Art Pepper

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Art Pepper_table_infobox_0

Art PepperArt Pepper_header_cell_0_0_0
Background informationArt Pepper_header_cell_0_1_0
Birth nameArt Pepper_header_cell_0_2_0 Arthur Edward Pepper Jr.Art Pepper_cell_0_2_1
BornArt Pepper_header_cell_0_3_0 (1925-09-01)September 1, 1925

Gardena, California, U.S.Art Pepper_cell_0_3_1

DiedArt Pepper_header_cell_0_4_0 June 15, 1982(1982-06-15) (aged 56)

Los Angeles, California, U.S.Art Pepper_cell_0_4_1

GenresArt Pepper_header_cell_0_5_0 Art Pepper_cell_0_5_1
Occupation(s)Art Pepper_header_cell_0_6_0 MusicianArt Pepper_cell_0_6_1
InstrumentsArt Pepper_header_cell_0_7_0 Art Pepper_cell_0_7_1
Years activeArt Pepper_header_cell_0_8_0 1946–1982Art Pepper_cell_0_8_1
LabelsArt Pepper_header_cell_0_9_0 Art Pepper_cell_0_9_1
Associated actsArt Pepper_header_cell_0_10_0 Art Pepper_cell_0_10_1

Arthur Edward Pepper Jr. (September 1, 1925 – June 15, 1982) was an American alto saxophonist and very occasional tenor saxophonist and clarinetist. Art Pepper_sentence_0

A longtime figure in West Coast jazz, Pepper came to prominence in Stan Kenton's big band. Art Pepper_sentence_1

He was known for his emotionally charged performances and several stylistic shifts throughout his career, and was described by critic Scott Yanow as "the world's great altoist" at the time of his death. Art Pepper_sentence_2

Early life Art Pepper_section_0

Art Pepper was born in Gardena, California, on September 1, 1925. Art Pepper_sentence_3

His mother was a 14-year-old runaway; his father, a merchant seaman. Art Pepper_sentence_4

Both were violent alcoholics, and when Art was still quite young he was sent to live with his paternal grandmother. Art Pepper_sentence_5

He expressed early musical interest and talent, and he was given lessons. Art Pepper_sentence_6

He began playing clarinet at nine, switched to alto saxophone at 13 and immediately began jamming on Central Avenue, the black nightclub district of Los Angeles. Art Pepper_sentence_7

Career Art Pepper_section_1

At the age of 17 he began playing professionally with Benny Carter and then became part of the Stan Kenton orchestra, touring with that band until he was drafted in 1943. Art Pepper_sentence_8

After the war he returned to Los Angeles and joined the Kenton Innovations Orchestra. Art Pepper_sentence_9

By the 1950s Pepper was recognized as one of the leading alto saxophonists in jazz, finishing second only to Charlie Parker as Best Alto Saxophonist in the DownBeat magazine Readers Poll of 1952. Art Pepper_sentence_10

Along with Chet Baker, Gerry Mulligan and Shelly Manne, and perhaps due more to geography than playing style, Pepper is often associated with the musical movement known as West Coast jazz, as contrasted with the East Coast (or "hot") jazz of Charlie Parker, Dizzy Gillespie and Miles Davis. Art Pepper_sentence_11

Some of Pepper's most famous albums from the 1950s are Art Pepper Meets the Rhythm Section, Art Pepper + Eleven – Modern Jazz Classics, Gettin' Together, and Smack Up. Art Pepper_sentence_12

Representative music from this time appears on The Aladdin Recordings (three volumes), The Early Show, The Late Show, The Complete Surf Ride, and The Way It Was!, which features a session recorded with Warne Marsh. Art Pepper_sentence_13

His career was repeatedly interrupted by several prison stints stemming from his addiction to heroin, but Pepper managed to have several memorable and productive "comebacks". Art Pepper_sentence_14

Remarkably, his substance abuse and legal travails did not affect the quality of his recordings, which maintained a high level of musicianship throughout his career until his death in 1982. Art Pepper_sentence_15

His last comeback saw Pepper, who had started his career in Stan Kenton's big band, becoming a member of Buddy Rich's Big Band from 1968 to 1969. Art Pepper_sentence_16

During the mid-1970s and early 1980s he toured Europe and Japan with his own groups and recorded dozens of albums, mostly for Fantasy Records. Art Pepper_sentence_17

Personal life Art Pepper_section_2

Pepper lived for many years in the hills of Echo Park, in Los Angeles. Art Pepper_sentence_18

He had become a heroin addict in the 1940s, and his career was interrupted by drug-related prison sentences in 1954–56, 1960–61, 1961–64 and 1964–65; the final two sentences were served in San Quentin. Art Pepper_sentence_19

While in San Quentin he played in an ensemble with saxophonist Frank Morgan. Art Pepper_sentence_20

In the late 1960s Pepper spent time in Synanon, a drug rehabilitation group. Art Pepper_sentence_21

After beginning methadone therapy in the mid-1970s, Art had a musical comeback and recorded a series of albums including Living Legend, Art Pepper Today, Among Friends, and Live in Japan: Vol. 2. Art Pepper_sentence_22

His autobiography, Straight Life (1980, co-written with his third wife Laurie Pepper), discusses the jazz music world, as well as drug and criminal subcultures of mid-20th century California. Art Pepper_sentence_23

Soon after the publication of this book, the director Don McGlynn released the documentary film Art Pepper: Notes from a Jazz Survivor, discussing his life and featuring interviews with both Art and his wife Laurie, as well as footage from a live performance in Malibu jazz club. Art Pepper_sentence_24

Laurie Pepper also released an interview to NPR. Art Pepper_sentence_25

Pepper died of a stroke in Los Angeles on June 15, 1982, aged 56. Art Pepper_sentence_26

He is interred in the Abbey of the Psalms Mausoleum in the Hollywood Forever Cemetery, Hollywood. Art Pepper_sentence_27

Discography Art Pepper_section_3

As leader Art Pepper_section_4

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As sideman Art Pepper_section_5

With Chet Baker Art Pepper_sentence_28

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With Jesse Belvin Art Pepper_sentence_29

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  • Mr. Easy (RCA, 1959)Art Pepper_item_2_56

With Hoagy Carmichael Art Pepper_sentence_30

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With Dolo Coker Art Pepper_sentence_31

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With Richie Cole Art Pepper_sentence_32

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  • Richie Cole and... Return to Alto Acres (Palo Alto, 1982)Art Pepper_item_5_59

With Conte Candoli Art Pepper_sentence_33

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With Herb Ellis and Jimmy Giuffre Art Pepper_sentence_34

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With Art Farmer Art Pepper_sentence_35

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With Jerry Fielding Art Pepper_sentence_36

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With Johnny Griffin Art Pepper_sentence_37

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With Toni Harper Art Pepper_sentence_38

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  • Lady Lonely (RCA, 1959)Art Pepper_item_11_65
  • Night Mood (RCA, 1960)Art Pepper_item_11_66

With Freddie Hubbard Art Pepper_sentence_39

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  • Mistral (East World (Japan)/Liberty (US), 1980)Art Pepper_item_12_67

With Elvin Jones Art Pepper_sentence_40

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With Stan Kenton Art Pepper_sentence_41

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With Barney Kessel Art Pepper_sentence_42

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With Milcho Leviev Art Pepper_sentence_43

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  • Blues for the Fisherman [Live] (Mole, 1980)Art Pepper_item_16_80
  • True Blues [Live] (Mole, 1980)Art Pepper_item_16_81

With Shelly Manne Art Pepper_sentence_44

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With Jack Nitzsche Art Pepper_sentence_45

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With Anita O'Day Art Pepper_sentence_46

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  • Cool Heat (Verve, 1959)Art Pepper_item_19_84

With Marty Paich Art Pepper_sentence_47

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  • The Marty Paich Quartet featuring Art Pepper (Tampa/VSOP, 1956)Art Pepper_item_20_85

With André Previn Art Pepper_sentence_48

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With Buddy Rich Big Band) Art Pepper_sentence_49

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  • Mercy, Mercy (Pacific Jazz, 1968)Art Pepper_item_22_87

With Shorty Rogers Art Pepper_sentence_50

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Transcriptions Art Pepper_section_6

Published transcriptions: Art Pepper_sentence_51

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  • Jazz Styles and Analysis: Alto Sax by Harry Miedema. Chicago, Fifth Printing, Feb . 1979. Includes Broadway.Art Pepper_item_24_93
  • Straight Life: the Story of Art Pepper by Art Pepper and Laurie Pepper. New York and London, 1979. ISBN 0-02-871820-8. Includes the head of Straight Life.Art Pepper_item_24_94
  • Jazz 2: Sax Alto. Transcribed by John Robert Brown. International Music Publications, Woodford Green, Essex, 1986. ISBN 0-86359-408-5. Includes 'Round Midnight.Art Pepper_item_24_95
  • The Genius of Art Pepper. Foreword by Laurie Pepper. North Sydney, Warner/Chappell Music, 1987. ISBN 1-86362-012-5. Includes: Arthur's Blues; Blues for Blanche; Funny Blues; Landscape; Make a List Make a Wish; Mambo de la Pinta; Mambo Koyama; Mr Big Falls his J.G. Hand; Our Song; Road Game; September Song; Tete a Tete. All transcriptions include parts for Alto and Rhythm; Funny Blues also has a part for Trumpet.Art Pepper_item_24_96
  • Masters of the Alto Saxophone Play The Blues. Jazz Alto Solos. Transcribed by Trent Kynaston and Jonathan Ball. Corybant Productions, 1990. Includes True Blues.Art Pepper_item_24_97
  • The Art Pepper Collection. Foreword by Jeff Sultanof. Milwaukee, Hal Leonard, 1995. ISBN 0-7935-4007-0. Includes: Art's Oregano; Diane; Landscape; Las Cuevas de Mario; Make a List (Make a Wish); Mr. Big Falls his J.G. Hand; Ophelia; Pepper Returns; Sometime; Straight Life; Surf Ride(I); Surf Ride(II); That's Love; The Trip; Waltz Me Blues.Art Pepper_item_24_98
  • West Coast Jazz Saxophone Solos transcribed and edited by Robert A. Luckey, Ph.D. Features 15 recorded solos from 1952–1961, including five solos by Art Pepper. Olympia Music Publishing, 1996. ISBN 0-9667047-1-1.Art Pepper_item_24_99

Transcriptions available on the Internet: Art Pepper_sentence_52

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Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: Pepper.