For other uses, see Arrangement (disambiguation).
"Arranged" redirects here.
For the 2007 film, see Arranged (film).
Arranging is the art of giving an existing melody musical variety".
J.S. frequently made arrangements of his own and other composers’ pieces. Bach
One striking example is the arrangement that he made of the Prelude from his Partita No. for solo violin, BWV 1006. 3
“The initial violin composition was in E major but both arranged versions are transposed down to D, the better to accommodate the wind instruments.”
“The transformation of material conceived for a single string instrument into a fully orchestrated concerto-type movement is so successful that it is unlikely that anyone hearing the latter for the first time would suspect the existence of the former.”
Nineteenth and twentieth centuries
"It was Debussy whose 1896 orchestrations of the Gymnopédies put their composer on the map."
A number of Franz Schubert's songs, originally for voice with piano accompaniment, were arranged by other composers.
For example, Schubert’s “highly charged, graphic” song Erlkönig (the Erl King) has a piano introduction that conveys “unflagging energy” from the start:
The arrangement of this song by Hector Berlioz uses strings to convey faithfully the driving urgency and threatening atmosphere of the original.
Berlioz adds colour in bars 6-8 through the addition of woodwind, horns and ominously rumbling timpani.
With typical flamboyance, Berlioz adds spice to the harmony in bar 6 with an E flat in the horn part, creating a half-diminished seventh chord which is not in Schubert’s original piano part.
There are subtle differences between this and the arrangement of the song by Franz Liszt.
There are no timpani, but trumpets and horns add a small jolt to the rhythm of the opening bar, reinforcing the bare octaves of the strings by playing on the second main beat.
Unlike Berlioz, Liszt does not alter the harmony, but changes the emphasis somewhat in bar 6, with the note A in the oboes and clarinets grating against rather than blending with the G in the strings.
“Schubert has come in for his fair share of transcriptions and arrangements.
Most, like Liszt’s transcriptions of the Lieder or Berlioz’s orchestration for Erlkönig, tell us more about the arranger that about the original composer, but they can be diverting so long as they are in no way a replacement for the original.”
Some pop arrangers even add sections using full orchestra, though this is less common due to the expense.
Popular music arrangements may also be considered to include new releases of existing songs with a new musical treatment.
Well-known examples include Joe Cocker's version of the Beatles' "With a Little Help from My Friends," Cream's "Crossroads", and Ike and Tina Turner's version of Creedence Clearwater Revival's "Proud Mary".
Bonnie Pointer performed disco and Motown-themed versions of "Heaven Must Have Sent You."
Arrangements for small jazz combos are usually informal, minimal, and uncredited.
Larger ensembles have generally had greater requirements for notated arrangements, though the early Count Basie big band is known for its many head arrangements, so called because they were worked out by the players themselves, memorized ("in the player's head"), and never written down.
Redman's arrangements introduced a more intricate melodic presentation and soli performances for various sections of the big band.
Benny Carter became Henderson's primary arranger in the early 1930s, becoming known for his arranging abilities in addition to his previous recognition as a performer.
Jelly Roll Morton is sometimes considered the earliest jazz arranger.
While he toured around the years 1912 to 1915, he wrote down parts to enable "pickup bands" to perform his compositions.
Big-band arrangements are informally called charts.
In the swing era they were usually either arrangements of popular songs or they were entirely new compositions.
Duke Ellington's and Billy Strayhorn's arrangements for the Duke Ellington big band were usually new compositions, and some of Eddie Sauter's arrangements for the Benny Goodman band and Artie Shaw's arrangements for his own band were new compositions as well.
It became more common to arrange sketchy jazz combo compositions for big band after the bop era.
After 1950, the big bands declined in number.
However, several bands continued and arrangers provided renowned arrangements.
Gil Evans wrote a number of large-ensemble arrangements in the late 1950s and early 1960s intended for recording sessions only.
Other arrangers of note include Vic Schoen, Pete Rugolo, Oliver Nelson, Johnny Richards, Billy May, Thad Jones, Maria Schneider, Bob Brookmeyer, Lou Marini, Nelson Riddle, Ralph Burns, Billy Byers, Gordon Jenkins, Ray Conniff, Henry Mancini, Ray Reach, Vince Mendoza, and Claus Ogerman.
In the 21st century, the big-band arrangement has made a modest comeback.
See also: List of jazz arrangers
For instrumental groups
The string section is a body of instruments composed of various bowed stringed instruments.
By the 19th century orchestral music in Europe had standardized the string section into the following homogeneous instrumental groups: first violins, second violins (the same instrument as the first violins, but typically playing an accompaniment or harmony part to the first violins, and often at a lower pitch range), violas, cellos, and double basses.
The string section in a multi-sectioned orchestra is sometimes referred to as the "string choir."
The harp is also a stringed instrument, but is not a member of nor homogeneous with the violin family and is not considered part of the string choir.
Like the harp these instruments do not belong to the violin family and are not homogeneous with the string choir.
In modern arranging these instruments are considered part of the rhythm section.
A group of instruments in which each member plays a unique part—rather than playing in unison with other like instruments—is referred to as a chamber ensemble.
A chamber ensemble made up entirely of strings of the violin family is referred to by its size.
A string section can be utilized on its own (this is referred to as a string orchestra) or in conjunction with any of the other instrumental sections.
More than one string orchestra can be utilized.
A standard string section (vln., vln 2., vla., vcl, cb.) with each section playing unison allows the arranger to create a five-part texture.
Often an arranger will divide each violin section in half or thirds to achieve a denser texture.
It is possible to carry this division to its logical extreme in which each member of the string section plays his or her own unique part.
Size of the string section
Artistic, budgetary and logistical concerns, including the size of the orchestra pit or hall will determine the size and instrumentation of a string section.
The Broadway musical West Side Story, in 1957, was booked into the Winter Garden theater; composer Leonard Bernstein disliked the playing of "house" viola players he would have to use there, and so he chose to leave them out of the show's instrumentation; a benefit was the creation of more space in the pit for an expanded percussion section.
George Martin, producer and arranger for The Beatles, warns arrangers about the intonation problems when only two like instruments play in unison: "After a string quartet, I do not think there is a satisfactory sound for strings until one has at least three players on each line .
as a rule two stringed instruments together create a slight 'beat' which does not give a smooth sound."
Different music directors may use different numbers of string players and different balances between the sections to create different musical effects.
While any combination and number of string instruments is possible in a section, a traditional string section sound is achieved with a violin-heavy balance of instruments.
|"Arranged By Nelson Riddle"||Nelson Riddle||12 players||8||2||2||0|
|"The Contemporary Arranger"||Don Sebesky||9 players||7||0||2||0|
Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arrangement.