Association football

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"Soccer" redirects here. Association football_sentence_0

For other uses, see Soccer (disambiguation). Association football_sentence_1

"Soccer team" redirects here. Association football_sentence_2

For the band, see Soccer Team (band). Association football_sentence_3

This article is about the sport of association football. Association football_sentence_4

For other codes of football, see Football. Association football_sentence_5

Association football_table_infobox_0

Association footballAssociation football_table_caption_0
Highest governing bodyAssociation football_header_cell_0_0_0 FIFAAssociation football_cell_0_0_1
NicknamesAssociation football_header_cell_0_1_0 Association football_cell_0_1_1
First playedAssociation football_header_cell_0_2_0 Mid-19th century EnglandAssociation football_cell_0_2_1
CharacteristicsAssociation football_header_cell_0_3_0
Team membersAssociation football_header_cell_0_4_0 11 per side (including goalkeeper)Association football_cell_0_4_1
Mixed genderAssociation football_header_cell_0_5_0 No, separate competitionsAssociation football_cell_0_5_1
TypeAssociation football_header_cell_0_6_0 Team sport, ball sportAssociation football_cell_0_6_1
EquipmentAssociation football_header_cell_0_7_0 Football (or soccer ball)Association football_cell_0_7_1
VenueAssociation football_header_cell_0_8_0 Football pitch (also known as football field, football ground, soccer field, soccer pitch or simply "pitch")Association football_cell_0_8_1
GlossaryAssociation football_header_cell_0_9_0 Glossary of association footballAssociation football_cell_0_9_1
PresenceAssociation football_header_cell_0_10_0
Country or regionAssociation football_header_cell_0_11_0 WorldwideAssociation football_cell_0_11_1
OlympicAssociation football_header_cell_0_12_0 Men's since the 1900 Olympics and women's since the 1996 OlympicsAssociation football_cell_0_12_1
ParalympicAssociation football_header_cell_0_13_0 5-a-side since 2004 and 7-a-side since 1984Association football_cell_0_13_1

Association football, more commonly known as football (especially in countries where association football is the only popular code of football) or soccer (originally also spelled foot-ball), is a team sport played with a spherical ball between two teams of 11 players. Association football_sentence_6

It is played by approximately 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies, making it the world's most popular sport. Association football_sentence_7

The game is played on a rectangular field called a pitch with a goal at each end. Association football_sentence_8

The object of the game is to outscore the opposition by moving the ball beyond the goal line into the opposing goal. Association football_sentence_9

The team with the higher number of goals wins the game. Association football_sentence_10

Football is played in accordance with a set of rules known as the Laws of the Game. Association football_sentence_11

The ball is 68–70 cm (27–28 in) in circumference and known as the football. Association football_sentence_12

The two teams each compete to get the ball into the other team's goal (between the posts and under the bar), thereby scoring a goal. Association football_sentence_13

The team that has scored more goals at the end of the game is the winner; if both teams have scored an equal number of goals then the game is a draw. Association football_sentence_14

Each team is led by a captain who has only one official responsibility as mandated by the Laws of the Game: to represent their team in the coin toss prior to kick-off or penalty kicks. Association football_sentence_15

Players are not allowed to touch the ball with hands or arms while it is in play, except for the goalkeepers within the penalty area. Association football_sentence_16

Other players mainly use their feet to strike or pass the ball, but may also use any other part of their body except the hands and the arms. Association football_sentence_17

The team that scores most goals by the end of the match wins. Association football_sentence_18

If the score is level at the end of the game, either a draw is declared or the game goes into extra time or a penalty shootout depending on the format of the competition. Association football_sentence_19

Football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football (FIFA; French: Fédération Internationale de Football Association), which organises World Cups for both men and women every four years. Association football_sentence_20

The FIFA World Cup has taken place every four years since 1930 with the exception of 1942 and 1946 tournaments, which were cancelled due to World War II. Association football_sentence_21

Approximately 190–200 national teams compete in qualifying tournaments within the scope of continental confederations for a place in the finals. Association football_sentence_22

The finals tournament, which is held every four years, involves 32 national teams competing over a four-week period. Association football_sentence_23

It is the most prestigious football tournament in the world as well as the most widely viewed and followed sporting event in the world, exceeding the Olympic Games. Association football_sentence_24

The most prestigious competition in club football is the UEFA Champions League which attracts an extensive television audience throughout the world. Association football_sentence_25

The final of the tournament has been, in recent years, the most-watched annual sporting event in the world. Association football_sentence_26

The top five European leagues are the Premier League (England), La Liga (Spain), Bundesliga (Germany), Serie A (Italy), and Ligue 1 (France). Association football_sentence_27

Attracting most of the world's best players, each of the leagues has a total wage cost in excess of £600 million/€763 million/US$1.185 billion. Association football_sentence_28

Football is one of a family of football codes, which emerged from various ball games played worldwide since antiquity. Association football_sentence_29

The modern game traces its origins to 1863 when the Laws of the Game were originally codified in England by The Football Association. Association football_sentence_30

Name Association football_section_0

Main article: Names for association football Association football_sentence_31

The rules of association football were codified in England by FA in 1863 and the name association football was coined to distinguish the game from the other forms of football played at the time, specifically rugby football. Association football_sentence_32

The first written "reference to the inflated ball used in the game" was in the mid-14th century: "Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe." Association football_sentence_33

The Online Etymology Dictionary states that the "rules of the game" were made in 1848, before the "split off in 1863". Association football_sentence_34

The term soccer comes from a slang or jocular abbreviation of the word "association", with the suffix "-er" appended to it. Association football_sentence_35

The word soccer (which arrived at its final form in 1895) was first recorded in 1889 in the earlier form of socca. Association football_sentence_36

Within the English-speaking world, association football is now usually called "football" in the United Kingdom and mainly "soccer" in Canada and the United States. Association football_sentence_37

People in countries where other codes of football are prevalent (Australia, Ireland, Wales, South Africa and New Zealand) may use either term, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now primarily use "football" for the formal name. Association football_sentence_38

History Association football_section_1

Main article: History of association football Association football_sentence_39

Kicking ball games arose independently multiple times across multiple cultures. Association football_sentence_40

According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju (蹴鞠, literally "kick ball") is the earliest form of football for which there is evidence. Association football_sentence_41

Cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net. Association football_sentence_42

It was remarkably similar to modern football, though similarities to rugby occurred. Association football_sentence_43

During the Han Dynasty (206 BC – 220 AD), cuju games were standardised and rules were established. Association football_sentence_44

Phaininda and episkyros were Greek ball games. Association football_sentence_45

An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup. Association football_sentence_46

Athenaeus, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Association football_sentence_47

Phaininda, episkyros and harpastum were played involving hands and violence. Association football_sentence_48

They all appear to have resembled rugby football, wrestling and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. Association football_sentence_49

As with pre-codified "mob football", the antecedent of all modern football codes, these three games involved more handling the ball than kicking. Association football_sentence_50

Other games included kemari in Japan and chuk-guk in Korea. Association football_sentence_51

Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Association football_sentence_52

Notwithstanding any similarities to other ball games played around the world FIFA has recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe. Association football_sentence_53

The modern rules of association football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the widely varying forms of football played in the public schools of England. Association football_sentence_54

The history of football in England dates back to at least the eighth century AD. Association football_sentence_55

The Cambridge rules, first drawn up at Cambridge University in 1848, were particularly influential in the development of subsequent codes, including association football. Association football_sentence_56

The Cambridge Rules were written at Trinity College, Cambridge, at a meeting attended by representatives from Eton, Harrow, Rugby, Winchester and Shrewsbury schools. Association football_sentence_57

They were not universally adopted. Association football_sentence_58

During the 1850s, many clubs unconnected to schools or universities were formed throughout the English-speaking world, to play various forms of football. Association football_sentence_59

Some came up with their own distinct codes of rules, most notably the Sheffield Football Club, formed by former public school pupils in 1857, which led to formation of a Sheffield FA in 1867. Association football_sentence_60

In 1862, John Charles Thring of Uppingham School also devised an influential set of rules. Association football_sentence_61

These ongoing efforts contributed to the formation of The Football Association (The FA) in 1863, which first met on the morning of 26 October 1863 at the Freemasons' Tavern in Great Queen Street, London. Association football_sentence_62

The only school to be represented on this occasion was Charterhouse. Association football_sentence_63

The Freemason's Tavern was the setting for five more meetings between October and December, which eventually produced the first comprehensive set of rules. Association football_sentence_64

At the final meeting, the first FA treasurer, the representative from Blackheath, withdrew his club from the FA over the removal of two draft rules at the previous meeting: the first allowed for running with the ball in hand; the second for obstructing such a run by hacking (kicking an opponent in the shins), tripping and holding. Association football_sentence_65

Other English rugby clubs followed this lead and did not join the FA and instead in 1871 formed the Rugby Football Union. Association football_sentence_66

The eleven remaining clubs, under the charge of Ebenezer Cobb Morley, went on to ratify the original thirteen laws of the game. Association football_sentence_67

These rules included handling of the ball by "marks" and the lack of a crossbar, rules which made it remarkably similar to Victorian rules football being developed at that time in Australia. Association football_sentence_68

The Sheffield FA played by its own rules until the 1870s with the FA absorbing some of its rules until there was little difference between the games. Association football_sentence_69

The world's oldest football competition is the FA Cup, which was founded by C.W. Association football_sentence_70 Alcock and has been contested by English teams since 1872. Association football_sentence_71

The first official international football match also took place in 1872, between Scotland and England in Glasgow, again at the instigation of C.W. Alcock. Association football_sentence_72

England is also home to the world's first football league, which was founded in Birmingham in 1888 by Aston Villa director William McGregor. Association football_sentence_73

The original format contained 12 clubs from the Midlands and Northern England. Association football_sentence_74

The laws of the game are determined by the International Football Association Board (IFAB). Association football_sentence_75

The board was formed in 1886 after a meeting in Manchester of The Football Association, the Scottish Football Association, the Football Association of Wales, and the Irish Football Association. Association football_sentence_76

FIFA, the international football body, was formed in Paris in 1904 and declared that they would adhere to Laws of the Game of the Football Association. Association football_sentence_77

The growing popularity of the international game led to the admittance of FIFA representatives to the International Football Association Board in 1913. Association football_sentence_78

The board consists of four representatives from FIFA and one representative from each of the four British associations. Association football_sentence_79

Today, football is played at a professional level all over the world. Association football_sentence_80

Millions of people regularly go to football stadiums to follow their favourite teams, while billions more watch the game on television or on the internet. Association football_sentence_81

A very large number of people also play football at an amateur level. Association football_sentence_82

According to a survey conducted by FIFA published in 2001, over 240 million people from more than 200 countries regularly play football. Association football_sentence_83

Football has the highest global television audience in sport. Association football_sentence_84

In many parts of the world football evokes great passions and plays an important role in the life of individual fans, local communities, and even nations. Association football_sentence_85

R. Kapuscinski says that Europeans who are polite, modest, or humble fall easily into rage when playing or watching football games. Association football_sentence_86

The Ivory Coast national football team helped secure a truce to the nation's civil war in 2006 and it helped further reduce tensions between government and rebel forces in 2007 by playing a match in the rebel capital of Bouaké, an occasion that brought both armies together peacefully for the first time. Association football_sentence_87

By contrast, football is widely considered to have been the final proximate cause for the Football War in June 1969 between El Salvador and Honduras. Association football_sentence_88

The sport also exacerbated tensions at the beginning of the Croatian Independence War of the 1990s, when a match between Dinamo Zagreb and Red Star Belgrade degenerated into rioting in May 1990. Association football_sentence_89

Women's association football Association football_section_2

Main article: Women's association football Association football_sentence_90

Early women's football Association football_section_3

Women may have been playing "football" for as long as the game has existed. Association football_sentence_91

Evidence shows that an ancient version of the game (Tsu Chu) was played by women during the Han Dynasty (25–220 CE). Association football_sentence_92

Two female figures are depicted in Han Dynasty (25–220 CE) frescoes, playing Tsu Chu. Association football_sentence_93

There are, however, a number of opinions about the accuracy of dates, the earliest estimates at 5000 BCE. Association football_sentence_94

Association football, the modern game, also has documented early involvement of women. Association football_sentence_95

An annual competition in Mid-Lothian, Scotland during the 1790s is reported, too. Association football_sentence_96

In 1863, football governing bodies introduced standardised rules to prohibit violence on the pitch, making it more socially acceptable for women to play. Association football_sentence_97

The first match recorded by the Scottish Football Association took place in 1892 in Glasgow. Association football_sentence_98

In England, the first recorded game of football between women took place in 1895. Association football_sentence_99

The most well-documented early European team was founded by activist Nettie Honeyball in England in 1894. Association football_sentence_100

It was named the British Ladies' Football Club. Association football_sentence_101

Nettie Honeyball is quoted, "I founded the association late last year , with the fixed resolve of proving to the world that women are not the 'ornamental and useless' creatures men have pictured. Association football_sentence_102

I must confess, my convictions on all matters where the sexes are so widely divided are all on the side of emancipation, and I look forward to the time when ladies may sit in Parliament and have a voice in the direction of affairs, especially those which concern them most." Association football_sentence_103

Honeyball and those like her paved the way for women's football. Association football_sentence_104

However, the women's game was frowned upon by the British football associations, and continued without their support. Association football_sentence_105

It has been suggested that this was motivated by a perceived threat to the 'masculinity' of the game. Association football_sentence_106

Women's football became popular on a large scale at the time of the First World War, when employment in heavy industry spurred the growth of the game, much as it had done for men fifty years earlier. Association football_sentence_107

The most successful team of the era was Dick, Kerr's Ladies of Preston, England. Association football_sentence_108

The team played in the first women's international matches in 1920, against a team from Paris, France, in April, and also made up most of the England team against a Scottish Ladies XI in 1920, and winning 22–0. Association football_sentence_109

Despite being more popular than some men's football events (one match saw a 53,000 strong crowd), women's football in England suffered a blow in 1921 when The Football Association outlawed the playing of the game on Association members' pitches, on the grounds that the game (as played by women) was distasteful. Association football_sentence_110

Some speculated that this may have also been due to envy of the large crowds that women's matches attracted. Association football_sentence_111

This led to the formation of the English Ladies Football Association and play moved to rugby grounds. Association football_sentence_112

Association football has been played by women since at least the time of the first recorded women's games in the late 19th century. Association football_sentence_113

It has traditionally been associated with charity games and physical exercise, particularly in the United Kingdom. Association football_sentence_114

In the late 1960s and early 1970s, women's association football was organised in the United Kingdom, eventually becoming the most prominent team sport for British women. Association football_sentence_115

20th and 21st century Association football_section_4

The growth in women's football has seen major competitions being launched at both national and international level mirroring the male competitions. Association football_sentence_116

Women's football has faced many struggles. Association football_sentence_117

It had a "golden age" in the United Kingdom in the early 1920s when crowds reached 50,000 at some matches; this was stopped on 5 December 1921 when England's Football Association voted to ban the game from grounds used by its member clubs. Association football_sentence_118

The FA's ban was rescinded in December 1969 with UEFA voting to officially recognise women's football in 1971. Association football_sentence_119

The FIFA Women's World Cup was inaugurated in 1991 and has been held every four years since, while women's football has been an Olympic event since 1996. Association football_sentence_120

Gameplay Association football_section_5

Association football is played in accordance with a set of rules known as the Laws of the Game. Association football_sentence_121

The game is played using a spherical ball of 68–70 cm (27–28 in) circumference, known as the football (or soccer ball). Association football_sentence_122

Two teams of eleven players each compete to get the ball into the other team's goal (between the posts and under the bar), thereby scoring a goal. Association football_sentence_123

The team that has scored more goals at the end of the game is the winner; if both teams have scored an equal number of goals then the game is a draw. Association football_sentence_124

Each team is led by a captain who has only one official responsibility as mandated by the Laws of the Game: to represent their team in the coin toss prior to kick-off or penalty kicks. Association football_sentence_125

The primary law is that players other than goalkeepers may not deliberately handle the ball with their hands or arms during play, though they must use both their hands during a throw-in restart. Association football_sentence_126

Although players usually use their feet to move the ball around they may use any part of their body (notably, "heading" with the forehead) other than their hands or arms. Association football_sentence_127

Within normal play, all players are free to play the ball in any direction and move throughout the pitch, though players may not pass to teammates who are in an offside position. Association football_sentence_128

During gameplay, players attempt to create goal-scoring opportunities through individual control of the ball, such as by dribbling, passing the ball to a teammate, and by taking shots at the goal, which is guarded by the opposing goalkeeper. Association football_sentence_129

Opposing players may try to regain control of the ball by intercepting a pass or through tackling the opponent in possession of the ball; however, physical contact between opponents is restricted. Association football_sentence_130

Football is generally a free-flowing game, with play stopping only when the ball has left the field of play or when play is stopped by the referee for an infringement of the rules. Association football_sentence_131

After a stoppage, play recommences with a specified restart. Association football_sentence_132

At a professional level, most matches produce only a few goals. Association football_sentence_133

For example, the 2005–06 season of the English Premier League produced an average of 2.48 goals per match. Association football_sentence_134

The Laws of the Game do not specify any player positions other than goalkeeper, but a number of specialised roles have evolved. Association football_sentence_135

Broadly, these include three main categories: strikers, or forwards, whose main task is to score goals; defenders, who specialise in preventing their opponents from scoring; and midfielders, who dispossess the opposition and keep possession of the ball to pass it to the forwards on their team. Association football_sentence_136

Players in these positions are referred to as outfield players, to distinguish them from the goalkeeper. Association football_sentence_137

These positions are further subdivided according to the area of the field in which the player spends most time. Association football_sentence_138

For example, there are central defenders, and left and right midfielders. Association football_sentence_139

The ten outfield players may be arranged in any combination. Association football_sentence_140

The number of players in each position determines the style of the team's play; more forwards and fewer defenders creates a more aggressive and offensive-minded game, while the reverse creates a slower, more defensive style of play. Association football_sentence_141

While players typically spend most of the game in a specific position, there are few restrictions on player movement, and players can switch positions at any time. Association football_sentence_142

The layout of a team's players is known as a formation. Association football_sentence_143

Defining the team's formation and tactics is usually the prerogative of the team's manager. Association football_sentence_144

Laws Association football_section_6

"Rules of football" redirects here. Association football_sentence_145

For the rules of other football games, see Football. Association football_sentence_146

Main article: Laws of the Game (association football) Association football_sentence_147

There are 17 laws in the official Laws of the Game, each containing a collection of stipulation and guidelines. Association football_sentence_148

The same laws are designed to apply to all levels of football, although certain modifications for groups such as juniors, seniors, women and people with physical disabilities are permitted. Association football_sentence_149

The laws are often framed in broad terms, which allow flexibility in their application depending on the nature of the game. Association football_sentence_150

The Laws of the Game are published by FIFA, but are maintained by the International Football Association Board (IFAB). Association football_sentence_151

In addition to the seventeen laws, numerous IFAB decisions and other directives contribute to the regulation of football. Association football_sentence_152

Players, equipment, and officials Association football_section_7

See also: Association football positions, Formation (association football), Substitute (association football), and Kit (association football) Association football_sentence_153

Each team consists of a maximum of eleven players (excluding substitutes), one of whom must be the goalkeeper. Association football_sentence_154

Competition rules may state a minimum number of players required to constitute a team, which is usually seven. Association football_sentence_155

Goalkeepers are the only players allowed to play the ball with their hands or arms, provided they do so within the penalty area in front of their own goal. Association football_sentence_156

Though there are a variety of positions in which the outfield (non-goalkeeper) players are strategically placed by a coach, these positions are not defined or required by the Laws. Association football_sentence_157

The basic equipment or kit players are required to wear includes a shirt, shorts, socks, footwear and adequate shin guards. Association football_sentence_158

An athletic supporter and protective cup is highly recommended for male players by medical experts and professionals. Association football_sentence_159

Headgear is not a required piece of basic equipment, but players today may choose to wear it to protect themselves from head injury. Association football_sentence_160

Players are forbidden to wear or use anything that is dangerous to themselves or another player, such as jewellery or watches. Association football_sentence_161

The goalkeeper must wear clothing that is easily distinguishable from that worn by the other players and the match officials. Association football_sentence_162

A number of players may be replaced by substitutes during the course of the game. Association football_sentence_163

The maximum number of substitutions permitted in most competitive international and domestic league games is three in ninety minutes with each team being allowed one more if the game should go into extra-time, though the permitted number may vary in other competitions or in friendly matches. Association football_sentence_164

Common reasons for a substitution include injury, tiredness, ineffectiveness, a tactical switch, or timewasting at the end of a finely poised game. Association football_sentence_165

In standard adult matches, a player who has been substituted may not take further part in a match. Association football_sentence_166

IFAB recommends "that a match should not continue if there are fewer than seven players in either team". Association football_sentence_167

Any decision regarding points awarded for abandoned games is left to the individual football associations. Association football_sentence_168

A game is officiated by a referee, who has "full authority to enforce the Laws of the Game in connection with the match to which he has been appointed" (Law 5), and whose decisions are final. Association football_sentence_169

The referee is assisted by two assistant referees. Association football_sentence_170

In many high-level games there is also a fourth official who assists the referee and may replace another official should the need arise. Association football_sentence_171

Goal line technology is used to measure if the whole ball has crossed the goal-line thereby determining whether a goal has been scored or not; this was brought in to prevent there being controversy. Association football_sentence_172

video assistant referees (VAR) have also been increasingly introduced in high-level matches to assist officials through video replays to correct clear and obvious mistakes. Association football_sentence_173

There are four types of calls that can be reviewed: mistaken identity in awarding a red or yellow card, goals and whether there was a violation during the buildup, direct red card decisions, and penalty decisions. Association football_sentence_174

Ball Association football_section_8

Main article: Ball (association football) Association football_sentence_175

The ball is spherical with a circumference of between 68 and 70 cm (27 and 28 in), a weight in the range of 410 to 450 g (14 to 16 oz), and a pressure between 0.6 and 1.1 standard atmospheres (8.5 and 15.6 pounds per square inch) at sea level. Association football_sentence_176

In the past the ball was made up of leather panels sewn together, with a latex bladder for pressurisation but modern balls at all levels of the game are now synthetic. Association football_sentence_177

Pitch Association football_section_9

Main article: Football pitch Association football_sentence_178

As the Laws were formulated in England, and were initially administered solely by the four British football associations within IFAB, the standard dimensions of a football pitch were originally expressed in imperial units. Association football_sentence_179

The Laws now express dimensions with approximate metric equivalents (followed by traditional units in brackets), though use of imperial units remains popular in English-speaking countries with a relatively recent history of metrication (or only partial metrication), such as Britain. Association football_sentence_180

The length of the pitch, or field, for international adult matches is in the range of 100–110 m (110–120 yd) and the width is in the range of 64–75 m (70–80 yd). Association football_sentence_181

Fields for non-international matches may be 90–120 m (100–130 yd) length and 45–90 m (50–100 yd) in width, provided that the pitch does not become square. Association football_sentence_182

In 2008, the IFAB initially approved a fixed size of 105 m (115 yd) long and 68 m (74 yd) wide as a standard pitch dimension for international matches; however, this decision was later put on hold and was never actually implemented. Association football_sentence_183

The longer boundary lines are touchlines, while the shorter boundaries (on which the goals are placed) are goal lines. Association football_sentence_184

A rectangular goal is positioned at the middle of each goal line. Association football_sentence_185

The inner edges of the vertical goal posts must be 7.32 m (24 ft) apart, and the lower edge of the horizontal crossbar supported by the goal posts must be 2.44 m (8 ft) above the ground. Association football_sentence_186

Nets are usually placed behind the goal, but are not required by the Laws. Association football_sentence_187

In front of the goal is the penalty area. Association football_sentence_188

This area is marked by the goal line, two lines starting on the goal line 16.5 m (18 yd) from the goalposts and extending 16.5 m (18 yd) into the pitch perpendicular to the goal line, and a line joining them. Association football_sentence_189

This area has a number of functions, the most prominent being to mark where the goalkeeper may handle the ball and where a penalty foul by a member of the defending team becomes punishable by a penalty kick. Association football_sentence_190

Other markings define the position of the ball or players at kick-offs, goal kicks, penalty kicks and corner kicks. Association football_sentence_191

Duration and tie-breaking methods Association football_section_10

90-minute ordinary time Association football_section_11

A standard adult football match consists of two-halves of 45 minutes each. Association football_sentence_192

Each half runs continuously, meaning that the clock is not stopped when the ball is out of play. Association football_sentence_193

There is usually a 15-minute half-time break between halves. Association football_sentence_194

The end of the match is known as full-time. Association football_sentence_195

The referee is the official timekeeper for the match, and may make an allowance for time lost through substitutions, injured players requiring attention, or other stoppages. Association football_sentence_196

This added time is called additional time in FIFA documents, but is most commonly referred to as stoppage time or injury time, while lost time can also be used as a synonym. Association football_sentence_197

The duration of stoppage time is at the sole discretion of the referee. Association football_sentence_198

Stoppage time does not fully compensate for the time in which the ball is out of play, and a 90-minute game typically involves about an hour of "effective playing time". Association football_sentence_199

The referee alone signals the end of the match. Association football_sentence_200

In matches where a fourth official is appointed, towards the end of the half the referee signals how many minutes of stoppage time they intend to add. Association football_sentence_201

The fourth official then informs the players and spectators by holding up a board showing this number. Association football_sentence_202

The signalled stoppage time may be further extended by the referee. Association football_sentence_203

Added time was introduced because of an incident which happened in 1891 during a match between Stoke and Aston Villa. Association football_sentence_204

Trailing 1–0 and with just two minutes remaining, Stoke were awarded a penalty. Association football_sentence_205

Villa's goalkeeper kicked the ball out of the ground, and by the time the ball had been recovered, the 90 minutes had elapsed and the game was over. Association football_sentence_206

The same law also states that the duration of either half is extended until the penalty kick to be taken or retaken is completed, thus no game shall end with a penalty to be taken. Association football_sentence_207

Tie-breaking Association football_section_12

Main article: Determining the Outcome of a Match (association football) Association football_sentence_208

In league competitions, games may end in a draw. Association football_sentence_209

In knockout competitions where a winner is required various methods may be employed to break such a deadlock; some competitions may invoke replays. Association football_sentence_210

A game tied at the end of regulation time may go into extra time, which consists of two further 15-minute periods. Association football_sentence_211

If the score is still tied after extra time, some competitions allow the use of penalty shootouts (known officially in the Laws of the Game as "kicks from the penalty mark") to determine which team will progress to the next stage of the tournament. Association football_sentence_212

Goals scored during extra time periods count towards the final score of the game, but kicks from the penalty mark are only used to decide the team that progresses to the next part of the tournament (with goals scored in a penalty shootout not making up part of the final score). Association football_sentence_213

In competitions using two-legged matches, each team competes at home once, with an aggregate score from the two matches deciding which team progresses. Association football_sentence_214

Where aggregates are equal, the away goals rule may be used to determine the winners, in which case the winner is the team that scored the most goals in the leg they played away from home. Association football_sentence_215

If the result is still equal, extra time and potentially a penalty shootout are required. Association football_sentence_216

Ball in and out of play Association football_section_13

Main article: Ball in and out of play Association football_sentence_217

Under the Laws, the two basic states of play during a game are ball in play and ball out of play. Association football_sentence_218

From the beginning of each playing period with a kick-off until the end of the playing period, the ball is in play at all times, except when either the ball leaves the field of play, or play is stopped by the referee. Association football_sentence_219

When the ball becomes out of play, play is restarted by one of eight restart methods depending on how it went out of play: Association football_sentence_220

Association football_unordered_list_0

  • Kick-off: following a goal by the opposing team, or to begin each period of play.Association football_item_0_0
  • Throw-in: when the ball has crossed the touchline; awarded to the opposing team to that which last touched the ball.Association football_item_0_1
  • Goal kick: when the ball has wholly crossed the goal line without a goal having been scored and having last been touched by a player of the attacking team; awarded to defending team.Association football_item_0_2
  • Corner kick: when the ball has wholly crossed the goal line without a goal having been scored and having last been touched by a player of the defending team; awarded to attacking team.Association football_item_0_3
  • Indirect free kick: awarded to the opposing team following "non-penal" fouls, certain technical infringements, or when play is stopped to caution or dismiss an opponent without a specific foul having occurred. A goal may not be scored directly (without the ball first touching another player) from an indirect free kick.Association football_item_0_4
  • Direct free kick: awarded to fouled team following certain listed "penal" fouls. A goal may be scored directly from a direct free kick.Association football_item_0_5
  • Penalty kick: awarded to the fouled team following a foul usually punishable by a direct free kick but that has occurred within their opponent's penalty area.Association football_item_0_6
  • Dropped-ball: occurs when the referee has stopped play for any other reason, such as a serious injury to a player, interference by an external party, or a ball becoming defective.Association football_item_0_7

Misconduct Association football_section_14

Main article: Foul (association football) Association football_sentence_221

On-field Association football_section_15

A foul occurs when a player commits an offence listed in the Laws of the Game while the ball is in play. Association football_sentence_222

The offences that constitute a foul are listed in Law 12. Association football_sentence_223

Handling the ball deliberately, tripping an opponent, or pushing an opponent, are examples of "penal fouls", punishable by a direct free kick or penalty kick depending on where the offence occurred. Association football_sentence_224

Other fouls are punishable by an indirect free kick. Association football_sentence_225

The referee may punish a player's or substitute's misconduct by a caution (yellow card) or dismissal (red card). Association football_sentence_226

A second yellow card in the same game leads to a red card, which results in a dismissal. Association football_sentence_227

A player given a yellow card is said to have been "booked", the referee writing the player's name in their official notebook. Association football_sentence_228

If a player has been dismissed, no substitute can be brought on in their place and the player may not participate in further play. Association football_sentence_229

Misconduct may occur at any time, and while the offences that constitute misconduct are listed, the definitions are broad. Association football_sentence_230

In particular, the offence of "unsporting behaviour" may be used to deal with most events that violate the spirit of the game, even if they are not listed as specific offences. Association football_sentence_231

A referee can show a yellow or red card to a player, substitute or substituted player. Association football_sentence_232

Non-players such as managers and support staff cannot be shown the yellow or red card, but may be expelled from the technical area if they fail to conduct themselves in a responsible manner. Association football_sentence_233

Rather than stopping play, the referee may allow play to continue if doing so will benefit the team against which an offence has been committed. Association football_sentence_234

This is known as "playing an advantage". Association football_sentence_235

The referee may "call back" play and penalise the original offence if the anticipated advantage does not ensue within "a few seconds". Association football_sentence_236

Even if an offence is not penalised due to advantage being played, the offender may still be sanctioned for misconduct at the next stoppage of play. Association football_sentence_237

The referee's decision in all on-pitch matters is considered final. Association football_sentence_238

The score of a match cannot be altered after the game, even if later evidence shows that decisions (including awards/non-awards of goals) were incorrect. Association football_sentence_239

Off-field Association football_section_16

See also: Foul (association football) § Post-match Association football_sentence_240

Along with the general administration of the sport, football associations and competition organisers also enforce good conduct in wider aspects of the game, dealing with issues such as comments to the press, clubs' financial management, doping, age fraud and match fixing. Association football_sentence_241

Most competitions enforce mandatory suspensions for players who are sent off in a game. Association football_sentence_242

Some on-field incidents, if considered very serious (such as allegations of racial abuse), may result in competitions deciding to impose heavier sanctions than those normally associated with a red card. Association football_sentence_243

Some associations allow for appeals against player suspensions incurred on-field if clubs feel a referee was incorrect or unduly harsh. Association football_sentence_244

Sanctions for such infractions may be levied on individuals or on to clubs as a whole. Association football_sentence_245

Penalties may include fines, points deductions (in league competitions) or even expulsion from competitions. Association football_sentence_246

For example, the English Football League deduct 12 points from any team that enters financial administration. Association football_sentence_247

Among other administrative sanctions are penalties against game forfeiture. Association football_sentence_248

Teams that had forfeited a game or had been forfeited against would be awarded a technical loss or win. Association football_sentence_249

Governing bodies Association football_section_17

See also: Association football around the world Association football_sentence_250

The recognised international governing body of football (and associated games, such as futsal and beach soccer) is FIFA. Association football_sentence_251

The FIFA headquarters are located in Zürich, Switzerland. Association football_sentence_252

Six regional confederations are associated with FIFA; these are: Association football_sentence_253

Association football_unordered_list_1

National associations oversee football within individual countries. Association football_sentence_254

These are generally synonymous with sovereign states, (for example: the Cameroonian Football Federation in Cameroon) but also include a smaller number of associations responsible for sub-national entities or autonomous regions (for example the Scottish Football Association in Scotland). Association football_sentence_255

209 national associations are affiliated both with FIFA and with their respective continental confederations. Association football_sentence_256

While FIFA is responsible for arranging competitions and most rules related to international competition, the actual Laws of the Game are set by the International Football Association Board, where each of the UK Associations has one vote, while FIFA collectively has four votes. Association football_sentence_257

International competitions Association football_section_18

Main article: List of association football competitions Association football_sentence_258

International competitions in association football principally consist of two varieties: competitions involving representative national teams or those involving clubs based in multiple nations and national leagues. Association football_sentence_259

International football, without qualification, most often refers to the former. Association football_sentence_260

In the case of international club competition, it is the country of origin of the clubs involved, not the nationalities of their players, that renders the competition international in nature. Association football_sentence_261

The major international competition in football is the World Cup, organised by FIFA. Association football_sentence_262

This competition takes place every four years since 1930 with the exception of 1942 and 1946 tournaments, which were cancelled due to World War II. Association football_sentence_263

Approximately 190–200 national teams compete in qualifying tournaments within the scope of continental confederations for a place in the finals. Association football_sentence_264

The finals tournament, which is held every four years, involves 32 national teams competing over a four-week period. Association football_sentence_265

The World Cup is the most prestigious association football tournament in the world as well as the most widely viewed and followed sporting event in the world, exceeding even the Olympic Games; the cumulative audience of all matches of the 2006 FIFA World Cup was estimated to be 26.29 billion with an estimated 715.1 million people watching the final match, a ninth of the entire population of the planet. Association football_sentence_266

The current champions are France, who won their second title at the 2018 tournament in Russia. Association football_sentence_267

The FIFA Women's World Cup has been held every four years since 1991. Association football_sentence_268

Under the tournament's current format, national teams vie for 23 slots in a three-year qualification phase. Association football_sentence_269

(The host nation's team is automatically entered as the 24th slot.) Association football_sentence_270

The current champions are the United States, after winning their fourth title in the 2019 tournament. Association football_sentence_271

There has been a football tournament at every Summer Olympic Games since 1900, except at the 1932 games in Los Angeles. Association football_sentence_272

Before the inception of the World Cup, the Olympics (especially during the 1920s) were the most prestigious international event. Association football_sentence_273

Originally, the tournament was for amateurs only. Association football_sentence_274

As professionalism spread around the world, the gap in quality between the World Cup and the Olympics widened. Association football_sentence_275

The countries that benefited most were the Soviet Bloc countries of Eastern Europe, where top athletes were state-sponsored while retaining their status as amateurs. Association football_sentence_276

Between 1948 and 1980, 23 out of 27 Olympic medals were won by Eastern Europe, with only Sweden (gold in 1948 and bronze in 1952), Denmark (bronze in 1948 and silver in 1960) and Japan (bronze in 1968) breaking their dominance. Association football_sentence_277

For the 1984 Los Angeles Games, the IOC decided to admit professional players. Association football_sentence_278

FIFA still did not want the Olympics to rival the World Cup, so a compromise was struck that allowed teams from Africa, Asia, Oceania and CONCACAF to field their strongest professional sides, while restricting UEFA and CONMEBOL teams to players who had not played in a World Cup. Association football_sentence_279

Since 1992 male competitors must be under 23 years old, and since 1996, players under 23 years old, with three over-23-year-old players, are allowed per squad. Association football_sentence_280

A women's tournament was added in 1996; in contrast to the men's event, full international sides without age restrictions play the women's Olympic tournament. Association football_sentence_281

After the World Cup, the most important international football competitions are the continental championships, which are organised by each continental confederation and contested between national teams. Association football_sentence_282

These are the European Championship (UEFA), the Copa América (CONMEBOL), African Cup of Nations (CAF), the Asian Cup (AFC), the CONCACAF Gold Cup (CONCACAF) and the OFC Nations Cup (OFC). Association football_sentence_283

The FIFA Confederations Cup was contested by the winners of all six continental championships, the current FIFA World Cup champions and the country which was hosting the next World Cup. Association football_sentence_284

This was generally regarded as a warm-up tournament for the upcoming FIFA World Cup and did not carry the same prestige as the World Cup itself. Association football_sentence_285

The tournament was discontinued following the 2017 edition. Association football_sentence_286

The most prestigious competitions in club football are the respective continental championships, which are generally contested between national champions, for example the UEFA Champions League in Europe and the Copa Libertadores in South America. Association football_sentence_287

The winners of each continental competition contest the FIFA Club World Cup. Association football_sentence_288

Domestic competitions Association football_section_19

Main articles: Geography of association football and Geography of women's association football Association football_sentence_289

The governing bodies in each country operate league systems in a domestic season, normally comprising several divisions, in which the teams gain points throughout the season depending on results. Association football_sentence_290

Teams are placed into tables, placing them in order according to points accrued. Association football_sentence_291

Most commonly, each team plays every other team in its league at home and away in each season, in a round-robin tournament. Association football_sentence_292

At the end of a season, the top team is declared the champion. Association football_sentence_293

The top few teams may be promoted to a higher division, and one or more of the teams finishing at the bottom are relegated to a lower division. Association football_sentence_294

The teams finishing at the top of a country's league may be eligible also to play in international club competitions in the following season. Association football_sentence_295

The main exceptions to this system occur in some Latin American leagues, which divide football championships into two sections named Apertura and Clausura (Spanish for Opening and Closing), awarding a champion for each. Association football_sentence_296

The majority of countries supplement the league system with one or more "cup" competitions organised on a knock-out basis. Association football_sentence_297

Some countries' top divisions feature highly paid star players; in smaller countries, lower divisions, and most of women's clubs, players may be part-timers with a second job, or amateurs. Association football_sentence_298

The five top European leagues – the Bundesliga (Germany), Premier League (England), La Liga (Spain), Serie A (Italy), and Ligue 1 (France) – attract most of the world's best players and each of the leagues has a total wage cost in excess of £600 million/€763 million/US$1.185 billion. Association football_sentence_299


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Association football.