Austria

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This article is about the country. Austria_sentence_0

For other uses, see Austria (disambiguation). Austria_sentence_1

Not to be confused with Australia. Austria_sentence_2

Austria_table_infobox_0

Republic of Austria

Republik Österreich  (German)Austria_header_cell_0_0_0

Capital

and largest cityAustria_header_cell_0_1_0

ViennaAustria_cell_0_1_1
Official language
and national languageAustria_header_cell_0_2_0
GermanAustria_cell_0_2_1
Recognised languagesAustria_header_cell_0_3_0 Austria_cell_0_3_1
Ethnic groups (2012)Austria_header_cell_0_4_0 Austria_cell_0_4_1
Religion (2018)Austria_header_cell_0_5_0 Austria_cell_0_5_1
Demonym(s)Austria_header_cell_0_6_0 AustrianAustria_cell_0_6_1
GovernmentAustria_header_cell_0_7_0 Federal parliamentary republicAustria_cell_0_7_1
PresidentAustria_header_cell_0_8_0 Alexander Van der BellenAustria_cell_0_8_1
ChancellorAustria_header_cell_0_9_0 Sebastian KurzAustria_cell_0_9_1
Vice ChancellorAustria_header_cell_0_10_0 Werner KoglerAustria_cell_0_10_1
LegislatureAustria_header_cell_0_11_0 ParliamentAustria_cell_0_11_1
Upper houseAustria_header_cell_0_12_0 Federal CouncilAustria_cell_0_12_1
Lower houseAustria_header_cell_0_13_0 National CouncilAustria_cell_0_13_1
Establishment historyAustria_header_cell_0_14_0
Margraviate of AustriaAustria_header_cell_0_15_0 976Austria_cell_0_15_1
Duchy of AustriaAustria_header_cell_0_16_0 1156Austria_cell_0_16_1
Archduchy of AustriaAustria_header_cell_0_17_0 1453Austria_cell_0_17_1
Austrian EmpireAustria_header_cell_0_18_0 1804Austria_cell_0_18_1
Austro-Hungarian EmpireAustria_header_cell_0_19_0 1867Austria_cell_0_19_1
First RepublicAustria_header_cell_0_20_0 1918Austria_cell_0_20_1
Federal StateAustria_header_cell_0_21_0 1934Austria_cell_0_21_1
AnschlussAustria_header_cell_0_22_0 1938Austria_cell_0_22_1
Second RepublicAustria_header_cell_0_23_0 since 1945Austria_cell_0_23_1
State Treaty in effectAustria_header_cell_0_24_0 27 July 1955Austria_cell_0_24_1
Admitted to the United NationsAustria_header_cell_0_25_0 14 December 1955Austria_cell_0_25_1
Joined the European UnionAustria_header_cell_0_26_0 1 January 1995Austria_cell_0_26_1
Area Austria_header_cell_0_27_0
TotalAustria_header_cell_0_28_0 83,879 km (32,386 sq mi) (113th)Austria_cell_0_28_1
Water (%)Austria_header_cell_0_29_0 0.84 (as of 2015)Austria_cell_0_29_1
PopulationAustria_header_cell_0_30_0
October 2020 estimateAustria_header_cell_0_31_0 8,935,112 (97th)Austria_cell_0_31_1
DensityAustria_header_cell_0_32_0 106/km (274.5/sq mi) (106th)Austria_cell_0_32_1
GDP (PPP)Austria_header_cell_0_33_0 2018 estimateAustria_cell_0_33_1
TotalAustria_header_cell_0_34_0 $461.432 billionAustria_cell_0_34_1
Per capitaAustria_header_cell_0_35_0 $51,936 (17th)Austria_cell_0_35_1
GDP (nominal)Austria_header_cell_0_36_0 2019 estimateAustria_cell_0_36_1
TotalAustria_header_cell_0_37_0 $446,315 billion (27th)Austria_cell_0_37_1
Per capitaAustria_header_cell_0_38_0 $50,277 (15th)Austria_cell_0_38_1
Gini (2019)Austria_header_cell_0_39_0 27.5

low · 14thAustria_cell_0_39_1

HDI (2019)Austria_header_cell_0_40_0 0.922

very high · 18thAustria_cell_0_40_1

CurrencyAustria_header_cell_0_41_0 Euro () (EUR)Austria_cell_0_41_1
Time zoneAustria_header_cell_0_42_0 UTC+1 (CET)Austria_cell_0_42_1
Summer (DST)Austria_header_cell_0_43_0 UTC+2 (CEST)Austria_cell_0_43_1
Driving sideAustria_header_cell_0_44_0 rightAustria_cell_0_44_1
Calling codeAustria_header_cell_0_45_0 +43Austria_cell_0_45_1
ISO 3166 codeAustria_header_cell_0_46_0 ATAustria_cell_0_46_1
Internet TLDAustria_header_cell_0_47_0 .atAustria_cell_0_47_1

Austria (/ˈɒstriə/ (listen), /ˈɔːs-/; German: Österreich [ˈøːstɐʁaɪ̯ç (listen)), officially the Republic of Austria (German: Republik Österreich, listen (help·)), is a landlocked East Alpine country in the southern part of Central Europe. Austria_sentence_3

It is composed of nine federated states (Bundesländer), one of which is Vienna, Austria's capital and its largest city. Austria_sentence_4

It is bordered by Germany to the northwest; the Czech Republic to the north; Slovakia to the northeast; Hungary to the east; Slovenia and Italy to the south; and Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the west. Austria_sentence_5

Austria occupies an area of 83,879 km (32,386 sq mi) and has a population of nearly 9 million people. Austria_sentence_6

While German is the country's official language, many Austrians communicate informally in a variety of Bavarian dialects. Austria_sentence_7

Austria initially emerged as a margraviate around 976 and developed into a duchy and archduchy. Austria_sentence_8

In the 16th century, Austria started serving as the heart of the Habsburg Monarchy and the junior branch of the House of Habsburg – one of the most influential royal dynasties in history. Austria_sentence_9

As an archduchy, it was a major component and administrative centre of the Holy Roman Empire. Austria_sentence_10

Early in the 19th century, Austria established its own empire, which became a great power and the leading force of the German Confederation but pursued its own course independently of the other German states. Austria_sentence_11

Following the Austro-Prussian War and the compromise with Hungary, the Dual Monarchy was established. Austria_sentence_12

Austria was involved in World War I under Emperor Franz Joseph following the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand, the presumptive successor to the Austro-Hungarian throne. Austria_sentence_13

After the defeat and the dissolution of the Monarchy, the Republic of German-Austria was proclaimed with the intent of the union with Germany, which eventually failed because of the Allied Powers and the state remained unrecognized. Austria_sentence_14

In 1919 the First Austrian Republic became the legal successor of Austria. Austria_sentence_15

In 1938, the Austrian-born Adolf Hitler, who became the Chancellor of the German Reich, achieved the annexation of Austria by the Anschluss. Austria_sentence_16

Following the defeat of Nazi Germany in 1945 and an extended period of Allied occupation, Austria was re-established as a sovereign and self-governing democratic nation known as the Second Republic. Austria_sentence_17

Austria is a parliamentary representative democracy with a directly elected Federal President as head of state and a Chancellor as head of the federal government. Austria_sentence_18

Major urban areas of Austria include Vienna, Graz, Linz, Salzburg and Innsbruck. Austria_sentence_19

Austria is consistently ranked in the top 20 richest countries in the world by GDP per capita terms. Austria_sentence_20

The country has achieved a high standard of living and in 2018 was ranked 20th in the world for its Human Development Index. Austria_sentence_21

Vienna consistently ranks in the top internationally on quality-of-life indicators. Austria_sentence_22

The Second Republic declared its perpetual neutrality in foreign political affairs in 1955. Austria_sentence_23

Austria has been a member of the United Nations since 1955 and joined the European Union in 1995. Austria_sentence_24

It plays host to the OSCE and OPEC and is a founding member of the OECD and Interpol. Austria_sentence_25

Austria also signed the Schengen Agreement in 1995, and adopted the euro currency in 1999. Austria_sentence_26

Etymology Austria_section_0

Main article: Name of Austria Austria_sentence_27

The German name for Austria, Österreich, derives from the Old High German Ostarrîchi, which meant "eastern realm" and which first appeared in the "Ostarrîchi document" of 996. Austria_sentence_28

This word is probably a translation of Medieval Latin Marchia orientalis into a local (Bavarian) dialect. Austria_sentence_29

Another theory says that this name comes from the local name of the mountain whose original Slovenian name is Ostravica ('sharp mountain'), because it is very steep on both sides. Austria_sentence_30

Austria was a prefecture of Bavaria created in 976. Austria_sentence_31

The word "Austria" is a Latinisation of the German name and was first recorded in the 12th century. Austria_sentence_32

At the time, the Danube basin of Austria (Upper and Lower Austria) was the easternmost extent of Bavaria. Austria_sentence_33

History Austria_section_1

Main article: History of Austria Austria_sentence_34

The Central European land that is now Austria was settled in pre-Roman times by various Celtic tribes. Austria_sentence_35

The Celtic kingdom of Noricum was later claimed by the Roman Empire and made a province. Austria_sentence_36

Present-day Petronell-Carnuntum in eastern Austria was an important army camp turned capital city in what became known as the Upper Pannonia province. Austria_sentence_37

Carnuntum was home for 50,000 people for nearly 400 years. Austria_sentence_38

After the fall of the Roman Empire, the area was invaded by Bavarians, Slavs and Avars. Austria_sentence_39

Charlemagne, King of the Franks, conquered the area in AD 788, encouraged colonization, and introduced Christianity. Austria_sentence_40

As part of Eastern Francia, the core areas that now encompass Austria were bequeathed to the house of Babenberg. Austria_sentence_41

The area was known as the marchia Orientalis and was given to Leopold of Babenberg in 976. Austria_sentence_42

The first record showing the name Austria is from 996, where it is written as Ostarrîchi, referring to the territory of the Babenberg March. Austria_sentence_43

In 1156, the Privilegium Minus elevated Austria to the status of a duchy. Austria_sentence_44

In 1192, the Babenbergs also acquired the Duchy of Styria. Austria_sentence_45

With the death of Frederick II in 1246, the line of the Babenbergs was extinguished. Austria_sentence_46

As a result, Ottokar II of Bohemia effectively assumed control of the duchies of Austria, Styria, and Carinthia. Austria_sentence_47

His reign came to an end with his defeat at Dürnkrut at the hands of Rudolph I of Germany in 1278. Austria_sentence_48

Thereafter, until World War I, Austria's history was largely that of its ruling dynasty, the Habsburgs. Austria_sentence_49

Middle Ages Austria_section_2

In the 14th and 15th centuries, the Habsburgs began to accumulate other provinces in the vicinity of the Duchy of Austria. Austria_sentence_50

In 1438, Duke Albert V of Austria was chosen as the successor to his father-in-law, Emperor Sigismund. Austria_sentence_51

Although Albert himself only reigned for a year, henceforth every emperor of the Holy Roman Empire was a Habsburg, with only one exception. Austria_sentence_52

The Habsburgs began also to accumulate territory far from the hereditary lands. Austria_sentence_53

In 1477, Archduke Maximilian, only son of Emperor Frederick III, married the heiress Maria of Burgundy, thus acquiring most of the Netherlands for the family. Austria_sentence_54

In 1496, his son Philip the Fair married Joanna the Mad, the heiress of Castile and Aragon, thus acquiring Spain and its Italian, African, and New World appendages for the Habsburgs. Austria_sentence_55

In 1526, following the Battle of Mohács, Bohemia and the part of Hungary not occupied by the Ottomans came under Austrian rule. Austria_sentence_56

Ottoman expansion into Hungary led to frequent conflicts between the two empires, particularly evident in the Long War of 1593 to 1606. Austria_sentence_57

The Turks made incursions into Styria nearly 20 times, of which some are cited as "burning, pillaging, and taking thousands of slaves". Austria_sentence_58

In late September 1529 Suleiman the Magnificent launched the first Siege of Vienna, which unsuccessfully ended, according to Ottoman historians, with the snowfalls of an early beginning winter. Austria_sentence_59

17th and 18th centuries Austria_section_3

During the long reign of Leopold I (1657–1705) and following the successful defence of Vienna against the Turks in 1683 (under the command of the King of Poland, John III Sobieski), a series of campaigns resulted in bringing most of Hungary to Austrian control by the Treaty of Karlowitz in 1699. Austria_sentence_60

Emperor Charles VI relinquished many of the gains the empire made in the previous years, largely due to his apprehensions at the imminent extinction of the House of Habsburg. Austria_sentence_61

Charles was willing to offer concrete advantages in territory and authority in exchange for recognition of the Pragmatic Sanction that made his daughter Maria Theresa his heir. Austria_sentence_62

With the rise of Prussia, the Austrian–Prussian dualism began in Germany. Austria_sentence_63

Austria participated, together with Prussia and Russia, in the first and the third of the three Partitions of Poland (in 1772 and 1795). Austria_sentence_64

19th century Austria_section_4

Austria later became engaged in a war with Revolutionary France, at the beginning highly unsuccessfully, with successive defeats at the hands of Napoleon, meaning the end of the old Holy Roman Empire in 1806. Austria_sentence_65

Two years earlier, the Empire of Austria was founded. Austria_sentence_66

From 1792 to 1801, the Austrians had suffered 754,700 casualties. Austria_sentence_67

In 1814, Austria was part of the Allied forces that invaded France and brought to an end the Napoleonic Wars. Austria_sentence_68

It emerged from the Congress of Vienna in 1815 as one of the continent's four dominant powers and a recognised great power. Austria_sentence_69

The same year, the German Confederation (Deutscher Bund) was founded under the presidency of Austria. Austria_sentence_70

Because of unsolved social, political, and national conflicts, the German lands were shaken by the 1848 revolutions aiming to create a unified Germany. Austria_sentence_71

The various different possibilities for a united Germany were: a Greater Germany, or a Greater Austria or just the German Confederation without Austria at all. Austria_sentence_72

As Austria was not willing to relinquish its German-speaking territories to what would become the German Empire of 1848, the crown of the newly formed empire was offered to the Prussian King Friedrich Wilhelm IV. Austria_sentence_73

In 1864, Austria and Prussia fought together against Denmark and secured the independence from Denmark of the duchies of Schleswig and Holstein. Austria_sentence_74

As they could not agree on how the two duchies should be administered, though, they fought the Austro-Prussian War in 1866. Austria_sentence_75

Defeated by Prussia in the Battle of Königgrätz, Austria had to leave the German Confederation and no longer took part in German politics. Austria_sentence_76

The Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867, the Ausgleich, provided for a dual sovereignty, the Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Hungary, under Franz Joseph I. Austria_sentence_77

The Austrian-Hungarian rule of this diverse empire included various Slavic groups, including Croats, Czechs, Poles, Rusyns, Serbs, Slovaks, Slovenes, and Ukrainians, as well as large Italian and Romanian communities. Austria_sentence_78

As a result, ruling Austria–Hungary became increasingly difficult in an age of emerging nationalist movements, requiring considerable reliance on an expanded secret police. Austria_sentence_79

Yet, the government of Austria tried its best to be accommodating in some respects: for example, the Reichsgesetzblatt, publishing the laws and ordinances of Cisleithania, was issued in eight languages; and all national groups were entitled to schools in their own language and to the use of their mother tongue at state offices. Austria_sentence_80

Many Austrians of all different social circles such as Georg Ritter von Schönerer promoted strong pan-Germanism in hope of reinforcing an ethnic German identity and the annexation of Austria to Germany. Austria_sentence_81

Some Austrians such as Karl Lueger also used pan-Germanism as a form of populism to further their own political goals. Austria_sentence_82

Although Bismarck's policies excluded Austria and the German Austrians from Germany, many Austrian pan-Germans idolized him and wore blue cornflowers, known to be the favourite flower of German Emperor William I, in their buttonholes, along with cockades in the German national colours (black, red, and yellow), although they were both temporarily banned in Austrian schools, as a way to show discontent towards the multi-ethnic empire. Austria_sentence_83

Austria's exclusion from Germany caused many Austrians a problem with their national identity and prompted the Social Democratic Leader Otto Bauer to state that it was "the conflict between our Austrian and German character". Austria_sentence_84

The Austro-Hungarian Empire caused ethnic tension between the German Austrians and the other ethnic groups. Austria_sentence_85

Many Austrians, especially those involved with the pan-German movements, desired a reinforcement of an ethnic German identity and hoped that the empire would collapse, which would allow an annexation of Austria with Germany. Austria_sentence_86

A lot of Austrian pan-German nationalists protested passionately against minister-president Kasimir Count Badeni's language decree of 1897, which made German and Czech co-official languages in Bohemia and required new government officials to be fluent in both languages. Austria_sentence_87

This meant in practice that the civil service would almost exclusively hire Czechs, because most middle-class Czechs spoke German but not the other way around. Austria_sentence_88

The support of ultramontane Catholic politicians and clergy for this reform triggered the launch of the "Away from Rome" (German: Los-von-Rom) movement, which was initiated by supporters of Schönerer and called on "German" Christians to leave the Roman Catholic Church. Austria_sentence_89

20th century Austria_section_5

See also: Republic of German-Austria and First Austrian Republic Austria_sentence_90

As the Second Constitutional Era began in the Ottoman Empire, Austria-Hungary took the opportunity to annex Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1908. Austria_sentence_91

The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo in 1914 by Bosnian Serb Gavrilo Princip was used by leading Austrian politicians and generals to persuade the emperor to declare war on Serbia, thereby risking and prompting the outbreak of World War I, which eventually led to the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Austria_sentence_92

Over one million Austro-Hungarian soldiers died in World War I. Austria_sentence_93

On 21 October 1918, the elected German members of the Reichsrat (parliament of Imperial Austria) met in Vienna as the Provisional National Assembly for German Austria (Provisorische Nationalversammlung für Deutschösterreich). Austria_sentence_94

On 30 October the assembly founded the Republic of German Austria by appointing a government, called Staatsrat. Austria_sentence_95

This new government was invited by the Emperor to take part in the decision on the planned armistice with Italy, but refrained from this business. Austria_sentence_96

This left the responsibility for the end of the war, on 3 November 1918, solely to the emperor and his government. Austria_sentence_97

On 11 November, the emperor, advised by ministers of the old and the new governments, declared he would not take part in state business any more; on 12 November, German Austria, by law, declared itself to be a democratic republic and part of the new German republic. Austria_sentence_98

The constitution, renaming the Staatsrat as Bundesregierung (federal government) and Nationalversammlung as Nationalrat (national council) was passed on 10 November 1920. Austria_sentence_99

The Treaty of Saint-Germain of 1919 (for Hungary the Treaty of Trianon of 1920) confirmed and consolidated the new order of Central Europe which to a great extent had been established in November 1918, creating new states and altering others. Austria_sentence_100

The German-speaking parts of Austria which had been part of Austria-Hungary were reduced to a rump state named The Republic of German-Austria (German: Republik Deutschösterreich). Austria_sentence_101

The desire for Anschluss (annexation of Austria to Germany) was a popular opinion shared by all social circles in both Austria and Germany. Austria_sentence_102

On 12 November, German-Austria was declared a republic, and named Social Democrat Karl Renner as provisional chancellor. Austria_sentence_103

On the same day it drafted a provisional constitution that stated that "German-Austria is a democratic republic" (Article 1) and "German-Austria is an integral part of the German reich" (Article 2). Austria_sentence_104

The Treaty of Saint Germain and the Treaty of Versailles explicitly forbid union between Austria and Germany. Austria_sentence_105

The treaties also forced German-Austria to rename itself as "Republic of Austria" which consequently led to the first Austrian Republic. Austria_sentence_106

Over 3 million German-speaking Austrians found themselves living outside the new Austrian Republic as minorities in the newly formed or enlarged states of Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, Hungary, and Italy. Austria_sentence_107

These included the provinces of South Tyrol (which became part of Italy) and German Bohemia (Czechoslovakia). Austria_sentence_108

The status of German Bohemia (Sudetenland) later played a role in sparking the Second World War. Austria_sentence_109

The status of South Tyrol was a lingering problem between Austria and Italy until it was officially settled by the 1980s with a great degree of autonomy being granted to it by the Italian national government. Austria_sentence_110

Between 1918 and 1919, Austria was known as the State of German Austria (Staat Deutschösterreich). Austria_sentence_111

Not only did the Entente powers forbid German Austria to unite with Germany, but they also rejected the name German Austria in the peace treaty to be signed; it was, therefore, changed to Republic of Austria in late 1919. Austria_sentence_112

The border between Austria and the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes (later Yugoslavia) was settled with the in October 1920 and allocated the major part of the territory of the former Austro-Hungarian Crownland of Carinthia to Austria. Austria_sentence_113

This set the border on the Karawanken mountain range, with many Slovenes remaining in Austria. Austria_sentence_114

Interwar period and World War II Austria_section_6

See also: First Austrian Republic, Federal State of Austria, Anschluss, Austria in the time of National Socialism, and History of the Jews in Austria § The Holocaust in Austria Austria_sentence_115

After the war, inflation began to devalue the Krone, which was still Austria's currency. Austria_sentence_116

In autumn 1922, Austria was granted an international loan supervised by the League of Nations. Austria_sentence_117

The purpose of the loan was to avert bankruptcy, stabilise the currency, and improve Austria's general economic condition. Austria_sentence_118

The loan meant that Austria passed from an independent state to the control exercised by the League of Nations. Austria_sentence_119

In 1925, the Schilling was introduced, replacing the Krone at a rate of 10,000:1. Austria_sentence_120

Later, it was nicknamed the "Alpine dollar" due to its stability. Austria_sentence_121

From 1925 to 1929, the economy enjoyed a short high before nearly crashing after Black Tuesday. Austria_sentence_122

The First Austrian Republic lasted until 1933, when Chancellor Engelbert Dollfuss, using what he called "self-switch-off of Parliament", established an autocratic regime tending towards Italian fascism. Austria_sentence_123

The two big parties at this time, the Social Democrats and the Conservatives, had paramilitary armies; the Social Democrats' Schutzbund was now declared illegal, but was still operative as civil war broke out. Austria_sentence_124

In February 1934, several members of the Schutzbund were executed, the Social Democratic party was outlawed, and many of its members were imprisoned or emigrated. Austria_sentence_125

On 1 May 1934, the Austrofascists imposed a new constitution ("Maiverfassung") which cemented Dollfuss's power, but on 25 July he was assassinated in a Nazi coup attempt. Austria_sentence_126

His successor Kurt Schuschnigg acknowledged Austria as a "German state" and that Austrians were "better Germans" but wished for Austria to remain independent. Austria_sentence_127

He announced a referendum on 9 March 1938, to be held on 13 March, concerning Austria's independence from Germany. Austria_sentence_128

On 12 March 1938, Austrian Nazis took over government, while German troops occupied the country, which prevented Schuschnigg's referendum from taking place. Austria_sentence_129

On 13 March 1938, the Anschluss of Austria was officially declared. Austria_sentence_130

Two days later, Austrian-born Hitler announced what he called the "reunification" of his home country with the "rest of the German Reich" on Vienna's Heldenplatz. Austria_sentence_131

He established a plebiscite confirming the union with Germany in April 1938. Austria_sentence_132

Parliamentary elections were held in Germany (including recently annexed Austria) on 10 April 1938. Austria_sentence_133

They were the final elections to the Reichstag during Nazi rule, and took the form of a single-question referendum asking whether voters approved of a single Nazi-party list for the 813-member Reichstag, as well as the recent annexation of Austria (the Anschluss). Austria_sentence_134

Jews and Gypsies were not allowed to vote. Austria_sentence_135

Turnout in the election was officially 99.5%, with 98.9% voting "yes". Austria_sentence_136

In the case of Austria, Adolf Hitler's native soil, 99.71% of an electorate of 4,484,475 officially went to the ballots, with a positive tally of 99.73%. Austria_sentence_137

Although most Austrians favoured the Anschluss, in certain parts of Austria the German soldiers were not always welcomed with flowers and joy, especially in Vienna which had Austria's largest Jewish population. Austria_sentence_138

Nevertheless, despite the propaganda and the manipulation and rigging which surrounded the ballot box result, there was massive genuine support for Hitler for fulfilling the Anschluss, since many Germans from both Austria and Germany saw it as completing the long overdue unification of all Germans into one state. Austria_sentence_139

On 12 March 1938, Austria was annexed to the Third Reich and ceased to exist as an independent country. Austria_sentence_140

The Aryanisation of the wealth of Jewish Austrians started immediately in mid-March, with a so-called "wild" (i.e. extra-legal) phase, but was soon structured legally and bureaucratically to strip Jewish citizens of any assets they possessed. Austria_sentence_141

The Nazis renamed Austria in 1938 as "Ostmark" until 1942, when it was again renamed and called "Alpine and Danubian Gaue" (Alpen-und Donau-Reichsgaue). Austria_sentence_142

Though Austrians made up only 8% of the population of the Third Reich, some of the most prominent Nazis were native Austrians, including Adolf Hitler, Ernst Kaltenbrunner, Arthur Seyss-Inquart, Franz Stangl, and Odilo Globocnik, as were over 13% of the SS and 40% of the staff at the Nazi extermination camps. Austria_sentence_143

Vienna fell on 13 April 1945, during the Soviet Vienna Offensive, just before the total collapse of the Third Reich. Austria_sentence_144

The invading Allied powers, in particular the Americans, planned for the supposed "Alpine Fortress Operation" of a national redoubt, that was largely to have taken place on Austrian soil in the mountains of the Eastern Alps. Austria_sentence_145

However, it never materialised because of the rapid collapse of the Reich. Austria_sentence_146

Karl Renner and Adolf Schärf (Socialist Party of Austria [Social Democrats and Revolutionary Socialists]), Leopold Kunschak (Austria's People's Party [former Christian Social People's Party]), and Johann Koplenig (Communist Party of Austria) declared Austria's secession from the Third Reich by the Declaration of Independence on 27 April 1945 and set up a provisional government in Vienna under state Chancellor Renner the same day, with the approval of the victorious Red Army and backed by Joseph Stalin. Austria_sentence_147

(The date is officially named the birthday of the second republic.) Austria_sentence_148

At the end of April, most of western and southern Austria were still under Nazi rule. Austria_sentence_149

On 1 May 1945, the federal constitution of 1929, which had been terminated by dictator Dollfuss on 1 May 1934, was declared valid again. Austria_sentence_150

Total military deaths from 1939 to 1945 are estimated at 260,000. Austria_sentence_151

Jewish Holocaust victims totalled 65,000. Austria_sentence_152

About 140,000 Jewish Austrians had fled the country in 1938–39. Austria_sentence_153

Thousands of Austrians had taken part in serious Nazi crimes (hundreds of thousands died in Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp alone), a fact officially recognised by Chancellor Franz Vranitzky in 1992. Austria_sentence_154

Contemporary era Austria_section_7

Much like Germany, Austria was divided into American, British, French, and Soviet zones and governed by the Allied Commission for Austria. Austria_sentence_155

As forecast in the Moscow Declaration in 1943, a subtle difference was seen in the treatment of Austria by the Allies. Austria_sentence_156

The Austrian government, consisting of Social Democrats, Conservatives, and Communists (until 1947), and residing in Vienna, which was surrounded by the Soviet zone, was recognised by the Western Allies in October 1945 after some doubts that Renner could be Stalin's puppet. Austria_sentence_157

Thus, the creation of a separate Western Austrian government and the division of the country was avoided. Austria_sentence_158

Austria, in general, was treated as though it had been originally invaded by Germany and liberated by the Allies. Austria_sentence_159

On 15 May 1955, after talks which lasted for years and were influenced by the Cold War, Austria regained full independence by concluding the Austrian State Treaty with the Four Occupying Powers. Austria_sentence_160

On 26 October 1955, after all occupation troops had left, Austria declared its "permanent neutrality" by an act of parliament. Austria_sentence_161

This day is now Austria's National Day, a public holiday. Austria_sentence_162

The political system of the Second Republic is based on the constitution of 1920 and 1929, which was reintroduced in 1945. Austria_sentence_163

The system came to be characterised by Proporz, meaning that most posts of political importance were split evenly between members of the Social Democratic Party of Austria (SPÖ) and the Austrian People's Party (ÖVP). Austria_sentence_164

Interest group "chambers" with mandatory membership (e.g. for workers, business people, farmers) grew to considerable importance and were usually consulted in the legislative process, so hardly any legislation was passed that did not reflect widespread consensus. Austria_sentence_165

Since 1945, governing via a single-party government has occurred twice: 1966–1970 (ÖVP) and 1970–1983 (SPÖ). Austria_sentence_166

During all other legislative periods, either a grand coalition of SPÖ and ÖVP or a "small coalition" (one of these two and a smaller party) ruled the country. Austria_sentence_167

Kurt Waldheim, a Wehrmacht officer in the Second World War accused of war crimes, was elected President of Austria from 1986 to 1992. Austria_sentence_168

Following a referendum in 1994, at which consent reached a majority of two-thirds, the country became a member of the European Union on 1 January 1995. Austria_sentence_169

The major parties SPÖ and ÖVP have contrary opinions about the future status of Austria's military nonalignment: While the SPÖ in public supports a neutral role, the ÖVP argues for stronger integration into the EU's security policy; even a future NATO membership is not ruled out by some ÖVP politicians (ex. Austria_sentence_170

Dr Werner Fasslabend (ÖVP) in 1997). Austria_sentence_171

In reality, Austria is taking part in the EU's Common Foreign and Security Policy, participates in peacekeeping and peace creating tasks, and has become a member of NATO's "Partnership for Peace"; the constitution has been amended accordingly. Austria_sentence_172

Since Liechtenstein joined the Schengen Area in 2011, none of Austria's neighbouring countries performs border controls towards it anymore. Austria_sentence_173

Politics Austria_section_8

Main article: Politics of Austria Austria_sentence_174

The Parliament of Austria is located in Vienna, the country's capital and most populous city. Austria_sentence_175

Austria became a federal, representative democratic republic through the Federal Constitution of 1920. Austria_sentence_176

The political system of the Second Republic with its nine states is based on the constitution of 1920, amended in 1929, which was reenacted on 1 May 1945. Austria_sentence_177

The head of state is the Federal President (Bundespräsident), who is directly elected by popular majority vote, with a run-off between the top-scoring candidates if necessary. Austria_sentence_178

The head of the Federal Government is the Federal Chancellor (Bundeskanzler), who is selected by the President and tasked with forming a government based on the partisan composition of the lower house of parliament. Austria_sentence_179

The government can be removed from office by either a presidential decree or by vote of no confidence in the lower chamber of parliament, the Nationalrat. Austria_sentence_180

Voting for the Federal President and for the Parliament used to be compulsory in Austria, but this was abolished in steps from 1982 to 2004. Austria_sentence_181

Austria's parliament consists of two chambers. Austria_sentence_182

The composition of the Nationalrat (183 seats) is determined every five years (or whenever the Nationalrat has been dissolved by the federal president on a motion by the federal chancellor, or by Nationalrat itself) by a general election in which every citizen over the age of 16 has the right to vote. Austria_sentence_183

The voting age was lowered from 18 in 2007. Austria_sentence_184

While there is a general threshold of 4% of the vote for all parties in federal elections (Nationalratswahlen) to participate in the proportional allocation of seats, there remains the possibility of being elected to a seat directly in one of the 43 regional electoral districts (Direktmandat). Austria_sentence_185

The Nationalrat is the dominant chamber in the legislative process in Austria. Austria_sentence_186

However, the upper house of parliament, the Bundesrat, has a limited right of veto (the Nationalrat can—in almost all cases—ultimately pass the respective bill by voting a second time; this is referred to as a Beharrungsbeschluss, lit. Austria_sentence_187

"vote of persistence"). Austria_sentence_188

A constitutional convention, called the Österreich -Konvent was convened on 30 June 2003 to consider reforms to the constitution, but failed to produce a proposal that would command a two-thirds majority in the Nationalrat, the margin necessary for constitutional amendments and/or reform. Austria_sentence_189

While the bicameral Parliament and the Government constitute the legislative and executive branches, respectively, the courts are the third branch of Austrian state powers. Austria_sentence_190

The Constitutional Court (Verfassungsgerichtshof) exerts considerable influence on the political system because of its power to invalidate legislation and ordinances that are not in compliance with the constitution. Austria_sentence_191

Since 1995, the European Court of Justice may overrule Austrian decisions in all matters defined in laws of the European Union. Austria_sentence_192

Austria also implements the decisions of the European Court of Human Rights, since the European Convention on Human Rights is part of the Austrian constitution. Austria_sentence_193

Since 2006 Austria_section_9

After general elections held in October 2006, the Social Democratic Party (SPÖ) emerged as the strongest party, and the Austrian People's Party (ÖVP) came in second, having lost about 8% of its previous polling. Austria_sentence_194

Political realities prohibited any of the two major parties from forming a coalition with smaller parties. Austria_sentence_195

In January 2007 the People's Party and SPÖ formed a grand coalition with the social democrat Alfred Gusenbauer as Chancellor. Austria_sentence_196

This coalition broke up in June 2008. Austria_sentence_197

Elections in September 2008 further weakened both major parties (SPÖ and ÖVP) but together they still held 70% of the votes, with the Social Democrats holding slightly more than the other party. Austria_sentence_198

They formed a coalition with Werner Faymann from the Social Democrats as Chancellor. Austria_sentence_199

The Green Party came in third with 11% of the vote. Austria_sentence_200

The FPÖ and the deceased Jörg Haider's new party Alliance for the Future of Austria, both on the political right, were strengthened during the election but taken together received less than 20% of the vote. Austria_sentence_201

In the legislative elections of 2013, the Social Democratic Party received 27% of the vote and 52 seats; People's Party 24% and 47 seats, thus controlling together the majority of the seats. Austria_sentence_202

The Freedom Party received 40 seats and 21% of the votes, while the Greens received 12% and 24 seats. Austria_sentence_203

Two new parties, Stronach and the NEOS, received less than 10% of the vote, and 11 and nine seats respectively. Austria_sentence_204

After the Grand Coalition broke in Spring 2017 a snap election was proclaimed for October 2017. Austria_sentence_205

The Austrian People's Party (ÖVP) with its new young leader Sebastian Kurz emerged as the largest party in the National Council, winning 31.5% of votes and 62 of the 183 seats. Austria_sentence_206

The Social Democratic Party (SPÖ) finished second with 52 seats and 26.9% votes, slightly ahead of the Freedom Party of Austria (FPÖ), which received 51 seats and 26%. Austria_sentence_207

NEOS finished fourth with 10 seats (5.3 percent of votes), and PILZ (which split from the Green Party at the start of the campaign) entered parliament for the first time and came in fifth place with 8 seats and 4.4% The Green Party failed with 3.8% to cross the 4% threshold and was ejected from parliament, losing all of its 24 seats. Austria_sentence_208

The ÖVP decided to form a coalition with the FPÖ. Austria_sentence_209

The new government between the centre-right wing and the right-wing populist party under the new chancellor Sebastian Kurz was sworn in on 18 December 2017, but the coalition government later collapsed and new elections were called for 29 September 2019. Austria_sentence_210

The elections lead to another landslide victory (37.5%) of the Austrian People's Party (ÖVP) who formed a coalition-government with the reinvigorated (13.9%) Greens, which was sworn in with Kurz as chancellor on January 7, 2020. Austria_sentence_211

Foreign relations Austria_section_10

Main article: Foreign relations of Austria Austria_sentence_212

The 1955 Austrian State Treaty ended the occupation of Austria following World War II and recognised Austria as an independent and sovereign state. Austria_sentence_213

On 26 October 1955, the Federal Assembly passed a constitutional article in which "Austria declares of her own free will her perpetual neutrality." Austria_sentence_214

The second section of this law stated that "in all future times Austria will not join any military alliances and will not permit the establishment of any foreign military bases on her territory." Austria_sentence_215

Since then, Austria has shaped its foreign policy on the basis of neutrality, but rather different from the neutrality of Switzerland. Austria_sentence_216

Austria began to reassess its definition of neutrality following the fall of the Soviet Union, granting overflight rights for the UN-sanctioned action against Iraq in 1991, and since 1995, it has developed participation in the EU's Common Foreign and Security Policy. Austria_sentence_217

Also in 1995, it joined NATO's Partnership for Peace (although it was careful to do so only after Russia joined) and subsequently participated in peacekeeping missions in Bosnia. Austria_sentence_218

Meanwhile, the only part of the Constitutional Law on Neutrality of 1955 still fully valid is to not allow foreign military bases in Austria. Austria_sentence_219

Austria signed the UN's Nuclear Weapon Ban Treaty, which was opposed by all NATO members. Austria_sentence_220

Austria attaches great importance to participation in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and other international economic organisations, and it has played an active role in the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE). Austria_sentence_221

As an OSCE-participating State, Austria's international commitments are subject to monitoring under the mandate of the U.S. Austria_sentence_222 Helsinki Commission. Austria_sentence_223

Military Austria_section_11

Main article: Austrian Armed Forces Austria_sentence_224

The manpower of the Austrian Armed Forces (German: Bundesheer) mainly relies on conscription. Austria_sentence_225

All males who have reached the age of eighteen and are found fit have to serve a six months compulsory military service, followed by an eight-year reserve obligation. Austria_sentence_226

Both males and females at the age of sixteen are eligible for voluntary service. Austria_sentence_227

Conscientious objection is legally acceptable and those who claim this right are obliged to serve an institutionalised nine months civilian service instead. Austria_sentence_228

Since 1998, women volunteers have been allowed to become professional soldiers. Austria_sentence_229

The main sectors of the Bundesheer are Joint Forces (Streitkräfteführungskommando, SKFüKdo) which consist of Land Forces (Landstreitkräfte), Air Forces (Luftstreitkräfte), International Missions (Internationale Einsätze) and Special Forces (Spezialeinsatzkräfte), next to Joint Mission Support Command (Kommando Einsatzunterstützung; KdoEU) and Joint Command Support Centre (Führungsunterstützungszentrum; FüUZ). Austria_sentence_230

Austria is a landlocked country and has no navy. Austria_sentence_231

In 2012, Austria's defence expenditures corresponded to approximately 0.8% of its GDP. Austria_sentence_232

The Army currently has about 26,000 soldiers, of whom about 12,000 are conscripts. Austria_sentence_233

As head of state, Austrian President is nominally the Commander-in-Chief of the Bundesheer. Austria_sentence_234

Command of the Austrian Armed Forces is exercised by the Minister of Defence, as of May 2020: Klaudia Tanner. Austria_sentence_235

Since the end of the Cold War, and more importantly the removal of the former heavily guarded "Iron Curtain" separating Austria and its Eastern Bloc neighbours (Hungary and former Czechoslovakia), the Austrian military has been assisting Austrian border guards in trying to prevent border crossings by illegal immigrants. Austria_sentence_236

This assistance came to an end when Hungary and Slovakia joined the EU Schengen Area in 2008, for all intents and purposes abolishing "internal" border controls between treaty states. Austria_sentence_237

Some politicians have called for a prolongation of this mission, but the legality of this is heavily disputed. Austria_sentence_238

In accordance with the Austrian constitution, armed forces may only be deployed in a limited number of cases, mainly to defend the country and aid in cases of national emergency, such as in the wake of natural disasters. Austria_sentence_239

They may generally not be used as auxiliary police forces. Austria_sentence_240

Within its self-declared status of permanent neutrality, Austria has a long and proud tradition of engaging in UN-led peacekeeping and other humanitarian missions. Austria_sentence_241

The Austrian Forces Disaster Relief Unit (AFDRU), in particular, an all-volunteer unit with close ties to civilian specialists (e.g. rescue dog handlers) enjoys a reputation as a quick (standard deployment time is 10 hours) and efficient SAR unit. Austria_sentence_242

Currently, larger contingents of Austrian forces are deployed in Bosnia and Kosovo. Austria_sentence_243

Administrative divisions Austria_section_12

Main article: States of Austria Austria_sentence_244

Austria is a federal republic consisting of nine states (German: Bundesländer). Austria_sentence_245

The states are sub-divided into districts (Bezirke) and statutory cities (Statutarstädte). Austria_sentence_246

Districts are subdivided into municipalities (Gemeinden). Austria_sentence_247

Statutory Cities have the competencies otherwise granted to both districts and municipalities. Austria_sentence_248

Vienna is unique in that it is both a city and a state. Austria_sentence_249

Austria's constituent states are not mere administrative divisions but have some legislative authority distinct from the federal government, e.g. in matters of culture, social welfare, youth and nature protection, hunting, building, and zoning ordinances. Austria_sentence_250

In recent years, it has been questioned whether a small country should maintain ten subnational legislatures. Austria_sentence_251

Consolidation of local governments has already been undertaken at the Gemeinde level for purposes of administrative efficiency and cost savings (). Austria_sentence_252

Austria_table_general_1

StateAustria_header_cell_1_0_0 CapitalAustria_header_cell_1_0_1 Area

(sq km)Austria_header_cell_1_0_2

Population

(1 Jan 2017)Austria_header_cell_1_0_3

Density

per km2Austria_header_cell_1_0_4

GDP (euro)

(2012 Eurostat)Austria_header_cell_1_0_5

GDP per

capitaAustria_header_cell_1_0_6

BurgenlandAustria_cell_1_1_0 EisenstadtAustria_cell_1_1_1 3,965Austria_cell_1_1_2 291,942Austria_cell_1_1_3 73.6Austria_cell_1_1_4 7.311 bnAustria_cell_1_1_5 25,600Austria_cell_1_1_6
CarinthiaAustria_cell_1_2_0 KlagenfurtAustria_cell_1_2_1 9,536Austria_cell_1_2_2 561,077Austria_cell_1_2_3 58.8Austria_cell_1_2_4 17.62 bnAustria_cell_1_2_5 31,700Austria_cell_1_2_6
Lower AustriaAustria_cell_1_3_0 Sankt PöltenAustria_cell_1_3_1 19,178Austria_cell_1_3_2 1,665,753Austria_cell_1_3_3 86.9Austria_cell_1_3_4 49.75 bnAustria_cell_1_3_5 30,800Austria_cell_1_3_6
SalzburgAustria_cell_1_4_0 SalzburgAustria_cell_1_4_1 7,154Austria_cell_1_4_2 549,263Austria_cell_1_4_3 76.8Austria_cell_1_4_4 23.585 bnAustria_cell_1_4_5 44,500Austria_cell_1_4_6
StyriaAustria_cell_1_5_0 GrazAustria_cell_1_5_1 16,401Austria_cell_1_5_2 1,237,298Austria_cell_1_5_3 75.4Austria_cell_1_5_4 40.696 bnAustria_cell_1_5_5 33,600Austria_cell_1_5_6
TyrolAustria_cell_1_6_0 InnsbruckAustria_cell_1_6_1 12,648Austria_cell_1_6_2 746,153Austria_cell_1_6_3 59.0Austria_cell_1_6_4 28.052 bnAustria_cell_1_6_5 39,400Austria_cell_1_6_6
Upper AustriaAustria_cell_1_7_0 LinzAustria_cell_1_7_1 11,982Austria_cell_1_7_2 1,465,045Austria_cell_1_7_3 122.3Austria_cell_1_7_4 53.863 bnAustria_cell_1_7_5 38,000Austria_cell_1_7_6
ViennaAustria_cell_1_8_0 415Austria_cell_1_8_2 1,867,582Austria_cell_1_8_3 4,500Austria_cell_1_8_4 81.772 bnAustria_cell_1_8_5 47,300Austria_cell_1_8_6
VorarlbergAustria_cell_1_9_0 BregenzAustria_cell_1_9_1 2,601Austria_cell_1_9_2 388,752Austria_cell_1_9_3 149.5Austria_cell_1_9_4 14.463 bnAustria_cell_1_9_5 38,900Austria_cell_1_9_6

Corrections system Austria_section_13

The Ministry in charge of the Austrian corrections system is the Ministry of Justice. Austria_sentence_253

The Ministry of Justice is based out of Vienna. Austria_sentence_254

The head of the prison administration falls under the title of Director General. Austria_sentence_255

The total prison population rate as of July 2017 2017 is 8,290 people. Austria_sentence_256

Pre-trial detainees make up 23.6%, female prisoners make up 5.7%, juveniles make up 1.4%, and foreign prisoners make up 54.2% of the prison system. Austria_sentence_257

Since 2000 the population has risen over 2,000 and has stabilized at over 8,000. Austria_sentence_258

Geography Austria_section_14

Main article: Geography of Austria Austria_sentence_259

Austria is a largely mountainous country because of its location in the Alps. Austria_sentence_260

The Central Eastern Alps, Northern Limestone Alps and Southern Limestone Alps are all partly in Austria. Austria_sentence_261

Of the total area of Austria (84,000 km or 32,433 sq mi), only about a quarter can be considered low lying, and only 32% of the country is below 500 metres (1,640 ft). Austria_sentence_262

The Alps of western Austria give way somewhat into low lands and plains in the eastern part of the country. Austria_sentence_263

Austria lies between latitudes 46° and 49° N, and longitudes and 18° E. Austria_sentence_264

It can be divided into five areas, the biggest being the Eastern Alps, which constitute 62% of the nation's total area. Austria_sentence_265

The Austrian foothills at the base of the Alps and the Carpathians account for around 12% and the foothills in the east and areas surrounding the periphery of the Pannoni low country amount to about 12% of the total landmass. Austria_sentence_266

The second greater mountain area (much lower than the Alps) is situated in the north. Austria_sentence_267

Known as the Austrian granite plateau, it is located in the central area of the Bohemian Mass and accounts for 10% of Austria. Austria_sentence_268

The Austrian portion of the Vienna basin makes up the remaining 4%. Austria_sentence_269

Phytogeographically, Austria belongs to the Central European province of the Circumboreal Region within the Boreal Kingdom. Austria_sentence_270

According to the WWF, the territory of Austria can be subdivided into four ecoregions: the Central European mixed forests, Pannonian mixed forests, Alps conifer and mixed forests and Western European broadleaf forests. Austria_sentence_271

Austria had a 2018 Forest Landscape Integrity Index mean score of 3.55/10, ranking it 149 globally out of 172 countries. Austria_sentence_272

Austria_unordered_list_0

  • Austria_item_0_0
  • Austria_item_0_1
  • Austria_item_0_2
  • Austria_item_0_3

Climate Austria_section_15

The greater part of Austria lies in the cool/temperate climate zone, where humid westerly winds predominate. Austria_sentence_273

With nearly three-quarters of the country dominated by the Alps, the alpine climate is predominant. Austria_sentence_274

In the east—in the Pannonian Plain and along the Danube valley—the climate shows continental features with less rain than the alpine areas. Austria_sentence_275

Although Austria is cold in the winter (−10 to 0 °C), summer temperatures can be relatively high, with average temperatures in the mid-20s and a highest temperature of 40.5 °C (105 °F) in August 2013. Austria_sentence_276

According to the Köppen Climate Classification Austria has the following climate types: Oceanic (Cfb), Cool/Warm-summer humid continental (Dfb), Subarctic/Subalpine (Dfc), Tundra/Alpine (ET) and Ice-Cap (EF). Austria_sentence_277

It is important to note though that Austria may experience very cold, severe winters, but most of the time they are only around as cold as those in somewhat comparable climate zones, for example Southern Scandinavia or Eastern Europe. Austria_sentence_278

As well, at higher altitudes, summers are usually considerably cooler than in the valleys/lower altitudes. Austria_sentence_279

The subarctic and tundra climates seen around the Alps are much warmer in winter than what is normal elsewhere due in part to the Oceanic influence on this part of Europe. Austria_sentence_280

Economy Austria_section_16

Main article: Economy of Austria Austria_sentence_281

Austria consistently ranks high in terms of GDP per capita, due to its highly industrialized economy, and well-developed social market economy. Austria_sentence_282

Until the 1980s, many of Austria's largest industry firms were nationalised; in recent years, however, privatisation has reduced state holdings to a level comparable to other European economies. Austria_sentence_283

Labour movements are particularly influential, exercising large influence on labour politics and decisions related to the expansion of the economy. Austria_sentence_284

Next to a highly developed industry, international tourism is the most important part of the economy of Austria. Austria_sentence_285

Germany has historically been the main trading partner of Austria, making it vulnerable to rapid changes in the German economy. Austria_sentence_286

Since Austria became a member state of the European Union, it has gained closer ties to other EU economies, reducing its economic dependence on Germany. Austria_sentence_287

In addition, membership of the EU has drawn an influx of foreign investors attracted by Austria's access to the single European market and proximity to the aspiring economies of the European Union. Austria_sentence_288

Growth in GDP reached 3.3% in 2006. Austria_sentence_289

At least 67% of Austria's imports come from other European Union member states. Austria_sentence_290

Austria indicated on 16 November 2010 that it would withhold the December installment of its contribution to the EU bailout of Greece, citing the material worsening of the Greek debt situation and the apparent inability of Greece to collect the level of tax receipts it had previously promised. Austria_sentence_291

The Financial crisis of 2007–2008 dented the economy of Austria in other ways as well. Austria_sentence_292

It caused, for example, the Hypo Alpe-Adria-Bank International to be purchased in December 2009 by the government for 1 euro owing to credit difficulties, thus wiping out the €1.63bn of BayernLB. Austria_sentence_293

As of February 2014, the HGAA situation was unresolved, causing Chancellor Werner Faymann to warn that its failure would be comparable to the 1931 Creditanstalt event. Austria_sentence_294

Since the fall of communism, Austrian companies have been quite active players and consolidators in Eastern Europe. Austria_sentence_295

Between 1995 and 2010, 4,868 mergers and acquisitions with a total known value of 163 bil. Austria_sentence_296

EUR with the involvement of Austrian firms have been announced. Austria_sentence_297

The largest transactions with involvement of Austrian companies have been: the acquisition of Bank Austria by Bayerische Hypo- und Vereinsbank for 7.8 billion EUR in 2000, the acquisition of Porsche Holding Salzburg by Volkswagen Group for 3.6 billion EUR in 2009, and the acquisition of Banca Comercială Română by Erste Group for 3.7 bil. Austria_sentence_298

EUR in 2005. Austria_sentence_299

Tourism in Austria accounts for almost 9% of its gross domestic product. Austria_sentence_300

In 2007, Austria ranked 9th worldwide in international tourism receipts, with 18.9 billion US$. Austria_sentence_301

In international tourist arrivals, Austria ranked 12th with 20.8 million tourists. Austria_sentence_302

Infrastructure and Natural Resources Austria_section_17

Main articles: Transport in Austria, Wind power in Austria, and Renewable energy in the European Union Austria_sentence_303

In 1972, the country began construction of a nuclear-powered electricity-generation station at Zwentendorf on the River Danube, following a unanimous vote in parliament. Austria_sentence_304

However, in 1978, a referendum voted approximately 50.5% against nuclear power, 49.5% for, and parliament subsequently unanimously passed a law forbidding the use of nuclear power to generate electricity although the nuclear power plant was already finished. Austria_sentence_305

Austria currently produces more than half of its electricity by hydropower. Austria_sentence_306

Together with other renewable energy sources such as wind, solar and biomass powerplants, the electricity supply from renewable energy amounts to 62.89% of total use in Austria, with the rest being produced by gas and oil power plants. Austria_sentence_307

Compared to most European countries, Austria is ecologically well endowed. Austria_sentence_308

Its biocapacity (or biological natural capital) is more than double of the world average: In 2016, Austria had 3.8 global hectares of biocapacity per person within its territory, compared to the world average of 1.6 global hectares per person. Austria_sentence_309

In contrast, in 2016, they used 6.0 global hectares of biocapacity - their ecological footprint of consumption. Austria_sentence_310

This means that Austrians use about 60 percent more biocapacity than Austria contains. Austria_sentence_311

As a result, Austria is running a biocapacity deficit. Austria_sentence_312

Demographics Austria_section_18

Main article: Demographics of Austria Austria_sentence_313

Austria's population was estimated to be nearly 9 million (8.9) in 2020 by the Statistik Austria. Austria_sentence_314

The population of the capital, Vienna, exceeds 1.9 million (2.6 million, including the suburbs), representing about a quarter of the country's population. Austria_sentence_315

It is known for its cultural offerings and high standard of living. Austria_sentence_316

Vienna is by far the country's largest city. Austria_sentence_317

Graz is second in size, with 291,007 inhabitants, followed by Linz (206,604), Salzburg (155,031), Innsbruck (131,989), and Klagenfurt (101,303). Austria_sentence_318

All other cities have fewer than 100,000 inhabitants. Austria_sentence_319

According to Eurostat, in 2018 there were 1.69 million foreign-born residents in Austria, corresponding to 19.2% of the total population. Austria_sentence_320

Of these, 928,700 (10.5%) were born outside the EU and 762,000 (8.6%) were born in another EU Member State. Austria_sentence_321

There are more than 483,100 descendants of foreign-born immigrants. Austria_sentence_322

Turks form one of the largest ethnic groups in Austria, numbering around 350,000. Austria_sentence_323

13,000 Turks were naturalised in 2003 and an unknown number have arrived in Austria at the same time. Austria_sentence_324

While 2,000 Turks left Austria in the same year, 10,000 immigrated to the country, confirming a strong trend of growth. Austria_sentence_325

Together, Serbs, Croats, Bosniaks, Macedonians, and Slovenes make up about 5.1% of Austria's total population. Austria_sentence_326

The total fertility rate (TFR) in 2017 was estimated at 1.52 children born per woman, below the replacement rate of 2.1, it remains considerably below the high of 4.83 children born per woman in 1873. Austria_sentence_327

In 2015, 42.1% of births were to unmarried women. Austria_sentence_328

Austria subsequently has the 12th oldest population in the world, with the average age of 44.2 years. Austria_sentence_329

The life expectancy in 2016 was estimated at 81.5 years (78.9 years male, 84.3 years female). Austria_sentence_330

Statistics Austria estimates that nearly 10 million people will live in the country by 2080. Austria_sentence_331

Largest cities Austria_section_19

Main article: List of cities and towns in Austria Austria_sentence_332

Language Austria_section_20

Main article: Languages of Austria Austria_sentence_333

Standard Austrian German is spoken in Austria, though used primarily just in education, publications, announcements and websites. Austria_sentence_334

It is mostly identical to the Standard German of Germany but with some vocabulary differences. Austria_sentence_335

This Standard German language is used in formal contexts across Germany, Austria, Switzerland and Liechtenstein, as well as among those with significant German-speaking minorities: Italy, Belgium and Denmark. Austria_sentence_336

However, the common spoken language of Austria is not the Standard German taught in schools but Austro-Bavarian: a group of Upper German local dialects with varying degrees of difficulty being understood by each other as well as by speakers of non-Austrian German dialects. Austria_sentence_337

Taken as a collective whole, German languages or dialects are thus spoken natively by 88.6% of the population, which includes the 2.5% German-born citizens who reside in Austria, followed by Turkish (2.28%), Serbian (2.21%), Croatian (1.63%), English (0.73%), Hungarian (0.51%), Bosnian (0.43%), Polish (0.35%), Albanian (0.35%), Slovenian (0.31%), Czech (0.22%), Arabic (0.22%), and Romanian (0.21%). Austria_sentence_338

The Austrian federal states of Carinthia and Styria are home to a significant indigenous Slovene-speaking minority while in the easternmost state, Burgenland (formerly part of the Hungarian portion of Austria–Hungary), there are significant Hungarian- and Croatian-speaking minorities. Austria_sentence_339

Of the remaining number of Austria's people that are of non-Austrian descent, many come from surrounding countries, especially from the former East Bloc nations. Austria_sentence_340

Guest workers (Gastarbeiter) and their descendants, as well as refugees from the Yugoslav wars and other conflicts, also form an important minority group in Austria. Austria_sentence_341

Since 1994 the RomaSinti (gypsies) have been an officially recognised ethnic minority in Austria. Austria_sentence_342

According to census information published by Statistik Austria for 2001 there were a total of 710,926 foreign nationals living in Austria. Austria_sentence_343

Of these, the largest by far are 283,334 foreign nationals from the former Yugoslavia (of whom 135,336 speak Serbian; 105,487 Croatian; 31,591 Bosnian – i.e. 272,414 Austrian resident native speakers in total, plus 6,902 Slovenian and 4,018 Macedonian speakers). Austria_sentence_344

The second largest population of linguistic and ethnic groups are the Turks (including minority of Kurds) with a number of 200,000 to 300,000 who currently live in Austria. Austria_sentence_345

The next largest population of linguistic and ethnic groups are the 124,392 who speak German as their mother tongue even though they hail from outside of Austria (mainly immigrants from Germany, some from Switzerland, South Tyrol in Italy, Romania, or the former Soviet Union); 123,417 English; 24,446 Albanian; 17,899 Polish; 14,699 Hungarian; 12,216 Romanian; 10,000 Malayali; 7,982 Arabic; 6,891 Slovak; 6,707 Czech; 5,916 Persian; 5,677 Italian; 5,466 Russian; 5,213 French; 4,938 Chinese; 4,264 Spanish; 3,503 Bulgarian. Austria_sentence_346

The numbers for other languages fall off sharply below 3,000. Austria_sentence_347

In 2006, some of the Austrian states introduced standardised tests for new citizens, to assure their language ability, cultural knowledge and accordingly their ability to integrate into the Austrian society. Austria_sentence_348

For the national rules, see Austrian nationality law – Naturalisation. Austria_sentence_349

Ethnic groups Austria_section_21

Historically Austrians were regarded as ethnic Germans and viewed themselves as such, although this national identity was challenged by Austrian nationalism in the decades after the end of World War I and even more so after World War II. Austria_sentence_350

Austria was part of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation until its ending in 1806 and had been part of the German Confederation, a loose association of 39 separate German-speaking countries, until the Austro-Prussian war in 1866, which resulted in the exclusion of Austria from the German Confederation and the creation of the North German Confederation led by Prussia. Austria_sentence_351

In 1871, Germany was founded as a nation-state, Austria was not a part of it. Austria_sentence_352

After World War I and the breakup of the Austrian monarchy, politicians of the new republic declared its name to be "Deutschösterreich" (Republic of German-Austria) and that it was part of the German Republic. Austria_sentence_353

A unification of the two countries was forbidden by the treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye as one of the conditions imposed by the victorious Allies of World War I upon the vanquished nation, to prevent the creation of a territorially extensive German state. Austria_sentence_354

After the events of World War II and Nazism, Austria as a country has made efforts to develop an Austrian national identity among its populace, and nowadays most do not consider themselves Germans. Austria_sentence_355

However, a minority of Austrians still consider themselves to be Germans and advocate for a "Greater Germany", arguing that the historic boundaries of the German people goes beyond the boundaries of modern-day countries, especially Austria and Germany. Austria_sentence_356

Austrians may be described either as a nationality or as a homogeneous Germanic ethnic group, that is closely related to neighboring Germans, Liechtensteiners and German-speaking Swiss. Austria_sentence_357

Today 91.1% of the population are regarded as ethnic Austrians. Austria_sentence_358

The Turks are the largest single immigrant group in Austria, closely followed by the Serbs. Austria_sentence_359

Serbs form one of the largest ethnic groups in Austria, numbering around 300,000 people. Austria_sentence_360

Historically, Serbian immigrants moved to Austria during the time of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, when Vojvodina was under Imperial control. Austria_sentence_361

Following World War II the number of Serbs expanded again, and today the community is very large. Austria_sentence_362

The Austrian Serbian Society was founded in 1936. Austria_sentence_363

Today, Serbs in Austria are mainly found in Vienna, Salzburg, and Graz. Austria_sentence_364

An estimated 13,000 to 40,000 Slovenes in the Austrian state of Carinthia (the Carinthian Slovenes) as well as Croats (around 30,000) and Hungarians in Burgenland were recognised as a minority and have had special rights following the Austrian State Treaty (Staatsvertrag) of 1955. Austria_sentence_365

The Slovenes in the Austrian state of Styria (estimated at a number between 1,600 and 5,000) are not recognised as a minority and do not have special rights, although the State Treaty of 27 July 1955 states otherwise. Austria_sentence_366

The right for bilingual topographic signs for the regions where Slovene and Croat Austrians live alongside the German-speaking population (as required by the 1955 State Treaty) is still to be fully implemented in the view of some, while others believe that the treaty-derived obligations have been met (see below). Austria_sentence_367

Many Carinthians are afraid of Slovenian territorial claims, pointing to the fact that Yugoslav troops entered the state after each of the two World Wars and considering that some official Slovenian atlases show parts of Carinthia as Slovene cultural territory. Austria_sentence_368

The former governor of Carinthia Jörg Haider has made this fact a matter of public argument in autumn 2005 by refusing to increase the number of bilingual topographic signs in Carinthia. Austria_sentence_369

A poll by the Kärntner Humaninstitut conducted in January 2006 stated that 65% of Carinthians were not against an increase of bilingual topographic signs, since the original requirements set by the State Treaty of 1955 had already been fulfilled according to their point of view. Austria_sentence_370

Another interesting phenomenon is the so-called "" stating that the Slovenes can be split in two groups: actual Slovenes and Windische (a traditional German name for Slavs), based on differences in language between Austrian Slovenes, who were taught Slovene standard language in school and those Slovenes who spoke their local Slovene dialect but went to German schools. Austria_sentence_371

The term Windische was applied to the latter group as a means of distinction. Austria_sentence_372

This politically influenced theory, dividing Slovene Austrians into the "loyal Windische" and the "national Slovenes", was never generally accepted and fell out of use some decades ago. Austria_sentence_373

Religion Austria_section_22

Main article: Religion in Austria Austria_sentence_374

In 2001, about 74% of Austria's population were registered as Roman Catholic, while about 5% considered themselves Protestants. Austria_sentence_375

Austrian Christians, both Catholic and Protestant, are obliged to pay a mandatory membership fee (calculated by income—about 1%) to their church; this payment is called "Kirchenbeitrag" ("Ecclesiastical/Church contribution"). Austria_sentence_376

Since the second half of the 20th century, the number of adherents and churchgoers has declined. Austria_sentence_377

Data for 2018 from the Austrian Roman Catholic Church list 5,050,000 members, or 56.9% of the total Austrian population. Austria_sentence_378

Sunday church attendance was 605,828 or 7% of the total Austrian population in 2015. Austria_sentence_379

The Lutheran church also recorded a loss of 74,421 adherents between 2001 and 2016. Austria_sentence_380

The 2001 census report indicated that about 12% of the population declared that they have no religion; according to ecclesiastical information this share had grown to 20% by 2015. Austria_sentence_381

Of the remaining people, around 340,000 were registered as members of various Muslim communities in 2001, mainly due to the influx from Turkey, Bosnia-Herzegovina and Kosovo. Austria_sentence_382

The number of Muslims has doubled in 15 years to 700,000 in 2016. Austria_sentence_383

About 180,000 are members of Orthodox Churches (mostly Serbs), about 21,000 people are active Jehovah's Witnesses and about 8,100 are Jewish. Austria_sentence_384

According to the most recent Eurobarometer Poll 2010, Austria_sentence_385

Austria_unordered_list_1

  • 44% of Austrian citizens responded that "they believe there is a God."Austria_item_1_4
  • 38% answered that "they believe there is some sort of spirit or life force."Austria_item_1_5
  • 12% answered that "they do not believe there is any sort of spirit, God, or life force."Austria_item_1_6

Education Austria_section_23

Main article: Education in Austria Austria_sentence_386

Education in Austria is entrusted partly to the Austrian states (Bundesländer) and partly to the federal government. Austria_sentence_387

School attendance is compulsory for nine years, i.e. usually to the age of fifteen. Austria_sentence_388

Pre-school education (called Kindergarten in German), free in most states, is provided for all children between the ages of three and six years and, whilst optional, is considered a normal part of a child's education due to its high takeup rate. Austria_sentence_389

Maximum class size is around 30, each class normally being cared for by one qualified teacher and one assistant. Austria_sentence_390

Primary education, or Volksschule, lasts for four years, starting at age six. Austria_sentence_391

The maximum class size is 30, but may be as low as 15. Austria_sentence_392

It is generally expected that a class will be taught by one teacher for the entire four years and the stable bond between teacher and pupil is considered important for a child's well-being. Austria_sentence_393

The 3Rs (Reading, wRiting and aRithmetic) dominate lesson time, with less time allotted to project work than in the UK. Austria_sentence_394

Children work individually and all members of a class follow the same plan of work. Austria_sentence_395

There is no streaming. Austria_sentence_396

Standard attendance times are 8 am to 12 pm or 1 pm, with hourly five- or ten-minute breaks. Austria_sentence_397

Children are given homework daily from the first year. Austria_sentence_398

Historically there has been no lunch hour, with children returning home to eat. Austria_sentence_399

However, due to a rise in the number of mothers in work, primary schools are increasingly offering pre-lesson and afternoon care. Austria_sentence_400

As in Germany, secondary education consists of two main types of schools, attendance at which is based on a pupil's ability as determined by grades from the primary school. Austria_sentence_401

The Gymnasium caters for the more able children, in the final year of which the Matura examination is taken, which is a requirement for access to university. Austria_sentence_402

The Hauptschule prepares pupils for vocational education but also for various types of further education (Höhere Technische Lehranstalt HTL = institution of higher technical education; HAK = commercial academy; HBLA = institution of higher education for economic business; etc.). Austria_sentence_403

Attendance at one of these further education institutes also leads to the Matura. Austria_sentence_404

Some schools aim to combine the education available at the Gymnasium and the Hauptschule, and are known as Gesamtschulen. Austria_sentence_405

In addition, a recognition of the importance of learning English has led some Gymnasiums to offer a bilingual stream, in which pupils deemed able in languages follow a modified curriculum, a portion of the lesson time being conducted in English. Austria_sentence_406

As at primary school, lessons at Gymnasium begin at 8 am and continue with short intervals until lunchtime or early afternoon, with children returning home to a late lunch. Austria_sentence_407

Older pupils often attend further lessons after a break for lunch, generally eaten at school. Austria_sentence_408

As at primary level, all pupils follow the same plan of work. Austria_sentence_409

Great emphasis is placed on homework and frequent testing. Austria_sentence_410

Satisfactory marks in the end-of-the-year report ("Zeugnis") are a prerequisite for moving up ("aufsteigen") to the next class. Austria_sentence_411

Pupils who do not meet the required standard re-sit their tests at the end of the summer holidays; those whose marks are still not satisfactory are required to re-sit the year ("sitzenbleiben"). Austria_sentence_412

It is not uncommon for a pupil to re-sit more than one year of school. Austria_sentence_413

After completing the first two years, pupils choose between one of two strands, known as "Gymnasium" (slightly more emphasis on arts) or "Realgymnasium" (slightly more emphasis on science). Austria_sentence_414

Whilst many schools offer both strands, some do not, and as a result, some children move schools for a second time at age 12. Austria_sentence_415

At age 14, pupils may choose to remain in one of these two strands, or to change to a vocational course, possibly with a further change of school. Austria_sentence_416

The Austrian university system had been open to any student who passed the Matura examination until recently. Austria_sentence_417

A 2006 bill allowed the introduction of entrance exams for studies such as Medicine. Austria_sentence_418

In 2001, an obligatory tuition fee ("Studienbeitrag") of €363.36 per term was introduced for all public universities. Austria_sentence_419

Since 2008, for all EU students the studies have been free of charge, as long as a certain time-limit is not exceeded (the expected duration of the study plus usually two terms tolerance). Austria_sentence_420

When the time-limit is exceeded, the fee of around €363.36 per term is charged. Austria_sentence_421

Some further exceptions to the fee apply, e.g. for students with a year's salary of more than about €5000. Austria_sentence_422

In all cases, an obligatory fee of €20.20 is charged for the student union and insurance. Austria_sentence_423

Culture Austria_section_24

Main article: Culture of Austria Austria_sentence_424

Music Austria_section_25

Main article: Music of Austria Austria_sentence_425

Austria's past as a European power and its cultural environment generated a broad contribution to various forms of art, most notably among them music. Austria_sentence_426

Austria was the birthplace of many famous composers such as Joseph Haydn, Michael Haydn, Franz Liszt, Franz Schubert, Anton Bruckner, Johann Strauss, Sr. and Johann Strauss, Jr. as well as members of the Second Viennese School such as Arnold Schoenberg, Anton Webern and Alban Berg. Austria_sentence_427

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was born in Salzburg, then an independent Church Principality of the Holy Roman Empire, which later became part of Austria, and much of Mozart's career was spent in Vienna. Austria_sentence_428

Vienna was for a long time an important centre of musical innovation. Austria_sentence_429

18th- and 19th-century composers were drawn to the city due to the patronage of the Habsburgs, and made Vienna the European capital of classical music. Austria_sentence_430

During the Baroque period, Slavic and Hungarian folk forms influenced Austrian music. Austria_sentence_431

Vienna's status began its rise as a cultural centre in the early 16th century, and was focused around instruments, including the lute. Austria_sentence_432

Ludwig van Beethoven spent the better part of his life in Vienna. Austria_sentence_433

Austria's current national anthem, attributed to Mozart, was chosen after World War II to replace the traditional Austrian anthem by Joseph Haydn. Austria_sentence_434

Austrian Herbert von Karajan was principal conductor of the Berlin Philharmonic for 35 years. Austria_sentence_435

He is generally regarded as one of the greatest conductors of the 20th century, and he was a dominant figure in European classical music from the 1960s until his death. Austria_sentence_436

International pop super star Johann Hölzel, also known by his stage name Falco was born in Vienna, Austria 19 February 1957. Austria_sentence_437

Conchita Wurst is also a renowned singer from the Austrian stock. Austria_sentence_438

Art and architecture Austria_section_26

Further information: List of Austrian artists and architects Austria_sentence_439

Among Austrian Artists and architects one can find the painters Ferdinand Georg Waldmüller, Rudolf von Alt, Hans Makart, Gustav Klimt, Oskar Kokoschka, Egon Schiele, Carl Moll, and Friedensreich Hundertwasser, the photographers Inge Morath and Ernst Haas, and architects like Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach, Otto Wagner, Adolf Loos, and Hans Hollein (recipient of the 1985 Pritzker Architecture Prize). Austria_sentence_440

Contemporary artist Herbert Brandl. Austria_sentence_441

Cinema and theatre Austria_section_27

Sascha Kolowrat was an Austrian pioneer of filmmaking. Austria_sentence_442

Billy Wilder, Fritz Lang, Josef von Sternberg, and Fred Zinnemann originally came from the Austrian Empire before establishing themselves as internationally relevant filmmakers. Austria_sentence_443

Willi Forst, Ernst Marischka, and Franz Antel enriched the popular cinema in German-speaking countries. Austria_sentence_444

Michael Haneke became internationally known for his disturbing cinematic studies, receiving a Golden Globe for his critically acclaimed film The White Ribbon (2010). Austria_sentence_445

The first Austrian director to receive an Academy Award was Stefan Ruzowitzky. Austria_sentence_446

A number of Austrian actors also pursued international careers, among them Peter Lorre, Helmut Berger, Curd Jürgens, Senta Berger, Oskar Werner, and Klaus Maria Brandauer. Austria_sentence_447

Most notably, Hedy Lamarr and Arnold Schwarzenegger became international movie stars in Hollywood. Austria_sentence_448

Christoph Waltz rose to fame with his performances in Inglourious Basterds and Django Unchained, earning him the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor in 2010 and 2012. Austria_sentence_449

Max Reinhardt was a master of spectacular and astute theatre productions. Austria_sentence_450

Otto Schenk not only excelled as a stage actor, but also as an opera director. Austria_sentence_451

Science and philosophy Austria_section_28

Further information: Austrian School, Vienna circle, and List of Austrian scientists Austria_sentence_452

Austria was the cradle of numerous scientists with international reputation. Austria_sentence_453

Among them are Ludwig Boltzmann, Ernst Mach, Victor Franz Hess and Christian Doppler, prominent scientists in the 19th century. Austria_sentence_454

In the 20th century, contributions by Lise Meitner, Erwin Schrödinger and Wolfgang Pauli to nuclear research and quantum mechanics were key to these areas' development during the 1920s and 1930s. Austria_sentence_455

A present-day quantum physicist is Anton Zeilinger, noted as the first scientist to demonstrate quantum teleportation. Austria_sentence_456

In addition to physicists, Austria was the birthplace of two of the most noteworthy philosophers of the 20th century, Ludwig Wittgenstein and Karl Popper. Austria_sentence_457

In addition to them, biologists Gregor Mendel and Konrad Lorenz as well as mathematician Kurt Gödel and engineers such as Ferdinand Porsche and Siegfried Marcus were Austrians. Austria_sentence_458

A focus of Austrian science has always been medicine and psychology, starting in medieval times with Paracelsus. Austria_sentence_459

Eminent physicians like Theodore Billroth, Clemens von Pirquet, and Anton von Eiselsberg have built upon the achievements of the 19th-century Vienna School of Medicine. Austria_sentence_460

Austria was home to Sigmund Freud, founder of psychoanalysis, Alfred Adler, founder of Individual psychology, psychologists Paul Watzlawick and Hans Asperger, and psychiatrist Viktor Frankl. Austria_sentence_461

The Austrian School of Economics, which is prominent as one of the main competitive directions for economic theory, is related to Austrian economists Carl Menger, Joseph Schumpeter, Eugen von Böhm-Bawerk, Ludwig von Mises, and Friedrich Hayek. Austria_sentence_462

Other noteworthy Austrian-born émigrés include the management thinker Peter Drucker, sociologist Paul Felix Lazarsfeld and scientist Sir Gustav Nossal. Austria_sentence_463

Literature Austria_section_29

See also: List of Austrian writers and Austrian literature Austria_sentence_464

Complementing its status as a land of artists and scientists, Austria has always been a country of poets, writers, and novelists. Austria_sentence_465

It was the home of novelists Arthur Schnitzler, Stefan Zweig, Thomas Bernhard, and Robert Musil, of poets Georg Trakl, Franz Werfel, Franz Grillparzer, Rainer Maria Rilke, Adalbert Stifter, Karl Kraus and children's author Eva Ibbotson. Austria_sentence_466

Famous contemporary playwrights and novelists are Nobel prize winner Elfriede Jelinek, Peter Handke and Daniel Kehlmann. Austria_sentence_467

Food and beverages Austria_section_30

Main article: Austrian cuisine Austria_sentence_468

Austria's cuisine is derived from that of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Austria_sentence_469

Austrian cuisine is mainly the tradition of Royal-Cuisine ("Hofküche") delivered over centuries. Austria_sentence_470

It is famous for its well-balanced variations of beef and pork and countless variations of vegetables. Austria_sentence_471

There is also the "Mehlspeisen" Bakery, which created particular delicacies such as Sachertorte, "Krapfen" which are doughnuts usually filled with apricot jam or custard, and "Strudel" such as "Apfelstrudel" filled with apple, "Topfenstrudel" filled with a type of cheese curd called "topfen", and "Millirahmstrudel" (milk-cream strudel). Austria_sentence_472

In addition to native regional traditions, the cuisine has been influenced by Hungarian, Czech, Polish, Jewish, Italian, Balkan and French cuisines, from which both dishes and methods of food preparation have often been borrowed. Austria_sentence_473

The Austrian cuisine is therefore one of the most multicultural and transcultural in Europe. Austria_sentence_474

Typical Austrian dishes include Wiener Schnitzel, Schweinsbraten, Kaiserschmarren, Knödel, Sachertorte and Tafelspitz. Austria_sentence_475

There are also Kärntner Kasnudeln, which are pockets of dough filled with Topfen, potatoes, herbs and peppermint which are boiled and served with a butter sauce. Austria_sentence_476

Kasnudeln are traditionally served with a salad. Austria_sentence_477

Eierschwammerl dishes are also popular. Austria_sentence_478

The sugar block dispenser Pez was invented in Austria, as well as Mannerschnitten. Austria_sentence_479

Austria is also famous for its Mozartkugeln and its coffee tradition. Austria_sentence_480

With over 8 kg per year it has the sixth highest per capita coffee consumption worldwide. Austria_sentence_481

Beer is sold in 0.2 litre (a Pfiff), 0.3 litre (a Seidel, kleines Bier or Glas Bier) and 0.5 litre (a Krügerl or großes Bier or Halbe) measures. Austria_sentence_482

At festivals one litre Maß and two litre Doppelmaß in the Bavarian style are also dispensed. Austria_sentence_483

The most popular types of beer are lager (known as Märzen in Austria), naturally cloudy Zwicklbier and wheat beer. Austria_sentence_484

At holidays like Christmas and Easter bock beer is also available. Austria_sentence_485

The most important wine-producing areas are in Lower Austria, Burgenland, Styria and Vienna. Austria_sentence_486

The Grüner Veltliner grape provides some of Austria's most notable white wines and Zweigelt is the most widely planted red wine grape. Austria_sentence_487

In Upper Austria, Lower Austria, Styria and Carinthia, Most, a type of cider or perry, is widely produced. Austria_sentence_488

A Schnapps of typically up to 60% alcohol or fruit brandy is drunk, which in Austria is made from a variety of fruits, for example apricots and rowanberries. Austria_sentence_489

The produce of small private schnapps distilleries, of which there are around 20,000 in Austria, is known as Selbstgebrannter or Hausbrand. Austria_sentence_490

Local soft drinks such as Almdudler are very popular around the country as an alternative to alcoholic beverages. Austria_sentence_491

Another popular drink is the so-called "Spezi", a mix between Coca-Cola and the original formula of Orange Fanta or the more locally renowned Frucade. Austria_sentence_492

Red Bull, the highest-selling energy drink in the world, was introduced by Dietrich Mateschitz, an Austrian entrepreneur. Austria_sentence_493

Sports Austria_section_31

Main article: Sport in Austria Austria_sentence_494

Due to the mountainous terrain, alpine skiing is a prominent sport in Austria and is extremely valuable in the promotion and economic growth of the country. Austria_sentence_495

Similar sports such as snowboarding or ski-jumping are also widely popular. Austria_sentence_496

Austrian athletes such as Annemarie Moser-Pröll, Franz Klammer, Hermann Maier, Toni Sailer, Benjamin Raich, Marlies Schild & Marcel Hirscher are widely regarded as some of the greatest alpine skiers of all time, Armin Kogler, Andreas Felder, Ernst Vettori, Andreas Goldberger, Andreas Widhölzl, Thomas Morgenstern & Gregor Schlierenzauer as some of the greatest ski jumpers of all time. Austria_sentence_497

Bobsleigh, luge, and skeleton are also popular events with a permanent track located in Igls, which hosted bobsleigh and luge competitions for the 1964 and 1976 Winter Olympics held in Innsbruck. Austria_sentence_498

The first Winter Youth Olympics in 2012 were held in Innsbruck as well. Austria_sentence_499

A popular team sport in Austria is football, which is governed by the Austrian Football Association. Austria_sentence_500

Austria was among the most successful football playing nations on the European continent placing 4th at the 1934 FIFA World Cup, 3rd at the 1954 FIFA World Cup and 7th at the 1978 FIFA World Cup. Austria_sentence_501

However, recently Austrian football has not been internationally successful. Austria_sentence_502

It also co-hosted the 2008 UEFA European Football Championship with Switzerland. Austria_sentence_503

The national Austrian football league is the Austrian Bundesliga, which includes teams such as record-champions SK Rapid Wien, FK Austria Wien, Red Bull Salzburg and Sturm Graz. Austria_sentence_504

Besides football, Austria also has professional national leagues for most major team sports, including the Austrian Hockey League for ice hockey, and the Österreichische Basketball Bundesliga for basketball. Austria_sentence_505

Horseback riding is also popular; the famed Spanish Riding School of Vienna is located in Vienna. Austria_sentence_506

Niki Lauda is a former Formula One driver who was three times F1 World Champion, winning in 1975, 1977 and 1984. Austria_sentence_507

He is currently the only driver to have been champion for both Ferrari and McLaren, the sport's two most successful constructors. Austria_sentence_508

Other known Austrian F1 drivers are for example Gerhard Berger and Jochen Rindt. Austria_sentence_509

Austria also hosts F1 races (Austrian Grand Prix); now held at Red Bull Ring, in the past also at Österreichring and Zeltweg Airfield. Austria_sentence_510

Thomas Muster is a former tennis player and one of the greatest clay courters of all time. Austria_sentence_511

He won the 1995 French Open and in 1996 he was ranked number 1 in the ATP Ranking. Austria_sentence_512

Other well known Austrian tennis players include the 2020 US Open winner Dominic Thiem, Horst Skoff and Jürgen Melzer. Austria_sentence_513

Sport played a significant role in developing national consciousness and boosting national self-confidence in the early years of the Second Republic after World War II, through events such as the Tour of Austria cycle race and through sporting successes such as the national football team's run to third at the 1954 World Cup and the performances of Toni Sailer and the rest of the "Kitzbühel Miracle Team" in the 1950s. Austria_sentence_514

See also Austria_section_32

Austria_unordered_list_2


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Austria.