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For a specific analysis of the population of Australia, see Demography of Australia. Australians_sentence_0

"Australian" redirects here. Australians_sentence_1

For other uses, see Australian (disambiguation). Australians_sentence_2


Regions with significant populationsAustralians_header_cell_0_0_0
AustraliaAustralians_header_cell_0_1_0 25,464,116Australians_cell_0_1_1
ThailandAustralians_header_cell_0_2_0 380,000Australians_cell_0_2_1
United StatesAustralians_header_cell_0_3_0 94,000–200,000Australians_cell_0_3_1
United KingdomAustralians_header_cell_0_4_0 113,000Australians_cell_0_4_1
Hong KongAustralians_header_cell_0_5_0 90,000Australians_cell_0_5_1
New ZealandAustralians_header_cell_0_6_0 70,000Australians_cell_0_6_1
CanadaAustralians_header_cell_0_7_0 62,910Australians_cell_0_7_1
MalaysiaAustralians_header_cell_0_8_0 130,000Australians_cell_0_8_1
ItalyAustralians_header_cell_0_9_0 30,000Australians_cell_0_9_1
LebanonAustralians_header_cell_0_10_0 20,000–25,000Australians_cell_0_10_1
SingaporeAustralians_header_cell_0_11_0 20,000 (2011)Australians_cell_0_11_1
South AfricaAustralians_header_cell_0_12_0 12,000Australians_cell_0_12_1
GreeceAustralians_header_cell_0_13_0 20,000Australians_cell_0_13_1
Papua New GuineaAustralians_header_cell_0_14_0 10,000Australians_cell_0_14_1
SpainAustralians_header_cell_0_15_0 6,000Australians_cell_0_15_1
JapanAustralians_header_cell_0_16_0 10,000Australians_cell_0_16_1
ChinaAustralians_header_cell_0_17_0 5,000Australians_cell_0_17_1
SwedenAustralians_header_cell_0_18_0 4,000Australians_cell_0_18_1
PhilippinesAustralians_header_cell_0_19_0 4,000Australians_cell_0_19_1
IndonesiaAustralians_header_cell_0_20_0 30,000Australians_cell_0_20_1
GermanyAustralians_header_cell_0_21_0 14,000Australians_cell_0_21_1
SwitzerlandAustralians_header_cell_0_22_0 8,000Australians_cell_0_22_1
MaltaAustralians_header_cell_0_23_0 10,000Australians_cell_0_23_1
DenmarkAustralians_header_cell_0_24_0 4,000Australians_cell_0_24_1
FinlandAustralians_header_cell_0_25_0 2,500Australians_cell_0_25_1
NorwayAustralians_header_cell_0_26_0 2,000Australians_cell_0_26_1
PolandAustralians_header_cell_0_27_0 2,000Australians_cell_0_27_1
CroatiaAustralians_header_cell_0_28_0 1,000Australians_cell_0_28_1

Australians, colloquially referred to as "Aussies", are people associated with the country of Australia, usually holding Australian citizenship. Australians_sentence_3

Between 1788 and the Second World War, the vast majority of settlers and immigrants came from the British Isles (principally England, Ireland and Scotland), although there was significant immigration from China and Germany during the 19th century. Australians_sentence_4

Many early British settlements were penal colonies to house transported convicts. Australians_sentence_5

Immigration of "free settlers" increased exponentially from the 1850s, following a series of gold rushes. Australians_sentence_6

In the decades immediately following the Second World War, Australia received a large wave of immigration from across Europe, with many more immigrants arriving from Southern and Eastern Europe than in previous decades. Australians_sentence_7

Since the end of the White Australia policy in 1973, Australia has pursued an official policy of multiculturalism and has the world's eighth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 30 percent of the population in 2019. Australians_sentence_8

A large and continuing wave of immigration to Australia from across the world has continued into the 21st century, with Asia now being the largest source of immigrants. Australians_sentence_9

A smaller proportion are descended from Australia's indigenous peoples, comprising Aboriginal Australians, Aboriginal Tasmanians and Torres Strait Islanders. Australians_sentence_10

The development of a separate Australian identity and national character began in the 19th century, linked with the anti-transportation and nativist movements and the Eureka Rebellion during the colonial period and culminated in the federation of the Australian colonies in 1901. Australians_sentence_11

The primary language is Australian English, and Australian culture and literature have historically developed from Anglo-Celtic and Western traditions. Australians_sentence_12

Overview Australians_section_0

Main articles: Colonial Australia and Immigration to Australia Australians_sentence_13

The majority of Australians or their ancestors immigrated within the past four centuries, with the exception of the indigenous population and others from outlying islands who became Australian through expansion of the country. Australians_sentence_14

Despite its multi-ethnic composition, the culture of Australia held in common by most Australians can also be referred to as mainstream Australian culture, a Western culture largely derived from the traditions of British and Irish colonists, settlers, and immigrants. Australians_sentence_15

The Colony of New South Wales was established by the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1788, with the arrival of the First Fleet, and five other colonies were established in the early 19th century, now forming the six present-day Australian states. Australians_sentence_16

Large-scale immigration occurred after the First and Second World Wars, with many post-World War II migrants coming from Southern and Eastern Europe introducing a variety of elements. Australians_sentence_17

Immigration from the Middle East, south and east Asia, Pacific Islands, Africa, and Latin America has also been having an impact. Australians_sentence_18

The predominance of the English language, the existence of a democratic system of government drawing upon the British traditions of the Westminster system of government, Parliamentarianism and constitutional monarchy, American constitutionalist and federalist traditions, Christianity as the dominant religion, and the popularity of sports originating in (or influenced by) the British Isles, are all evidence of a significant Anglo-Celtic heritage. Australians_sentence_19

Australian culture has diverged significantly since British settlement. Australians_sentence_20

Sporting teams representing the whole of Australia have been in existence since the 1870s. Australians_sentence_21

Australians are referred to as "Aussie" and are may be referred to as "Antipodean" by those in the northern hemisphere. Australians_sentence_22

Prior to the introduction of Australian citizenship, Australians had the status of "British subjects". Australians_sentence_23

As a result of many shared linguistic, historical, cultural and geographic characteristics, Australians have often identified closely with New Zealanders in particular. Australians_sentence_24

Furthermore, elements of Indigenous, American, British, and more recent immigrant customs, languages, and religions have also combined to form the modern Australian culture. Australians_sentence_25

Ancestries Australians_section_1

In the 2016 Australian census, the most commonly nominated ancestries were: Australians_sentence_26

European Australians_section_2

Main articles: European Australians, Anglo-Celtic Australians, and Native white Australians Australians_sentence_27

Today, Australians of European (including Anglo-Celtic) descent are the majority in Australia, estimated at approximately 76% of the total population in 2016. Australians_sentence_28

Historically, European immigrants had great influence over Australian history and society, which resulted in the perception of Australia as a Western country. Australians_sentence_29

Since soon after the beginning of British settlement in 1788, people of European descent have formed the majority of the population in Australia. Australians_sentence_30

Although some observers stress Australia's convict history, the vast majority of early settlers came of their own free will. Australians_sentence_31

Far more Australians are descended from assisted immigrants than from convicts, the majority being British and Irish. Australians_sentence_32

About 20 percent of Australians are descendants of convicts. Australians_sentence_33

Most of the first Australian settlers came from London, the Midlands and the North of England, and Ireland. Australians_sentence_34

Settlers that arrived throughout the 19th century were from all parts of the United Kingdom and Ireland, a significant proportion of settlers came from the Southwest and Southeast of England, from Ireland and from Scotland. Australians_sentence_35

Anglo-Celtic Australians have been highly influential in shaping the nation's character. Australians_sentence_36

By the mid-1840s, the numbers of freeborn settlers had overtaken the convict population. Australians_sentence_37

In 1888, 60 percent of the Australian population had been born in Australia, and almost all had British ancestral origins. Australians_sentence_38

Out of the remaining 40 percent, 34 percent had been born in the British Isles, and 6 percent were of European origin, mainly from Germany and Scandinavia. Australians_sentence_39

In the 1840s, Scots-born immigrants constituted 12 percent of the Australian population. Australians_sentence_40

There were 1.3 million British migrants to Australia in the period from 1861 to 1914, of whom 13.5 percent were Scots. Australians_sentence_41

5.3 percent of the convicts transported to Eastern Australia between 1789 and 1852 were Scots. Australians_sentence_42

By 1850, there were 290,000 Aboriginal Australians. Australians_sentence_43

The European population grew from 0.3 percent of the population of the continent at 1800 to 58.6 percent in 1850. Australians_sentence_44

Germans formed the largest non-British community for most of the 19th century. Australians_sentence_45

The census of 1901 showed that 98 percent of Australians had Anglo-Celtic ancestral origins, and was considered as "more British than Britain itself". Australians_sentence_46

Between 1901 and 1940, 140,000 non-British European immigrants arrived in Australia (about 16 percent of the total intake). Australians_sentence_47

Before World War II, 13.6 percent were born overseas, and 80 percent of those were British. Australians_sentence_48

In 1939 and 1945, still 98 percent of Australians had British/Anglo-Celtic ancestral origins. Australians_sentence_49

Until 1947, the vast majority of the population were of British origin. Australians_sentence_50

During the 1950s, Australia was the destination of 30 per cent of Dutch emigrants and the Netherlands-born became numerically the second largest non-British group in Australia. Australians_sentence_51

In 1971, 70 percent of the foreign born were of European origin. Australians_sentence_52

Abolition of the White Australia Policy in 1957 led to a significant increase in non-European immigration, mostly from Asia and the Middle East. Australians_sentence_53

Asian Australians_section_3

Main article: Asian Australians Australians_sentence_54

At the 2016 census, there were 3,514,915 nominations of ancestries classified by the Australian Bureau of Statistics as falling within the geographical categories of East Asia, Southeast Asia and Central and Southern Asia. Australians_sentence_55

This represents 16.15 percent of persons who nominated their ancestry. Australians_sentence_56

2,665,814 persons claimed one of the six most commonly nominated Asian ancestries, namely Chinese, Indian, Filipino, Vietnamese, Korean and Sri Lankan, at the 2016 census. Australians_sentence_57

Persons claiming one of these six ancestries alone represented 12.25 percent of the total population who nominated their ancestry. Australians_sentence_58

Chinese, Indian, Filipino, Vietnamese, Korean and Sri Lankan are the most commonly nominated Asian ancestries in Australia. Australians_sentence_59

Chinese Australians constituted 5.6 percent of the Australian population and Indian Australians constituted 2.8 percent at the 2016 census. Australians_sentence_60

Indigenous Australians_section_4

Main articles: Indigenous Australians, Aboriginal Australians, and Torres Strait Islanders Australians_sentence_61

Indigenous Australians are descendants of the original inhabitants of the Australian continent. Australians_sentence_62

Their ancestors are believed to have migrated from Africa to Asia around 70,000 years ago and arrived in Australia around 50,000 years ago. Australians_sentence_63

The Torres Strait Islanders are a distinct people of Melanesian ancestry, indigenous to the Torres Strait Islands, which are at the northernmost tip of Queensland near Papua New Guinea, and some nearby settlements on the mainland. Australians_sentence_64

The term "Aboriginal" is traditionally applied to only the indigenous inhabitants of mainland Australia and Tasmania, along with some of the adjacent islands. Australians_sentence_65

Indigenous Australians is an inclusive term used when referring to both Aboriginal and Torres Strait islanders, i.e.: the "first peoples". Australians_sentence_66

Dispersing across the Australian continent over time, the ancient peoples expanded and differentiated into hundreds of distinct groups, each with its own language and culture. Australians_sentence_67

More than 400 distinct Australian Aboriginal peoples have been identified across the continent, distinguished by unique names designating their ancestral languages, dialects, or distinctive speech patterns. Australians_sentence_68

In 1770, fearing he had been pre-empted by the French, James Cook changed a hilltop signal-drill on Possession Island in Torres Strait, into a possession ceremony, fabricating Britain's claim of Australia's east coast. Australians_sentence_69

Eighteen years later, the east coast was occupied by Britain and later the west coast was also settled by Britain. Australians_sentence_70

At that time, the indigenous population was estimated to have been between 315,000 and 750,000, divided into as many as 500 tribes speaking many different languages. Australians_sentence_71

At the 2016 census, 649,171 people (2.8% of the total population) identified as being IndigenousAboriginal Australians and Torres Strait Islanders. Australians_sentence_72

Indigenous Australians experience higher than average rates of imprisonment and unemployment, lower levels of education, and life expectancies for males and females that are, respectively, 11 and 17 years lower than those of non-indigenous Australians. Australians_sentence_73

Some remote Indigenous communities have been described as having "failed state"-like conditions. Australians_sentence_74

Country of birth Australians_section_5

In 2019, 30% of the Australian resident population, or 7,529,570 people, were born overseas. Australians_sentence_75

The Australian resident population consists of people who were born in the following countries: Australians_sentence_76


Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics (2019)Australians_header_cell_1_0_0
Place of birthAustralians_header_cell_1_1_0 Estimated resident populationAustralians_header_cell_1_1_1
Total Australian-bornAustralians_cell_1_2_0 17,836,000Australians_cell_1_2_1
Total foreign-bornAustralians_cell_1_3_0 7,529,570Australians_cell_1_3_1
England EnglandAustralians_cell_1_4_0 986,460Australians_cell_1_4_1
Mainland_China Mainland ChinaAustralians_cell_1_5_0 677,240Australians_cell_1_5_1
India IndiaAustralians_cell_1_6_0 660,350Australians_cell_1_6_1
New_Zealand New ZealandAustralians_cell_1_7_0 570,000Australians_cell_1_7_1
Philippines PhilippinesAustralians_cell_1_8_0 293,770Australians_cell_1_8_1
Vietnam VietnamAustralians_cell_1_9_0 262,910Australians_cell_1_9_1
South_Africa South AfricaAustralians_cell_1_10_0 193,860Australians_cell_1_10_1
Italy ItalyAustralians_cell_1_11_0 182,520Australians_cell_1_11_1
Malaysia MalaysiaAustralians_cell_1_12_0 175,920Australians_cell_1_12_1
Sri_Lanka Sri LankaAustralians_cell_1_13_0 140,260Australians_cell_1_13_1
Scotland ScotlandAustralians_cell_1_14_0 133,920Australians_cell_1_14_1
Nepal NepalAustralians_cell_1_15_0 117,870Australians_cell_1_15_1
South_Korea South KoreaAustralians_cell_1_16_0 116,030Australians_cell_1_16_1
Germany GermanyAustralians_cell_1_17_0 112,420Australians_cell_1_17_1
Greece GreeceAustralians_cell_1_18_0 106,660Australians_cell_1_18_1
United_States United StatesAustralians_cell_1_19_0 108,570Australians_cell_1_19_1
Hong_Kong Hong Kong SARAustralians_cell_1_20_0 101,290Australians_cell_1_20_1

For more information about immigration see Immigration to Australia and Foreign-born population of Australia. Australians_sentence_77

Historical population Australians_section_6

The data in the table is sourced from the Australian Bureau of Statistics The population estimates do not include the Aboriginal population before 1961. Australians_sentence_78

Estimates of Aboriginal population prior to European settlement range from 300,000 to one million, with archaeological finds indicating a sustainable population of around 750,000. Australians_sentence_79

Citizenship Australians_section_7

Australian citizenship did not exist before 26 January 1949. Australians_sentence_80

Before then, people born in Australia were British subjects. Australians_sentence_81

People born in Australia (including Norfolk Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands and Christmas Island) on or after 20 August 1986 are Australian citizens by birth if at least one parent was an Australian citizen or a permanent resident at the time of the person's birth. Australians_sentence_82

Statistics do not exist as to the number of Australians who currently are dual citizens. Australians_sentence_83

In 2000, it was estimated to be 4 to 5 million people. Australians_sentence_84

Current population Australians_section_8

The current Australian resident population is estimated at 26,079,000 (15 December 2020). Australians_sentence_85

This does not include an estimated 1 million Australians living overseas, but it includes Australians born overseas. Australians_sentence_86

There are an estimated 1 million Australians (approximately 5 percent of the population) residing outside Australia. Australians_sentence_87

The Trans-Tasman Travel Arrangement facilitates open migration to and from New Zealand. Australians_sentence_88

Culture Australians_section_9

Language Australians_section_10

Main article: Languages of Australia Australians_sentence_89

Although Australia has no official language, English has always been entrenched as the de facto national language. Australians_sentence_90

Australian English is a major variety of the language with a distinctive accent and lexicon, and differs slightly from other varieties of English in grammar and spelling. Australians_sentence_91

General Australian serves as the standard dialect. Australians_sentence_92

According to the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) 2016 census, English is the only language spoken in the home for close to 72.7 percent of the population. Australians_sentence_93

The next most common languages spoken at home are: Australians_sentence_94


  • Mandarin (2.5 percent)Australians_item_0_0
  • Arabic (1.4 percent)Australians_item_0_1
  • Cantonese (1.2 percent)Australians_item_0_2
  • Vietnamese (1.2 percent)Australians_item_0_3
  • Italian (1.2 percent).Australians_item_0_4

A considerable proportion of first- and second-generation migrants are bilingual. Australians_sentence_95

Over 250 Indigenous Australian languages are thought to have existed at the time of first European contact, of which less than 20 are still in daily use by all age groups. Australians_sentence_96

About 110 others are spoken exclusively by older people. Australians_sentence_97

At the time of the 2006 census, 52,000 Indigenous Australians, representing 12 percent of the Indigenous population, reported that they spoke an Indigenous language at home. Australians_sentence_98

Australia has a sign language known as Auslan, which is the main language of about 5,500 deaf people. Australians_sentence_99

Religion Australians_section_11

Main article: Religion in Australia Australians_sentence_100

Australia has no official religion; its Constitution prohibits the government from establishing one, or interfering with the freedom of religion. Australians_sentence_101

Australians have various religions and spiritual beliefs. Australians_sentence_102

Majority (52.1 percent) were Christian, while 30.1 percent of the population reported as having no religion, of those reporting as having religious affiliations according to the 2016 census. Australians_sentence_103

As in many Western countries, the level of active participation in church worship is lower than would be indicated by the proportion of the population identifying themselves as Christian; weekly attendance at church services was about 1.5 million in 2001, about 7% of the population (21.5 million) that year. Australians_sentence_104

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