Atlantic slave trade

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The Atlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, or Euro-American slave trade involved the transportation by slave traders of various enslaved African people, mainly to the Americas. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_0

The slave trade regularly used the triangular trade route and its Middle Passage, and existed from the 16th to the 19th centuries. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_1

The vast majority of those who were enslaved and transported in the transatlantic slave trade were people from Central and West Africa, who had been sold by other West Africans, or by half-European "merchant princes" to Western European slave traders (with a small number being captured directly by the slave traders in coastal raids), who brought them to the Americas. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_2

Except for the Portuguese, European slave traders generally did not participate in the raids because life expectancy for Europeans in sub-Saharan Africa was less than one year during the period of the slave trade (which was prior to the development of quinine as a treatment for malaria). Atlantic slave trade_sentence_3

The South Atlantic and Caribbean economies were particularly dependent on labour for the production of sugarcane and other commodities. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_4

This was viewed as crucial by those Western European states that, in the late 17th and 18th centuries, were vying with each other to create overseas empires. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_5

The Portuguese, in the 16th century, were the first to engage in the Atlantic slave trade. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_6

In 1526, they completed the first transatlantic slave voyage to Brazil, and other Europeans soon followed. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_7

Shipowners regarded the slaves as cargo to be transported to the Americas as quickly and cheaply as possible, there to be sold to work on coffee, tobacco, cocoa, sugar, and cotton plantations, gold and silver mines, rice fields, the construction industry, cutting timber for ships, as skilled labour, and as domestic servants. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_8

The first Africans kidnapped to the English colonies were classified as indentured servants, with a similar legal standing as contract-based workers coming from Britain and Ireland. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_9

However, by the middle of the 17th century, slavery had hardened as a racial caste, with African slaves and their future offspring being legally the property of their owners, as children born to slave mothers were also slaves (partus sequitur ventrem). Atlantic slave trade_sentence_10

As property, the people were considered merchandise or units of labour, and were sold at markets with other goods and services. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_11

The major Atlantic slave-trading nations, ordered by trade volume, were the Portuguese, the British, the Spanish, the French, the Dutch, and the Danish. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_12

Several had established outposts on the African coast where they purchased slaves from local African leaders. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_13

These slaves were managed by a factor, who was established on or near the coast to expedite the shipping of slaves to the New World. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_14

Slaves were imprisoned in a while awaiting shipment. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_15

Current estimates are that about 12 million to 12.8 million Africans were shipped across the Atlantic over a span of 400 years. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_16

The number purchased by the traders was considerably higher, as the passage had a high death rate with approximately 1.2–2.4 million dying during the voyage and millions more in seasoning camps in the Caribbean after arrival in the New World. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_17

Millions of people also died as a result of slave raids, wars, and during transport to the coast for sale to European slave traders. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_18

Near the beginning of the 19th century, various governments acted to ban the trade, although illegal smuggling still occurred. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_19

In the early 21st century, several governments issued apologies for the transatlantic slave trade. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_20

Background Atlantic slave trade_section_0

See also: History of slavery Atlantic slave trade_sentence_21

Atlantic travel Atlantic slave trade_section_1

The Atlantic slave trade developed after trade contacts were established between the "Old World" (Afro-Eurasia) and the "New World" (the Americas). Atlantic slave trade_sentence_22

For centuries, tidal currents had made ocean travel particularly difficult and risky for the ships that were then available. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_23

Thus, there had been very little, if any, maritime contact between the peoples living in these continents. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_24

In the 15th century, however, new European developments in seafaring technologies resulted in ships being better equipped to deal with the tidal currents, and could begin traversing the Atlantic Ocean; the Portuguese set up a Navigator's School (although there is much debate about whether it existed and if it did, just what it was). Atlantic slave trade_sentence_25

Between 1600 and 1800, approximately 300,000 sailors engaged in the slave trade visited West Africa. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_26

In doing so, they came into contact with societies living along the west African coast and in the Americas which they had never previously encountered. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_27

Historian Pierre Chaunu termed the consequences of European navigation "disenclavement", with it marking an end of isolation for some societies and an increase in inter-societal contact for most others. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_28

Historian John Thornton noted, "A number of technical and geographical factors combined to make Europeans the most likely people to explore the Atlantic and develop its commerce". Atlantic slave trade_sentence_29

He identified these as being the drive to find new and profitable commercial opportunities outside Europe. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_30

Additionally was the desire to create an alternative trade network to that controlled by the Muslim Ottoman Empire of the Middle East, which was viewed as a commercial, political and religious threat to European Christendom. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_31

In particular, European traders wanted to trade for gold, which could be found in western Africa, and also to find a maritime route to "the Indies" (India), where they could trade for luxury goods such as spices without having to obtain these items from Middle Eastern Islamic traders. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_32

Although many of the initial Atlantic naval explorations were led by Iberians, members of many European nationalities were involved, including sailors from Portugal, Spain, the Italian kingdoms, England, France and the Netherlands. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_33

This diversity led Thornton to describe the initial "exploration of the Atlantic" as "a truly international exercise, even if many of the dramatic discoveries were made under the sponsorship of the Iberian monarchs". Atlantic slave trade_sentence_34

That leadership later gave rise to the myth that "the Iberians were the sole leaders of the exploration". Atlantic slave trade_sentence_35

European slavery in Portugal and Spain Atlantic slave trade_section_2

By the 15th century, slavery had existed in the Iberian Peninsula (Portugal and Spain) of Western Europe throughout recorded history. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_36

The Roman Empire had established its system of slavery in ancient times. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_37

Since the fall of the Roman Empire, various systems of slavery continued in the successor Islamic and Christian kingdoms of the peninsula through the early modern era of the Atlantic slave trade. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_38

African slavery Atlantic slave trade_section_3

Main article: Slavery in Africa Atlantic slave trade_sentence_39

See also: History of slavery in the Muslim world Atlantic slave trade_sentence_40

Slavery was prevalent in many parts of Africa for many centuries before the beginning of the Atlantic slave trade. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_41

There is evidence that enslaved people from some parts of Africa were exported to states in Africa, Europe, and Asia prior to the European colonization of the Americas. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_42

The Atlantic slave trade was not the only slave trade from Africa, although it was the largest in volume and intensity. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_43

As Elikia M'bokolo wrote in Le Monde diplomatique: Atlantic slave trade_sentence_44

According to John K. Thornton, Europeans usually bought enslaved people who were captured in endemic warfare between African states. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_45

Some Africans had made a business out of capturing Africans from neighboring ethnic groups or war captives and selling them. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_46

A reminder of this practice is documented in the Slave Trade Debates of England in the early 19th century: "All the old writers ... concur in stating not only that wars are entered into for the sole purpose of making slaves, but that they are fomented by Europeans, with a view to that object." Atlantic slave trade_sentence_47

People living around the Niger River were transported from these markets to the coast and sold at European trading ports in exchange for muskets and manufactured goods such as cloth or alcohol. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_48

However, the European demand for slaves provided a large new market for the already existing trade. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_49

While those held in slavery in their own region of Africa might hope to escape, those shipped away had little chance of returning to Africa. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_50

European colonization and slavery in West Africa Atlantic slave trade_section_4

Upon discovering new lands through their naval explorations, European colonisers soon began to migrate to and settle in lands outside their native continent. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_51

Off the coast of Africa, European migrants, under the directions of the Kingdom of Castile, invaded and colonised the Canary Islands during the 15th century, where they converted much of the land to the production of wine and sugar. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_52

Along with this, they also captured native Canary Islanders, the Guanches, to use as slaves both on the Islands and across the Christian Mediterranean. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_53

As historian John Thornton remarked, "the actual motivation for European expansion and for navigational breakthroughs was little more than to exploit the opportunity for immediate profits made by raiding and the seizure or purchase of trade commodities". Atlantic slave trade_sentence_54

Using the Canary Islands as a naval base, Europeans, at the time primarily Portuguese traders, began to move their activities down the western coast of Africa, performing raids in which slaves would be captured to be later sold in the Mediterranean. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_55

Although initially successful in this venture, "it was not long before African naval forces were alerted to the new dangers, and the Portuguese [raiding] ships began to meet strong and effective resistance", with the crews of several of them being killed by African sailors, whose boats were better equipped at traversing the west African coasts and river systems. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_56

By 1494, the Portuguese king had entered agreements with the rulers of several West African states that would allow trade between their respective peoples, enabling the Portuguese to "tap into" the "well-developed commercial economy in Africa ... without engaging in hostilities". Atlantic slave trade_sentence_57

"Peaceful trade became the rule all along the African coast", although there were some rare exceptions when acts of aggression led to violence. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_58

For instance, Portuguese traders attempted to conquer the Bissagos Islands in 1535. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_59

In 1571 Portugal, supported by the Kingdom of Kongo, took control of the south-western region of Angola in order to secure its threatened economic interest in the area. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_60

Although Kongo later joined a coalition in 1591 to force the Portuguese out, Portugal had secured a foothold on the continent that it continued to occupy until the 20th century. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_61

Despite these incidents of occasional violence between African and European forces, many African states ensured that any trade went on in their own terms, for instance, imposing custom duties on foreign ships. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_62

In 1525, the Kongolese king Afonso I seized a French vessel and its crew for illegally trading on his coast. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_63

Historians have widely debated the nature of the relationship between these African kingdoms and the European traders. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_64

The Guyanese historian Walter Rodney (1972) has argued that it was an unequal relationship, with Africans being forced into a "colonial" trade with the more economically developed Europeans, exchanging raw materials and human resources (i.e. slaves) for manufactured goods. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_65

He argued that it was this economic trade agreement dating back to the 16th century that led to Africa being underdeveloped in his own time. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_66

These ideas were supported by other historians, including Ralph Austen (1987). Atlantic slave trade_sentence_67

This idea of an unequal relationship was contested by John Thornton (1998), who argued that "the Atlantic slave trade was not nearly as critical to the African economy as these scholars believed" and that "African manufacturing [at this period] was more than capable of handling competition from preindustrial Europe". Atlantic slave trade_sentence_68

However, Anne Bailey, commenting on Thornton's suggestion that Africans and Europeans were equal partners in the Atlantic slave trade, wrote: Atlantic slave trade_sentence_69

16th, 17th and 18th centuries Atlantic slave trade_section_5

The Atlantic slave trade is customarily divided into two eras, known as the First and Second Atlantic Systems. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_70

Slightly more than 3% of the enslaved people exported from Africa were traded between 1525 and 1600, and 16% in the 17th century. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_71

The First Atlantic system was the trade of enslaved Africans to, primarily, South American colonies of the Portuguese and Spanish empires. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_72

During the first Atlantic system, most of these traders were Portuguese, giving them a near-monopoly. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_73

Initially the slaves were transported to Seville or Canary Islands, but from 1525 slaves were transported directly from the island Sao Tomé across the Atlantic to Hispaniola. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_74

Decisive was the Treaty of Tordesillas which did not allow Spanish ships in African ports. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_75

Spain had to rely on Portuguese ships and sailors to bring slaves across the Atlantic. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_76

Around 1560 the Portuguese began a regular slave trade to Brazil. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_77

From 1580 till 1640 Portugal was temporarily united with Spain in the Iberian Union. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_78

Most Portuguese contractors who obtained the asiento between 1580 and 1640 were conversos. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_79

For Portuguese merchants, many of whom were "New Christians" or their descendants, the union of crowns presented commercial opportunities in the slave trade to Spanish America. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_80

Until the middle of the 17th century Mexico was the largest single market for slaves in Spanish America. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_81

While the Portuguese were directly involved in trading enslaved peoples to Brazil, the Spanish empire relied on the Asiento de Negros system, awarding (Catholic) Genoese merchant bankers the license to trade enslaved people from Africa to their colonies in Spanish America. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_82

Cartagena, Veracruz, Buenos Aires, and Hispaniola received the majority of slave arrivals, mainly from Angola. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_83

This division of the slave trade between Spain and Portugal upset the British and the Dutch who invested in the British West Indies and Dutch Brazil producing sugar. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_84

After the Iberian union fell apart, Spain prohibited Portugal from directly engaging in the slave trade as a carrier. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_85

According the Treaty of Munster the slave trade was opened for the traditional enemies of Spain, losing a large share of the trade to the Dutch, French and English. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_86

For 150 years Spanish transatlantic traffic was operating at trivial levels. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_87

In many years, not a single Spanish slave voyage set sail from Africa. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_88

Unlike all of their imperial competitors, the Spanish almost never delivered slaves to foreign territories. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_89

By contrast, the British, and the Dutch before them, sold slaves everywhere in the Americas. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_90

The Second Atlantic system was the trade of enslaved Africans by mostly English, French and Dutch traders and investors. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_91

The main destinations of this phase were the Caribbean islands Curaçao, Jamaica and Martinique, as European nations built up economically slave-dependent colonies in the New World. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_92

In 1672 the Royal Africa Company was founded; in 1674 the New West India Company became deeper involved in slave trade. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_93

From 1677 the Compagnie du Sénégal, used Gorée to house the slaves. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_94

The Spanish proposed to get the slaves from Cape Verde, located closer to the demarcation line between the Spanish and Portuguese empire, but this was against the WIC-charter". Atlantic slave trade_sentence_95

The Royal African Company usually refused to deliver slaves to Spanish colonies, though they did sell them to all comers from their factories in Kingston, Jamaica and Bridgetown, Barbados. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_96

In 1682 Spain allowed governors from Havana, Porto Bello, Panama, and Cartagena, Colombia to procure slaves from Jamaica. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_97

By the 1690s, the English were shipping the most slaves from West Africa. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_98

By the 18th century, Portuguese Angola had become again one of the principal sources of the Atlantic slave trade. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_99

After the end of the War of the Spanish Succession, as part of the provisions of the Treaty of Utrecht (1713), the Asiento was granted to the South Sea Company. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_100

Despite the South Sea Bubble the British maintained this position during the 18th century, becoming the biggest shippers of slaves across the Atlantic. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_101

It is estimated that more than half of the entire slave trade took place during the 18th century, with the British, Portuguese and French being the main carriers of nine out of ten slaves abducted in Africa. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_102

At the time, slave trading was regarded as crucial to Europe's maritime economy, as noted by one English slave trader: "What a glorious and advantageous trade this is ... Atlantic slave trade_sentence_103

It is the hinge on which all the trade of this globe moves." Atlantic slave trade_sentence_104

Meanwhile, it became a business for privately owned enterprises, reducing international complications. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_105

After 1790, by contrast, captains typically checked out slave prices in at least two of the major markets of Kingston, Havana, and Charleston, South Carolina (where prices by then were similar) before deciding where to sell. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_106

For the last sixteen years of the transatlantic slave trade, Spain was, indeed, the only transatlantic slave-trading empire. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_107

Following the British and United States' bans on the African slave trade in 1807, it declined, but the period after still accounted for 28.5% of the total volume of the Atlantic slave trade. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_108

Between 1810 and 1860, over 3.5 million slaves were transported, with 850,000 in the 1820s. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_109

A burial ground in Campeche, Mexico, suggests slaves had been brought there not long after Hernán Cortés completed the subjugation of Aztec and Mayan Mexico in the 16th century. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_110

The graveyard had been in use from approximately 1550 to the late 17th century. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_111

Triangular trade Atlantic slave trade_section_6

Main article: Triangular trade Atlantic slave trade_sentence_112

The first side of the triangle was the export of goods from Europe to Africa. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_113

A number of African kings and merchants took part in the trading of enslaved people from 1440 to about 1833. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_114

For each captive, the African rulers would receive a variety of goods from Europe. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_115

These included guns, ammunition, alcohol, Indigo died Indian textiles, and other factory-made goods. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_116

The second leg of the triangle exported enslaved Africans across the Atlantic Ocean to the Americas and the Caribbean Islands. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_117

The third and final part of the triangle was the return of goods to Europe from the Americas. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_118

The goods were the products of slave-labour plantations and included cotton, sugar, tobacco, molasses and rum. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_119

Sir John Hawkins, considered the pioneer of the British slave trade, was the first to run the Triangular trade, making a profit at every stop. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_120

Labour and slavery Atlantic slave trade_section_7

The Atlantic slave trade was the result of, among other things, labour shortage, itself in turn created by the desire of European colonists to exploit New World land and resources for capital profits. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_121

Native peoples were at first utilized as slave labour by Europeans until a large number died from overwork and Old World diseases. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_122

Alternative sources of labour, such as indentured servitude, failed to provide a sufficient workforce. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_123

Many crops could not be sold for profit, or even grown, in Europe. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_124

Exporting crops and goods from the New World to Europe often proved to be more profitable than producing them on the European mainland. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_125

A vast amount of labour was needed to create and sustain plantations that required intensive labour to grow, harvest, and process prized tropical crops. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_126

Western Africa (part of which became known as "the Slave Coast"), Angola and nearby Kingdoms and later Central Africa, became the source for enslaved people to meet the demand for labour. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_127

The basic reason for the constant shortage of labour was that, with much cheap land available and many landowners searching for workers, free European immigrants were able to become landowners themselves relatively quickly, thus increasing the need for workers. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_128

Thomas Jefferson attributed the use of slave labour in part to the climate, and the consequent idle leisure afforded by slave labour: "For in a warm climate, no man will labour for himself who can make another labour for him. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_129

This is so true, that of the proprietors of slaves a very small proportion indeed are ever seen to labour." Atlantic slave trade_sentence_130

In a 2015 paper, economist Elena Esposito argued that the enslavement of Africans in colonial America was attributable to the fact that the American south was sufficiently warm and humid for malaria to thrive; the disease had debilitating effects on the European settlers. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_131

Conversely, many enslaved Africans were taken from regions of Africa which hosted particularly potent strains of the disease, so the Africans had already developed natural resistance to malaria. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_132

This, Esposito argued, resulted in higher malaria survival rates in the American south among enslaved Africans than among European labourers, making them a more profitable source of labour and encouraging their use. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_133

Historian David Eltis argues that Africans were enslaved because of cultural beliefs in Europe that prohibited the enslavement of cultural insiders, even if there was a source of labour that could be enslaved (such as convicts, prisoners of war and vagrants). Atlantic slave trade_sentence_134

Eltis argues that traditional beliefs existed in Europe against enslaving Christians (few Europeans not being Christian at the time) and those slaves that existed in Europe tended to be non-Christians and their immediate descendants (since a slave converting to Christianity did not guarantee emancipation) and thus by the fifteenth century Europeans as a whole came to be regarded as insiders. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_135

Eltis argues that while all slave societies have demarked insiders and outsiders, Europeans took this process further by extending the status of insider to the entire European continent, rendering it unthinkable to enslave a European since this would require enslaving an insider. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_136

Conversely, Africans were viewed as outsiders and thus qualified for enslavement. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_137

While Europeans may have treated some types of labour, such as convict labour, with conditions similar to that of slaves, these labourers would not be regarded as chattel and their progeny could not inherit their subordinate status, thus not making them slaves in the eyes of Europeans. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_138

The status of chattel slavery was thus confined to non-Europeans, such as Africans. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_139

African participation in the slave trade Atlantic slave trade_section_8

Africans played a direct role in the slave trade, kidnapping adults and stealing children for the purpose of selling them, through intermediaries, to Europeans or their agents. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_140

Those sold into slavery were usually from a different ethnic group than those who captured them, whether enemies or just neighbors. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_141

These captive slaves were considered "other", not part of the people of the ethnic group or "tribe"; African kings were only interested in protecting their own ethnic group, but sometimes criminals would be sold to get rid of them. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_142

Most other slaves were obtained from kidnappings, or through raids that occurred at gunpoint through joint ventures with the Europeans. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_143

But some African kings refused to sell any of their captives or criminals. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_144

According to Pernille Ipsen, author of Daughters of the Trade: Atlantic Slavers and Interracial Marriage on the Gold Coast, Ghanaians also participated in the slave trade through intermarriage, or cassare (taken from Italian, Spanish, or Portuguese), meaning 'to set up house'. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_145

It is derived from the Portuguese word 'casar', meaning 'to marry'. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_146

Cassare formed political and economic bonds between European and African slave traders. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_147

Cassare was a pre-European-contact practice used to integrate the "other" from a differing African tribe. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_148

Early on in the Atlantic slave trade, it was common for the powerful elite West African families to "marry"-off their women to the European traders in alliance, bolstering their syndicate. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_149

The marriages were even performed using African customs, which Europeans did not object to, seeing how important the connections were. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_150

European participation in the slave trade Atlantic slave trade_section_9

Although Europeans were the market for slaves, Europeans rarely entered the interior of Africa, due to fear of disease and fierce African resistance. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_151

In Africa, convicted criminals could be punished by enslavement, a punishment which became more prevalent as slavery became more lucrative. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_152

Since most of these nations did not have a prison system, convicts were often sold or used in the scattered local domestic slave market. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_153

In 1778, Thomas Kitchin estimated that Europeans were bringing an estimated 52,000 slaves to the Caribbean yearly, with the French bringing the most Africans to the French West Indies (13,000 out of the yearly estimate). Atlantic slave trade_sentence_154

The Atlantic slave trade peaked in the last two decades of the 18th century, during and following the Kongo Civil War. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_155

Wars among tiny states along the Niger River's Igbo-inhabited region and the accompanying banditry also spiked in this period. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_156

Another reason for surplus supply of enslaved people was major warfare conducted by expanding states, such as the kingdom of Dahomey, the Oyo Empire, and the Asante Empire. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_157

Slavery in Africa and the New World contrasted Atlantic slave trade_section_10

Further information: Slavery in Africa Atlantic slave trade_sentence_158

Forms of slavery varied both in Africa and in the New World. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_159

In general, slavery in Africa was not heritable—that is, the children of slaves were free—while in the Americas, children of slave mothers were considered born into slavery. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_160

This was connected to another distinction: slavery in West Africa was not reserved for racial or religious minorities, as it was in European colonies, although the case was otherwise in places such as Somalia, where Bantus were taken as slaves for the ethnic Somalis. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_161

The treatment of slaves in Africa was more variable than in the Americas. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_162

At one extreme, the kings of Dahomey routinely slaughtered slaves in hundreds or thousands in sacrificial rituals, and slaves as human sacrifices were also known in Cameroon. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_163

On the other hand, slaves in other places were often treated as part of the family, "adopted children", with significant rights including the right to marry without their masters' permission. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_164

Scottish explorer Mungo Park wrote: Atlantic slave trade_sentence_165

In the Americas, slaves were denied the right to marry freely and masters did not generally accept them as equal members of the family. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_166

New World slaves were considered the property of their owners, and slaves convicted of revolt or murder were executed. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_167

Slave market regions and participation Atlantic slave trade_section_11

There were eight principal areas used by Europeans to buy and ship slaves to the Western Hemisphere. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_168

The number of enslaved people sold to the New World varied throughout the slave trade. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_169

As for the distribution of slaves from regions of activity, certain areas produced far more enslaved people than others. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_170

Between 1650 and 1900, 10.2 million enslaved Africans arrived in the Americas from the following regions in the following proportions: Atlantic slave trade_sentence_171

Atlantic slave trade_unordered_list_0

Although the slave trade was largely global, there was considerable intracontinental slave trade in which 8 million people were enslaved within the African continent. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_172

Of those who did move out of Africa, 8 million were forced out of Eastern Africa to be sent to Asia. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_173

African kingdoms of the era Atlantic slave trade_section_12

There were over 173 city-states and kingdoms in the African regions affected by the slave trade between 1502 and 1853, when Brazil became the last Atlantic import nation to outlaw the slave trade. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_174

Of those 173, no fewer than 68 could be deemed nation states with political and military infrastructures that enabled them to dominate their neighbours. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_175

Nearly every present-day nation had a pre-colonial predecessor, sometimes an African empire with which European traders had to barter. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_176

Ethnic groups Atlantic slave trade_section_13

The different ethnic groups brought to the Americas closely correspond to the regions of heaviest activity in the slave trade. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_177

Over 45 distinct ethnic groups were taken to the Americas during the trade. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_178

Of the 45, the ten most prominent, according to slave documentation of the era are listed below. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_179

Atlantic slave trade_ordered_list_1

  1. The BaKongo of the Democratic Republic of Congo and AngolaAtlantic slave trade_item_1_8
  2. The Mandé of Upper GuineaAtlantic slave trade_item_1_9
  3. The Gbe speakers of Togo, Ghana, and Benin (Adja, Mina, Ewe, Fon)Atlantic slave trade_item_1_10
  4. The Akan of Ghana and Ivory CoastAtlantic slave trade_item_1_11
  5. The Wolof of Senegal and the GambiaAtlantic slave trade_item_1_12
  6. The Igbo of southeastern NigeriaAtlantic slave trade_item_1_13
  7. The Mbundu of Angola (includes both Ambundu and Ovimbundu)Atlantic slave trade_item_1_14
  8. The Yoruba of southwestern NigeriaAtlantic slave trade_item_1_15
  9. The Chamba of CameroonAtlantic slave trade_item_1_16
  10. The Makua of MozambiqueAtlantic slave trade_item_1_17

Human toll Atlantic slave trade_section_14

The transatlantic slave trade resulted in a vast and as yet unknown loss of life for African captives both in and outside the Americas. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_180

"More than a million people are thought to have died" during their transport to the New World according to a BBC report. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_181

More died soon after their arrival. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_182

The number of lives lost in the procurement of slaves remains a mystery but may equal or exceed the number who survived to be enslaved. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_183

The savage nature of the trade led to the destruction of individuals and cultures. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_184

The following figures do not include deaths of enslaved Africans as a result of their labour, slave revolts, or diseases suffered while living among New World populations. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_185

Historian Ana Lucia Araujo has noted that the process of enslavement did not end with arrival on Western Hemisphere shores; the different paths taken by the individuals and groups who were victims of the Atlantic slave trade were influenced by different factors—including the disembarking region, the ability to be sold on the market, the kind of work performed, gender, age, religion, and language. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_186

Patrick Manning estimates that about 12 million slaves entered the Atlantic trade between the 16th and 19th century, but about 1.5 million died on board ship. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_187

About 10.5 million slaves arrived in the Americas. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_188

Besides the slaves who died on the Middle Passage, more Africans likely died during the slave raids in Africa and forced marches to ports. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_189

Manning estimates that 4 million died inside Africa after capture, and many more died young. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_190

Manning's estimate covers the 12 million who were originally destined for the Atlantic, as well as the 6 million destined for Asian slave markets and the 8 million destined for African markets. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_191

Of the slaves shipped to The Americas, the largest share went to Brazil and the Caribbean. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_192

African conflicts Atlantic slave trade_section_15

According to Kimani Nehusi, the presence of European slavers affected the way in which the legal code in African societies responded to offenders. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_193

Crimes traditionally punishable by some other form of punishment became punishable by enslavement and sale to slave traders. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_194

According to David Stannard's American Holocaust, 50% of African deaths occurred in Africa as a result of wars between native kingdoms, which produced the majority of slaves. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_195

This includes not only those who died in battles but also those who died as a result of forced marches from inland areas to slave ports on the various coasts. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_196

The practice of enslaving enemy combatants and their villages was widespread throughout Western and West Central Africa, although wars were rarely started to procure slaves. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_197

The slave trade was largely a by-product of tribal and state warfare as a way of removing potential dissidents after victory or financing future wars. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_198

However, some African groups proved particularly adept and brutal at the practice of enslaving, such as Bono State, Oyo, Benin, Igala, Kaabu, Asanteman, Dahomey, the Aro Confederacy and the Imbangala war bands. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_199

In letters written by the Manikongo, Nzinga Mbemba Afonso, to the King João III of Portugal, he writes that Portuguese merchandise flowing in is what is fueling the trade in Africans. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_200

He requests the King of Portugal to stop sending merchandise but should only send missionaries. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_201

In one of his letters he writes: Atlantic slave trade_sentence_202

Before the arrival of the Portuguese, slavery had already existed in the Kingdom of Kongo. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_203

Afonso I of Kongo believed that the slave trade should be subject to Kongo law. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_204

When he suspected the Portuguese of receiving illegally enslaved persons to sell, he wrote to King João III in 1526 imploring him to put a stop to the practice. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_205

The kings of Dahomey sold war captives into transatlantic slavery; they would otherwise have been killed in a ceremony known as the Annual Customs. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_206

As one of West Africa's principal slave states, Dahomey became extremely unpopular with neighbouring peoples. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_207

Like the Bambara Empire to the east, the Khasso kingdoms depended heavily on the slave trade for their economy. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_208

A family's status was indicated by the number of slaves it owned, leading to wars for the sole purpose of taking more captives. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_209

This trade led the Khasso into increasing contact with the European settlements of Africa's west coast, particularly the French. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_210

Benin grew increasingly rich during the 16th and 17th centuries on the slave trade with Europe; slaves from enemy states of the interior were sold and carried to the Americas in Dutch and Portuguese ships. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_211

The Bight of Benin's shore soon came to be known as the "Slave Coast". Atlantic slave trade_sentence_212

King Gezo of Dahomey said in the 1840s: Atlantic slave trade_sentence_213

In 1807, the UK Parliament passed the Bill that abolished the trading of slaves. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_214

The King of Bonny (now in Nigeria) was horrified at the conclusion of the practice: Atlantic slave trade_sentence_215

Port factories Atlantic slave trade_section_16

After being marched to the coast for sale, enslaved people were held in large forts called factories. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_216

The amount of time in factories varied, but Milton Meltzer states in Slavery: A World History that around 4.5% of deaths attributed to the transatlantic slave trade occurred during this phase. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_217

In other words, over 820,000 people are believed to have died in African ports such as Benguela, Elmina, and Bonny, reducing the number of those shipped to 17.5 million. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_218

Atlantic shipment Atlantic slave trade_section_17

After being captured and held in the factories, slaves entered the infamous Middle Passage. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_219

Meltzer's research puts this phase of the slave trade's overall mortality at 12.5%. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_220

Their deaths were the result of brutal treatment and poor care from the time of their capture and throughout their voyage. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_221

Around 2.2 million Africans died during these voyages, where they were packed into tight, unsanitary spaces on ships for months at a time. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_222

Measures were taken to stem the onboard mortality rate, such as enforced "dancing" (as exercise) above deck and the practice of force-feeding enslaved persons who tried to starve themselves. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_223

The conditions on board also resulted in the spread of fatal diseases. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_224

Other fatalities were suicides, slaves who escaped by jumping overboard. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_225

The slave traders would try to fit anywhere from 350 to 600 slaves on one ship. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_226

Before the African slave trade was completely banned by participating nations in 1853, 15.3 million enslaved people had arrived in the Americas. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_227

Raymond L. Cohn, an economics professor whose research has focused on economic history and international migration, has researched the mortality rates among Africans during the voyages of the Atlantic slave trade. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_228

He found that mortality rates decreased over the history of the slave trade, primarily because the length of time necessary for the voyage was declining. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_229

"In the eighteenth century many slave voyages took at least 2½ months. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_230

In the nineteenth century, 2 months appears to have been the maximum length of the voyage, and many voyages were far shorter. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_231

Fewer slaves died in the Middle Passage over time mainly because the passage was shorter." Atlantic slave trade_sentence_232

Despite the vast profits of slavery, the ordinary sailors on slave ships were badly paid and subject to harsh discipline. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_233

Mortality of around 20%, a number similar and sometimes greater than those of the slaves, was expected in a ship's crew during the course of a voyage; this was due to disease, flogging, overwork, or slave uprisings. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_234

Disease (malaria or yellow fever) was the most common cause of death among sailors. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_235

A high crew mortality rate on the return voyage was in the captain's interests as it reduced the number of sailors who had to be paid on reaching the home port. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_236

The slave trade was hated by many sailors, and those who joined the crews of slave ships often did so through coercion or because they could find no other employment. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_237

Seasoning camps Atlantic slave trade_section_18

Meltzer also states that 33% of Africans would have died in the first year at the seasoning camps found throughout the Caribbean. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_238

Jamaica held one of the most notorious of these camps. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_239

Dysentery was the leading cause of death. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_240

Captives who could not be sold were inevitably destroyed. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_241

Around 5 million Africans died in these camps, reducing the number of survivors to about 10 million. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_242

Diseases Atlantic slave trade_section_19

Many diseases, each capable of killing a large minority or even a majority of a new human population, arrived in the Americas after 1492. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_243

They include smallpox, malaria, bubonic plague, typhus, influenza, measles, diphtheria, yellow fever, and whooping cough. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_244

During the Atlantic slave trade following the discovery of the New World, diseases such as these are recorded as causing mass mortality. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_245

Evolutionary history may also have played a role in resisting the diseases of the slave trade. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_246

Compared to African and Europeans, New World populations did not have a history of exposure to diseases such as malaria, and therefore, no genetic resistance had been produced as a result of adaptation through natural selection. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_247

Levels and extent of immunity varies from disease to disease. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_248

For smallpox and measles for example, those who survive are equipped with the immunity to combat the disease for the rest of their life in that they cannot contract the disease again. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_249

There are also diseases, such as malaria, which do not confer effective lasting immunity. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_250

Smallpox Atlantic slave trade_section_20

Epidemics of smallpox were known for causing a significant decrease in the indigenous population of the New World. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_251

The effects on survivors included pockmarks on the skin which left deep scars, commonly causing significant disfigurement. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_252

Some Europeans, who believed the plague of syphilis in Europe to have come from the Americas, saw smallpox as the European revenge against the Natives. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_253

Africans and Europeans, unlike the native population, often had lifelong immunity, because they had often been exposed to minor forms of the illness such as cowpox or variola minor disease in childhood. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_254

By the late 16th century there existed some forms of inoculation and variolation in Africa and the Middle East. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_255

One practice features Arab traders in Africa "buying-off" the disease in which a cloth that had been previously exposed to the sickness was to be tied to another child's arm to increase immunity. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_256

Another practice involved taking pus from a smallpox scab and putting it in the cut of a healthy individual in an attempt to have a mild case of the disease in the future rather than the effects becoming fatal. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_257

European competition Atlantic slave trade_section_21

The trade of enslaved Africans in the Atlantic has its origins in the explorations of Portuguese mariners down the coast of West Africa in the 15th century. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_258

Before that, contact with African slave markets was made to ransom Portuguese who had been captured by the intense North African Barbary pirate attacks on Portuguese ships and coastal villages, frequently leaving them depopulated. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_259

The first Europeans to use enslaved Africans in the New World were the Spaniards, who sought auxiliaries for their conquest expeditions and labourers on islands such as Cuba and Hispaniola. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_260

The alarming decline in the native population had spurred the first royal laws protecting them (Laws of Burgos, 1512–13). Atlantic slave trade_sentence_261

The first enslaved Africans arrived in Hispaniola in 1501. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_262

After Portugal had succeeded in establishing sugar plantations (engenhos) in northern Brazil c. 1545, Portuguese merchants on the West African coast began to supply enslaved Africans to the sugar planters. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_263

While at first these planters had relied almost exclusively on the native Tupani for slave labour, after 1570 they began importing Africans, as a series of epidemics had decimated the already destabilized Tupani communities. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_264

By 1630, Africans had replaced the Tupani as the largest contingent of labour on Brazilian sugar plantations. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_265

This ended the European medieval household tradition of slavery, resulted in Brazil's receiving the most enslaved Africans, and revealed sugar cultivation and processing as the reason that roughly 84% of these Africans were shipped to the New World. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_266

As Britain rose in naval power and settled continental North America and some islands of the West Indies, they became the leading slave traders. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_267

At one stage the trade was the monopoly of the Royal Africa Company, operating out of London. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_268

But, following the loss of the company's monopoly in 1689, Bristol and Liverpool merchants became increasingly involved in the trade. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_269

By the late 17th century, one out of every four ships that left Liverpool harbour was a slave trading ship. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_270

Much of the wealth on which the city of Manchester, and surrounding towns, was built in the late 18th century, and for much of the 19th century, was based on the processing of slave-picked cotton and manufacture of cloth. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_271

Other British cities also profited from the slave trade. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_272

Birmingham, the largest gun-producing town in Britain at the time, supplied guns to be traded for slaves. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_273

75% of all sugar produced in the plantations was sent to London, and much of it was consumed in the highly lucrative coffee houses there. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_274

New World destinations Atlantic slave trade_section_22

The first slaves to arrive as part of a labour force in the New World reached the island of Hispaniola (now Haiti and the Dominican Republic) in 1502. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_275

Cuba received its first four slaves in 1513. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_276

Jamaica received its first shipment of 4000 slaves in 1518. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_277

Slave exports to Honduras and Guatemala started in 1526. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_278

The first enslaved Africans to reach what would become the United States arrived in July 1526 as part of a Spanish attempt to colonize San Miguel de Gualdape. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_279

By November the 300 Spanish colonists were reduced to 100, and their slaves from 100 to 70. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_280

The enslaved people revolted in 1526 and joined a nearby Native American tribe, while the Spanish abandoned the colony altogether (1527). Atlantic slave trade_sentence_281

The area of the future Colombia received its first enslaved people in 1533. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_282

El Salvador, Costa Rica and Florida began their stints in the slave trade in 1541, 1563 and 1581, respectively. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_283

The 17th century saw an increase in shipments. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_284

Africans were brought to Point Comfort – several miles downriver from the English colony of Jamestown, Virginia – in 1619. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_285

The first kidnapped Africans in English North America were classed as indentured servants and freed after seven years. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_286

Virginia law codified chattel slavery in 1656, and in 1662 the colony adopted the principle of partus sequitur ventrem, which classified children of slave mothers as slaves, regardless of paternity. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_287

In addition to African persons, indigenous peoples of the Americas were trafficked through Atlantic trade routes. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_288

The 1677 work , for example, documents English colonial prisoners of war (not, in fact, opposing combatants, but imprisoned members of English-allied forces) being enslaved and sent to Caribbean destinations. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_289

Captive indigenous opponents, including women and children, were also sold into slavery at a substantial profit, to be transported to West Indies colonies. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_290

By 1802, Russian colonists noted that "Boston" (U.S.-based) skippers were trading African slaves for otter pelts with the Tlingit people in Southeast Alaska. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_291

Atlantic slave trade_table_general_0

Distribution of slaves (1519–1867)Atlantic slave trade_table_caption_0
DestinationAtlantic slave trade_header_cell_0_0_0 PercentAtlantic slave trade_header_cell_0_0_1
Portuguese AmericaAtlantic slave trade_cell_0_1_0 38.5%Atlantic slave trade_cell_0_1_1
British West IndiesAtlantic slave trade_cell_0_2_0 18.4%Atlantic slave trade_cell_0_2_1
Spanish EmpireAtlantic slave trade_cell_0_3_0 17.5%Atlantic slave trade_cell_0_3_1
French AmericasAtlantic slave trade_cell_0_4_0 13.6%Atlantic slave trade_cell_0_4_1
English/British North America / United StatesAtlantic slave trade_cell_0_5_0 9.7%Atlantic slave trade_cell_0_5_1
Dutch West IndiesAtlantic slave trade_cell_0_6_0 2.0%Atlantic slave trade_cell_0_6_1
Danish West IndiesAtlantic slave trade_cell_0_7_0 0.3%Atlantic slave trade_cell_0_7_1

Notes: Atlantic slave trade_sentence_292

Atlantic slave trade_unordered_list_2

  • Before 1820, the number of enslaved Africans transported across the Atlantic to the New World was triple the number of Europeans who reached North and South American shores. At the time this was the largest oceanic displacement or migration in history, eclipsing even the far-flung, but less-dense, expansion of Austronesian-Polynesian explorers.Atlantic slave trade_item_2_18
  • The number of Africans who arrived in each region is calculated from the total number of slaves imported, about 10,000,000.Atlantic slave trade_item_2_19
  • Includes British Guiana and British HondurasAtlantic slave trade_item_2_20

Atlantic slave trade_unordered_list_3

  • Atlantic slave trade_item_3_21
  • Atlantic slave trade_item_3_22
  • Atlantic slave trade_item_3_23

Economics of slavery Atlantic slave trade_section_23

In France in the 18th century, returns for investors in plantations averaged around 6%; as compared to 5% for most domestic alternatives, this represented a 20% profit advantage. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_293

Risks—maritime and commercial—were important for individual voyages. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_294

Investors mitigated it by buying small shares of many ships at the same time. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_295

In that way, they were able to diversify a large part of the risk away. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_296

Between voyages, ship shares could be freely sold and bought. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_297

By far the most financially profitable West Indian colonies in 1800 belonged to the United Kingdom. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_298

After entering the sugar colony business late, British naval supremacy and control over key islands such as Jamaica, Trinidad, the Leeward Islands and Barbados and the territory of British Guiana gave it an important edge over all competitors; while many British did not make gains, a handful of individuals made small fortunes. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_299

This advantage was reinforced when France lost its most important colony, St. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_300 Domingue (western Hispaniola, now Haiti), to a slave revolt in 1791 and supported revolts against its rival Britain, in the name of liberty after the 1793 French revolution. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_301

Before 1791, British sugar had to be protected to compete against cheaper French sugar. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_302

After 1791, the British islands produced the most sugar, and the British people quickly became the largest consumers. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_303

West Indian sugar became ubiquitous as an additive to Indian tea. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_304

It has been estimated that the profits of the slave trade and of West Indian plantations created up to one-in-twenty of every pound circulating in the British economy at the time of the Industrial Revolution in the latter half of the 18th century. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_305

Effects Atlantic slave trade_section_24

Historian Walter Rodney has argued that at the start of the slave trade in the 16th century, although there was a technological gap between Europe and Africa, it was not very substantial. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_306

Both continents were using Iron Age technology. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_307

The major advantage that Europe had was in ship building. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_308

During the period of slavery, the populations of Europe and the Americas grew exponentially, while the population of Africa remained stagnant. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_309

Rodney contended that the profits from slavery were used to fund economic growth and technological advancement in Europe and the Americas. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_310

Based on earlier theories by Eric Williams, he asserted that the industrial revolution was at least in part funded by agricultural profits from the Americas. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_311

He cited examples such as the invention of the steam engine by James Watt, which was funded by plantation owners from the Caribbean. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_312

Other historians have attacked both Rodney's methodology and accuracy. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_313

Joseph C. Miller has argued that the social change and demographic stagnation (which he researched on the example of West Central Africa) was caused primarily by domestic factors. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_314

Joseph Inikori provided a new line of argument, estimating counterfactual demographic developments in case the Atlantic slave trade had not existed. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_315

Patrick Manning has shown that the slave trade did have a profound impact on African demographics and social institutions, but criticized Inikori's approach for not taking other factors (such as famine and drought) into account, and thus being highly speculative. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_316

Effect on the economy of West Africa Atlantic slave trade_section_25

No scholars dispute the harm done to the enslaved people but the effect of the trade on African societies is much debated, due to the apparent influx of goods to Africans. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_317

Proponents of the slave trade, such as Archibald Dalzel, argued that African societies were robust and not much affected by the trade. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_318

In the 19th century, European abolitionists, most prominently Dr. David Livingstone, took the opposite view, arguing that the fragile local economy and societies were being severely harmed by the trade. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_319

Because the negative effects of slavery on the economies of Africa have been well documented, namely the significant decline in population, some African rulers likely saw an economic benefit from trading their subjects with European slave traders. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_320

With the exception of Portuguese-controlled Angola, coastal African leaders "generally controlled access to their coasts, and were able to prevent direct enslavement of their subjects and citizens". Atlantic slave trade_sentence_321

Thus, as African scholar John Thornton argues, African leaders who allowed the continuation of the slave trade likely derived an economic benefit from selling their subjects to Europeans. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_322

The Kingdom of Benin, for instance, participated in the African slave trade, at will, from 1715 to 1735, surprising Dutch traders, who had not expected to buy slaves in Benin. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_323

The benefit derived from trading slaves for European goods was enough to make the Kingdom of Benin rejoin the trans-Atlantic slave trade after centuries of non-participation. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_324

Such benefits included military technology (specifically guns and gunpowder), gold, or simply maintaining amicable trade relationships with European nations. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_325

The slave trade was, therefore, a means for some African elites to gain economic advantages. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_326

Historian Walter Rodney estimates that by c.1770, the King of Dahomey was earning an estimated £250,000 per year by selling captive African soldiers and enslaved people to the European slave-traders. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_327

Many West African countries also already had a tradition of holding slaves, which was expanded into trade with Europeans. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_328

The Atlantic trade brought new crops to Africa and also more efficient currencies which were adopted by the West African merchants. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_329

This can be interpreted as an institutional reform which reduced the cost of doing business. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_330

But the developmental benefits were limited as long as the business including slaving. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_331

Both Thornton and Fage contend that while African political elite may have ultimately benefited from the slave trade, their decision to participate may have been influenced more by what they could lose by not participating. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_332

In Fage's article "Slavery and the Slave Trade in the Context of West African History", he notes that for West Africans "... there were really few effective means of mobilizing labour for the economic and political needs of the state" without the slave trade. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_333

Effects on the British economy Atlantic slave trade_section_26

Further information: Historiography of the British Empire § Slavery Atlantic slave trade_sentence_334

Historian Eric Williams in 1944 argued that the profits that Britain received from its sugar colonies, or from the slave trade between Africa and the Caribbean, contributed to the financing of Britain's industrial revolution. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_335

However, he says that by the time of the abolition of the slave trade in 1807, and the emancipation of the slaves in 1833, the sugar plantations of the British West Indies had lost their profitability, and it was in Britain's economic interest to emancipate the slaves. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_336

Other researchers and historians have strongly contested what has come to be referred to as the "Williams thesis" in academia. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_337

David Richardson has concluded that the profits from the slave trade amounted to less than 1% of domestic investment in Britain. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_338

Economic historian Stanley Engerman finds that even without subtracting the associated costs of the slave trade (e.g., shipping costs, slave mortality, mortality of British people in Africa, defense costs) or reinvestment of profits back into the slave trade, the total profits from the slave trade and of West Indian plantations amounted to less than 5% of the British economy during any year of the Industrial Revolution. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_339

Engerman's 5% figure gives as much as possible in terms of benefit of the doubt to the Williams argument, not solely because it does not take into account the associated costs of the slave trade to Britain, but also because it carries the full-employment assumption from economics and holds the gross value of slave trade profits as a direct contribution to Britain's national income. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_340

Historian Richard Pares, in an article written before Williams' book, dismisses the influence of wealth generated from the West Indian plantations upon the financing of the Industrial Revolution, stating that whatever substantial flow of investment from West Indian profits into industry there occurred after emancipation, not before. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_341

However, each of these works focus primarily on the slave trade or the Industrial Revolution, and not the main body of the Williams thesis, which was on sugar and slavery itself. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_342

Therefore, they do not refute the main body of the Williams thesis. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_343

Seymour Drescher and Robert Anstey argue the slave trade remained profitable until the end, and that moralistic reform, not economic incentive, was primarily responsible for abolition. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_344

They say slavery remained profitable in the 1830s because of innovations in agriculture. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_345

However, Drescher's Econocide wraps up its study in 1823, and does not address the majority of the Williams thesis, which covers the decline of the sugar plantations after 1823, the emancipation of the slaves in the 1830s, and the subsequent abolition of sugar duties in the 1840s. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_346

These arguments do not refute the main body of the Williams thesis, which presents economic data to show that the slave trade was minor compared to the wealth generated by sugar and slavery itself in the British Caribbean. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_347

Karl Marx, in his influential economic history of capitalism, Das Kapital, wrote that "... the turning of Africa into a warren for the commercial hunting of black-skins, signaled the rosy dawn of the era of capitalist production". Atlantic slave trade_sentence_348

He argued that the slave trade was part of what he termed the "primitive accumulation" of capital, the 'non-capitalist' accumulation of wealth that preceded and created the financial conditions for Britain's industrialisation. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_349

Demographics Atlantic slave trade_section_27

The demographic effects of the slave trade is a controversial and highly debated issue. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_350

Although scholars such as Paul Adams and Erick D. Langer have estimated that sub-Saharan Africa represented about 18 percent of the world's population in 1600 and only 6 percent in 1900, the reasons for this demographic shift have been the subject of much debate. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_351

In addition to the depopulation Africa experienced because of the slave trade, African nations were left with severely imbalanced gender ratios, with females comprising up to 65 percent of the population in hard-hit areas such as Angola. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_352

Moreover, many scholars (such as Barbara N. Ramusack) have suggested a link between the prevalence of prostitution in Africa today with the temporary marriages that were enforced during the course of the slave trade. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_353

Walter Rodney argued that the export of so many people had been a demographic disaster which left Africa permanently disadvantaged when compared to other parts of the world, and it largely explains the continent's continued poverty. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_354

He presented numbers showing that Africa's population stagnated during this period, while those of Europe and Asia grew dramatically. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_355

According to Rodney, all other areas of the economy were disrupted by the slave trade as the top merchants abandoned traditional industries in order to pursue slaving, and the lower levels of the population were disrupted by the slaving itself. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_356

Others have challenged this view. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_357

J. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_358 D. Fage compared the demographic effect on the continent as a whole. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_359

David Eltis has compared the numbers to the rate of emigration from Europe during this period. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_360

In the 19th century alone over 50 million people left Europe for the Americas, a far higher rate than were ever taken from Africa. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_361

Other scholars accused Walter Rodney of mischaracterizing the trade between Africans and Europeans. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_362

They argue that Africans, or more accurately African elites, deliberately let European traders join in an already large trade in enslaved people and that they were not patronized. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_363

As Joseph E. Inikori argues, the history of the region shows that the effects were still quite deleterious. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_364

He argues that the African economic model of the period was very different from the European model, and could not sustain such population losses. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_365

Population reductions in certain areas also led to widespread problems. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_366

Inikori also notes that after the suppression of the slave trade Africa's population almost immediately began to rapidly increase, even prior to the introduction of modern medicines. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_367

Legacy of racism Atlantic slave trade_section_28

Walter Rodney states: Atlantic slave trade_sentence_368

Eric Williams argued that "A racial twist [was] given to what is basically an economic phenomenon. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_369

Slavery was not born of racism: rather, racism was the consequence of slavery." Atlantic slave trade_sentence_370

However, the belief that Caucasian Europeans were divinely ordained by an omnipotent Judeo-Christian God as 'superior' to other human races with darker skin, a major tenant of the White supremacy movement, was one of the basic perceptions that would allow industrial-scale slavery across the Atlantic to thrive. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_371

In the Americas therefore, slavery and racism seem to have strenghtened each other. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_372

This would still have to be compared to racism in other parts of the world, as there was also Slavery in China and India for ages. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_373

Russia's over 23 million privately held serfs were freed from their lords by an edict of Alexander II in 1861. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_374

The owners were compensated through taxes on the freed serfs. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_375

State serfs were emancipated in 1866. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_376

The common decisive factor seems to be saving money on the overall cost of labor. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_377

Similarly, John Darwin writes "The rapid conversion from white indentured labour to black slavery... made the English Caribbean a frontier of civility where English (later British) ideas about race and slave labour were ruthlessly adapted to local self-interest...Indeed, the root justification for the system of slavery and the savage apparatus of coercion on which its preservation depended was the ineradicable barbarism of the slave population, a product, it was argued, of its African origins". Atlantic slave trade_sentence_378

End of the Atlantic slave trade Atlantic slave trade_section_29

Main article: Abolitionism Atlantic slave trade_sentence_379

See also: Blockade of Africa Atlantic slave trade_sentence_380

In Britain, America, Portugal and in parts of Europe, opposition developed against the slave trade. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_381

Davis says that abolitionists assumed "that an end to slave imports would lead automatically to the amelioration and gradual abolition of slavery". Atlantic slave trade_sentence_382

In Britain and America, opposition to the trade was led by the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers) and establishment Evangelicals such as William Wilberforce. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_383

Many people joined the movement and they began to protest against the trade, but they were opposed by the owners of the colonial holdings. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_384

Following Lord Mansfield's decision in 1772, many abolitionists and slave-holders believed that slaves became free upon entering the British isles. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_385

However, in reality slavery continued in Britain right up to abolition in the 1830s. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_386

The Mansfield ruling on Somerset v Stewart only decreed that a slave could not be transported out of England against his will. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_387

Under the leadership of Thomas Jefferson, the new state of Virginia in 1778 became the first state and one of the first jurisdictions anywhere to stop the importation of slaves for sale; it made it a crime for traders to bring in slaves from out of state or from overseas for sale; migrants from within the United States were allowed to bring their own slaves. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_388

The new law freed all slaves brought in illegally after its passage and imposed heavy fines on violators. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_389

All the other states in the United States followed suit, although South Carolina reopened its slave trade in 1803. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_390

Denmark, which had been active in the slave trade, was the first country to ban the trade through legislation in 1792, which took effect in 1803. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_391

Britain banned the slave trade in 1807, imposing stiff fines for any slave found aboard a British ship (see Slave Trade Act 1807). Atlantic slave trade_sentence_392

The Royal Navy moved to stop other nations from continuing the slave trade and declared that slaving was equal to piracy and was punishable by death. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_393

The United States Congress passed the Slave Trade Act of 1794, which prohibited the building or outfitting of ships in the U.S. for use in the slave trade. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_394

The U.S. Constitution barred a federal prohibition on importing slaves for 20 years; at that time the Act Prohibiting Importation of Slaves prohibited imports on the first day the Constitution permitted: January 1, 1808. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_395

British abolitionism Atlantic slave trade_section_30

William Wilberforce was a driving force in the British Parliament in the fight against the slave trade in the British Empire. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_396

The British abolitionists focused on the slave trade, arguing that the trade was not necessary for the economic success of sugar on the British West Indian colonies. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_397

This argument was accepted by wavering politicians, who did not want to destroy the valuable and important sugar colonies of the British Caribbean. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_398

The British parliament was also concerned about the success of the Haitian Revolution, and they believed they had to abolish the trade to prevent a similar conflagration from occurring in a British Caribbean colony. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_399

On 22 February 1807, the House of Commons passed a motion 283 votes to 16 to abolish the Atlantic slave trade. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_400

Hence, the slave trade was abolished, but not the still-economically viable institution of slavery itself, which provided Britain's most lucrative import at the time, sugar. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_401

Abolitionists did not move against sugar and slavery itself until after the sugar industry went into terminal decline after 1823. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_402

The United States passed its own Act Prohibiting Importation of Slaves the very next week (March 2, 1807), although probably without mutual consultation. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_403

The act only took effect on the first day of 1808; since a compromise clause in the US Constitution (Article 1, Section 9, Clause 1) prohibited restrictions on the slave trade before 1808. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_404

The United States did not, however, abolish its internal slave trade, which became the dominant mode of US slave trading until the 1860s. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_405

In 1805 the British Order-in-Council had restricted the importation of slaves into colonies that had been captured from France and the Netherlands. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_406

Britain continued to press other nations to end its trade; in 1810 an Anglo-Portuguese treaty was signed whereby Portugal agreed to restrict its trade into its colonies; an 1813 Anglo-Swedish treaty whereby Sweden outlawed its slave trade; the Treaty of Paris 1814 where France agreed with Britain that the trade is "repugnant to the principles of natural justice" and agreed to abolish the slave trade in five years; the 1814 Anglo-Netherlands treaty where the Dutch outlawed its slave trade. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_407

Castlereagh and Palmerston's diplomacy Atlantic slave trade_section_31

Abolitionist opinion in Britain was strong enough in 1807 to abolish the slave trade in all British possessions, although slavery itself persisted in the colonies until 1833. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_408

Abolitionists after 1807 focused on international agreements to abolish the slave trade. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_409

Foreign Minister Castlereagh switched his position and became a strong supporter of the movement. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_410

Britain arrange treaties with Portugal Sweden and Denmark, 1810–1814, whereby they agreed to end or restrict their trading. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_411

These were preliminary to the Congress of Vienna negotiations that Castlereagh dominated and which resulted in a general declaration condemning the slave trade. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_412

The problem was that the treaties and declarations were hard to enforce, given the very high profits available to private interests. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_413

As Foreign Minister, Castlereagh cooperated with senior officials to use the Royal Navy to detect and capture slave ships. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_414

He used diplomacy to make search and seize agreements with all the government whose ships were trading. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_415

There was serious friction with the United States, where the southern slave interest was politically powerful. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_416

Washington recoiled at British policing of the high seas. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_417

Spain, France, and Portugal also relied on the international slave trade to supply their colonial plantations. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_418

As more and more diplomatic arrangements were made by Castlereagh, the owners of slave ships started flying false flags of nations that had not agreed, especially the United States. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_419

It was illegal under American law for American ships to engage in the slave trade, but the idea of Britain enforcing American laws was unacceptable to Washington. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_420

Lord Palmerston and other British foreign ministers continued the Castlereagh policies. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_421

Eventually, in 1842 in 1845, an arrangement was reached between London and Washington. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_422

With the arrival of a staunchly anti-slavery government in Washington in 1861, the Atlantic slave trade was doomed. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_423

In the long run, Castlereagh's strategy on how to stifle the slave trade proved successful. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_424

Prime Minister Palmerston detested slavery, and in Nigeria in 1851 he took advantage of divisions in native politics, the presence of Christian missionaries, and the maneuvers of British consul John Beecroft to encourage the overthrow of King Kosoko. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_425

The new King Akitoye was a docile nonslave-trading puppet. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_426

British Royal Navy Atlantic slave trade_section_32

The Royal Navy's West Africa Squadron, established in 1808, grew by 1850 to a force of some 25 vessels, which were tasked with combating slavery along the African coast. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_427

Between 1807 and 1860, the Royal Navy's Squadron seized approximately 1,600 ships involved in the slave trade and freed 150,000 Africans who were aboard these vessels. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_428

Several hundred slaves a year were transported by the navy to the British colony of Sierra Leone, where they were made to serve as "apprentices" in the colonial economy until the Slavery Abolition Act 1833. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_429

Last slave ship to the United States Atlantic slave trade_section_33

Even though it was prohibited, after and in response to the North's reluctance or refusal to enforce the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850, the Atlantic slave trade was "re-opened by way of retaliation". Atlantic slave trade_sentence_430

In 1859, "the trade in slaves from Africa to the Southern coast of the United States is now carried on in defiance of Federal law and of the Federal Government." Atlantic slave trade_sentence_431

The last known slave ship to land on U.S. soil was the Clotilda, which in 1859 illegally smuggled a number of Africans into the town of Mobile, Alabama. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_432

The Africans on board were sold as slaves; however, slavery in the U.S. was abolished five years later following the end of the American Civil War in 1865. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_433

Cudjoe Lewis, who died in 1935, was long believed to be the last survivor of Clotilda and the last surviving slave brought from Africa to the United States, but recent research has found that two other survivors from Clotilda outlived him, Redoshi (who died in 1937) and Matilda McCrear (who died in 1940). Atlantic slave trade_sentence_434

Brazil ends the Atlantic slave ttade Atlantic slave trade_section_34

The last country to ban the Atlantic slave trade was Brazil in 1831. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_435

However, a vibrant illegal trade continued to ship large numbers of enslaved people to Brazil and also to Cuba until the 1860s, when British enforcement and further diplomacy finally ended the Atlantic slave trade. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_436

In 1870, Portugal ended the last trade route with the Americas, where the last country to import slaves was Brazil. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_437

In Brazil, however, slavery itself was not ended until 1888, making it the last country in the Americas to end involuntary servitude. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_438

Economic motivation to end the slave trade Atlantic slave trade_section_35

The historian Walter Rodney contends that it was a decline in the profitability of the triangular trades that made it possible for certain basic human sentiments to be asserted at the decision-making level in a number of European countries—Britain being the most crucial because it was the greatest carrier of African captives across the Atlantic. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_439

Rodney states that changes in productivity, technology, and patterns of exchange in Europe and the Americas informed the decision by the British to end their participation in the trade in 1807. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_440

In 1809 President James Madison outlawed the slave trade with the United States. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_441

Nevertheless, Michael Hardt and Antonio Negri argue that it was neither a strictly economic nor moral matter. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_442

First, because slavery was (in practice) still beneficial to capitalism, providing not only an influx of capital but also disciplining hardship into workers (a form of "apprenticeship" to the capitalist industrial plant). Atlantic slave trade_sentence_443

The more "recent" argument of a "moral shift" (the basis of the previous lines of this article) is described by Hardt and Negri as an "ideological" apparatus in order to eliminate the sentiment of guilt in western society. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_444

Although moral arguments did play a secondary role, they usually had major resonance when used as a strategy to undercut competitors' profits. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_445

This argument holds that Eurocentric history has been blind to the most important element in this fight for emancipation, precisely, the constant revolt and the antagonism of slaves' revolts. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_446

The most important of those being the Haitian Revolution. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_447

The shock of this revolution in 1804, certainly introduces an essential political argument into the end of the slave trade, which happened only three years later. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_448

However, both James Stephen and Henry Brougham, 1st Baron Brougham and Vaux wrote that the slave trade could be abolished for the benefit of the British colonies, and the latter's pamphlet was often used in parliamentary debates in favour of abolition. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_449

William Pitt the Younger argued on the basis of these writings that the British colonies would be better off, in economics as well as security, if the trade was abolished. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_450

As a result, according to historian Christer Petley, abolitionists argued, and even some absentee plantation owners accepted, that the trade could be abolished "without substantial damage to the plantation economy". Atlantic slave trade_sentence_451

William Grenville, 1st Baron Grenville argued that "the slave population of the colonies could be maintained without it." Atlantic slave trade_sentence_452

Petley points out that government took the decision to abolish the trade "with the express intention of improving, not destroying, the still-lucrative plantation economy of the British West Indies." Atlantic slave trade_sentence_453

Legacy Atlantic slave trade_section_36

African diaspora Atlantic slave trade_section_37

The African diaspora which was created via slavery has been a complex interwoven part of American history and culture. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_454

In the United States, the success of Alex Haley's book Roots: The Saga of an American Family, published in 1976, and Roots, the subsequent television miniseries based upon it, broadcast on the ABC network in January 1977, led to an increased interest and appreciation of African heritage amongst the African-American community. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_455

The influence of these led many African Americans to begin researching their family histories and making visits to West Africa. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_456

For instance, for the essence of the role played by Bono Manso in the Atlantic slave trade, a road sign has been raised for Martin Luther King Jr Village at Manso, presently in Bono East region of Ghana. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_457

In turn, a tourist industry grew up to supply them. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_458

One notable example of this is through the Roots Homecoming Festival held annually in the Gambia, in which rituals are held through which African Americans can symbolically "come home" to Africa. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_459

Issues of dispute have however developed between African Americans and African authorities over how to display historic sites that were involved in the Atlantic slave trade, with prominent voices in the former criticising the latter for not displaying such sites sensitively, but instead treating them as a commercial enterprise. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_460

"Back to Africa" Atlantic slave trade_section_38

Main article: American Colonization Society Atlantic slave trade_sentence_461

In 1816, a group of wealthy European-Americans, some of whom were abolitionists and others who were racial segregationists, founded the American Colonization Society with the express desire of sending African Americans who were in the United States to West Africa. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_462

In 1820, they sent their first ship to Liberia, and within a decade around two thousand African Americans had been settled there. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_463

Such re-settlement continued throughout the 19th century, increasing following the deterioration of race relations in the Southern states of the US following Reconstruction in 1877. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_464

Rastafari movement Atlantic slave trade_section_39

The Rastafari movement, which originated in Jamaica, where 92% of the population are descended from the Atlantic slave trade, has made efforts to publicize the slavery and to ensure it is not forgotten, especially through reggae music. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_465

Apologies Atlantic slave trade_section_40

Worldwide Atlantic slave trade_section_41

In 1998, UNESCO designated 23 August as International Day for the Remembrance of the Slave Trade and its Abolition. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_466

Since then there have been a number of events recognizing the effects of slavery. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_467

At the 2001 World Conference Against Racism in Durban, South Africa, African nations demanded a clear apology for slavery from the former slave-trading countries. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_468

Some nations were ready to express an apology, but the opposition, mainly from the United Kingdom, Portugal, Spain, the Netherlands, and the United States blocked attempts to do so. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_469

A fear of monetary compensation might have been one of the reasons for the opposition. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_470

As of 2009, efforts are underway to create a UN Slavery Memorial as a permanent remembrance of the victims of the Atlantic slave trade. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_471

Benin Atlantic slave trade_section_42

In 1999, President Mathieu Kerekou of Benin (formerly the Kingdom of Dahomey) issued a national apology for the role Africans played in the Atlantic slave trade. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_472

Luc Gnacadja, minister of environment and housing for Benin, later said: "The slave trade is a shame, and we do repent for it." Atlantic slave trade_sentence_473

Researchers estimate that 3 million slaves were exported out of the Slave Coast bordering the Bight of Benin. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_474

France Atlantic slave trade_section_43

On 30 January 2006, Jacques Chirac (the then French President) said that 10 May would henceforth be a national day of remembrance for the victims of slavery in France, marking the day in 2001 when France passed a law recognising slavery as a crime against humanity. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_475

Ghana Atlantic slave trade_section_44

President Jerry Rawlings of Ghana apologized for his country's involvement in the slave trade. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_476

Netherlands Atlantic slave trade_section_45

At a UN conference on the Atlantic slave trade in 2001, the Dutch Minister for Urban Policy and Integration of Ethnic Minorities Roger van Boxtel said that the Netherlands "recognizes the grave injustices of the past." Atlantic slave trade_sentence_477

On 1 July 2013, at the 150th anniversary of the abolition of slavery in the Dutch West Indies, the Dutch government expressed "deep regret and remorse" for the involvement of the Netherlands in the Atlantic slave trade. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_478

The Dutch government has remained short of a formal apology for its involvement in the Atlantic slave trade, as an apology implies that it considers its own actions of the past as unlawful, and could lead to litigation for monetary compensation by descendants of the enslaved. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_479

Nigeria Atlantic slave trade_section_46

In 2009, the Civil Rights Congress of Nigeria has written an open letter to all African chieftains who participated in trade calling for an apology for their role in the Atlantic slave trade: "We cannot continue to blame the white men, as Africans, particularly the traditional rulers, are not blameless. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_480

In view of the fact that the Americans and Europe have accepted the cruelty of their roles and have forcefully apologized, it would be logical, reasonable and humbling if African traditional rulers ... [can] accept blame and formally apologize to the descendants of the victims of their collaborative and exploitative slave trade." Atlantic slave trade_sentence_481

Uganda Atlantic slave trade_section_47

In 1998, President Yoweri Museveni of Uganda called tribal chieftains to apologize for their involvement in the slave trade: "African chiefs were the ones waging war on each other and capturing their own people and selling them. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_482

If anyone should apologise it should be the African chiefs. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_483

We still have those traitors here even today." Atlantic slave trade_sentence_484

United Kingdom Atlantic slave trade_section_48

On 9 December 1999, Liverpool City Council passed a formal motion apologizing for the city's part in the slave trade. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_485

It was unanimously agreed that Liverpool acknowledges its responsibility for its involvement in three centuries of the slave trade. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_486

The City Council has made an unreserved apology for Liverpool's involvement and the continual effect of slavery on Liverpool's black communities. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_487

On 27 November 2006, British Prime Minister Tony Blair made a partial apology for Britain's role in the African slavery trade. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_488

However African rights activists denounced it as "empty rhetoric" that failed to address the issue properly. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_489

They feel his apology stopped shy to prevent any legal retort. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_490

Blair again apologized on 14 March 2007. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_491

On 24 August 2007, Ken Livingstone (Mayor of London) apologized publicly for London's role in the slave trade. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_492

"You can look across there to see the institutions that still have the benefit of the wealth they created from slavery," he said, pointing towards the financial district, before breaking down in tears. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_493

He said that London was still tainted by the horrors of slavery. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_494

Jesse Jackson praised Mayor Livingstone and added that reparations should be made. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_495

United States Atlantic slave trade_section_49

On 24 February 2007, the Virginia General Assembly passed House Joint Resolution Number 728 acknowledging "with profound regret the involuntary servitude of Africans and the exploitation of Native Americans, and call for reconciliation among all Virginians". Atlantic slave trade_sentence_496

With the passing of that resolution, Virginia became the first of the 50 United States to acknowledge through the state's governing body their state's involvement in slavery. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_497

The passing of this resolution came on the heels of the 400th-anniversary celebration of the city of Jamestown, Virginia, which was the first permanent English colony to survive in what would become the United States. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_498

Jamestown is also recognized as one of the first slave ports of the American colonies. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_499

On 31 May 2007, the Governor of Alabama, Bob Riley, signed a resolution expressing "profound regret" for Alabama's role in slavery and apologizing for slavery's wrongs and lingering effects. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_500

Alabama is the fourth state to pass a slavery apology, following votes by the legislatures in Maryland, Virginia, and North Carolina. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_501

On 30 July 2008, the United States House of Representatives passed a resolution apologizing for American slavery and subsequent discriminatory laws. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_502

The language included a reference to the "fundamental injustice, cruelty, brutality and inhumanity of slavery and Jim Crow" segregation. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_503

On 18 June 2009, the United States Senate issued an apologetic statement decrying the "fundamental injustice, cruelty, brutality, and inhumanity of slavery". Atlantic slave trade_sentence_504

The news was welcomed by President Barack Obama. Atlantic slave trade_sentence_505

See also Atlantic slave trade_section_50

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: slave trade.