August Strindberg

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"Strindberg" redirects here. August Strindberg_sentence_0

For other uses, see Strindberg (disambiguation). August Strindberg_sentence_1

"Black Banners" redirects here. August Strindberg_sentence_2

It is not to be confused with Black Banner. August Strindberg_sentence_3

August Strindberg_table_infobox_0

August StrindbergAugust Strindberg_header_cell_0_0_0
BornAugust Strindberg_header_cell_0_1_0 Johan August Strindberg

(1849-01-22)22 January 1849 Stockholm, SwedenAugust Strindberg_cell_0_1_1

DiedAugust Strindberg_header_cell_0_2_0 14 May 1912(1912-05-14) (aged 63)

Stockholm, SwedenAugust Strindberg_cell_0_2_1

Resting placeAugust Strindberg_header_cell_0_3_0 Norra begravningsplatsenAugust Strindberg_cell_0_3_1
OccupationAugust Strindberg_header_cell_0_4_0 August Strindberg_cell_0_4_1
NationalityAugust Strindberg_header_cell_0_5_0 SwedishAugust Strindberg_cell_0_5_1
PeriodAugust Strindberg_header_cell_0_6_0 ModernismAugust Strindberg_cell_0_6_1
Literary movementAugust Strindberg_header_cell_0_7_0 August Strindberg_cell_0_7_1
Notable worksAugust Strindberg_header_cell_0_8_0 August Strindberg_cell_0_8_1
SpouseAugust Strindberg_header_cell_0_9_0 August Strindberg_cell_0_9_1
SignatureAugust Strindberg_header_cell_0_10_0 August Strindberg_cell_0_10_1

Johan August Strindberg (/ˈstrɪn(d)bɜːrɡ/, Swedish: [ˈǒːɡɵst ˈstrɪ̂nːdbærj (listen); 22 January 1849 – 14 May 1912) was a Swedish playwright, novelist, poet, essayist and painter. August Strindberg_sentence_4

A prolific writer who often drew directly on his personal experience, Strindberg's career spanned four decades, during which time he wrote over sixty plays and more than thirty works of fiction, autobiography, history, cultural analysis, and politics. August Strindberg_sentence_5

A bold experimenter and iconoclast throughout, he explored a wide range of dramatic methods and purposes, from naturalistic tragedy, monodrama, and history plays, to his anticipations of expressionist and surrealist dramatic techniques. August Strindberg_sentence_6

From his earliest work, Strindberg developed innovative forms of dramatic action, language, and visual composition. August Strindberg_sentence_7

He is considered the "father" of modern Swedish literature and his The Red Room (1879) has frequently been described as the first modern Swedish novel. August Strindberg_sentence_8

In Sweden, Strindberg is known as an essayist, painter, poet, and especially as a novelist and playwright, but in other countries he is known mostly as a playwright. August Strindberg_sentence_9

The Royal Theatre rejected his first major play, Master Olof, in 1872; it was not until 1881, when he was thirty-two, that its première at the New Theatre gave him his theatrical breakthrough. August Strindberg_sentence_10

In his plays The Father (1887), Miss Julie (1888), and Creditors (1889), he created naturalistic dramas that – building on the established accomplishments of Henrik Ibsen's prose problem plays while rejecting their use of the structure of the well-made play – responded to the call-to-arms of Émile Zola's manifesto "Naturalism in the Theatre" (1881) and the example set by André Antoine's newly established Théâtre Libre (opened 1887). August Strindberg_sentence_11

In Miss Julie, characterisation replaces plot as the predominant dramatic element (in contrast to melodrama and the well-made play) and the determining role of heredity and the environment on the "vacillating, disintegrated" characters is emphasized. August Strindberg_sentence_12

Strindberg modeled his short-lived Scandinavian Experimental Theatre (1889) in Copenhagen on Antoine's theatre and he explored the theory of Naturalism in his essays "On Psychic Murder" (1887), "On Modern Drama and the Modern Theatre" (1889), and a preface to Miss Julie, the last of which is probably the best-known statement of the principles of the theatrical movement. August Strindberg_sentence_13

During the 1890s he spent significant time abroad engaged in scientific experiments and studies of the occult. August Strindberg_sentence_14

A series of apparent psychotic attacks between 1894 and 1896 (referred to as his "Inferno crisis") led to his hospitalization and return to Sweden. August Strindberg_sentence_15

Under the influence of the ideas of Emanuel Swedenborg, he resolved after his recovery to become "the Zola of the Occult". August Strindberg_sentence_16

In 1898 he returned to play-writing with To Damascus, which, like The Great Highway (1909), is a dream-play of spiritual pilgrimage. August Strindberg_sentence_17

His A Dream Play (1902) – with its radical attempt to dramatize the workings of the unconscious by means of an abolition of conventional dramatic time and space and the splitting, doubling, merging, and multiplication of its characters – was an important precursor to both expressionism and surrealism. August Strindberg_sentence_18

He also returned to writing historical drama, the genre with which he had begun his play-writing career. August Strindberg_sentence_19

He helped to run the Intimate Theatre from 1907, a small-scale theatre, modeled on Max Reinhardt's Kammerspielhaus, that staged his chamber plays (such as The Ghost Sonata). August Strindberg_sentence_20

Biography August Strindberg_section_0

Youth August Strindberg_section_1

Strindberg was born on 22 January 1849 in Stockholm, Sweden, the third surviving son of Carl Oscar Strindberg (a shipping agent) and Eleonora Ulrika Norling (a serving-maid). August Strindberg_sentence_21

In his autobiographical novel The Son of a Servant, Strindberg describes a childhood affected by "emotional insecurity, poverty, religious fanaticism and neglect". August Strindberg_sentence_22

When he was seven, Strindberg moved to Norrtullsgatan on the northern, almost-rural periphery of the city. August Strindberg_sentence_23

A year later the family moved near to Sabbatsberg, where they stayed for three years before returning to Norrtullsgatan. August Strindberg_sentence_24

He attended a harsh school in Klara for four years, an experience that haunted him in his adult life. August Strindberg_sentence_25

He was moved to the school in Jakob in 1860, which he found far more pleasant, though he remained there for only a year. August Strindberg_sentence_26

In the autumn of 1861, he was moved to the Stockholm Lyceum, a progressive private school for middle-class boys, where he remained for six years. August Strindberg_sentence_27

As a child he had a keen interest in natural science, photography, and religion (following his mother's Pietism). August Strindberg_sentence_28

His mother, Strindberg recalled later with bitterness, always resented her son's intelligence. August Strindberg_sentence_29

She died when he was thirteen, and although his grief lasted for only three months, in later life he came to feel a sense of loss and longing for an idealized maternal figure. August Strindberg_sentence_30

Less than a year after her death, his father married the children's governess, Emilia Charlotta Pettersson. August Strindberg_sentence_31

According to his sisters, Strindberg came to regard them as his worst enemies. August Strindberg_sentence_32

He passed his graduation exam in May 1867 and enrolled at the Uppsala University, where he began on 13 September. August Strindberg_sentence_33

Strindberg spent the next few years in Uppsala and Stockholm, alternately studying for exams and trying his hand at non-academic pursuits. August Strindberg_sentence_34

As a young student, Strindberg also worked as an assistant in a pharmacy in the university town of Lund in southern Sweden. August Strindberg_sentence_35

He supported himself in between studies as a substitute primary-school teacher and as a tutor for the children of two well-known physicians in Stockholm. August Strindberg_sentence_36

He first left Uppsala in 1868 to work as a schoolteacher, but then studied chemistry for some time at the Institute of Technology in Stockholm in preparation for medical studies, later working as a private tutor before becoming an extra at the Royal Theatre in Stockholm. August Strindberg_sentence_37

In May 1869, he failed his qualifying chemistry exam which in turn made him uninterested in schooling. August Strindberg_sentence_38

1870s August Strindberg_section_2

Strindberg returned to Uppsala University in January 1870 to study aesthetics and modern languages and to work on a number of plays. August Strindberg_sentence_39

It was at this time that he first learnt about the ideas of Charles Darwin. August Strindberg_sentence_40

He co-founded the Rune Society, a small literary club whose members adopted pseudonyms taken from runes of the ancient Teutonic alphabet – Strindberg called himself Frö (Seed), after the god of fertility. August Strindberg_sentence_41

After abandoning a draft of a play about Eric XIV of Sweden halfway through in the face of criticism from the Rune Society, on 30 March he completed a one-act comedy in verse called In Rome about Bertel Thorvaldsen, which he had begun the previous autumn. August Strindberg_sentence_42

The play was accepted by the Royal Theatre, where it premièred on 13 September 1870. August Strindberg_sentence_43

As he watched it performed, he realised that it was not good and felt like drowning himself, though the reviews published the following day were generally favourable. August Strindberg_sentence_44

That year he also first read works of Søren Kierkegaard and Georg Brandes, both of whom influenced him. August Strindberg_sentence_45

Taking his cue from William Shakespeare, he began to use colloquial and realistic speech in his historical dramas, which challenged the convention that they should be written in stately verse. August Strindberg_sentence_46

During the Christmas holiday of 1870–71, he re-wrote a historical tragedy, Sven the Sacrificer, as a one-act play in prose called The Outlaw. August Strindberg_sentence_47

Depressed by Uppsala, he stayed in Stockholm, returning to the university in April to pass an exam in Latin and in June to defend his thesis on Adam Gottlob Oehlenschläger's Romantic tragedy Earl Haakon (1802). August Strindberg_sentence_48

Following further revision in the summer, The Outlaw opened at the Royal Theatre on 16 October 1871. August Strindberg_sentence_49

Despite hostile reviews, the play earned him an audience with King Charles XV, who supported his studies with a payment of 200 riksdaler. August Strindberg_sentence_50

Towards the end of the year Strindberg completed a first draft of his first major work, a play about Olaus Petri called Master Olof. August Strindberg_sentence_51

In September 1872, the Royal Theatre rejected it, leading to decades of rewrites, bitterness, and a contempt for official institutions. August Strindberg_sentence_52

Returning to the university for what would be his final term in the spring, he left on 2 March 1872, without graduating. August Strindberg_sentence_53

In Town and Gown (1877), a collection of short stories describing student life, he ridiculed Uppsala and its professors. August Strindberg_sentence_54

Strindberg embarked on his career as a journalist and critic for newspapers in Stockholm. August Strindberg_sentence_55

He was particularly excited at this time by Henry Thomas Buckle's History of Civilization and the first volume of Georg Brandes' Main Currents of Nineteenth-Century Literature. August Strindberg_sentence_56

From December 1874, Strindberg worked for eight years as an assistant librarian at the Royal Library. August Strindberg_sentence_57

That same month, Strindberg offered Master Olof to Edvard Stjernström (the director of the newly built New Theatre in Stockholm), but it was rejected. August Strindberg_sentence_58

He socialised with writers, painters, journalists, and other librarians; they often met in the Red Room in Bern's Restaurant. August Strindberg_sentence_59

Early in the summer of 1875, he met Siri von Essen, a 24-year-old aspiring actress who, by virtue of her husband, was a baroness – he became infatuated with her. August Strindberg_sentence_60

Strindberg described himself as a "failed author" at this time: "I feel like a deaf-mute," he wrote, "as I cannot speak and am not permitted to write; sometimes I stand in the middle of my room that seems like a prison cell, and then I want to scream so that walls and ceilings would fly apart, and I have so much to scream about, and therefore I remain silent." August Strindberg_sentence_61

As a result of an argument in January 1876 concerning the inheritance of the family firm, Strindberg's relationship with his father was terminated (he did not attend his funeral in February 1883). August Strindberg_sentence_62

From the beginning of 1876, Strindberg and Siri began to meet in secret, and that same year Siri and her husband divorced. August Strindberg_sentence_63

Following a successful audition that December, Siri became an actress at the Royal Theatre. August Strindberg_sentence_64

They married a year later, on 30 December 1877; Siri was seven months pregnant at the time. August Strindberg_sentence_65

Their first child was born prematurely on 21 January 1878 and died two days later. August Strindberg_sentence_66

On 9 January 1879, Strindberg was declared bankrupt. August Strindberg_sentence_67

In November 1879, his novel The Red Room was published. August Strindberg_sentence_68

A satire of Stockholm society, it has frequently been described as the first modern Swedish novel. August Strindberg_sentence_69

While receiving mixed reviews in Sweden, it was acclaimed in Denmark, where Strindberg was hailed as a genius. August Strindberg_sentence_70

As a result of The Red Room, he had become famous throughout Scandinavia. August Strindberg_sentence_71

Edvard Brandes wrote that the novel "makes the reader want to join the fight against hypocrisy and reaction." August Strindberg_sentence_72

In his response to Brandes, Strindberg explained that: August Strindberg_sentence_73

1880s August Strindberg_section_3

Strindberg and Siri's daughter Karin was born on 26 February 1880. August Strindberg_sentence_74

Buoyant from the reception of The Red Room, Strindberg swiftly completed The Secret of the Guild, an historical drama set in Uppsala at the beginning of the 15th century about the conflict between two masons over the completion of the city cathedral, which opened at the Royal Theatre on 3 May 1880 (his first première in nine years); Siri played Margaretha. August Strindberg_sentence_75

That spring he formed a friendship with the painter Carl Larsson. August Strindberg_sentence_76

A collected edition of all of Strindberg's previous writings was published under the title Spring Harvest. August Strindberg_sentence_77

From 1881, at the invitation of Edvard Brandes, Strindberg began to contribute articles to the Morgenbladet, a Copenhagen daily newspaper. August Strindberg_sentence_78

In April he began work on The Swedish People, a four-part cultural history of Sweden written as a series of depictions of ordinary people's lives from the 9th century onwards, which he undertook mainly for financial reasons and which absorbed him for the next year; Larsson provided illustrations. August Strindberg_sentence_79

At Strindberg's insistence, Siri resigned from the Royal Theatre in the spring, having become pregnant again. August Strindberg_sentence_80

Their second daughter, Greta, was born on 9 June 1881, while they were staying on the island of Kymmendö. August Strindberg_sentence_81

That month, a collection of essays from the past ten years, Studies in Cultural History, was published. August Strindberg_sentence_82

Ludvig Josephson (the new artistic director of Stockholm's New Theatre) agreed to stage Master Olof, eventually opting for the prose version – the five-hour-long production opened on 30 December 1881 under the direction of August Lindberg to favourable reviews. August Strindberg_sentence_83

While this production of Master Olof was his breakthrough in the theatre, Strindberg's five-act fairy-tale play Lucky Peter's Journey, which opened on 22 December 1883, brought him his first significant success, although he dismissed it as a potboiler. August Strindberg_sentence_84

In March 1882 he wrote in a letter to Josephson: "My interest in the theatre, I must frankly state, has but one focus and one goal – my wife's career as an actress"; Josephson duly cast her in two roles the following season. August Strindberg_sentence_85

Having returned to Kymmendö during the summer of 1882, Strindberg wrote a collection of anti-establishment short stories, The New Kingdom. August Strindberg_sentence_86

While there, to provide a lead role for his wife and as a reply to Henrik Ibsen's A Doll's House (1879), he also wrote Sir Bengt's Wife, which opened on 25 November 1882 at the New Theatre. August Strindberg_sentence_87

He moved to Grez-sur-Loing, just south of Paris, France, where Larsson was staying. August Strindberg_sentence_88

He then moved to Paris, which they found noisy and polluted. August Strindberg_sentence_89

Income earned from Lucky Peter's Journey enabled him to move to Switzerland in 1883. August Strindberg_sentence_90

He resided in Ouchy, where he stayed for some years. August Strindberg_sentence_91

On 3 April 1884, Siri gave birth to their son, Hans. August Strindberg_sentence_92

In 1884 Strindberg wrote a collection of short stories, Getting Married, that presented women in an egalitarian light and for which he was tried for and acquitted of blasphemy in Sweden. August Strindberg_sentence_93

Two groups "led by influential members of the upper classes, supported by the right-wing press" probably instigated the prosecution; at the time, most people in Stockholm thought that Queen Sophia was behind it. August Strindberg_sentence_94

By the end of that year Strindberg was in a despondent mood: "My view now is," he wrote, "everything is shit. August Strindberg_sentence_95

No way out. August Strindberg_sentence_96

The skein is too tangled to be unravelled. August Strindberg_sentence_97

It can only be sheared. August Strindberg_sentence_98

The building is too solid to be pulled down. August Strindberg_sentence_99

It can only be blown up." August Strindberg_sentence_100

In May 1885 he wrote: "I am on my way to becoming an atheist." August Strindberg_sentence_101

In the wake of the publication of Getting Married, he began to correspond with Émile Zola. August Strindberg_sentence_102

During the summer he completed a sequel volume of stories, though some were quite different in tone from those of the first. August Strindberg_sentence_103

Another collection of stories, Utopias in Reality, was published in September 1885, though it was not well received. August Strindberg_sentence_104

In 1885, they moved back to Paris. August Strindberg_sentence_105

In September 1887 he began to write a novel in French about his relationship with Siri von Essen called The Defence of a Fool. August Strindberg_sentence_106

In 1887, they moved to Issigatsbühl, near Lindau by Lake Constance. August Strindberg_sentence_107

His next play, Comrades (1886), was his first in a contemporary setting. August Strindberg_sentence_108

After the trial he evaluated his religious beliefs, and concluded that he needed to leave Lutheranism, though he had been Lutheran since childhood; and after briefly being a deist, he became an atheist. August Strindberg_sentence_109

He needed a credo and he used Jean-Jacques Rousseau nature worshiping, which he had studied while a student, as one. August Strindberg_sentence_110

His works The People of Hemsö (1887) and Among French Peasants (1889) were influenced by his study of Rousseau. August Strindberg_sentence_111

He then moved to Germany, where he fell in love with Chancellor Otto von Bismarck's Prussia status of the officer corps. August Strindberg_sentence_112

After that, he grew very critical of Rousseau and turned to Friedrich Nietzsche's philosophies, which emphasized the male intellect. August Strindberg_sentence_113

Nietzsche's influence can be seen in The Defence of a Fool (1893), Pariah (1889), Creditors (1889), and By the Open Sea (1890). August Strindberg_sentence_114

Another change in his life after the trial is that Strindberg decided he wanted a scientific life instead of a literary one, and began to write about non-literary subjects. August Strindberg_sentence_115

When he was 37, he began The Son of a Servant, a four-part autobiography. August Strindberg_sentence_116

The first part ends in 1867, the year he left home for Uppsala. August Strindberg_sentence_117

Part two describes his youth up to 1872. August Strindberg_sentence_118

Part three, or The Red Room, describes his years as a poet and journalist; it ends with his meeting Siri von Essen. August Strindberg_sentence_119

Part four, which dealt with the years from 1877 to 1886, was banned by his publishers and was not published until after his death. August Strindberg_sentence_120

The three missing years, 1875–1877, were the time when Strindberg was wooing von Essen and their marriage; entitled He and She, this portion of his autobiography was not printed until 1919, after his death. August Strindberg_sentence_121

It contains the love letters between the two during that period. August Strindberg_sentence_122

In the later half of the 1880s Strindberg discovered Naturalism. August Strindberg_sentence_123

After completing The Father in a matter of weeks, he sent a copy to Émile Zola for his approval, though Zola's reaction was lukewarm. August Strindberg_sentence_124

The drama revolves around the conflict between the Captain, a father, husband, and scientist, and his wife, Laura, over the education of their only child, a fourteen-year-old daughter named Berta. August Strindberg_sentence_125

Through unscrupulous means, Laura gets the Captain to doubt his fatherhood until he suffers a mental and physical collapse. August Strindberg_sentence_126

While writing The Father, Strindberg himself was experiencing marital problems and doubted the paternity of his children. August Strindberg_sentence_127

He also suspected that Ibsen had based Hjalmar Ekdal in The Wild Duck (1884) on Strindberg because he felt that Ibsen viewed him as a weak and pathetic husband; he reworked the situation of Ibsen's play into a warfare between the two sexes. August Strindberg_sentence_128

From November 1887 to April 1889, Strindberg stayed in Copenhagen. August Strindberg_sentence_129

While there he had several opportunities to meet with both Georg Brandes and his brother Edvard Brandes. August Strindberg_sentence_130

Georg helped him put on The Father, which had its première on 14 November 1887 at the Casino Theatre in Copenhagen. August Strindberg_sentence_131

It enjoyed a successful run for eleven days after which it toured the Danish provinces. August Strindberg_sentence_132

Before writing Creditors, Strindberg completed one of his most famous pieces, Miss Julie. August Strindberg_sentence_133

He wrote the play with a Parisian stage in mind, in particular the Théâtre Libre, founded in 1887 by Andre Antoine. August Strindberg_sentence_134

In the play he used Charles Darwin's theory of survival of the fittest and dramatized a doomed sexual encounter that crosses the division of social classes. August Strindberg_sentence_135

It is believed that this play was inspired by the marriage of Strindberg, the son of a servant, to an aristocratic woman. August Strindberg_sentence_136

In the essay On Psychic Murder (1887), he referred to the psychological theories of the Nancy School, which advocated the use of hypnosis. August Strindberg_sentence_137

Strindberg developed a theory that sexual warfare was not motivated by carnal desire but by relentless human will. August Strindberg_sentence_138

The winner was the one who had the strongest and most unscrupulous mind, someone who, like a hypnotist, could coerce a more impressionable psyche into submission. August Strindberg_sentence_139

His view on psychological power struggles may be seen in works such as Creditors (1889), The Stronger (1889), and Pariah (1889). August Strindberg_sentence_140

In 1888, after a separation and reconciliation with Siri von Essen, he founded the Scandinavian Experimental Theatre in Copenhagen, where Siri became manager. August Strindberg_sentence_141

He asked writers to send him scripts, which he received from Herman Bang, Gustav Wied and Nathalia Larsen. August Strindberg_sentence_142

Less than a year later, with the theatre and reconciliation short lived, he moved back to Sweden while Siri moved back to her native Finland with the children. August Strindberg_sentence_143

While there, he rode out the final phase of the divorce and later used this agonizing ordeal for the basis of The Bond and the Link (1893). August Strindberg_sentence_144

Strindberg also became interested in short drama, called Quart d'heure. August Strindberg_sentence_145

He was inspired by writers such as Gustave Guiche and Henri de Lavedan. August Strindberg_sentence_146

His notable contribution was The Stronger (1889). August Strindberg_sentence_147

As a result of the failure of the Scandinavian Experimental Theatre, Strindberg did not work as a playwright for three years. August Strindberg_sentence_148

In 1889, he published an essay entitled "On Modern Drama and the Modern Theatre", in which he disassociated himself from naturalism, arguing that it was petty and unimaginative realism. August Strindberg_sentence_149

His sympathy for Nietzsche's philosophy and atheism in general was also on the wane. August Strindberg_sentence_150

He entered the period of his "Inferno crisis," in which he had psychological and religious upheavals that influenced his later works. August Strindberg_sentence_151

August Strindberg's Inferno is his personal account of sinking deeper into some kind of madness, typified by visions and paranoia. August Strindberg_sentence_152

In Strindberg och alkoholen (1985), James Spens discusses Strindberg's drinking habits, including his liking for absinthe and its possible implications for Strindberg's mental health during the inferno period. August Strindberg_sentence_153

1890s August Strindberg_section_4

After his disenchantment with naturalism, Strindberg had a growing interest in transcendental matters. August Strindberg_sentence_154

Symbolism was just beginning at this time. August Strindberg_sentence_155

Verner von Heidenstam and Ola Hanson had dismissed naturalism as "shoemaker realism" that rendered human experience in simplistic terms. August Strindberg_sentence_156

This is believed to have stalled Strindberg's creativity, and Strindberg insisted that he was in a rivalry and forced to defend naturalism, even though he had exhausted its literary potential. August Strindberg_sentence_157

These works include: Debit and Credit (1892), Facing Death (1892), Motherly Love (1892), and The First Warning (1893). August Strindberg_sentence_158

His play The Keys of Heaven (1892) was inspired by the loss of his children in his divorce. August Strindberg_sentence_159

He also completed one of his few comedies, Playing with Fire (1893), and the first two parts of his post-inferno trilogy To Damascus (1898–1904). August Strindberg_sentence_160

In 1892, he experienced writer's block, which led to a drastic reduction in his income. August Strindberg_sentence_161

Depression followed as he was unable to meet his financial obligations and to support his children and former wife. August Strindberg_sentence_162

A fund was set up through an appeal in a German magazine. August Strindberg_sentence_163

This money allowed him to leave Sweden and he joined artistic circles in Berlin. August Strindberg_sentence_164

Otto Brahm's Freie Bühne theatre premiered some of his famous works in Germany, including The Father, Miss Julie, and Creditors. August Strindberg_sentence_165

Similar to twenty years earlier when he frequented The Red Room, he now went to the German tavern The Black Porker. August Strindberg_sentence_166

Here he met a diverse group of artists from Scandinavia, Poland, and Germany. August Strindberg_sentence_167

His attention turned to Frida Uhl, who was twenty-three years younger than Strindberg. August Strindberg_sentence_168

They were married in 1893. August Strindberg_sentence_169

Less than a year later, their daughter Kerstin was born and the couple separated, though their marriage was not officially dissolved until 1897. August Strindberg_sentence_170

Frida's family, in particular her mother, who was a devout Catholic, had an important influence on Strindberg, and in an 1894 letter he declared "I feel the hand of our Lord resting over me." August Strindberg_sentence_171

Some critics think that Strindberg suffered from severe paranoia in the mid-1890s, and perhaps that he temporarily experienced insanity. August Strindberg_sentence_172

Others, including Evert Sprinchorn and Olof Lagercrantz, believed that he intentionally turned himself into his own guinea pig by doing psychological and drug-induced self-experimentation. August Strindberg_sentence_173

He wrote on subjects such as botany, chemistry, and optics before returning to literature with the publication of Inferno (1897), a (half fictionalized) account of his "wilderness years" in Austria and Paris, then a collection of short stories, Legends, and a semi-dramatic novella, Jacob Wrestling (both printed in the same book 1898). August Strindberg_sentence_174

Both volumes aroused curiosity and controversy, not least due to the religious element; earlier, Strindberg had been known to be indifferent or hostile to religion and especially priests, but now he had undergone some sort of conversion to a personal faith. August Strindberg_sentence_175

In a postscript, he noted the impact of Emanuel Swedenborg on his current work. August Strindberg_sentence_176

"The Powers" were central to Strindberg's later work. August Strindberg_sentence_177

He said that "the Powers" were an outside force that had caused him his physical and mental suffering because they were acting in retribution to humankind for their wrongdoings. August Strindberg_sentence_178

As William Blake, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Honoré de Balzac, and William Butler Yeats had been, he was drawn to Swedenborg's mystical visions, with their depictions of spiritual landscape and Christian morality. August Strindberg_sentence_179

Strindberg believed for the rest of his life that the relationship between the transcendental and the real world was described by a series of "correspondences" and that everyday events were really messages from above of which only the enlightened could make sense. August Strindberg_sentence_180

He also felt that he was chosen by Providence to atone for the moral decay of others and that his tribulations were payback for misdeeds earlier in his life. August Strindberg_sentence_181

Strindberg had spent the tail end of 1896 and most of 1897 in the university town of Lund in southern Sweden, a sojourn during which he made a number of new friendships, felt his mental stability and health improving and also firmly returned to literary writing; Inferno, Legends and Jacob Wrestling were written there. August Strindberg_sentence_182

In 1899, he returned permanently to Stockholm, following a successful production there of Master Olof in 1897 (which was re-staged in 1899 to mark Strindberg's fiftieth birthday). August Strindberg_sentence_183

He had the desire to become recognized as a leadíng figure in Swedish literature, and to put earlier controversies behind him, and felt that historical dramas were the way to attain that status. August Strindberg_sentence_184

Though Strindberg claimed that he was writing "realistically," he freely altered past events and biographical information, and telescoped chronology (as often done in most historical fiction): more importantly, he felt a flow of resurgent inspiration, writing almost twenty new plays (many in a historical setting) between 1898 and 1902. August Strindberg_sentence_185

His new works included the so-called Vasa Trilogy: The Saga of the Folkungs (1899), Gustavus Vasa (1899), and Erik XIV (1899) and A Dream Play (written in 1901, first performed in 1907). August Strindberg_sentence_186

1900s August Strindberg_section_5

Death and funeral August Strindberg_section_6

Strindberg died shortly after the first staging of one of his plays in the United StatesThe Father opened on 9 April 1912 at the Berkeley Theatre in New York, in a translation by painter and playwright Edith Gardener Shearn Oland and her husband actor Warner Oland. August Strindberg_sentence_187

They jointly published their translations of his plays in book form in 1912. August Strindberg_sentence_188

During Christmas 1911, Strindberg became sick with pneumonia and he never recovered completely. August Strindberg_sentence_189

He also began to suffer more clearly from a stomach cancer (early signs of which had been felt in 1908). August Strindberg_sentence_190

The final weeks of his life were painful. August Strindberg_sentence_191

He had long since become a national celebrity, even if highly controversial, and when it became clear that he was seriously ill the daily papers in Stockholm began reporting on his health in every edition. August Strindberg_sentence_192

He received many letters and telegrams from admirers across the country. August Strindberg_sentence_193

He died on 14 May 1912 at the age of 63. August Strindberg_sentence_194

Strindberg was interred at Norra begravningsplatsen in Stockholm. August Strindberg_sentence_195

He had given strict instructions concerning his funeral and how his body should be treated after death: only members of his immediate family were allowed to view his body, there would be no obduction, no photographs were taken, and no death mask was made. August Strindberg_sentence_196

Strindberg had also requested that his funeral should take place as soon as possible after his death to avoid crowds of onlookers. August Strindberg_sentence_197

However, the workers' organisations requested that the funeral should take place on a Sunday to make it possible for working men to pay their respects, and the funeral was postponed for five days, until Sunday, 19 May. August Strindberg_sentence_198

According to Strindberg's last wish, the funeral procession was to start at 8am, again to avoid crowds, but large groups of people were nevertheless waiting outside his home as well as at the cemetery, as early as 7am. August Strindberg_sentence_199

A short service was conducted by Nathan Söderblom by the bier in Strindberg's home, in the presence of three of Strindberg's children and his housekeeper, after which the coffin was taken outside for the funeral procession. August Strindberg_sentence_200

The procession was followed by groups of students, workers, members of Parliament and a couple of cabinet ministers, and it was estimated that up to 60,000 people lined the streets. August Strindberg_sentence_201

King Gustaf V sent a wreath for the bier. August Strindberg_sentence_202

Legacy August Strindberg_section_7

Tennessee Williams, Edward Albee, Maxim Gorky, John Osborne, and Ingmar Bergman are among the many artists who have cited Strindberg as an influence. August Strindberg_sentence_203

Eugene O'Neill, upon receiving the Nobel Prize in Literature, dedicated much of his acceptance speech to describing Strindberg's influence on his work, and referred to him as "that greatest genius of all modern dramatists." August Strindberg_sentence_204

Argentinian writer Jorge Luis Borges said of Strindberg: "[he] was, for a time, my god, alongside Nietzsche". August Strindberg_sentence_205

A multi-faceted author, Strindberg was often extreme. August Strindberg_sentence_206

His novel The Red Room (1879) made him famous. August Strindberg_sentence_207

His early plays belong to the Naturalistic movement. August Strindberg_sentence_208

His works from this time are often compared with the Norwegian playwright Henrik Ibsen. August Strindberg_sentence_209

Strindberg's best-known play from this period is Miss Julie. August Strindberg_sentence_210

Among his most widely read works is the novel The People of Hemsö. August Strindberg_sentence_211

Strindberg wanted to attain what he called "greater Naturalism." August Strindberg_sentence_212

He disliked the expository character backgrounds that characterise the work of Henrik Ibsen and rejected the convention of a dramatic "slice of life" because he felt that the resulting plays were mundane and uninteresting. August Strindberg_sentence_213

Strindberg felt that true naturalism was a psychological "battle of brains": two people who hate each other in the immediate moment and strive to drive the other to doom is the type of mental hostility that Strindberg strove to describe. August Strindberg_sentence_214

He intended his plays to be impartial and objective, citing a desire to make literature akin to a science. August Strindberg_sentence_215

Following the inner turmoil that he experienced during the "Inferno crisis," he wrote an important book in French, Inferno (1896–7) in which he dramatised his experiences. August Strindberg_sentence_216

He also exchanged a few cryptic letters with Friedrich Nietzsche. August Strindberg_sentence_217

Strindberg subsequently ended his association with Naturalism and began to produce works informed by Symbolism. August Strindberg_sentence_218

He is considered one of the pioneers of the modern European stage and Expressionism. August Strindberg_sentence_219

The Dance of Death, A Dream Play, and The Ghost Sonata are well-known plays from this period. August Strindberg_sentence_220

His most famous and produced plays are Master Olof, Miss Julie, and The Father. August Strindberg_sentence_221

Internationally, Strindberg is chiefly remembered as a playwright, but in his native Sweden his name is associated no less with novels and other writings. August Strindberg_sentence_222

Röda rummet (The Red Room), Hemsöborna (The People of Hemsö), Giftas (Getting Married), En dåres försvarstal (The Confession of a Fool), and Inferno remain among his most celebrated novels, representing different genres and styles. August Strindberg_sentence_223

He is often, though not universally, viewed as Sweden's greatest author, and taught in schools as a key figure of Swedish culture. August Strindberg_sentence_224

The most important contemporary literary award in Sweden, Augustpriset, is named for Strindberg. August Strindberg_sentence_225

The Swedish Composer Ture Rangström dedicated his first Symphony, which was finished in 1914, to August Strindberg in memoriam. August Strindberg_sentence_226

Politics August Strindberg_section_8

An acerbic polemicist who was often vehemently opposed to conventional authority, Strindberg was difficult to pigeon-hole as a political figure. August Strindberg_sentence_227

Through his long career, he penned scathing attacks on the military, the church, and the monarchy. August Strindberg_sentence_228

For most of his public life, he was seen as a major figure on the literary left and a standard-bearer of cultural radicalism, but, especially from the 1890s, he espoused conservative and religious views that alienated many former supporters. August Strindberg_sentence_229

He resumed his attacks on conservative society with great vigor in the years immediately preceding his death. August Strindberg_sentence_230

Strindberg's opinions were typically stated with great force and vitriol, and sometimes humorously over-stated. August Strindberg_sentence_231

He was involved in a variety of crises and feuds, skirmishing regularly with the literary and cultural establishment of his day, including erstwhile allies and friends. August Strindberg_sentence_232

His youthful reputation as a genial enfant terrible of Swedish literature, transformed, eventually, into the role of a sort of ill-tempered towering giant of Swedish public life. August Strindberg_sentence_233

Strindberg was a prolific letter-writer, whose private communications have been collected in several annotated volumes. August Strindberg_sentence_234

He often voiced political views privately to friends and literary acquaintances, phrased in a no-holds-barred jargon of scathing attacks, drastic humor, and flippant hyperbole. August Strindberg_sentence_235

Many of his most controversial political statements are drawn from this private correspondence. August Strindberg_sentence_236

Influenced by the history of the 1871 Paris Commune, young Strindberg had embraced the view that politics is a conflict between the upper and lower classes. August Strindberg_sentence_237

Early works like the Red Room or Master Olof took aim at public hypocrisy, royalty, and organized religion. August Strindberg_sentence_238

He was, at this time, an outspoken socialist, mainly influenced by anarchist or libertarian socialist ideas. August Strindberg_sentence_239

However, Strindberg's socialism was utopian and undogmatic, rooted less in economic or philosophic doctrine than in a fiery anti-establishment attitude, pitting "the people" against kings, priests, and merchants. August Strindberg_sentence_240

He read widely among socialist thinkers, including Cabet, Fourier, Baboeuf, Saint-Simon, Proudhon, and Owen, whom he referred to as "friends of humanity and sharp thinkers." August Strindberg_sentence_241

"Strindberg adopted ideas from everyone," notes Jan Olsson, who notes that Strindberg lived in a period where "terms like anarchism, socialism, and communism were alternately used as synonyms and as different terms." August Strindberg_sentence_242

By the early 1880s, many young political and literary radicals in Sweden had come to view Strindberg as a champion of their causes. August Strindberg_sentence_243

However, in contrast to the Marxist-influenced socialism then rising within the Swedish labor movement, Strindberg espoused an older type of utopian, agrarian radicalism accompanied by spiritual and even mystical ideas. August Strindberg_sentence_244

His views remained as fluid and eclectic as they were uncompromising, and on certain issues he could be wildly out of step with the younger generation of socialists. August Strindberg_sentence_245

To Martin Kylhammar, the young Strindberg "was a 'reactionary radical' whose writing was populist and democratic but who persisted in an antiquated romanticizing of agrarian life." August Strindberg_sentence_246

Although he had been an early proponent of women's rights, calling for women's suffrage in 1884, Strindberg later became disenchanted with what he viewed as an unnatural equation of the sexes. August Strindberg_sentence_247

In times of personal conflict and marital trouble (which was much of the time), he could lash out with crudely misogynistic statements. August Strindberg_sentence_248

His troubled marriage with Siri von Essen, ended in an upsetting divorce in 1891, became the inspiration for The Defence of A Fool, begun in 1887 and published in 1893. August Strindberg_sentence_249

Strindberg famously sought to insert a warning to lawmakers against "granting citizens' rights to half-apes, lower beings, sick children, [who are] sick and crazed thirteen times a year during their periods, completely insane while pregnant, and irresponsible throughout the rest of their lives." August Strindberg_sentence_250

The paragraph was ultimately removed before printing by his publisher. August Strindberg_sentence_251

Strindberg's misogyny was at odds with the younger generation of socialist activists and has drawn attention in contemporary Strindberg scholarship. August Strindberg_sentence_252

So was Strindberg's anti-Jewish rhetoric. August Strindberg_sentence_253

Although particularly targeting Jewish enemies of his in Swedish cultural life, he also attacked Jews and Judaism as such. August Strindberg_sentence_254

The anti-Semitic outbursts were particularly pronounced in the early 1880s, when Strindberg dedicated an entire chapter ("Moses") in a work of social and political satire, Det nya riket, dedicated to heckling Swedish Jews (including an unflattering portrayal of Albert Bonnier). August Strindberg_sentence_255

Although anti-Jewish prejudice was far from uncommon in wider society in the 1880s, Jan Myrdal notes that "the entire liberal and democratic intelligentsia of the time distanced themselves from the older, left-wing antisemitism of August Strindberg." August Strindberg_sentence_256

Yet, as with many things, Strindberg's opinions and passions shifted with time. August Strindberg_sentence_257

In the mid-1880s he toned down and then mostly ended his anti-Jewish rhetoric, after publicly declaring himself not to be an anti-Semite in 1884. August Strindberg_sentence_258

A self-declared atheist in his younger years, Strindberg would also re-embrace Christianity, without necessarily making his peace with the church. August Strindberg_sentence_259

As noted by Stockholm's Strindberg Museum, the personal and spiritual crisis that Strindberg underwent in Paris in the 1890s, which prompted the writing of Inferno, had aesthetic as well as philosophical and political implications: "Before the Inferno crisis (1869 – 92), Strindberg was influenced by anarchism, Rousseau, Schopenhauer, and Nietzsche; in the years after the crisis (1897 – 1911) he was influenced by Swedenborg, Goethe, Shakespeare, and Beethoven." August Strindberg_sentence_260

In Inferno, Strindberg notes his ideological and spiritual evolution: August Strindberg_sentence_261

Despite his reactionary attitudes on issues such as women's rights and his conservative, mystical turn from the early 1890s, Strindberg remained popular with some in the socialist-liberal camp on the strength of his past radicalism and his continued salience as a literary modernizer. August Strindberg_sentence_262

However, several former admirers were disappointed and troubled by what they viewed as Strindberg's descent into religious conservatism and, perhaps, madness. August Strindberg_sentence_263

His former ally and friend, Social Democrat leader Hjalmar Branting, now dismissed the author as a "disaster" who had betrayed his past ideals for a reactionary, mystical elitism. August Strindberg_sentence_264

In 1909, Branting remarked on Strindberg's shifting political and cultural posture, on the occasion of the author's sixtieth birthday: August Strindberg_sentence_265

Toward the end of his life, however, Strindberg would dramatically reassert his role as a radical standard-bearer and return to the good graces of progressive Swedish opinion. August Strindberg_sentence_266

In April 1910, Strindberg launched a series of unprompted, insult-laden attacks on popular conservative symbols, viciously thrashing the nationalist cult of former king Charles XII ("pharao worship"), the lauded poet Verner von Heidenstam ("the spirit-seer of Djursholm"), and the famous author and traveler Sven Hedin ("the humbug explorer"). August Strindberg_sentence_267

The ensuing debate, known as "Strindbergsfejden" or "The Strindberg Feud", is one of the most significant literary debates in Swedish history. August Strindberg_sentence_268

It came to comprise about a thousand articles by various authors across some eighty newspapers, raging for two years until Strindberg's death in 1912. August Strindberg_sentence_269

The Feud served to revive Strindberg's reputation as an implacable enemy of bourgeois tastes, while also reestablishing beyond doubt his centrality to Swedish culture and politics. August Strindberg_sentence_270

In 1912, Strindberg's funeral was co-organized by Branting and heavily attended by members of the Swedish labor movement, with "more than 100 red banners" in attendance alongside the entire Social Democrat parliamentary contingent. August Strindberg_sentence_271

Strindberg's daughter Karin Strindberg married a Russian Bolshevik of partially Swedish ancestry, Vladimir Smirnov ("Paulsson"). August Strindberg_sentence_272

Painting August Strindberg_section_9

Strindberg, something of a polymath, was also a telegrapher, theosophist, painter, photographer and alchemist. August Strindberg_sentence_273

Painting and photography offered vehicles for his belief that chance played a crucial part in the creative process. August Strindberg_sentence_274

Strindberg's paintings were unique for their time, and went beyond those of his contemporaries for their radical lack of adherence to visual reality. August Strindberg_sentence_275

The 117 paintings that are acknowledged as his were mostly painted within the span of a few years, and are now seen by some as among the most original works of 19th-century art. August Strindberg_sentence_276

Today, his best-known pieces are stormy, expressionist seascapes, selling at high prices in auction houses. August Strindberg_sentence_277

Though Strindberg was friends with Edvard Munch and Paul Gauguin, and was thus familiar with modern trends, the spontaneous and subjective expressiveness of his landscapes and seascapes can be ascribed also to the fact that he painted only in periods of personal crisis. August Strindberg_sentence_278

Anders Zorn also did a portrait. August Strindberg_sentence_279

August Strindberg_unordered_list_0

  • August Strindberg_item_0_0
  • August Strindberg_item_0_1
  • August Strindberg_item_0_2
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  • August Strindberg_item_0_4

Photography August Strindberg_section_10

Strindberg's interest in photography resulted, among other things, in a large number of arranged self-portraits in various environments, which now number among the best-known pictures of him. August Strindberg_sentence_280

Strindberg also embarked on a series of camera-less images, using an experimental quasi-scientific approach. August Strindberg_sentence_281

He produced a type of photogram that encouraged the development and growth of crystals on the photographic emulsion, sometimes exposed for lengthy periods to heat or cold in the open air or at night facing the stars. August Strindberg_sentence_282

The suggestiveness of these, which he called Celestographs, provided an object for contemplation, and he noted; August Strindberg_sentence_283

His interest in the occult in the 1890s finds sympathy with the chance quality of these images, but for him they are also scientific. August Strindberg_sentence_284

In 1895 Strindberg met Camille Flammarion and became a member of the Société astronomique de France. August Strindberg_sentence_285

He gave some of his experimental astronomical photographs to the Society. August Strindberg_sentence_286

Occult studies August Strindberg_section_11

Alchemy, occultism, Swedenborgianism, and various other eccentric interests were pursued by Strindberg with some intensity for periods of his life. August Strindberg_sentence_287

In the curious and experimental 1897 work Inferno — a dark, paranoid, and confusing tale of his time in Paris, written in French, which takes the form of an autobiographical journal — Strindberg, as the narrator, claims to have successfully performed alchemical experiments and cast black magic spells on his daughter. August Strindberg_sentence_288

Much of Inferno indicates that the author suffered from paranoid delusions, as he writes of being stalked through Paris, haunted by evil forces, and targeted with mind-altering electric rays emitted by an "infernal machine" covertly installed in his hotel. August Strindberg_sentence_289

It remains unclear to what extent the book represents a genuine attempt at autobiography or exaggerates for literary effect. August Strindberg_sentence_290

Olof Lagercrantz has suggested that Strindberg staged and imagined elements of the crisis as material for his literary production. August Strindberg_sentence_291

Personal life August Strindberg_section_12

Strindberg was married three times, as follows: August Strindberg_sentence_292

August Strindberg_unordered_list_1

  • Siri von Essen: married 1877–1891 (14 years), 3 daughters (Karin Smirnov, Greta, and another who died in infancy), 1 son (Hans);August Strindberg_item_1_5
  • Frida Uhl: married 1893–1895, (2 years) 1 daughter (Kerstin); andAugust Strindberg_item_1_6
  • Harriet Bosse: married 1901–1904 (3 years), 1 daughter (Anne-Marie).August Strindberg_item_1_7

Strindberg was age 28 and Siri was 27 at the time of their marriage. August Strindberg_sentence_293

He was 44 and Frida was 21 when they married, and he was 52 and Harriet was 23 when they married. August Strindberg_sentence_294

Late during his life he met the young actress and painter Fanny Falkner (1890–1963) who was 41 years younger than Strindberg. August Strindberg_sentence_295

She wrote a book which illuminates his last years, but the exact nature of their relationship is debated. August Strindberg_sentence_296

He had a brief affair in Berlin with Dagny Juel before his marriage to Frida; it has been suggested that the news of her murder in 1901 was the reason he cancelled his honeymoon with his third wife, Harriet. August Strindberg_sentence_297

He was related to Nils Strindberg (a son of one of August's cousins). August Strindberg_sentence_298

Strindberg's relationships with women were troubled and have often been interpreted as misogynistic by contemporaries and modern readers. August Strindberg_sentence_299

Marriage and families were being stressed in Strindberg's lifetime as Sweden industrialized and urbanized at a rapid pace. August Strindberg_sentence_300

Problems of prostitution and poverty were debated among writers, critics and politicians. August Strindberg_sentence_301

His early writing often dealt with the traditional roles of the sexes imposed by society, which he criticized as unjust. August Strindberg_sentence_302

Strindberg's last home was Blå tornet in central Stockholm, where he lived from 1908 until 1912. August Strindberg_sentence_303

It is now a museum. August Strindberg_sentence_304

Of several statues and busts of him erected in Stockholm, the most prominent is Carl Eldh's, erected in 1942 in Tegnérlunden, a park adjoining this house. August Strindberg_sentence_305


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/August Strindberg.