A group of instruments in which each member plays a unique part—rather than playing in unison with other like instruments—is referred to as a chamber ensemble. Arrangement_sentence_72

A chamber ensemble made up entirely of strings of the violin family is referred to by its size. Arrangement_sentence_73

A string trio consists of three players, a string quartet four, a string quintet five, and so on. Arrangement_sentence_74

In most circumstances the string section is treated by the arranger as one homogeneous unit and its members are required to play preconceived material rather than improvise. Arrangement_sentence_75

A string section can be utilized on its own (this is referred to as a string orchestra) or in conjunction with any of the other instrumental sections. Arrangement_sentence_76

More than one string orchestra can be utilized. Arrangement_sentence_77

A standard string section (vln., vln 2., vla., vcl, cb.) with each section playing unison allows the arranger to create a five-part texture. Arrangement_sentence_78

Often an arranger will divide each violin section in half or thirds to achieve a denser texture. Arrangement_sentence_79

It is possible to carry this division to its logical extreme in which each member of the string section plays his or her own unique part. Arrangement_sentence_80

Size of the string section Arrangement_section_7

Artistic, budgetary and logistical concerns, including the size of the orchestra pit or hall will determine the size and instrumentation of a string section. Arrangement_sentence_81

The Broadway musical West Side Story, in 1957, was booked into the Winter Garden theater; composer Leonard Bernstein disliked the playing of "house" viola players he would have to use there, and so he chose to leave them out of the show's instrumentation; a benefit was the creation of more space in the pit for an expanded percussion section. Arrangement_sentence_82

George Martin, producer and arranger for The Beatles, warns arrangers about the intonation problems when only two like instruments play in unison: "After a string quartet, I do not think there is a satisfactory sound for strings until one has at least three players on each line . Arrangement_sentence_83

. Arrangement_sentence_84

. Arrangement_sentence_85

as a rule two stringed instruments together create a slight 'beat' which does not give a smooth sound." Arrangement_sentence_86

Different music directors may use different numbers of string players and different balances between the sections to create different musical effects. Arrangement_sentence_87

While any combination and number of string instruments is possible in a section, a traditional string section sound is achieved with a violin-heavy balance of instruments. Arrangement_sentence_88


Suggested string section sizesArrangement_table_caption_0
ReferenceArrangement_header_cell_0_0_0 AuthorArrangement_header_cell_0_0_1 Section sizeArrangement_header_cell_0_0_2 ViolinsArrangement_header_cell_0_0_3 ViolasArrangement_header_cell_0_0_4 CelliArrangement_header_cell_0_0_5 BassesArrangement_header_cell_0_0_6
"Arranged By Nelson Riddle"Arrangement_cell_0_1_0 Nelson RiddleArrangement_cell_0_1_1 12 playersArrangement_cell_0_1_2 8Arrangement_cell_0_1_3 2Arrangement_cell_0_1_4 2Arrangement_cell_0_1_5 0Arrangement_cell_0_1_6
15 playersArrangement_cell_0_2_0 9Arrangement_cell_0_2_1 3Arrangement_cell_0_2_2 3Arrangement_cell_0_2_3 0Arrangement_cell_0_2_4
16 playersArrangement_cell_0_3_0 10Arrangement_cell_0_3_1 3Arrangement_cell_0_3_2 3Arrangement_cell_0_3_3 0Arrangement_cell_0_3_4
20 playersArrangement_cell_0_4_0 12Arrangement_cell_0_4_1 4Arrangement_cell_0_4_2 4Arrangement_cell_0_4_3 0Arrangement_cell_0_4_4
30 playersArrangement_cell_0_5_0 18Arrangement_cell_0_5_1 6Arrangement_cell_0_5_2 6Arrangement_cell_0_5_3 0Arrangement_cell_0_5_4
"The Contemporary Arranger"Arrangement_cell_0_6_0 Don SebeskyArrangement_cell_0_6_1 9 playersArrangement_cell_0_6_2 7Arrangement_cell_0_6_3 0Arrangement_cell_0_6_4 2Arrangement_cell_0_6_5 0Arrangement_cell_0_6_6
12 playersArrangement_cell_0_7_0 8Arrangement_cell_0_7_1 2Arrangement_cell_0_7_2 2Arrangement_cell_0_7_3 0Arrangement_cell_0_7_4
16 playersArrangement_cell_0_8_0 12Arrangement_cell_0_8_1 0Arrangement_cell_0_8_2 4Arrangement_cell_0_8_3 0Arrangement_cell_0_8_4
20 playersArrangement_cell_0_9_0 12Arrangement_cell_0_9_1 4Arrangement_cell_0_9_2 4Arrangement_cell_0_9_3 0Arrangement_cell_0_9_4

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