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For modern relations, see Austria–Hungary relations. Austria-Hungary_sentence_0


Austro-Hungarian Monarchy

Österreichisch-Ungarische Monarchie  (German) Osztrák-Magyar Monarchia  (Hungarian)Austria-Hungary_header_cell_0_0_0

CapitalAustria-Hungary_header_cell_0_1_0 Vienna (Cisleithania)

Budapest (Transleithania)Austria-Hungary_cell_0_1_1

Official languagesAustria-Hungary_header_cell_0_2_0 Other spoken languages:

Bosnian, Czech, Romani (Carpathian), Italian, Istro-Romanian, Romanian, Rusyn, Ruthenian, Serbian, Slovak, Slovene, YiddishAustria-Hungary_cell_0_2_1

ReligionAustria-Hungary_header_cell_0_3_0 76.6% Catholic (incl. 64–66% Latin & 10–12% Eastern)
8.9% Protestant (Lutheran, Reformed, Unitarian)
8.7% Orthodox

4.4% Jewish

1.3% Muslim

(1910 census)Austria-Hungary_cell_0_3_1

Demonym(s)Austria-Hungary_header_cell_0_4_0 Austro-HungarianAustria-Hungary_cell_0_4_1
GovernmentAustria-Hungary_header_cell_0_5_0 Constitutional dual monarchyAustria-Hungary_cell_0_5_1
Emperor-KingAustria-Hungary_header_cell_0_6_0 Austria-Hungary_cell_0_6_1
1867–1916Austria-Hungary_header_cell_0_7_0 Franz Joseph IAustria-Hungary_cell_0_7_1
1916–1918Austria-Hungary_header_cell_0_8_0 Karl I & IVAustria-Hungary_cell_0_8_1
Minister-President of AustriaAustria-Hungary_header_cell_0_9_0 Austria-Hungary_cell_0_9_1
1867 (first)Austria-Hungary_header_cell_0_10_0 F. F. von BeustAustria-Hungary_cell_0_10_1
1918 (last)Austria-Hungary_header_cell_0_11_0 Heinrich LammaschAustria-Hungary_cell_0_11_1
Prime Minister of HungaryAustria-Hungary_header_cell_0_12_0 Austria-Hungary_cell_0_12_1
1867–1871 (first)Austria-Hungary_header_cell_0_13_0 Gyula AndrássyAustria-Hungary_cell_0_13_1
1918 (last)Austria-Hungary_header_cell_0_14_0 János HadikAustria-Hungary_cell_0_14_1
LegislatureAustria-Hungary_header_cell_0_15_0 2 national legislaturesAustria-Hungary_cell_0_15_1
Imperial CouncilAustria-Hungary_header_cell_0_16_0 Herrenhaus


Diet of HungaryAustria-Hungary_header_cell_0_17_0 House of Magnates

House of RepresentativesAustria-Hungary_cell_0_17_1

Historical eraAustria-Hungary_header_cell_0_18_0 New Imperialism  World War IAustria-Hungary_cell_0_18_1
1867 CompromiseAustria-Hungary_header_cell_0_19_0 30 March 1867Austria-Hungary_cell_0_19_1
Dual AllianceAustria-Hungary_header_cell_0_20_0 7 October 1879Austria-Hungary_cell_0_20_1
Bosnian CrisisAustria-Hungary_header_cell_0_21_0 6 October 1908Austria-Hungary_cell_0_21_1
July CrisisAustria-Hungary_header_cell_0_22_0 28 June 1914Austria-Hungary_cell_0_22_1
Invasion of SerbiaAustria-Hungary_header_cell_0_23_0 28 July 1914Austria-Hungary_cell_0_23_1
Empire dissolvedAustria-Hungary_header_cell_0_24_0 31 October 1918Austria-Hungary_cell_0_24_1
Austrian RepublicAustria-Hungary_header_cell_0_25_0 12 November 1918Austria-Hungary_cell_0_25_1
Hungarian RepublicAustria-Hungary_header_cell_0_26_0 16 November 1918Austria-Hungary_cell_0_26_1
Treaty of Saint-GermainAustria-Hungary_header_cell_0_27_0 10 September 1919Austria-Hungary_cell_0_27_1
Treaty of TrianonAustria-Hungary_header_cell_0_28_0 4 June 1920Austria-Hungary_cell_0_28_1
1905Austria-Hungary_header_cell_0_30_0 621,537.58 km (239,977.00 sq mi)Austria-Hungary_cell_0_30_1
1914Austria-Hungary_header_cell_0_32_0 52,800,000Austria-Hungary_cell_0_32_1
CurrencyAustria-Hungary_header_cell_0_33_0 Austria-Hungary_cell_0_33_1
Preceded by

Succeeded by

Austrian Empire

Kingdom of Hungary

Republic of German-Austria

First Hungarian Republic

First Czechoslovak Republic

West Ukrainian People's Republic

Second Polish Republic

Kingdom of Romania

State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs

Kingdom of Italy

Italian Regency of CarnaroAustria-Hungary_cell_0_34_0

Preceded byAustria-Hungary_cell_0_35_0 Succeeded byAustria-Hungary_cell_0_35_1
Austrian Empire

Kingdom of HungaryAustria-Hungary_cell_0_36_0

Republic of German-Austria

First Hungarian Republic

First Czechoslovak Republic

West Ukrainian People's Republic

Second Polish Republic

Kingdom of Romania

State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs

Kingdom of Italy

Italian Regency of CarnaroAustria-Hungary_cell_0_36_1

Austria-Hungary_cell_0_37_0 Austrian EmpireAustria-Hungary_cell_0_37_1
Austria-Hungary_cell_0_38_0 Kingdom of HungaryAustria-Hungary_cell_0_38_1
Republic of German-AustriaAustria-Hungary_cell_0_39_0 Austria-Hungary_cell_0_39_1
First Hungarian RepublicAustria-Hungary_cell_0_40_0 Austria-Hungary_cell_0_40_1
First Czechoslovak RepublicAustria-Hungary_cell_0_41_0 Austria-Hungary_cell_0_41_1
West Ukrainian People's RepublicAustria-Hungary_cell_0_42_0 Austria-Hungary_cell_0_42_1
Second Polish RepublicAustria-Hungary_cell_0_43_0 Austria-Hungary_cell_0_43_1
Kingdom of RomaniaAustria-Hungary_cell_0_44_0 Austria-Hungary_cell_0_44_1
State of Slovenes, Croats and SerbsAustria-Hungary_cell_0_45_0 Austria-Hungary_cell_0_45_1
Kingdom of ItalyAustria-Hungary_cell_0_46_0 Austria-Hungary_cell_0_46_1
Italian Regency of CarnaroAustria-Hungary_cell_0_47_0 Austria-Hungary_cell_0_47_1

Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy, was a constitutional monarchy and great power in Central Europe between 1867 and 1918. Austria-Hungary_sentence_1

It was formed with the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and was dissolved following its defeat in the First World War. Austria-Hungary_sentence_2

The union was established by the Austro-Hungarian Compromise on 30 March 1867 in the aftermath of the Austro-Prussian War. Austria-Hungary_sentence_3

It was a real union between two monarchies, the Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Hungary. Austria-Hungary_sentence_4

A third component of the union was the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia, an autonomous region under the Hungarian crown, which negotiated the Croatian–Hungarian Settlement in 1868. Austria-Hungary_sentence_5

It was ruled by the House of Habsburg, and constituted the last phase in the constitutional evolution of the Habsburg Monarchy. Austria-Hungary_sentence_6

Following the 1867 reforms, the Austrian and Hungarian states were co-equal in power. Austria-Hungary_sentence_7

The two states conducted common foreign and defense policies, but all other governmental faculties were divided between respective states. Austria-Hungary_sentence_8

Austria-Hungary was a multinational state and one of Europe's major powers at the time. Austria-Hungary_sentence_9

Austria-Hungary was geographically the second-largest country in Europe after the Russian Empire, at 621,538 km (239,977 sq mi) and the third-most populous (after Russia and the German Empire). Austria-Hungary_sentence_10

The Empire built up the fourth-largest machine building industry of the world, after the United States, Germany and the United Kingdom. Austria-Hungary_sentence_11

Austria-Hungary also became the world's third largest manufacturer and exporter of electric home appliances, electric industrial appliances and power generation apparatus for power plants, after the United States and the German Empire. Austria-Hungary_sentence_12

The Austro-Hungarian Compromise remained bitterly unpopular among the ethnic Hungarian voters, because ethnic Hungarians did not vote for the ruling pro-compromise parties in the Hungarian parliamentary elections. Austria-Hungary_sentence_13

Therefore, the political maintenance of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise (thus Austria-Hungary itself) was mostly a result of the popularity of pro-compromise ruling Liberal Party among the ethnic minority voters in Kingdom of Hungary. Austria-Hungary_sentence_14

After 1878, Bosnia and Herzegovina came under Austro-Hungarian military and civilian rule until it was fully annexed in 1908, provoking the Bosnian crisis among the other powers. Austria-Hungary_sentence_15

The northern part of the Ottoman Sanjak of Novi Pazar was also under de facto joint occupation during that period but the Austro-Hungarian army withdrew as part of their annexation of Bosnia. Austria-Hungary_sentence_16

The annexation of Bosnia also led to Islam being recognized as an official state religion due to Bosnia's Muslim population. Austria-Hungary_sentence_17

Austria-Hungary was one of the Central Powers in World War I, which began with an Austro-Hungarian war declaration on the Kingdom of Serbia on 28 July 1914. Austria-Hungary_sentence_18

It was already effectively dissolved by the time the military authorities signed the armistice of Villa Giusti on 3 November 1918. Austria-Hungary_sentence_19

The Kingdom of Hungary and the First Austrian Republic were treated as its successors de jure, whereas the independence of the West Slavs and South Slavs of the Empire as the First Czechoslovak Republic, the Second Polish Republic and the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, respectively, and most of the territorial demands of the Kingdom of Romania were also recognized by the victorious powers in 1920. Austria-Hungary_sentence_20

Creation Austria-Hungary_section_0

Main article: Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 Austria-Hungary_sentence_21

The Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 (called the Ausgleich in German and the Kiegyezés in Hungarian), which inaugurated the empire's dual structure in place of the former Austrian Empire (1804–1867), originated at a time when Austria had declined in strength and in power—both in the Italian Peninsula (as a result of the Second Italian War of Independence of 1859) and among the states of the German Confederation (it had been surpassed by Prussia as the dominant German-speaking power following the Austro-Prussian War of 1866). Austria-Hungary_sentence_22

The Compromise re-established the full sovereignty of the Kingdom of Hungary, which was lost after the Hungarian Revolution of 1848. Austria-Hungary_sentence_23

Other factors in the constitutional changes were continued Hungarian dissatisfaction with rule from Vienna and increasing national consciousness on the part of other nationalities (or ethnicities) of the Austrian Empire. Austria-Hungary_sentence_24

Hungarian dissatisfaction arose partly from Austria's suppression with Russian support of the Hungarian liberal revolution of 1848–49. Austria-Hungary_sentence_25

However, dissatisfaction with Austrian rule had grown for many years within Hungary and had many other causes. Austria-Hungary_sentence_26

By the late 1850s, a large number of Hungarians who had supported the 1848–49 revolution were willing to accept the Habsburg monarchy. Austria-Hungary_sentence_27

They argued that while Hungary had the right to full internal independence, under the Pragmatic Sanction of 1713, foreign affairs and defense were "common" to both Austria and Hungary. Austria-Hungary_sentence_28

After the Austrian defeat at Königgrätz, the government realized it needed to reconcile with Hungary to regain the status of a great power. Austria-Hungary_sentence_29

The new foreign minister, Count Friedrich Ferdinand von Beust, wanted to conclude the stalemated negotiations with the Hungarians. Austria-Hungary_sentence_30

To secure the monarchy, Emperor Franz Joseph began negotiations for a compromise with the Hungarian nobility, led by Ferenc Deák. Austria-Hungary_sentence_31

On 20 March 1867, the re-established Hungarian parliament at Pest started to negotiate the new laws to be accepted on 30 March. Austria-Hungary_sentence_32

However, Hungarian leaders received the Emperor's coronation as King of Hungary on 8 June as a necessity for the laws to be enacted within the lands of the Holy Crown of Hungary. Austria-Hungary_sentence_33

On 28 July, Franz Joseph, in his new capacity as King of Hungary, approved and promulgated the new laws which officially gave birth to the Dual Monarchy. Austria-Hungary_sentence_34

Name and terminology Austria-Hungary_section_1

The realm's official name was in German: Österreichisch-Ungarische Monarchie and in Hungarian: Osztrák–Magyar Monarchia (English: Austro-Hungarian Monarchy), though in international relations Austria-Hungary was used (German: Österreich-Ungarn; Hungarian: Ausztria-Magyarország). Austria-Hungary_sentence_35

The Austrians also used the names k. u. k. Monarchie (English: "k. u. k. monarchy) (in detail German: Kaiserliche und königliche Monarchie Österreich-Ungarn; Hungarian: Császári és Királyi Osztrák–Magyar Monarchia) and Danubian Monarchy (German: Donaumonarchie; Hungarian: Dunai Monarchia) or Dual Monarchy (German: Doppel-Monarchie; Hungarian: Dual-Monarchia) and The Double Eagle (German: Der Doppel-Adler; Hungarian: Kétsas), but none of these became widespread either in Hungary, or elsewhere. Austria-Hungary_sentence_36

The realm's full name used in the internal administration was The Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council and the Lands of the Holy Hungarian Crown of St. Stephen. Austria-Hungary_sentence_37


  • German: Die im Reichsrat vertretenen Königreiche und Länder und die Länder der Heiligen Ungarischen StephanskroneAustria-Hungary_item_0_0
  • Hungarian: A Birodalmi Tanácsban képviselt királyságok és országok és a Magyar Szent Korona országaiAustria-Hungary_item_0_1

From 1867 onwards, the abbreviations heading the names of official institutions in Austria-Hungary reflected their responsibility: Austria-Hungary_sentence_38


  • k. u. k. (kaiserlich und königlich or Imperial and Royal) was the label for institutions common to both parts of the Monarchy, e.g. the k.u.k. Kriegsmarine (War Fleet) and, during the war, the k.u.k. Armee (Army). The common army changed its label from k.k. to k.u.k. only in 1889 at the request of the Hungarian government.Austria-Hungary_item_1_2
  • K. k. (kaiserlich-königlich) or Imperial-Royal was the term for institutions of Cisleithania (Austria); "royal" in this label referred to the Crown of Bohemia.Austria-Hungary_item_1_3
  • K. u. (königlich-ungarisch) or M. k. (Magyar királyi) ("Royal Hungarian") referred to Transleithania, the lands of the Hungarian crown. In the Kingdom of Croatia and Slavonia, its autonomous institutions hold k. (kraljevski) ("Royal") as according to the Croatian–Hungarian Settlement the only official language in Croatia and Slavonia was Croatian and those institutions were "only" Croatian.Austria-Hungary_item_1_4

Following a decision of Franz Joseph I in 1868, the realm bore the official name Austro-Hungarian Monarchy/Realm (German: Österreichisch-Ungarische Monarchie/Reich; Hungarian: Osztrák–Magyar Monarchia/Birodalom) in its international relations. Austria-Hungary_sentence_39

It was often contracted to the Dual Monarchy in English, or simply referred to as Austria. Austria-Hungary_sentence_40

Structure Austria-Hungary_section_2

The Compromise turned the Habsburg domains into a real union between the Austrian Empire ("Lands Represented in the Imperial Council", or Cisleithania) in the western and northern half and the Kingdom of Hungary ("Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen", or Transleithania). Austria-Hungary_sentence_41

in the eastern half. Austria-Hungary_sentence_42

The two halves shared a common monarch, who ruled as Emperor of Austria over the western and northern half portion and as King of Hungary over the eastern portion. Austria-Hungary_sentence_43

Foreign relations and defense were managed jointly, and the two countries also formed a customs union. Austria-Hungary_sentence_44

All other state functions were to be handled separately by each of the two states. Austria-Hungary_sentence_45

Certain regions, such as Polish Galicia within Cisleithania and Croatia within Transleithania, enjoyed autonomous status, each with its own unique governmental structures (see: Polish Autonomy in Galicia and Croatian–Hungarian Settlement). Austria-Hungary_sentence_46

The division between Austria and Hungary was so marked that there was no common citizenship: one was either an Austrian citizen or a Hungarian citizen, never both. Austria-Hungary_sentence_47

This also meant that there were always separate Austrian and Hungarian passports, never a common one. Austria-Hungary_sentence_48

However, neither Austrian nor Hungarian passports were used in the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia. Austria-Hungary_sentence_49

Instead, the Kingdom issued its own passports which were written in Croatian and French and displayed the coat of arms of the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia-Dalmatia on them. Austria-Hungary_sentence_50

Croatia-Slavonia also had executive autonomy regarding naturalization and citizenship, defined as "Hungarian-Croatian citizenship" for the kingdom's citizens. Austria-Hungary_sentence_51

It is not known what kind of passports were used in Bosnia-Herzegovina, which was under the control of both Austria and Hungary. Austria-Hungary_sentence_52

The Kingdom of Hungary had always maintained a separate parliament, the Diet of Hungary, even after the Austrian Empire was created in 1804. Austria-Hungary_sentence_53

The administration and government of the Kingdom of Hungary (until 1848–49 Hungarian revolution) remained largely untouched by the government structure of the overarching Austrian Empire. Austria-Hungary_sentence_54

Hungary's central government structures remained well separated from the Austrian imperial government. Austria-Hungary_sentence_55

The country was governed by the Council of Lieutenancy of Hungary (the Gubernium) – located in Pressburg and later in Pest – and by the Hungarian Royal Court Chancellery in Vienna. Austria-Hungary_sentence_56

The Hungarian government and Hungarian parliament were suspended after the Hungarian revolution of 1848, and were reinstated after the Austro-Hungarian Compromise in 1867. Austria-Hungary_sentence_57

Despite Austria and Hungary sharing a common currency, they were fiscally sovereign and independent entities. Austria-Hungary_sentence_58

Since the beginnings of the personal union (from 1527), the government of the Kingdom of Hungary could preserve its separate and independent budget. Austria-Hungary_sentence_59

After the revolution of 1848–1849, the Hungarian budget was amalgamated with the Austrian, and it was only after the Compromise of 1867 that Hungary obtained a separate budget. Austria-Hungary_sentence_60

From 1527 (the creation of the monarchic personal union) to 1851, the Kingdom of Hungary maintained its own customs controls, which separated her from the other parts of the Habsburg-ruled territories. Austria-Hungary_sentence_61

After 1867, the Austrian and Hungarian customs union agreement had to be renegotiated and stipulated every ten years. Austria-Hungary_sentence_62

The agreements were renewed and signed by Vienna and Budapest at the end of every decade because both countries hoped to derive mutual economic benefit from the customs union. Austria-Hungary_sentence_63

The Austrian Empire and Kingdom of Hungary contracted their foreign commercial treaties independently of each other. Austria-Hungary_sentence_64

Vienna served as the Monarchy's primary capital. Austria-Hungary_sentence_65

The Cisleithanian (Austrian) part contained about 57 percent of the total population and the larger share of its economic resources, compared to the Hungarian part. Austria-Hungary_sentence_66

Government Austria-Hungary_section_3

There were three parts to the rule of the Austro-Hungarian Empire: Austria-Hungary_sentence_67


  1. the common foreign, military and a joint financial policy (only for diplomatic, military and naval expenditures) under the monarchAustria-Hungary_item_2_5
  2. the "Austrian" or Cisleithanian government (Lands Represented in the Imperial Council)Austria-Hungary_item_2_6
  3. the "Hungarian" or Transleithanian government (Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen)Austria-Hungary_item_2_7

Joint government Austria-Hungary_section_4

The common government was led by a Ministerial Council (Ministerrat für Gemeinsame Angelegenheiten) which had responsibility for the Common Army, navy, foreign policy, and the customs union. Austria-Hungary_sentence_68

It consisted of three Imperial and Royal Joint-ministries (k.u.k. Austria-Hungary_sentence_69 gemeinsame Ministerien []): Austria-Hungary_sentence_70


In addition to the three ministers, the Ministerial Council also contained the prime minister of Hungary, the prime minister of Cisleithania, some Archdukes, and the monarch. Austria-Hungary_sentence_71

The Chief of the General Staff usually attended as well. Austria-Hungary_sentence_72

The council was usually chaired by the Minister of the Household and Foreign Affairs, except when the Monarch was present. Austria-Hungary_sentence_73

In addition to the council, the Austrian and Hungarian parliaments each elected a delegation of 60 members, who met separately and voted on the expenditures of the Ministerial Council giving the two governments influence in the common administration. Austria-Hungary_sentence_74

However, the ministers ultimately answered only to the monarch who had the final decision on matters of foreign and military policy. Austria-Hungary_sentence_75

Overlapping responsibilities between the joint ministries and the ministries of the two halves caused friction and inefficiencies. Austria-Hungary_sentence_76

The armed forces suffered particularly from overlap. Austria-Hungary_sentence_77

Although the unified government determined the overall military direction, the Austrian and Hungarian governments each remained in charge of recruiting, supplies and training. Austria-Hungary_sentence_78

Each government could have a strong influence over common governmental responsibilities. Austria-Hungary_sentence_79

Each half of the Dual Monarchy proved quite prepared to disrupt common operations to advance its own interests. Austria-Hungary_sentence_80

Relations during the half-century after 1867 between the two parts of the dual monarchy featured repeated disputes over shared external tariff arrangements and over the financial contribution of each government to the common treasury. Austria-Hungary_sentence_81

These matters were determined by the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867, in which common expenditures were allocated 70% to Austria and 30% to Hungary. Austria-Hungary_sentence_82

This division had to be renegotiated every ten years. Austria-Hungary_sentence_83

There was political turmoil during the build-up to each renewal of the agreement. Austria-Hungary_sentence_84

By 1907, the Hungarian share had risen to 36.4%. Austria-Hungary_sentence_85

The disputes culminated in the early 1900s in a prolonged constitutional crisis. Austria-Hungary_sentence_86

It was triggered by disagreement over which language to use for command in Hungarian army units, and deepened by the advent to power in Budapest in April 1906 of a Hungarian nationalist coalition. Austria-Hungary_sentence_87

Provisional renewals of the common arrangements occurred in October 1907 and in November 1917 on the basis of the status quo. Austria-Hungary_sentence_88

The negotiations in 1917 ended with the dissolution of the Dual Monarchy. Austria-Hungary_sentence_89

Parliaments Austria-Hungary_section_5

See also: Imperial Council (Austria) and Diet of Hungary Austria-Hungary_sentence_90

Hungary and Austria maintained separate parliaments each with its own prime minister: the Diet of Hungary (commonly known as the National Assembly) and the Imperial Council in Cisleithania. Austria-Hungary_sentence_91

Each parliament had its own executive government, appointed by the monarch. Austria-Hungary_sentence_92

In this sense Austria-Hungary remained under an autocratic government, as the Emperor-King appointed both Austrian and Hungarian prime ministers along with their respective cabinets. Austria-Hungary_sentence_93

This made both governments responsible to the Emperor-King, as neither half could have a government with a program contrary to the views of the Monarch. Austria-Hungary_sentence_94

The Emperor-King could appoint non-parliamentary governments, for example, or keep a government which did not have a parliamentary majority in power, in order to block the formation of another government which he did not approve of. Austria-Hungary_sentence_95

The Imperial Council was a bicameral body: the upper house was the House of Lords (German: Herrenhaus), and the lower house was the House of Deputies (German: Abgeordnetenhaus). Austria-Hungary_sentence_96

Members of the House of Deputies were elected through a system of "curiae" which weighted representation in favour of the wealthy, but was progressively reformed until universal manhood suffrage was introduced in 1906. Austria-Hungary_sentence_97

To become law, bills had to be passed by both houses, signed by the government minister responsible, and then granted royal assent by the Emperor. Austria-Hungary_sentence_98

The Diet of Hungary was also bicameral: the upper house was the House of Magnates (Hungarian: Főrendiház), and the lower house was the House of Representatives (Hungarian: Képviselőház). Austria-Hungary_sentence_99

The "curia" system was also used to elect members of the House of Representatives. Austria-Hungary_sentence_100

Franchise was very limited with around 5% of men eligible to vote in 1874, rising to 8% at the beginning of World War I. Austria-Hungary_sentence_101

The Hungarian parliament had the power to legislate on all matters concerning Hungary, but for Croatia-Slavonia only on matters which it shared with Hungary. Austria-Hungary_sentence_102

Matters concerning Croatia-Slavonia alone fell to the Croatian-Slavonian Diet (commonly referred to as the Croatian Parliament). Austria-Hungary_sentence_103

The Monarch had the right to veto any kind of Bill before it was presented to the National Assembly, the right to veto all legislation passed by the National Assembly, and the power to prorogue or dissolve the Assembly and call for new elections. Austria-Hungary_sentence_104

In practice these powers were rarely used. Austria-Hungary_sentence_105

Public administration and local governments Austria-Hungary_section_6

Empire of Austria (Cisleithania) Austria-Hungary_section_7

The administrative system in the Austrian Empire consisted of three levels: the central State administration, the territories (Länder), and the local communal administration. Austria-Hungary_sentence_106

The State administration comprised all affairs having relation to rights, duties and interests "which are common to all territories"; all other administrative tasks were left to the territories. Austria-Hungary_sentence_107

Finally, the communes had self-government within their own sphere. Austria-Hungary_sentence_108

The central authorities were known as the "Ministry" (Ministerium). Austria-Hungary_sentence_109

In 1867 the Ministerium consisted of seven ministries (Agriculture, Religion and Education, Finance, Interior, Justice, Commerce and Public Works, Defence). Austria-Hungary_sentence_110

A Ministry of Railways was created in 1896, and the Ministry of Public Works was separated from Commerce in 1908. Austria-Hungary_sentence_111

Ministries of Public Health [] and Social Welfare were established in 1917, to deal with issues arising from World War I. Austria-Hungary_sentence_112

The ministries all had the title k.k. Austria-Hungary_sentence_113

("Imperial-Royal"), referring to the Imperial crown of Austria and the royal crown of Bohemia. Austria-Hungary_sentence_114

Each of the seventeen territories had its own government, led by a Governor [] (officially Landeschef, but commonly called Statthalter or Landespräsident), appointed by the Emperor, to serve as his representative. Austria-Hungary_sentence_115

Usually, a territory was equivalent to a Crown territory (Kronland), but the immense variations in area of the Crown territories meant that there were some exceptions. Austria-Hungary_sentence_116

Each territory had its own territorial assembly (Landtag) and executive (Landesausschuss []). Austria-Hungary_sentence_117

The territorial assembly and executive were led by the Landeshauptmann (i.e. territorial premier), appointed by the Emperor from the members of the territorial assembly. Austria-Hungary_sentence_118

Many branches of the territorial administrations had great similarities with those of the State, so that their spheres of activity frequently overlapped and came into collision. Austria-Hungary_sentence_119

This administrative "double track", as it was called, resulted largely from the origin of the State – for the most part through a voluntary union of countries that had a strong sense of their own individuality. Austria-Hungary_sentence_120

Below the territory was the district (Bezirk) under a district-head (Bezirkshauptmann), appointed by the State government. Austria-Hungary_sentence_121

These district-heads united nearly all the administrative functions which were divided among the various ministries. Austria-Hungary_sentence_122

Each district was divided into a number of municipalities (Ortsgemeinden), each with its own elected mayor (Bürgermeister). Austria-Hungary_sentence_123

The nine statutory cities were autonomous units at the district-level. Austria-Hungary_sentence_124

The complexity of this system, particularly the overlap between State and territorial administration, led to moves for administrative reform. Austria-Hungary_sentence_125

As early as 1904, premier Ernest von Koerber had declared that a complete change in the principles of administration would be essential if the machinery of State were to continue working. Austria-Hungary_sentence_126

Richard von Bienerth's last act as Austrian premier in May 1911 was the appointment of a commission nominated by the Emperor, to draw up a scheme of administrative reform. Austria-Hungary_sentence_127

The imperial rescript did not present reforms as a matter of urgency or outline an overall philosophy for them. Austria-Hungary_sentence_128

The continuous progress of society, it said, had made increased demands on the administration, that is to say, it was assumed that reform was required because of the changing times, not underlying problems with the administrative structure. Austria-Hungary_sentence_129

The reform commission first occupied itself with reforms about which there was no controversy. Austria-Hungary_sentence_130

In 1912 it published "Proposals for the training of State officials". Austria-Hungary_sentence_131

The commission produced several further reports before its work was interrupted by the outbreak of World War I in 1914. Austria-Hungary_sentence_132

It was not till March 1918 that the Seidler Government decided upon a programme of national autonomy as a basis for administrative reform, which was, however, never carried into effect. Austria-Hungary_sentence_133

Kingdom of Hungary (Transleithania) Austria-Hungary_section_8

Executive power in Transleithania was vested in a cabinet responsible to the National Assembly, consisting of ten ministers, including: the Prime Minister, the Minister for Croatia-Slavonia, a Minister beside the King, and the Ministers of the Interior, National Defence, Religion and Public Education, Finance, Agriculture, Industry, and Trade, Public Works and Transport, and Justice. Austria-Hungary_sentence_134

The Minister beside the King was responsible for co-ordination with Austria and the Imperial and royal court in Vienna. Austria-Hungary_sentence_135

In 1889, the Ministry of Agriculture, Industry and Trade was split into separate ministries of Agriculture and Trade. Austria-Hungary_sentence_136

The Ministry of Public Works and Transport was folded into the new Ministry of Trade. Austria-Hungary_sentence_137

From 1867 the administrative and political divisions of the lands belonging to the Hungarian crown were remodelled due to some restorations and other changes. Austria-Hungary_sentence_138

In 1868 Transylvania was definitely reunited to Hungary proper, and the town and district of Fiume maintained its status as a Corpus separatum ("separate body"). Austria-Hungary_sentence_139

The "Military Frontier" was abolished in stages between 1871 and 1881, with Banat and Šajkaška being incorporated into Hungary proper and the Croatian and Slavonian Military Frontiers joining Croatia-Slavonia. Austria-Hungary_sentence_140

In regard to local government, Hungary had traditionally been divided into around seventy counties (Hungarian: megyék, singular megye; Croatian: Croatian: županija) and an array of districts and cities with special statuses. Austria-Hungary_sentence_141

This system was reformed in two stages. Austria-Hungary_sentence_142

In 1870, most historical privileges of territorial subdivisions were abolished, but the existing names and territories were retained. Austria-Hungary_sentence_143

At this point there were a total of 175 territorial subdivisions: 65 counties (49 in Hungary proper, 8 in Transylvania, and 8 in Croatia), 89 cities with municipal rights, and 21 other types of municipality (3 in Hungary proper and 18 in Transylvania). Austria-Hungary_sentence_144

In a further reform in 1876, most of the cities and other types of municipality were incorporated into the counties. Austria-Hungary_sentence_145

The counties in Hungary were grouped into seven circuits, which had no administrative function. Austria-Hungary_sentence_146

The lowest level subdivision was the district or processus (Hungarian: szolgabírói járás). Austria-Hungary_sentence_147

After 1876, some urban municipalities remained independent of the counties in which they were situated. Austria-Hungary_sentence_148

There were 26 of these urban municipalities in Hungary: Arad, Baja, Debreczen, Győr, Hódmezővásárhely, Kassa, Kecskemét, Kolozsvár, Komárom, Marosvásárhely, Nagyvárad, Pancsova, Pécs, Pozsony, Selmecz- és Bélabanya, Sopron, Szabadka, Szatmárnémeti, Szeged, Székesfehervár, Temesvár, Újvidék, Versecz, Zombor, and Budapest, the capital of the country. Austria-Hungary_sentence_149

In Croatia-Slavonia, there were four: Osijek, Varaždin and Zagreb and Zemun. Austria-Hungary_sentence_150

Fiume continued to form a separate division. Austria-Hungary_sentence_151

The administration of the municipalities was carried on by an official appointed by the king. Austria-Hungary_sentence_152

These municipalities each had a council of twenty members. Austria-Hungary_sentence_153

Counties were led by a County head (Hungarian: Ispán or Croatian: župan) appointed by the king and under the control of the Ministry of the Interior. Austria-Hungary_sentence_154

Each county had a municipal committee of 20 members, comprising 50% virilists (persons paying the highest direct taxes), and 50% elected persons fulfilling the prescribed census and ex officio members (deputy county head, main notary and others) The powers and responsibilities of the counties were constantly decreased and were transferred to regional agencies of the kingdom's ministries. Austria-Hungary_sentence_155

See also: List of administrative divisions of the Kingdom of Hungary § 1867 – 1920 Austria-Hungary_sentence_156

Bosnia and Herzegovina Austria-Hungary_section_9

Main article: Austro-Hungarian rule in Bosnia and Herzegovina Austria-Hungary_sentence_157

In 1878, Congress of Berlin placed the Bosnia Vilayet of the Ottoman Empire under Austro-Hungarian occupation. Austria-Hungary_sentence_158

The region was formally annexed in 1908, the region was governed by Austria and Hungary jointly through the Imperial and Royal Ministry of Finance's Bosnian Office (German: Bosnische Amt). Austria-Hungary_sentence_159

The Government of Bosnia and Herzegovina was headed by a governor (German: Landsschef), who was also the commander of the military forces based in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Austria-Hungary_sentence_160

The executive branch was headed by a National Council, which was chaired by the governor and contained the governor's deputy and chiefs of departments. Austria-Hungary_sentence_161

At first, the government had only three departments, administrative, financial and legislative. Austria-Hungary_sentence_162

Later, other departments, including construction, economic, education, religion, and technical, were founded as well. Austria-Hungary_sentence_163

The Diet of Bosnia, created in 1910, had very limited legislative powers. Austria-Hungary_sentence_164

The main legislative power was in hands of the emperor, the parliaments in Vienna and Budapest and the joint-minister of finance. Austria-Hungary_sentence_165

The Diet of Bosnia could make proposals, but they had to be approved by both parliaments in Vienna and Budapest. Austria-Hungary_sentence_166

The Diet could only deliberate on matters that affected Bosnia and Herzegovina exclusively; decisions on armed forces, commercial and traffic connections, customs and similar matters, were made by the parliaments in Vienna and Budapest. Austria-Hungary_sentence_167

The Diet also had no control over the National Council or the municipal councils. Austria-Hungary_sentence_168

The Austrian-Hungarian authorities left the Ottoman division of Bosnia and Herzegovina untouched, they only changed the names of divisional units. Austria-Hungary_sentence_169

Thus the Bosnia Vilayet was renamed to Reichsland, sanjaks were renamed to Kreise (Circuits), kazas were renamed to Bezirke (Districts), and nahiyahs became Exposituren. Austria-Hungary_sentence_170

There were six Kreise and 54 Bezirke. Austria-Hungary_sentence_171

The heads of the Kreises were Kreiseleiters and heads of the Bezirke were Bezirkesleiters. Austria-Hungary_sentence_172

Judicial system Austria-Hungary_section_10

Empire of Austria Austria-Hungary_section_11

Main article: Judiciary of Austria § December Constitution Austria-Hungary_sentence_173

The December Constitution of 1867 restored the rule of law, independence of the judiciary, and public jury trials in Austria. Austria-Hungary_sentence_174

The system of general courts had the same four rungs it still has today: Austria-Hungary_sentence_175


  • District courts (Bezirksgerichte);Austria-Hungary_item_4_11
  • Regional courts (Kreisgerichte);Austria-Hungary_item_4_12
  • Higher regional courts (Oberlandesgerichte);Austria-Hungary_item_4_13
  • Supreme Court (Oberster Gerichts- und Kassationshof).Austria-Hungary_item_4_14

Habsburg subjects would from now on be able to take the State to court should it violate their fundamental rights. Austria-Hungary_sentence_176

Since regular courts were still unable to overrule the bureaucracy, much less the legislature, these guarantees necessitated the creation of specialist courts that could: Austria-Hungary_sentence_177


  • The Administrative Court (Verwaltungsgerichtshof), stipulated by the 1867 Basic Law on Judicial Power (Staatsgrundgesetz über die richterliche Gewalt) and implemented in 1876, had the power to review the legality of administrative acts, ensuring that the executive branch remained faithful to the principle of the rule of law.Austria-Hungary_item_5_15
  • The Imperial Court (Reichsgericht), stipulated by the Basic Law on the Creation of an Imperial Court (Staatsgrundgesetz über die Einrichtung eines Reichsgerichtes) in 1867 and implemented in 1869, decided demarcation conflicts between courts and the bureaucracy, between its constituent territories, and between individual territories and the Empire. The Imperial Court also heard complaints of citizens who alleged to have been violated in their constitutional rights, although its powers were not cassatory: it could only vindicate the complainant by declaring the government to be in the wrong, not by actually voiding its wrongful decisions.Austria-Hungary_item_5_16
  • The State Court (Staatsgerichtshof) held the Emperor's ministers accountable for political misconduct committed in office. Although the Emperor could not be taken to court, many of his decrees now depended on the relevant minister to countersign them. The double-pronged approach of making the Emperor dependent on his ministers and also making ministers criminally liable for bad outcomes would firstly enable, secondly motivate the ministers to put pressure on the monarch.Austria-Hungary_item_5_17

Kingdom of Hungary Austria-Hungary_section_12

Judicial power was also independent of the executive in Hungary. Austria-Hungary_sentence_178

After the Croatian–Hungarian Settlement of 1868, Croatia-Slavonia had its own independent judicial system (the Table of Seven was the court of last instance for Croatia-Slavonia with final civil and criminal jurisdiction). Austria-Hungary_sentence_179

The judicial authorities in Hungary were: Austria-Hungary_sentence_180


  1. the district courts with single judges (458 in 1905);Austria-Hungary_item_6_18
  2. the county courts with collegiate judgeships (76 in number); to these were attached 15 jury courts for press offences. These were courts of first instance. In Croatia-Slavonia these were known as the court tables after 1874;Austria-Hungary_item_6_19
  3. Royal Tables (12 in number), which were courts of second instance, established at Budapest, Debrecen, Győr, Kassa, Kolozsvár, Marosvásárhely, Nagyvárad, Pécs, Pressburg, Szeged, Temesvár and Ban's Table at Zagreb.Austria-Hungary_item_6_20
  4. The Royal Supreme Court at Budapest, and the Supreme Court of Justice, or Table of Seven, at Zagreb, which were the highest judicial authorities. There were also a special commercial court at Budapest, a naval court at Fiume, and special army courts.Austria-Hungary_item_6_21

Politics Austria-Hungary_section_13

See also: Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen Austria-Hungary_sentence_181

The first prime minister of Hungary after the Compromise was Count Gyula Andrássy (1867–1871). Austria-Hungary_sentence_182

The old Hungarian Constitution was restored, and Franz Joseph was crowned as King of Hungary. Austria-Hungary_sentence_183

Andrássy next served as the Foreign Minister of Austria-Hungary (1871–1879). Austria-Hungary_sentence_184

The Empire relied increasingly on a cosmopolitan bureaucracy—in which Czechs played an important role—backed by loyal elements, including a large part of the German, Hungarian, Polish and Croat aristocracy. Austria-Hungary_sentence_185

Political struggles in the Empire Austria-Hungary_section_14

The traditional aristocracy and land-based gentry class gradually faced increasingly wealthy men of the cities, who achieved wealth through trade and industrialization. Austria-Hungary_sentence_186

The urban middle and upper class tended to seek their own power and supported progressive movements in the aftermath of revolutions in Europe. Austria-Hungary_sentence_187

As in the German Empire, the Austro-Hungarian Empire frequently used liberal economic policies and practices. Austria-Hungary_sentence_188

From the 1860s, businessmen succeeded in industrializing parts of the Empire. Austria-Hungary_sentence_189

Newly prosperous members of the bourgeoisie erected large homes, and began to take prominent roles in urban life that rivaled the aristocracy's. Austria-Hungary_sentence_190

In the early period, they encouraged the government to seek foreign investment to build up infrastructure, such as railroads, in aid of industrialization, transportation and communications, and development. Austria-Hungary_sentence_191

The influence of liberals in Austria, most of them ethnic Germans, weakened under the leadership of Count Eduard von Taaffe, the Austrian prime minister from 1879 to 1893. Austria-Hungary_sentence_192

Taaffe used a coalition of clergy, conservatives and Slavic parties to weaken the liberals. Austria-Hungary_sentence_193

In Bohemia, for example, he authorized Czech as an official language of the bureaucracy and school system, thus breaking the German speakers' monopoly on holding office. Austria-Hungary_sentence_194

Such reforms encouraged other ethnic groups to push for greater autonomy as well. Austria-Hungary_sentence_195

By playing nationalities off one another, the government ensured the monarchy's central role in holding together competing interest groups in an era of rapid change. Austria-Hungary_sentence_196

During the First World War, rising national sentiments and labour movements contributed to strikes, protests and civil unrest in the Empire. Austria-Hungary_sentence_197

After the war, republican, national parties contributed to the disintegration and collapse of the monarchy in Austria and Hungary. Austria-Hungary_sentence_198

Republics were established in Vienna and Budapest. Austria-Hungary_sentence_199

Legislation to help the working class emerged from Catholic conservatives. Austria-Hungary_sentence_200

They turned to social reform by using Swiss and German models and intervening in private industry. Austria-Hungary_sentence_201

In Germany Chancellor Otto von Bismarck had used such policies to neutralize socialist promises. Austria-Hungary_sentence_202

The Catholics studied the Swiss Factory Act of 1877 that limited working hours for everyone, and gave maternity benefits, and German laws that insured workers against industrial risks inherent in the workplace. Austria-Hungary_sentence_203

These served as the basis for Austria's 1885 Trade Code Amendment. Austria-Hungary_sentence_204

The Austro-Hungarian compromise and its supporters remained bitterly unpopular among the ethnic Hungarian voters, and the continuous electoral success of the pro-compromise Liberal Party frustrated many Hungarian voters. Austria-Hungary_sentence_205

While the pro-compromise liberal parties were the most popular among ethnic minority voters, however the Slovak, Serb, and Romanian minority parties remained unpopular among the ethnic minorities. Austria-Hungary_sentence_206

The nationalist Hungarian parties – which were supported by the overwhelming majority of ethnic Hungarian voters – remained in the opposition, except from 1906 to 1910 where the nationalist Hungarian parties were able to form government. Austria-Hungary_sentence_207

Ethnic relations Austria-Hungary_section_15

See also: Trialism in Austria-Hungary, United States of Greater Austria, Magyarization, Austro-Slavism, and Panslavism Austria-Hungary_sentence_208

In July 1849, the Hungarian Revolutionary Parliament proclaimed and enacted ethnic and minority rights (the next such laws were in Switzerland), but these were overturned after the Russian and Austrian armies crushed the Hungarian Revolution. Austria-Hungary_sentence_209

After the Kingdom of Hungary reached the Compromise with the Habsburg Dynasty in 1867, one of the first acts of its restored Parliament was to pass a Law on Nationalities (Act Number XLIV of 1868). Austria-Hungary_sentence_210

It was a liberal piece of legislation, and offered extensive language and cultural rights. Austria-Hungary_sentence_211

It did not recognize non-Hungarians to have rights to form states with any territorial autonomy. Austria-Hungary_sentence_212

The "Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867" created the personal union of the independent states of Hungary and Austria, linked under a common monarch also having joint institutions. Austria-Hungary_sentence_213

The Hungarian majority asserted more of their identity within the Kingdom of Hungary, and it came to conflict with some of her own minorities. Austria-Hungary_sentence_214

The imperial power of German speakers who controlled the Austrian half was resented by others. Austria-Hungary_sentence_215

In addition, the emergence of nationalism in the newly independent Romania and Serbia also contributed to ethnic issues in the empire. Austria-Hungary_sentence_216

Article 19 of the 1867 "Basic State Act" (Staatsgrundgesetz), valid only for the Cisleithanian (Austrian) part of Austria-Hungary, said: Austria-Hungary_sentence_217

The implementation of this principle led to several disputes, as it was not clear which languages could be regarded as "customary". Austria-Hungary_sentence_218

The Germans, the traditional bureaucratic, capitalist and cultural elite, demanded the recognition of their language as a customary language in every part of the empire. Austria-Hungary_sentence_219

German nationalists, especially in the Sudetenland (part of Bohemia), looked to Berlin in the new German Empire. Austria-Hungary_sentence_220

There was a German-speaking element in Austria proper (west of Vienna), but it did not display much sense of German nationalism. Austria-Hungary_sentence_221

That is, it did not demand an independent state; rather it flourished by holding most of the high military and diplomatic offices in the Empire. Austria-Hungary_sentence_222

Italian was regarded as an old "culture language" (Kultursprache) by German intellectuals and had always been granted equal rights as an official language of the Empire, but the Germans had difficulty in accepting the Slavic languages as equal to their own. Austria-Hungary_sentence_223

On one occasion Count A. Auersperg (Anastasius Grün) entered the Diet of Carniola carrying what he claimed to be the whole corpus of Slovene literature under his arm; this was to demonstrate that the Slovene language could not be substituted for German as the language of higher education. Austria-Hungary_sentence_224

The following years saw official recognition of several languages, at least in Austria. Austria-Hungary_sentence_225

From 1867, laws awarded Croatian equal status with Italian in Dalmatia. Austria-Hungary_sentence_226

From 1882, there was a Slovene majority in the Diet of Carniola and in the capital Laibach (Ljubljana); they replaced German with Slovene as their primary official language. Austria-Hungary_sentence_227

Galicia designated Polish instead of German in 1869 as the customary language of government. Austria-Hungary_sentence_228

In Istria, the Istro-Romanians, a small ethnic group composed by around 2,600 people in the 1880s, suffered severe discrimination. Austria-Hungary_sentence_229

The Croats of the region, who formed the majority, tried to assimilate them, while the Italian minority supported them in their requests for self-determination. Austria-Hungary_sentence_230

In 1888, the possibility of opening the first school for the Istro-Romanians teaching in the Romanian language was discussed in the Diet of Istria. Austria-Hungary_sentence_231

The proposal was very popular among them. Austria-Hungary_sentence_232

The Italian deputies showed their support, but the Croat ones opposed it and tried to show that the Istro-Romanians were in fact Slavs. Austria-Hungary_sentence_233

During Austro-Hungarian rule, the Istro-Romanians lived under poverty conditions, and those living in the island of Krk were fully assimilated by 1875. Austria-Hungary_sentence_234

The language disputes were most fiercely fought in Bohemia, where the Czech speakers formed a majority and sought equal status for their language to German. Austria-Hungary_sentence_235

The Czechs had lived primarily in Bohemia since the 6th century and German immigrants had begun settling the Bohemian periphery in the 13th century. Austria-Hungary_sentence_236

The constitution of 1627 made the German language a second official language and equal to Czech. Austria-Hungary_sentence_237

German speakers lost their majority in the Bohemian Diet in 1880 and became a minority to Czech speakers in the cities of Prague and Pilsen (while retaining a slight numerical majority in the city of Brno (Brünn)). Austria-Hungary_sentence_238

The old Charles University in Prague, hitherto dominated by German speakers, was divided into German and Czech-speaking faculties in 1882. Austria-Hungary_sentence_239

At the same time, Hungarian dominance faced challenges from the local majorities of Romanians in Transylvania and in the eastern Banat, Slovaks in today's Slovakia, and Croats and Serbs in the crown lands of Croatia and of Dalmatia (today's Croatia), in Bosnia and Herzegovina, and in the provinces known as the Vojvodina (today's northern Serbia). Austria-Hungary_sentence_240

The Romanians and the Serbs began to agitate for union with their fellow nationalists and language speakers in the newly founded states of Romania (1859–1878) and Serbia. Austria-Hungary_sentence_241

Hungary's leaders were generally less willing than their Austrian counterparts to share power with their subject minorities, but they granted a large measure of autonomy to Croatia in 1868. Austria-Hungary_sentence_242

To some extent, they modeled their relationship to that kingdom on their own compromise with Austria of the previous year. Austria-Hungary_sentence_243

In spite of nominal autonomy, the Croatian government was an economic and administrative part of Hungary, which the Croatians resented. Austria-Hungary_sentence_244

In the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia and Bosnia and Herzegovina many advocated the idea of a trialist Austro-Hungaro-Croatian monarchy; among the supporters of the idea were Archduke Leopold Salvator, Archduke Franz Ferdinand and emperor and king Charles I who during his short reign supported the trialist idea only to be vetoed by the Hungarian government and Count Istvan Tisza. Austria-Hungary_sentence_245

The count finally signed the trialist proclamation after heavy pressure from the king on 23 October 1918. Austria-Hungary_sentence_246

Language was one of the most contentious issues in Austro-Hungarian politics. Austria-Hungary_sentence_247

All governments faced difficult and divisive hurdles in deciding on the languages of government and of instruction. Austria-Hungary_sentence_248

The minorities sought the widest opportunities for education in their own languages, as well as in the "dominant" languages—Hungarian and German. Austria-Hungary_sentence_249

By the "Ordinance of 5 April 1897", the Austrian Prime Minister Count Kasimir Felix Badeni gave Czech equal standing with German in the internal government of Bohemia; this led to a crisis because of nationalist German agitation throughout the empire. Austria-Hungary_sentence_250

The Crown dismissed Badeni. Austria-Hungary_sentence_251

The Hungarian Minority Act of 1868 gave the minorities (Slovaks, Romanians, Serbs, et al.) Austria-Hungary_sentence_252

individual (but not also communal) rights to use their language in offices, schools (although in practice often only in those founded by them and not by the state), courts and municipalities (if 20% of the deputies demanded it). Austria-Hungary_sentence_253

From June 1907, all public and private schools in Hungary were obliged to ensure that after the fourth grade, the pupils could express themselves fluently in Hungarian. Austria-Hungary_sentence_254

This led to the closing of several minority schools, devoted mostly to the Slovak and Rusyn languages. Austria-Hungary_sentence_255

The two kingdoms sometimes divided their spheres of influence. Austria-Hungary_sentence_256

According to Misha Glenny in his book, The Balkans, 1804–1999, the Austrians responded to Hungarian support of Czechs by supporting the Croatian national movement in Zagreb. Austria-Hungary_sentence_257

In recognition that he reigned in a multi-ethnic country, Emperor Franz Joseph spoke (and used) German, Hungarian and Czech fluently, and Croatian, Serbian, Polish and Italian to some degree. Austria-Hungary_sentence_258

Jews Austria-Hungary_section_16

Around 1900, Jews numbered about two million in the whole territory of the Austro-Hungarian Empire; their position was ambiguous. Austria-Hungary_sentence_259

The populist and antisemitic politics of the Christian Social Party are sometimes viewed as a model for Adolf Hitler's Nazism. Austria-Hungary_sentence_260

Antisemitic parties and movements existed, but the governments of Vienna and Budapest did not initiate pogroms or implement official antisemitic policies. Austria-Hungary_sentence_261

They feared that such ethnic violence could ignite other ethnic minorities and escalate out of control. Austria-Hungary_sentence_262

The antisemitic parties remained on the periphery of the political sphere due to their low popularity among voters in the parliamentary elections. Austria-Hungary_sentence_263

In that period, the majority of Jews in Austria-Hungary lived in small towns (shtetls) in Galicia and rural areas in Hungary and Bohemia; however, they had large communities and even local majorities in the downtown districts of Vienna, Budapest and Prague. Austria-Hungary_sentence_264

Of the pre-World War I military forces of the major European powers, the Austro-Hungarian army was almost alone in its regular promotion of Jews to positions of command. Austria-Hungary_sentence_265

While the Jewish population of the lands of the Dual Monarchy was about five percent, Jews made up nearly eighteen percent of the reserve officer corps. Austria-Hungary_sentence_266

Thanks to the modernity of the constitution and to the benevolence of emperor Franz Joseph, the Austrian Jews came to regard the era of Austria-Hungary as a golden era of their history. Austria-Hungary_sentence_267

By 1910 about 900,000 religious Jews made up approximately 5% of the population of Hungary and about 23% of Budapest's citizenry. Austria-Hungary_sentence_268

Jews accounted for 54% of commercial business owners, 85% of financial institution directors and owners in banking, and 62% of all employees in commerce, 20% of all general grammar school students, and 37% of all commercial scientific grammar school students, 31.9% of all engineering students, and 34.1% of all students in human faculties of the universities. Austria-Hungary_sentence_269

Jews were accounted for 48.5% of all physicians, and 49.4% of all lawyers/jurists in Hungary. Austria-Hungary_sentence_270

Note: The numbers of Jews were reconstructed from religious censuses. Austria-Hungary_sentence_271

They did not include the people of Jewish origin who had converted to Christianity, or the number of atheists. Austria-Hungary_sentence_272

Among many Hungarian parliament members of Jewish origin, the most famous Jewish members in Hungarian political life were Vilmos Vázsonyi as Minister of Justice, Samu Hazai as Minister of War, János Teleszky as minister of finance and János Harkányi as minister of trade, and József Szterényi as minister of trade. Austria-Hungary_sentence_273

Foreign policy Austria-Hungary_section_17

See also: International relations (1814–1919) and Foreign Ministry of Austria-Hungary Austria-Hungary_sentence_274

The minister of foreign affairs conducted the foreign relations of the Dual Monarchy, and negotiated treaties. Austria-Hungary_sentence_275

The Dual Monarchy was created in the wake of a losing war in 1866 with Prussia and Italy. Austria-Hungary_sentence_276

To rebuild Habsburg prestige and gain revenge against Prussia, Count Friedrich Ferdinand von Beust became foreign secretary. Austria-Hungary_sentence_277

He hated Prussia's diplomat, Otto von Bismarck, who had repeatedly outmaneuvered him. Austria-Hungary_sentence_278

Beust looked to France and negotiated with Emperor Napoleon III and Italy for an anti-Prussian alliance. Austria-Hungary_sentence_279

No terms could be reached. Austria-Hungary_sentence_280

The decisive victory of Prusso-German armies in the war of 1870 with France and the founding of the German Empire ended all hope of revenge and Beust retired. Austria-Hungary_sentence_281

After being forced out of Germany and Italy, the Dual Monarchy turned to the Balkans, which were in tumult as nationalistic efforts were trying to end the rule of the Ottomans. Austria-Hungary_sentence_282

Both Russia and Austria-Hungary saw an opportunity to expand in this region. Austria-Hungary_sentence_283

Russia in particular took on the role of protector of Slavs and Orthodox Christians. Austria-Hungary_sentence_284

Austria envisioned a multi-ethnic, religiously diverse empire under Vienna's control. Austria-Hungary_sentence_285

Count Gyula Andrássy, a Hungarian who was Foreign Minister (1871 to 1879), made the centerpiece of his policy one of opposition to Russian expansion in the Balkans and blocking Serbian ambitions to dominate a new South Slav federation. Austria-Hungary_sentence_286

He wanted Germany to ally with Austria, not Russia. Austria-Hungary_sentence_287

When Russia defeated Turkey in a war the resulting Treaty of San Stefano was seen in Austria as much too favourable for Russia and its Orthodox-Slavic goals. Austria-Hungary_sentence_288

The Congress of Berlin in 1878 let Austria occupy (but not annex) the province of Bosnia and Herzegovina, a predominantly Slavic area. Austria-Hungary_sentence_289

In 1914, Slavic militants in Bosnia rejected Austria's plan to fully absorb the area; they assassinated the Austrian heir and precipitated World War I. Austria-Hungary_sentence_290

Voting rights Austria-Hungary_section_18

Towards the end of the 19th century, the Austrian half of the dual monarchy began to move towards constitutionalism. Austria-Hungary_sentence_291

A constitutional system with a parliament, the Reichsrat was created, and a bill of rights was enacted also in 1867. Austria-Hungary_sentence_292

Suffrage to the Reichstag's lower house was gradually expanded until 1907, when equal suffrage for all male citizens was introduced. Austria-Hungary_sentence_293

The 1907 Cisleithanian legislative election were the first elections held under universal male suffrage, after an electoral reform abolishing tax paying requirements for voters had been adopted by the council and was endorsed by Emperor Franz Joseph earlier in the year. Austria-Hungary_sentence_294

However, seat allocations were based on tax revenues from the States. Austria-Hungary_sentence_295

Demographics Austria-Hungary_section_19

Main article: Ethnic and religious composition of Austria-Hungary Austria-Hungary_sentence_296

The following data is based on the official Austro-Hungarian census conducted in 1910. Austria-Hungary_sentence_297

Population and area Austria-Hungary_section_20


AreaAustria-Hungary_header_cell_1_0_0 Territory (km)Austria-Hungary_header_cell_1_0_1 PopulationAustria-Hungary_header_cell_1_0_2
Empire of AustriaAustria-Hungary_cell_1_1_0 300,005 (≈48% of Austria-Hungary)Austria-Hungary_cell_1_1_1 28,571,934 (≈57.8% of Austria-Hungary)Austria-Hungary_cell_1_1_2
Kingdom of HungaryAustria-Hungary_cell_1_2_0 325,411 (≈52% of Austria-Hungary)Austria-Hungary_cell_1_2_1 20,886,487 (≈42.2% of Austria-Hungary)Austria-Hungary_cell_1_2_2
Bosnia & HerzegovinaAustria-Hungary_cell_1_3_0 51,027Austria-Hungary_cell_1_3_1 1,931,802Austria-Hungary_cell_1_3_2
Sandžak (occupied until 1909)Austria-Hungary_cell_1_4_0 8,403Austria-Hungary_cell_1_4_1 135,000Austria-Hungary_cell_1_4_2

Languages Austria-Hungary_section_21

In Austria (Cisleithania), the census of 1910 recorded Umgangssprache, everyday language. Austria-Hungary_sentence_298

Jews and those using German in offices often stated German as their Umgangssprache, even when having a different Muttersprache. Austria-Hungary_sentence_299

36.8% of the total population spoke German as their native language, and more than 71% of the inhabitants spoke some German. Austria-Hungary_sentence_300

In Hungary (Transleithania), the census was based primarily on mother tongue, 48.1% of the total population spoke Hungarian as their native language. Austria-Hungary_sentence_301

Not counting autonomous Croatia-Slavonia, more than 54.4% of the inhabitants of the Kingdom of Hungary were native speakers of Hungarian (this included also the Jews – around 5% of the population -, as mostly they were Hungarian-speaking). Austria-Hungary_sentence_302

Note that some languages were considered dialects of more widely spoken languages. Austria-Hungary_sentence_303

For example: in the census, Rhaeto-Romance languages were counted as "Italian", while Istro-Romanian was counted as "Romanian". Austria-Hungary_sentence_304

Yiddish was counted as "German" in both Austria and Hungary. Austria-Hungary_sentence_305


Linguistic distribution

of Austria-Hungary as a wholeAustria-Hungary_header_cell_2_0_0

GermanAustria-Hungary_cell_2_1_0 23%Austria-Hungary_cell_2_1_1
HungarianAustria-Hungary_cell_2_2_0 20%Austria-Hungary_cell_2_2_1
CzechAustria-Hungary_cell_2_3_0 13%Austria-Hungary_cell_2_3_1
PolishAustria-Hungary_cell_2_4_0 10%Austria-Hungary_cell_2_4_1
RuthenianAustria-Hungary_cell_2_5_0 8%Austria-Hungary_cell_2_5_1
RomanianAustria-Hungary_cell_2_6_0 6%Austria-Hungary_cell_2_6_1
CroatAustria-Hungary_cell_2_7_0 6%Austria-Hungary_cell_2_7_1
SlovakAustria-Hungary_cell_2_8_0 4%Austria-Hungary_cell_2_8_1
SerbianAustria-Hungary_cell_2_9_0 4%Austria-Hungary_cell_2_9_1
SloveneAustria-Hungary_cell_2_10_0 3%Austria-Hungary_cell_2_10_1
ItalianAustria-Hungary_cell_2_11_0 3%Austria-Hungary_cell_2_11_1


LanguageAustria-Hungary_header_cell_3_0_0 NumberAustria-Hungary_header_cell_3_0_1 %Austria-Hungary_header_cell_3_0_2
GermanAustria-Hungary_cell_3_1_0 12,006,521Austria-Hungary_cell_3_1_1 23.36Austria-Hungary_cell_3_1_2
HungarianAustria-Hungary_cell_3_2_0 10,056,315Austria-Hungary_cell_3_2_1 19.57Austria-Hungary_cell_3_2_2
CzechAustria-Hungary_cell_3_3_0 6,442,133Austria-Hungary_cell_3_3_1 12.54Austria-Hungary_cell_3_3_2
Serbo-CroatianAustria-Hungary_cell_3_4_0 5,621,797Austria-Hungary_cell_3_4_1 10.94Austria-Hungary_cell_3_4_2
PolishAustria-Hungary_cell_3_5_0 4,976,804Austria-Hungary_cell_3_5_1 9.68Austria-Hungary_cell_3_5_2
RuthenianAustria-Hungary_cell_3_6_0 3,997,831Austria-Hungary_cell_3_6_1 7.78Austria-Hungary_cell_3_6_2
RomanianAustria-Hungary_cell_3_7_0 3,224,147Austria-Hungary_cell_3_7_1 6.27Austria-Hungary_cell_3_7_2
SlovakAustria-Hungary_cell_3_8_0 1,967,970Austria-Hungary_cell_3_8_1 3.83Austria-Hungary_cell_3_8_2
SloveneAustria-Hungary_cell_3_9_0 1,255,620Austria-Hungary_cell_3_9_1 2.44Austria-Hungary_cell_3_9_2
ItalianAustria-Hungary_cell_3_10_0 768,422Austria-Hungary_cell_3_10_1 1.50Austria-Hungary_cell_3_10_2
OtherAustria-Hungary_cell_3_11_0 1,072,663Austria-Hungary_cell_3_11_1 2.09Austria-Hungary_cell_3_11_2
TotalAustria-Hungary_cell_3_12_0 51,390,223Austria-Hungary_cell_3_12_1 100.00Austria-Hungary_cell_3_12_2


Spoken languages in Cisleithania (Austria) (1910 census)Austria-Hungary_table_caption_4
LandAustria-Hungary_header_cell_4_0_0 Most common languageAustria-Hungary_header_cell_4_0_1 Other languages (more than 2%)Austria-Hungary_header_cell_4_0_3
BohemiaAustria-Hungary_cell_4_1_0 63.2%Austria-Hungary_cell_4_1_1 CzechAustria-Hungary_cell_4_1_2 36.45% (2,467,724)Austria-Hungary_cell_4_1_3 GermanAustria-Hungary_cell_4_1_4 Austria-Hungary_cell_4_1_5
DalmatiaAustria-Hungary_cell_4_2_0 96.2%Austria-Hungary_cell_4_2_1 Serbo-CroatianAustria-Hungary_cell_4_2_2 2.8%Austria-Hungary_cell_4_2_3 ItalianAustria-Hungary_cell_4_2_4 Austria-Hungary_cell_4_2_5
GaliciaAustria-Hungary_cell_4_3_0 58.6%Austria-Hungary_cell_4_3_1 PolishAustria-Hungary_cell_4_3_2 40.2%Austria-Hungary_cell_4_3_3 RuthenianAustria-Hungary_cell_4_3_4 1.1%Austria-Hungary_cell_4_3_5 GermanAustria-Hungary_cell_4_3_6 Austria-Hungary_cell_4_3_7
Lower AustriaAustria-Hungary_cell_4_4_0 95.9%Austria-Hungary_cell_4_4_1 GermanAustria-Hungary_cell_4_4_2 3.8%Austria-Hungary_cell_4_4_3 CzechAustria-Hungary_cell_4_4_4 Austria-Hungary_cell_4_4_5
Upper AustriaAustria-Hungary_cell_4_5_0 99.7%Austria-Hungary_cell_4_5_1 GermanAustria-Hungary_cell_4_5_2 0.2%Austria-Hungary_cell_4_5_3 CzechAustria-Hungary_cell_4_5_4 Austria-Hungary_cell_4_5_5
BukovinaAustria-Hungary_cell_4_6_0 38.4%Austria-Hungary_cell_4_6_1 RuthenianAustria-Hungary_cell_4_6_2 34.4%Austria-Hungary_cell_4_6_3 RomanianAustria-Hungary_cell_4_6_4 21.2%Austria-Hungary_cell_4_6_5 GermanAustria-Hungary_cell_4_6_6 4.6%Austria-Hungary_cell_4_6_7 PolishAustria-Hungary_cell_4_6_8
CarinthiaAustria-Hungary_cell_4_7_0 78.6%Austria-Hungary_cell_4_7_1 GermanAustria-Hungary_cell_4_7_2 21.2%Austria-Hungary_cell_4_7_3 SloveneAustria-Hungary_cell_4_7_4 Austria-Hungary_cell_4_7_5
CarniolaAustria-Hungary_cell_4_8_0 94.4%Austria-Hungary_cell_4_8_1 SloveneAustria-Hungary_cell_4_8_2 5.4%Austria-Hungary_cell_4_8_3 GermanAustria-Hungary_cell_4_8_4 Austria-Hungary_cell_4_8_5
SalzburgAustria-Hungary_cell_4_9_0 99.7%Austria-Hungary_cell_4_9_1 GermanAustria-Hungary_cell_4_9_2 0.1%Austria-Hungary_cell_4_9_3 CzechAustria-Hungary_cell_4_9_4 Austria-Hungary_cell_4_9_5
SilesiaAustria-Hungary_cell_4_10_0 43.9%Austria-Hungary_cell_4_10_1 GermanAustria-Hungary_cell_4_10_2 31.7%Austria-Hungary_cell_4_10_3 PolishAustria-Hungary_cell_4_10_4 24.3%Austria-Hungary_cell_4_10_5 CzechAustria-Hungary_cell_4_10_6 Austria-Hungary_cell_4_10_7
StyriaAustria-Hungary_cell_4_11_0 70.5%Austria-Hungary_cell_4_11_1 GermanAustria-Hungary_cell_4_11_2 29.4%Austria-Hungary_cell_4_11_3 SloveneAustria-Hungary_cell_4_11_4 Austria-Hungary_cell_4_11_5
MoraviaAustria-Hungary_cell_4_12_0 71.8%Austria-Hungary_cell_4_12_1 CzechAustria-Hungary_cell_4_12_2 27.6%Austria-Hungary_cell_4_12_3 GermanAustria-Hungary_cell_4_12_4 0.6%Austria-Hungary_cell_4_12_5 PolishAustria-Hungary_cell_4_12_6 Austria-Hungary_cell_4_12_7
Gorizia and GradiscaAustria-Hungary_cell_4_13_0 59.3%Austria-Hungary_cell_4_13_1 SloveneAustria-Hungary_cell_4_13_2 34.5%Austria-Hungary_cell_4_13_3 ItalianAustria-Hungary_cell_4_13_4 1.7%Austria-Hungary_cell_4_13_5 GermanAustria-Hungary_cell_4_13_6 Austria-Hungary_cell_4_13_7
TriesteAustria-Hungary_cell_4_14_0 51.9%Austria-Hungary_cell_4_14_1 ItalianAustria-Hungary_cell_4_14_2 24.8%Austria-Hungary_cell_4_14_3 SloveneAustria-Hungary_cell_4_14_4 5.2%Austria-Hungary_cell_4_14_5 GermanAustria-Hungary_cell_4_14_6 1.0%Austria-Hungary_cell_4_14_7 Serbo-CroatianAustria-Hungary_cell_4_14_8
IstriaAustria-Hungary_cell_4_15_0 41.6%Austria-Hungary_cell_4_15_1 Serbo-CroatianAustria-Hungary_cell_4_15_2 36.5%Austria-Hungary_cell_4_15_3 ItalianAustria-Hungary_cell_4_15_4 13.7%Austria-Hungary_cell_4_15_5 SloveneAustria-Hungary_cell_4_15_6 3.3%Austria-Hungary_cell_4_15_7 GermanAustria-Hungary_cell_4_15_8
TyrolAustria-Hungary_cell_4_16_0 57.3%Austria-Hungary_cell_4_16_1 GermanAustria-Hungary_cell_4_16_2 38.9%Austria-Hungary_cell_4_16_3 ItalianAustria-Hungary_cell_4_16_4 Austria-Hungary_cell_4_16_5
VorarlbergAustria-Hungary_cell_4_17_0 95.4%Austria-Hungary_cell_4_17_1 GermanAustria-Hungary_cell_4_17_2 4.4%Austria-Hungary_cell_4_17_3 ItalianAustria-Hungary_cell_4_17_4 Austria-Hungary_cell_4_17_5


Mother tongues in Transleithania (Hungary) (1910 census)Austria-Hungary_table_caption_5
LanguageAustria-Hungary_header_cell_5_0_0 Hungary properAustria-Hungary_header_cell_5_0_1 Croatia-SlavoniaAustria-Hungary_header_cell_5_0_3
speakersAustria-Hungary_header_cell_5_1_0 % of populationAustria-Hungary_header_cell_5_1_1 speakersAustria-Hungary_header_cell_5_1_2 % of populationAustria-Hungary_header_cell_5_1_3
HungarianAustria-Hungary_cell_5_2_0 9,944,627Austria-Hungary_cell_5_2_1 54.5%Austria-Hungary_cell_5_2_2 105,948Austria-Hungary_cell_5_2_3 4.1%Austria-Hungary_cell_5_2_4
RomanianAustria-Hungary_cell_5_3_0 2,948,186Austria-Hungary_cell_5_3_1 16.0%Austria-Hungary_cell_5_3_2 846Austria-Hungary_cell_5_3_3 <0.1%Austria-Hungary_cell_5_3_4
SlovakAustria-Hungary_cell_5_4_0 1,946,357Austria-Hungary_cell_5_4_1 10.7%Austria-Hungary_cell_5_4_2 21,613Austria-Hungary_cell_5_4_3 0.8%Austria-Hungary_cell_5_4_4
GermanAustria-Hungary_cell_5_5_0 1,903,657Austria-Hungary_cell_5_5_1 10.4%Austria-Hungary_cell_5_5_2 134, 078Austria-Hungary_cell_5_5_3 5.1%Austria-Hungary_cell_5_5_4
SerbianAustria-Hungary_cell_5_6_0 461,516Austria-Hungary_cell_5_6_1 2.5%Austria-Hungary_cell_5_6_2 644,955Austria-Hungary_cell_5_6_3 24.6%Austria-Hungary_cell_5_6_4
RuthenianAustria-Hungary_cell_5_7_0 464,270Austria-Hungary_cell_5_7_1 2.3%Austria-Hungary_cell_5_7_2 8,317Austria-Hungary_cell_5_7_3 0.3%Austria-Hungary_cell_5_7_4
CroatianAustria-Hungary_cell_5_8_0 194,808Austria-Hungary_cell_5_8_1 1.1%Austria-Hungary_cell_5_8_2 1,638,354Austria-Hungary_cell_5_8_3 62.5%Austria-Hungary_cell_5_8_4
Others and unspecifiedAustria-Hungary_cell_5_9_0 401,412Austria-Hungary_cell_5_9_1 2.2%Austria-Hungary_cell_5_9_2 65,843Austria-Hungary_cell_5_9_3 2.6%Austria-Hungary_cell_5_9_4
TotalAustria-Hungary_cell_5_10_0 18,264,533Austria-Hungary_cell_5_10_1 100%Austria-Hungary_cell_5_10_2 2,621,954Austria-Hungary_cell_5_10_3 100%Austria-Hungary_cell_5_10_4

Historical regions: Austria-Hungary_sentence_306


RegionAustria-Hungary_header_cell_6_0_0 Mother tonguesAustria-Hungary_header_cell_6_0_1 Hungarian languageAustria-Hungary_header_cell_6_0_2 Other languagesAustria-Hungary_header_cell_6_0_3
TransylvaniaAustria-Hungary_cell_6_1_0 Romanian – 2,819,467 (54%)Austria-Hungary_cell_6_1_1 1,658,045 (31.7%)Austria-Hungary_cell_6_1_2 German – 550,964 (10.5%)Austria-Hungary_cell_6_1_3
Upper HungaryAustria-Hungary_cell_6_2_0 Slovak – 1,688,413 (55.6%)Austria-Hungary_cell_6_2_1 881,320 (32.3%)Austria-Hungary_cell_6_2_2 German – 198,405 (6.8%)Austria-Hungary_cell_6_2_3
DélvidékAustria-Hungary_cell_6_3_0 Serbo-Croatian – 601,770 (39.8%)Austria-Hungary_cell_6_3_1 425,672 (28.1%)Austria-Hungary_cell_6_3_2 German – 324,017 (21.4%)

Romanian – 75,318 (5.0%) Slovak – 56,690 (3.7%)Austria-Hungary_cell_6_3_3

TranscarpathiaAustria-Hungary_cell_6_4_0 Ruthenian – 330,010 (54.5%)Austria-Hungary_cell_6_4_1 185,433 (30.6%)Austria-Hungary_cell_6_4_2 German – 64,257 (10.6%)Austria-Hungary_cell_6_4_3
FiumeAustria-Hungary_cell_6_5_0 Italian – 24,212 (48.6%)Austria-Hungary_cell_6_5_1 6,493 (13%)Austria-Hungary_cell_6_5_2 Austria-Hungary_cell_6_5_3
ŐrvidékAustria-Hungary_cell_6_6_0 German – 217,072 (74.4%)Austria-Hungary_cell_6_6_1 26,225 (9%)Austria-Hungary_cell_6_6_2 Croatian – 43,633 (15%)Austria-Hungary_cell_6_6_3
PrekmurjeAustria-Hungary_cell_6_7_0 Slovene – 74,199 (80.4%) – in 1921Austria-Hungary_cell_6_7_1 14,065 (15.2%) – in 1921Austria-Hungary_cell_6_7_2 German – 2,540 (2.8%) – in 1921Austria-Hungary_cell_6_7_3

Religion Austria-Hungary_section_22


Religion in Austria-Hungary 1910Austria-Hungary_table_caption_7
ReligionAustria-Hungary_header_cell_7_0_0 Austria-HungaryAustria-Hungary_header_cell_7_0_1 Austria/CisleithaniaAustria-Hungary_header_cell_7_0_2 Hungary/TransleithaniaAustria-Hungary_header_cell_7_0_3 Bosnia and


Catholics (both Roman and Eastern)Austria-Hungary_cell_7_1_0 76.6%Austria-Hungary_cell_7_1_1 90.9%Austria-Hungary_cell_7_1_2 61.8%Austria-Hungary_cell_7_1_3 22.9%Austria-Hungary_cell_7_1_4
ProtestantsAustria-Hungary_cell_7_2_0 8.9%Austria-Hungary_cell_7_2_1 2.1%Austria-Hungary_cell_7_2_2 19.0%Austria-Hungary_cell_7_2_3 0%Austria-Hungary_cell_7_2_4
Eastern OrthodoxAustria-Hungary_cell_7_3_0 8.7%Austria-Hungary_cell_7_3_1 2.3%Austria-Hungary_cell_7_3_2 14.3%Austria-Hungary_cell_7_3_3 43.5%Austria-Hungary_cell_7_3_4
JewsAustria-Hungary_cell_7_4_0 4.4%Austria-Hungary_cell_7_4_1 4.7%Austria-Hungary_cell_7_4_2 4.9%Austria-Hungary_cell_7_4_3 0.6%Austria-Hungary_cell_7_4_4
MuslimsAustria-Hungary_cell_7_5_0 1.3%Austria-Hungary_cell_7_5_1 0%Austria-Hungary_cell_7_5_2 0%Austria-Hungary_cell_7_5_3 32.7%Austria-Hungary_cell_7_5_4

Solely in the Empire of Austria: Austria-Hungary_sentence_307


ReligionAustria-Hungary_header_cell_8_0_0 AustriaAustria-Hungary_header_cell_8_0_1
Latin CatholicAustria-Hungary_cell_8_1_0 79.1% (20,661,000)Austria-Hungary_cell_8_1_1
Eastern CatholicAustria-Hungary_cell_8_2_0 12% (3,134,000)Austria-Hungary_cell_8_2_1
JewishAustria-Hungary_cell_8_3_0 4.7% (1,225,000)Austria-Hungary_cell_8_3_1
Eastern OrthodoxAustria-Hungary_cell_8_4_0 2.3% (607,000)Austria-Hungary_cell_8_4_1
LutheranAustria-Hungary_cell_8_5_0 1.9% (491,000)Austria-Hungary_cell_8_5_1
Other or no religionAustria-Hungary_cell_8_6_0 14,000Austria-Hungary_cell_8_6_1

Solely in the Kingdom of Hungary: Austria-Hungary_sentence_308


ReligionAustria-Hungary_header_cell_9_0_0 Hungary proper & FiumeAustria-Hungary_header_cell_9_0_1 Croatia & SlavoniaAustria-Hungary_header_cell_9_0_2
Latin CatholicAustria-Hungary_cell_9_1_0 49.3% (9,010,305)Austria-Hungary_cell_9_1_1 71.6% (1,877,833)Austria-Hungary_cell_9_1_2
CalvinistAustria-Hungary_cell_9_2_0 14.3% (2,603,381)Austria-Hungary_cell_9_2_1 0.7% (17,948)Austria-Hungary_cell_9_2_2
Eastern OrthodoxAustria-Hungary_cell_9_3_0 12.8% (2,333,979)Austria-Hungary_cell_9_3_1 24.9% (653,184)Austria-Hungary_cell_9_3_2
Eastern CatholicAustria-Hungary_cell_9_4_0 11.0% (2,007,916)Austria-Hungary_cell_9_4_1 0.7% (17,592)Austria-Hungary_cell_9_4_2
LutheranAustria-Hungary_cell_9_5_0 7.1% (1,306,384)Austria-Hungary_cell_9_5_1 1.3% (33,759)Austria-Hungary_cell_9_5_2
JewishAustria-Hungary_cell_9_6_0 5.0% (911,227)Austria-Hungary_cell_9_6_1 0.8% (21,231)Austria-Hungary_cell_9_6_2
UnitarianAustria-Hungary_cell_9_7_0 0.4% (74,275)Austria-Hungary_cell_9_7_1 0.0% (21)Austria-Hungary_cell_9_7_2
Other or no religionAustria-Hungary_cell_9_8_0 0.1% (17,066)Austria-Hungary_cell_9_8_1 0.0 (386)Austria-Hungary_cell_9_8_2

Largest cities Austria-Hungary_section_23

Data: census in 1910 Austria-Hungary_sentence_309


Austrian EmpireAustria-Hungary_table_caption_10
RankAustria-Hungary_header_cell_10_0_0 Current English nameAustria-Hungary_header_cell_10_0_1 Contemporary official nameAustria-Hungary_header_cell_10_0_2 OtherAustria-Hungary_header_cell_10_0_3 Present-day countryAustria-Hungary_header_cell_10_0_4 Population in 1910Austria-Hungary_header_cell_10_0_5 Present-day populationAustria-Hungary_header_cell_10_0_6
1.Austria-Hungary_cell_10_1_0 ViennaAustria-Hungary_cell_10_1_1 WienAustria-Hungary_cell_10_1_2 Bécs, Beč, DunajAustria-Hungary_cell_10_1_3 AustriaAustria-Hungary_cell_10_1_4 2,031,498 (city without the suburb 1,481,970)Austria-Hungary_cell_10_1_5 1,840,573 (Metro: 2,600,000)Austria-Hungary_cell_10_1_6
2.Austria-Hungary_cell_10_2_0 PragueAustria-Hungary_cell_10_2_1 Prag, PrahaAustria-Hungary_cell_10_2_2 PrágaAustria-Hungary_cell_10_2_3 Czech RepublicAustria-Hungary_cell_10_2_4 668,000 (city without the suburb 223,741)Austria-Hungary_cell_10_2_5 1,301,132 (Metro: 2,620,000)Austria-Hungary_cell_10_2_6
3.Austria-Hungary_cell_10_3_0 TriesteAustria-Hungary_cell_10_3_1 TriestAustria-Hungary_cell_10_3_2 Trieszt, TrstAustria-Hungary_cell_10_3_3 ItalyAustria-Hungary_cell_10_3_4 229,510Austria-Hungary_cell_10_3_5 204,420Austria-Hungary_cell_10_3_6
4.Austria-Hungary_cell_10_4_0 LvivAustria-Hungary_cell_10_4_1 Lemberg, LwówAustria-Hungary_cell_10_4_2 Ilyvó, Львів, Lvov, ЛьвовAustria-Hungary_cell_10_4_3 UkraineAustria-Hungary_cell_10_4_4 206,113Austria-Hungary_cell_10_4_5 728,545Austria-Hungary_cell_10_4_6
5.Austria-Hungary_cell_10_5_0 KrakówAustria-Hungary_cell_10_5_1 Krakau, KrakówAustria-Hungary_cell_10_5_2 Krakkó, KrakovAustria-Hungary_cell_10_5_3 PolandAustria-Hungary_cell_10_5_4 151,886Austria-Hungary_cell_10_5_5 762,508Austria-Hungary_cell_10_5_6
6.Austria-Hungary_cell_10_6_0 GrazAustria-Hungary_cell_10_6_1 Austria-Hungary_cell_10_6_2 Grác, GradecAustria-Hungary_cell_10_6_3 AustriaAustria-Hungary_cell_10_6_4 151,781Austria-Hungary_cell_10_6_5 328,276Austria-Hungary_cell_10_6_6
7.Austria-Hungary_cell_10_7_0 BrnoAustria-Hungary_cell_10_7_1 Brünn, BrnoAustria-Hungary_cell_10_7_2 Berén, Börön, BörénvásárAustria-Hungary_cell_10_7_3 Czech RepublicAustria-Hungary_cell_10_7_4 125,737Austria-Hungary_cell_10_7_5 377,028Austria-Hungary_cell_10_7_6
8.Austria-Hungary_cell_10_8_0 ChernivtsiAustria-Hungary_cell_10_8_1 CzernowitzAustria-Hungary_cell_10_8_2 Csernyivci, Cernăuți, ЧернівціAustria-Hungary_cell_10_8_3 UkraineAustria-Hungary_cell_10_8_4 87,128Austria-Hungary_cell_10_8_5 242,300Austria-Hungary_cell_10_8_6
9.Austria-Hungary_cell_10_9_0 PlzeňAustria-Hungary_cell_10_9_1 Pilsen, PlzeňAustria-Hungary_cell_10_9_2 PilzenAustria-Hungary_cell_10_9_3 Czech RepublicAustria-Hungary_cell_10_9_4 80,343Austria-Hungary_cell_10_9_5 169,858Austria-Hungary_cell_10_9_6
10.Austria-Hungary_cell_10_10_0 LinzAustria-Hungary_cell_10_10_1 Austria-Hungary_cell_10_10_2 LinecAustria-Hungary_cell_10_10_3 AustriaAustria-Hungary_cell_10_10_4 67,817Austria-Hungary_cell_10_10_5 200,841Austria-Hungary_cell_10_10_6


Kingdom of HungaryAustria-Hungary_table_caption_11
RankAustria-Hungary_header_cell_11_0_0 Current English nameAustria-Hungary_header_cell_11_0_1 Contemporary official nameAustria-Hungary_header_cell_11_0_2 OtherAustria-Hungary_header_cell_11_0_3 Present-day countryAustria-Hungary_header_cell_11_0_4 Population in 1910Austria-Hungary_header_cell_11_0_5 Present-day populationAustria-Hungary_header_cell_11_0_6
1.Austria-Hungary_cell_11_1_0 BudapestAustria-Hungary_cell_11_1_1 Austria-Hungary_cell_11_1_2 BudimpeštaAustria-Hungary_cell_11_1_3 HungaryAustria-Hungary_cell_11_1_4 1,232,026 (city without the suburb 880,371)Austria-Hungary_cell_11_1_5 1,735,711 (Metro: 3,303,786)Austria-Hungary_cell_11_1_6
2.Austria-Hungary_cell_11_2_0 SzegedAustria-Hungary_cell_11_2_1 Austria-Hungary_cell_11_2_2 Szegedin, SegedinAustria-Hungary_cell_11_2_3 HungaryAustria-Hungary_cell_11_2_4 118,328Austria-Hungary_cell_11_2_5 170,285Austria-Hungary_cell_11_2_6
3.Austria-Hungary_cell_11_3_0 SuboticaAustria-Hungary_cell_11_3_1 SzabadkaAustria-Hungary_cell_11_3_2 СуботицаAustria-Hungary_cell_11_3_3 SerbiaAustria-Hungary_cell_11_3_4 94,610Austria-Hungary_cell_11_3_5 105,681Austria-Hungary_cell_11_3_6
4.Austria-Hungary_cell_11_4_0 DebrecenAustria-Hungary_cell_11_4_1 Austria-Hungary_cell_11_4_2 Austria-Hungary_cell_11_4_3 HungaryAustria-Hungary_cell_11_4_4 92,729Austria-Hungary_cell_11_4_5 208,016Austria-Hungary_cell_11_4_6
5.Austria-Hungary_cell_11_5_0 ZagrebAustria-Hungary_cell_11_5_1 Austria-Hungary_cell_11_5_2 Zágráb, AgramAustria-Hungary_cell_11_5_3 CroatiaAustria-Hungary_cell_11_5_4 79,038Austria-Hungary_cell_11_5_5 803,000 (Metro: 1,228,941)Austria-Hungary_cell_11_5_6
6.Austria-Hungary_cell_11_6_0 BratislavaAustria-Hungary_cell_11_6_1 PozsonyAustria-Hungary_cell_11_6_2 Pressburg, PrešporokAustria-Hungary_cell_11_6_3 SlovakiaAustria-Hungary_cell_11_6_4 78,223Austria-Hungary_cell_11_6_5 425,167Austria-Hungary_cell_11_6_6
7.Austria-Hungary_cell_11_7_0 TimișoaraAustria-Hungary_cell_11_7_1 TemesvárAustria-Hungary_cell_11_7_2 TemeswarAustria-Hungary_cell_11_7_3 RomaniaAustria-Hungary_cell_11_7_4 72,555Austria-Hungary_cell_11_7_5 319,279Austria-Hungary_cell_11_7_6
8.Austria-Hungary_cell_11_8_0 KecskemétAustria-Hungary_cell_11_8_1 Austria-Hungary_cell_11_8_2 Austria-Hungary_cell_11_8_3 HungaryAustria-Hungary_cell_11_8_4 66,834Austria-Hungary_cell_11_8_5 111,411Austria-Hungary_cell_11_8_6
9.Austria-Hungary_cell_11_9_0 OradeaAustria-Hungary_cell_11_9_1 NagyváradAustria-Hungary_cell_11_9_2 GroßwardeinAustria-Hungary_cell_11_9_3 RomaniaAustria-Hungary_cell_11_9_4 64,169Austria-Hungary_cell_11_9_5 196,367Austria-Hungary_cell_11_9_6
10.Austria-Hungary_cell_11_10_0 AradAustria-Hungary_cell_11_10_1 AradAustria-Hungary_cell_11_10_2 Austria-Hungary_cell_11_10_3 RomaniaAustria-Hungary_cell_11_10_4 63,166Austria-Hungary_cell_11_10_5 159,074Austria-Hungary_cell_11_10_6
11.Austria-Hungary_cell_11_11_0 HódmezővásárhelyAustria-Hungary_cell_11_11_1 Austria-Hungary_cell_11_11_2 Austria-Hungary_cell_11_11_3 HungaryAustria-Hungary_cell_11_11_4 62,445Austria-Hungary_cell_11_11_5 46,047Austria-Hungary_cell_11_11_6
12.Austria-Hungary_cell_11_12_0 Cluj-NapocaAustria-Hungary_cell_11_12_1 KolozsvárAustria-Hungary_cell_11_12_2 KlausenburgAustria-Hungary_cell_11_12_3 RomaniaAustria-Hungary_cell_11_12_4 60,808Austria-Hungary_cell_11_12_5 324,576Austria-Hungary_cell_11_12_6
13.Austria-Hungary_cell_11_13_0 ÚjpestAustria-Hungary_cell_11_13_1 Austria-Hungary_cell_11_13_2 Austria-Hungary_cell_11_13_3 HungaryAustria-Hungary_cell_11_13_4 55,197Austria-Hungary_cell_11_13_5 100,694Austria-Hungary_cell_11_13_6
14.Austria-Hungary_cell_11_14_0 MiskolcAustria-Hungary_cell_11_14_1 Austria-Hungary_cell_11_14_2 Austria-Hungary_cell_11_14_3 HungaryAustria-Hungary_cell_11_14_4 51,459Austria-Hungary_cell_11_14_5 157,177Austria-Hungary_cell_11_14_6
15.Austria-Hungary_cell_11_15_0 PécsAustria-Hungary_cell_11_15_1 Austria-Hungary_cell_11_15_2 Austria-Hungary_cell_11_15_3 HungaryAustria-Hungary_cell_11_15_4 49,852Austria-Hungary_cell_11_15_5 145,347Austria-Hungary_cell_11_15_6

Education Austria-Hungary_section_24

Austrian Empire Austria-Hungary_section_25

Primary and secondary schools Austria-Hungary_sentence_310

The organization of the Austrian elementary schools was based on the principle of compulsory school attendance, free education, and the imparting of public instruction in the child's own language. Austria-Hungary_sentence_311

Side by side with these existed private schools. Austria-Hungary_sentence_312

The proportion of children attending private schools to those attending the public elementary schools in 1912 was 144,000 to 4.5 millions, i.e. a thirtieth part. Austria-Hungary_sentence_313

Hence the accusation of denationalizing children through the Schulvereine must be accepted with caution. Austria-Hungary_sentence_314

The expenses of education were distributed as follows: the communes built the schoolhouses, the political sub-districts (Bezirke) paid the teachers, the Crown territory gave a grant, and the State appointed the inspectors. Austria-Hungary_sentence_315

Since the State supervised the schools without maintaining them, it was able to increase its demands without being hampered by financial considerations. Austria-Hungary_sentence_316

It is remarkable that the difference between the State educational estimates in Austria and in Hungary was one of 9.3 millions in the former as opposed to 67.6 in the latter. Austria-Hungary_sentence_317

Under Austria, since everywhere that 40 scholars of one nationality were to be found within a radius of 5 km. Austria-Hungary_sentence_318

a school had to be set up in which their language was used, national schools were assured even to linguistic minorities. Austria-Hungary_sentence_319

It is true that this mostly happened at the expense of the German industrial communities, since the Slav labourers as immigrants acquired schools in their own language. Austria-Hungary_sentence_320

The number of elementary schools increased from 19,016 in 1900 to 24,713 in 1913; the number of scholars from 3,490,000 in 1900 to 4,630,000 in 1913. Austria-Hungary_sentence_321

Universities in Austrian Empire Austria-Hungary_sentence_322

The first University in the Austrian half of the Empire (Charles University) was founded by H.R. Austria-Hungary_sentence_323 Emperor Charles IV in Prague in 1347. Austria-Hungary_sentence_324

The second oldest university (University of Vienna) was founded by Duke Rudolph IV in 1365. Austria-Hungary_sentence_325

The higher educational institutions were predominantly German, but beginning in the 1870s, language shifts began to occur. Austria-Hungary_sentence_326

These establishments, which in the middle of the 19th century had had a predominantly German character, underwent in Galicia a conversion into Polish national institutions, in Bohemia and Moravia a separation into German and Czech ones. Austria-Hungary_sentence_327

Thus Germans, Czechs and Poles were provided for. Austria-Hungary_sentence_328

But now the smaller nations also made their voices heard: the Ruthenians, Slovenes and Italians. Austria-Hungary_sentence_329

The Ruthenians demanded at first, in view of the predominantly Ruthenian character of East Galicia, a national partition of the Polish university existing there. Austria-Hungary_sentence_330

Since the Poles were at first unyielding, Ruthenian demonstrations and strikes of students arose, and the Ruthenians were no longer content with the reversion of a few separate professorial chairs, and with parallel courses of lectures. Austria-Hungary_sentence_331

By a pact concluded on 28 January 1914 the Poles promised a Ruthenian university; but owing to the war the question lapsed. Austria-Hungary_sentence_332

The Italians could hardly claim a university of their own on grounds of population (in 1910 they numbered 783,000), but they claimed it all the more on grounds of their ancient culture. Austria-Hungary_sentence_333

All parties were agreed that an Italian faculty of laws should be created; the difficulty lay in the choice of the place. Austria-Hungary_sentence_334

The Italians demanded Trieste; but the Government was afraid to let this Adriatic port become the centre of an irredenta; moreover the Southern Slavs of the city wished it kept free from an Italian educational establishment. Austria-Hungary_sentence_335

Bienerth in 1910 brought about a compromise; namely, that it should be founded at once, the situation to be provisionally in Vienna, and to be transferred within four years to Italian national territory. Austria-Hungary_sentence_336

The German National Union (Nationalverband) agreed to extend temporary hospitality to the Italian university in Vienna, but the Southern Slav Hochschule Club demanded a guarantee that a later transfer to the coast provinces should not be contemplated, together with the simultaneous foundation of Slovene professorial chairs in Prague and Cracow, and preliminary steps towards the foundation of a Southern Slav university in Laibach. Austria-Hungary_sentence_337

But in spite of the constant renewal of negotiations for a compromise it was impossible to arrive at any agreement, until the outbreak of war left all the projects for a Ruthenian university at Lemberg, a Slovene one in Laibach, and a second Czech one in Moravia, unrealized. Austria-Hungary_sentence_338

Kingdom of Hungary Austria-Hungary_section_26

Primary and secondary schools Austria-Hungary_sentence_339

One of the first measures of newly established Hungarian government was to provide supplementary schools of a non-denominational character. Austria-Hungary_sentence_340

By a law passed in 1868 attendance at school was obligatory for all children between the ages of 6 and 12 years. Austria-Hungary_sentence_341

The communes or parishes were bound to maintain elementary schools, and they were entitled to levy an additional tax of 5% on the state taxes for their maintenance. Austria-Hungary_sentence_342

But the number of state-aided elementary schools was continually increasing, as the spread of the Magyar language to the other races through the medium of the elementary schools was one of the principal concerns of the Hungarian government, and was vigorously pursued. Austria-Hungary_sentence_343

In 1902 there were in Hungary 18,729 elementary schools with 32,020 teachers, attended by 2,573,377 pupils, figures which compare favourably with those of 1877, when there were 15,486 schools with 20,717 teachers, attended by 1,559,636 pupils. Austria-Hungary_sentence_344

In about 61% of these schools the language used was exclusively Magyar, in about 6 20% it was mixed, and in the remainder some non-Magyar language was used. Austria-Hungary_sentence_345

In 1902, 80.56% of the children of school age actually attended school. Austria-Hungary_sentence_346

Since 1891 infant schools, for children between the ages of 3 and 6 years, were maintained either by the communes or by the state. Austria-Hungary_sentence_347

The public instruction of Hungary contained three other groups of educational institutions: middle or secondary schools, "high schools" and technical schools. Austria-Hungary_sentence_348

The middle schools comprised classical schools (gymnasia) which were preparatory for the universities and other "high schools", and modern schools (Realschulen) preparatory for the technical schools. Austria-Hungary_sentence_349

Their course of study was generally eight years, and they were maintained mostly by the state. Austria-Hungary_sentence_350

The state-maintained gymnasia were mostly of recent foundation, but some schools maintained by the various churches had been in existence for three or sometimes four centuries. Austria-Hungary_sentence_351

The number of middle schools in 1902 was 243 with 4705 teachers, attended by 71,788 pupils; in 1880 their number was 185, attended by 40,747 pupils. Austria-Hungary_sentence_352

Universities in Kingdom of Hungary Austria-Hungary_sentence_353

In the year 1276, the university of Veszprém was destroyed by the troops of Péter Csák and it was never rebuilt. Austria-Hungary_sentence_354

A university was established by Louis I of Hungary in Pécs in 1367. Austria-Hungary_sentence_355

Sigismund established a university at Óbuda in 1395. Austria-Hungary_sentence_356

Another, Universitas Istropolitana, was established 1465 in Pozsony (now Bratislava in Slovakia) by Mattias Corvinus. Austria-Hungary_sentence_357

None of these medieval universities survived the Ottoman wars. Austria-Hungary_sentence_358

Nagyszombat University was founded in 1635 and moved to Buda in 1777 and it is called Eötvös Loránd University today. Austria-Hungary_sentence_359

The world's first institute of technology was founded in Selmecbánya, Kingdom of Hungary (since 1920 Banská Štiavnica, now Slovakia) in 1735. Austria-Hungary_sentence_360

Its legal successor is the University of Miskolc in Hungary. Austria-Hungary_sentence_361

The Budapest University of Technology and Economics (BME) is considered the oldest institute of technology in the world with university rank and structure. Austria-Hungary_sentence_362

Its legal predecessor the Institutum Geometrico-Hydrotechnicum was founded in 1782 by Emperor Joseph II. Austria-Hungary_sentence_363

The high schools included the universities, of which Hungary possessed five, all maintained by the state: at Budapest (founded in 1635), at Kolozsvár (founded in 1872), and at Zagreb (founded in 1874). Austria-Hungary_sentence_364

Newer universities were established in Debrecen in 1912, and Pozsony university was reestablished after a half millennium in 1912. Austria-Hungary_sentence_365

They had four faculties: theology, law, philosophy and medicine (the university at Zagreb was without a faculty of medicine). Austria-Hungary_sentence_366

There were in addition ten high schools of law, called academies, which in 1900 were attended by 1569 pupils. Austria-Hungary_sentence_367

The Polytechnicum in Budapest, founded in 1844, which contained four faculties and was attended in 1900 by 1772 pupils, was also considered a high school. Austria-Hungary_sentence_368

There were in Hungary in 1900 forty-nine theological colleges, twenty-nine Catholic, five Greek Uniat, four Greek Orthodox, ten Protestant and one Jewish. Austria-Hungary_sentence_369

Among special schools the principal mining schools were at Selmeczbánya, Nagyág and Felsőbánya; the principal agricultural colleges at Debreczen and Kolozsvár; and there was a school of forestry at Selmeczbánya, military colleges at Budapest, Kassa, Déva and Zagreb, and a naval school at Fiume. Austria-Hungary_sentence_370

There were in addition a number of training institutes for teachers and a large number of schools of commerce, several art schools – for design, painting, sculpture, music. Austria-Hungary_sentence_371


Literacy in Kingdom of Hungary, incl. male and femaleAustria-Hungary_table_caption_12
Major nationalities in HungaryAustria-Hungary_header_cell_12_0_0 Rate of literacy in 1910Austria-Hungary_header_cell_12_0_1
GermanAustria-Hungary_cell_12_1_0 70.7%Austria-Hungary_cell_12_1_1
HungarianAustria-Hungary_cell_12_2_0 67.1%Austria-Hungary_cell_12_2_1
CroatianAustria-Hungary_cell_12_3_0 62.5%Austria-Hungary_cell_12_3_1
SlovakAustria-Hungary_cell_12_4_0 58.1%Austria-Hungary_cell_12_4_1
SerbianAustria-Hungary_cell_12_5_0 51.3%Austria-Hungary_cell_12_5_1
RomanianAustria-Hungary_cell_12_6_0 28.2%Austria-Hungary_cell_12_6_1
RuthenianAustria-Hungary_cell_12_7_0 22.2%Austria-Hungary_cell_12_7_1

Economy Austria-Hungary_section_27

Main article: Economy of Austria-Hungary Austria-Hungary_sentence_372

The Austro-Hungarian economy changed dramatically during the Dual Monarchy. Austria-Hungary_sentence_373

The capitalist way of production spread throughout the Empire during its 50-year existence. Austria-Hungary_sentence_374

Technological change accelerated industrialization and urbanization. Austria-Hungary_sentence_375

The first Austrian stock exchange (the Wiener Börse) was opened in 1771 in Vienna, the first stock exchange of the Kingdom of Hungary (the Budapest Stock Exchange) was opened in Budapest in 1864. Austria-Hungary_sentence_376

The central bank (Bank of issue) was founded as Austrian National Bank in 1816. Austria-Hungary_sentence_377

In 1878, it transformed into Austro-Hungarian National Bank with principal offices in both Vienna and Budapest. Austria-Hungary_sentence_378

The central bank was governed by alternating Austrian or Hungarian governors and vice-governors. Austria-Hungary_sentence_379

The gross national product per capita grew roughly 1.76% per year from 1870 to 1913. Austria-Hungary_sentence_380

That level of growth compared very favorably to that of other European nations such as Britain (1%), France (1.06%), and Germany (1.51%). Austria-Hungary_sentence_381

However, in a comparison with Germany and Britain, the Austro-Hungarian economy as a whole still lagged considerably, as sustained modernization had begun much later. Austria-Hungary_sentence_382

Like the German Empire, that of Austria-Hungary frequently employed liberal economic policies and practices. Austria-Hungary_sentence_383

In 1873, the old Hungarian capital Buda and Óbuda (Ancient Buda) were officially merged with the third city, Pest, thus creating the new metropolis of Budapest. Austria-Hungary_sentence_384

The dynamic Pest grew into Hungary's administrative, political, economic, trade and cultural hub. Austria-Hungary_sentence_385

Many of the state institutions and the modern administrative system of Hungary were established during this period. Austria-Hungary_sentence_386

Economic growth centered on Vienna and Budapest, the Austrian lands (areas of modern Austria), the Alpine region and the Bohemian lands. Austria-Hungary_sentence_387

In the later years of the 19th century, rapid economic growth spread to the central Hungarian plain and to the Carpathian lands. Austria-Hungary_sentence_388

As a result, wide disparities of development existed within the empire. Austria-Hungary_sentence_389

In general, the western areas became more developed than the eastern. Austria-Hungary_sentence_390

The Kingdom of Hungary became the world's second largest flour exporter after the United States. Austria-Hungary_sentence_391

The large Hungarian food exports were not limited to neighbouring Germany and Italy: Hungary became the most important foreign food supplier of the large cities and industrial centres of the United Kingdom. Austria-Hungary_sentence_392

Galicia, which has been described as the poorest province of Austro-Hungary, experienced near-constant famines, resulting in 50,000 deaths a year. Austria-Hungary_sentence_393

The Istro-Romanians of Istria were also poor, as pastoralism lost strength and agriculture was not productive. Austria-Hungary_sentence_394

However, by the end of the 19th century, economic differences gradually began to even out as economic growth in the eastern parts of the monarchy consistently surpassed that in the western. Austria-Hungary_sentence_395

The strong agriculture and food industry of the Kingdom of Hungary with the centre of Budapest became predominant within the empire and made up a large proportion of the export to the rest of Europe. Austria-Hungary_sentence_396

Meanwhile, western areas, concentrated mainly around Prague and Vienna, excelled in various manufacturing industries. Austria-Hungary_sentence_397

This division of labour between the east and west, besides the existing economic and monetary union, led to an even more rapid economic growth throughout Austria-Hungary by the early 20th century. Austria-Hungary_sentence_398

However, since the turn of the twentieth century, the Austrian half of the Monarchy could preserve its dominance within the empire in the sectors of the first industrial revolution, but Hungary had a better position in the industries of the second industrial revolution, in these modern sectors of the second industrial revolution the Austrian competition could not become dominant. Austria-Hungary_sentence_399

The empire's heavy industry had mostly focused on machine building, especially for the electric power industry, locomotive industry and automotive industry, while in light industry the precision mechanics industry was the most dominant. Austria-Hungary_sentence_400

Through the years leading up to World War I the country became the 4th biggest machine manufacturer in the world. Austria-Hungary_sentence_401

The two most important trading partners were traditionally Germany (1910: 48% of all exports, 39% of all imports), and Great Britain (1910: almost 10% of all exports, 8% of all imports), the third most important partner was the United States, it followed by Russia, France, Switzerland, Romania, the Balkan states and South America. Austria-Hungary_sentence_402

Trade with the geographically neighbouring Russia, however, had a relatively low weight (1910: 3% of all exports /mainly machinery for Russia, 7% of all imports /mainly raw materials from Russia). Austria-Hungary_sentence_403

Automotive industry Austria-Hungary_section_28

Prior to World War I, the Austrian Empire had five car manufacturer companies. Austria-Hungary_sentence_404

These were: Austro-Daimler in Wiener-Neustadt (cars trucks, buses), Gräf & Stift in Vienna (cars), Laurin & Klement in Mladá Boleslav (motorcycles, cars), Nesselsdorfer in Nesselsdorf (Kopřivnice), Moravia (automobiles), and Lohner-Werke in Vienna (cars). Austria-Hungary_sentence_405

Austrian car production started in 1897. Austria-Hungary_sentence_406

Prior to World War I, the Kingdom of Hungary had four car manufacturer companies. Austria-Hungary_sentence_407

These were: the Ganz company in Budapest, RÁBA Automobile in Győr, MÁG (later Magomobil) in Budapest, and MARTA (Hungarian Automobile Joint-stock Company Arad) in Arad. Austria-Hungary_sentence_408

Hungarian car production started in 1900. Austria-Hungary_sentence_409

Automotive factories in the Kingdom of Hungary manufactured motorcycles, cars, taxicabs, trucks and buses. Austria-Hungary_sentence_410

Electrical industry and electronics Austria-Hungary_section_29

In 1884, Károly Zipernowsky, Ottó Bláthy and Miksa Déri (ZBD), three engineers associated with the Ganz Works of Budapest, determined that open-core devices were impractical, as they were incapable of reliably regulating voltage. Austria-Hungary_sentence_411

When employed in parallel connected electric distribution systems, closed-core transformers finally made it technically and economically feasible to provide electric power for lighting in homes, businesses and public spaces. Austria-Hungary_sentence_412

The other essential milestone was the introduction of 'voltage source, voltage intensive' (VSVI) systems' by the invention of constant voltage generators in 1885. Austria-Hungary_sentence_413

Bláthy had suggested the use of closed cores, Zipernowsky had suggested the use of parallel shunt connections, and Déri had performed the experiments; Austria-Hungary_sentence_414

The first Hungarian water turbine was designed by the engineers of the Ganz Works in 1866, the mass production with dynamo generators started in 1883. Austria-Hungary_sentence_415

The manufacturing of steam turbo generators started in the Ganz Works in 1903. Austria-Hungary_sentence_416

In 1905, the Láng Machine Factory company also started the production of steam turbines for alternators. Austria-Hungary_sentence_417

Tungsram is a Hungarian manufacturer of light bulbs and vacuum tubes since 1896. Austria-Hungary_sentence_418

On 13 December 1904, Hungarian Sándor Just and Croatian Franjo Hanaman were granted a Hungarian patent (No. Austria-Hungary_sentence_419

34541) for the world's first tungsten filament lamp. Austria-Hungary_sentence_420

The tungsten filament lasted longer and gave brighter light than the traditional carbon filament. Austria-Hungary_sentence_421

Tungsten filament lamps were first marketed by the Hungarian company Tungsram in 1904. Austria-Hungary_sentence_422

This type is often called Tungsram-bulbs in many European countries. Austria-Hungary_sentence_423

Despite the long experimentation with vacuum tubes at Tungsram company, the mass production of radio tubes begun during WW1, and the production of X-ray tubes started also during the WW1 in Tungsram Company. Austria-Hungary_sentence_424

The Orion Electronics was founded in 1913. Austria-Hungary_sentence_425

Its main profiles were the production of electrical switches, sockets, wires, incandescent lamps, electric fans, electric kettles, and various household electronics. Austria-Hungary_sentence_426

The telephone exchange was an idea of the Hungarian engineer Tivadar Puskás (1844–1893) in 1876, while he was working for Thomas Edison on a telegraph exchange. Austria-Hungary_sentence_427

The first Hungarian telephone factory (Factory for Telephone Apparatuses) was founded by János Neuhold in Budapest in 1879, which produced telephones microphones, telegraphs, and telephone exchanges. Austria-Hungary_sentence_428

In 1884, the Tungsram company also started to produce microphones, telephone apparatuses, telephone switchboards and cables. Austria-Hungary_sentence_429

The Ericsson company also established a factory for telephones and switchboards in Budapest in 1911. Austria-Hungary_sentence_430

Aeronautic industry Austria-Hungary_section_30

The first airplane in Austria was Edvard Rusjan's design, the Eda I, which had its maiden flight in the vicinity of Gorizia on 25 November 1909. Austria-Hungary_sentence_431

The first Hungarian hydrogen filled experimental balloons were built by István Szabik and József Domin in 1784. Austria-Hungary_sentence_432

The first Hungarian designed and produced airplane (powered by a Hungarian built inline engine) was flown at Rákosmező on 4 November 1909. Austria-Hungary_sentence_433

The earliest Hungarian airplane with Hungarian built radial engine was flown in 1913. Austria-Hungary_sentence_434

Between 1912 and 1918, the Hungarian aircraft industry began developing. Austria-Hungary_sentence_435

The three greatest: UFAG Hungarian Aircraft Factory (1914), Hungarian General Aircraft Factory (1916), Hungarian Lloyd Aircraft, Engine Factory at Aszód (1916), and Marta in Arad (1914). Austria-Hungary_sentence_436

During the First World War, fighter planes, bombers and reconnaissance planes were produced in these factories. Austria-Hungary_sentence_437

The most important aeroengine factories were Weiss Manfred Works, GANZ Works, and Hungarian Automobile Joint-stock Company Arad. Austria-Hungary_sentence_438

Locomotive engine and railway vehicle manufacturers Austria-Hungary_section_31

The locomotive (steam engines and wagons, bridge and iron structures) factories were installed in Vienna (Locomotive Factory of the State Railway Company, founded in 1839), in Wiener Neustadt (New Vienna Locomotive Factory, founded in 1841), and in Floridsdorf (Floridsdorf Locomotive Factory, founded in 1869). Austria-Hungary_sentence_439

The Hungarian Locomotive (engines and wagons bridge and iron structures) factories were the MÁVAG company in Budapest (steam engines and wagons) and the Ganz company in Budapest (steam engines, wagons, the production of electric locomotives and electric trams started from 1894). Austria-Hungary_sentence_440

and the RÁBA Company in Győr. Austria-Hungary_sentence_441

Infrastructure Austria-Hungary_section_32

Telecommunication Austria-Hungary_section_33

Telegraph Austria-Hungary_section_34

The first telegraph connection (Vienna – Brno – Prague) had started operation in 1847. Austria-Hungary_sentence_442

In Hungarian territory the first telegraph stations were opened in Pressburg (Pozsony, today's Bratislava) in December 1847 and in Buda in 1848. Austria-Hungary_sentence_443

The first telegraph connection between Vienna and Pest–Buda (later Budapest) was constructed in 1850, and Vienna–Zagreb in 1850. Austria-Hungary_sentence_444

Austria subsequently joined a telegraph union with German states. Austria-Hungary_sentence_445

In the Kingdom of Hungary, 2,406 telegraph post offices operated in 1884. Austria-Hungary_sentence_446

By 1914 the number of telegraph offices reached 3,000 in post offices and further 2,400 were installed in the railway stations of the Kingdom of Hungary. Austria-Hungary_sentence_447

Telephone Austria-Hungary_section_35

The first telephone exchange was opened in Zagreb (8 January 1881), the second was in Budapest (1 May 1881), and the third was opened in Vienna (3 June 1881). Austria-Hungary_sentence_448

Initially telephony was available in the homes of individual subscribers, companies and offices. Austria-Hungary_sentence_449

Public telephone stations appeared in the 1890s, and they quickly became widespread in post offices and railway stations. Austria-Hungary_sentence_450

Austria-Hungary had 568 million telephone calls in 1913; only two Western European countries had more phone calls: the German Empire and the United Kingdom. Austria-Hungary_sentence_451

The Austro-Hungarian Empire was followed by France with 396 million telephone calls and Italy with 230 million phone calls. Austria-Hungary_sentence_452

In 1916, there were 366 million telephone calls in Cisleithania, among them 8.4 million long distant calls. Austria-Hungary_sentence_453

All telephone exchanges of the cities, towns and larger villages in Transleithania were linked until 1893. Austria-Hungary_sentence_454

By 1914, more than 2000 settlements had telephone exchange in Kingdom of Hungary. Austria-Hungary_sentence_455

Electronic Audio Broadcasting Austria-Hungary_section_36

The Telefon Hírmondó (Telephone Herald) news and entertainment service was introduced in Budapest in 1893. Austria-Hungary_sentence_456

Two decades before the introduction of radio broadcasting, people could listen to political, economic and sport news, cabaret, music and opera in Budapest daily. Austria-Hungary_sentence_457

It operated over a special type of telephone exchange system. Austria-Hungary_sentence_458

Transport Austria-Hungary_section_37

Railways Austria-Hungary_section_38

Main articles: Imperial Austrian State Railways and Hungarian State Railways Austria-Hungary_sentence_459

By 1913, the combined length of the railway tracks of the Austrian Empire and Kingdom of Hungary reached 43,280 kilometres (26,890 miles). Austria-Hungary_sentence_460

In Western Europe only Germany had more extended railway network (63,378 km, 39,381 mi); the Austro-Hungarian Empire was followed by France (40,770 km, 25,330 mi), the United Kingdom (32,623 km, 20,271 mi), Italy (18,873 km, 11,727 mi) and Spain (15,088 km, 9,375 mi). Austria-Hungary_sentence_461

Railway network of the Austrian Empire Austria-Hungary_section_39

Rail transport expanded rapidly in the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Austria-Hungary_sentence_462

Its predecessor state, the Habsburg Empire, had built a substantial core of railways in the west, originating from Vienna, by 1841. Austria-Hungary_sentence_463

Austria's first steam railway from Vienna to Moravia with its terminus in Galicia (Bochnie) was opened in 1839. Austria-Hungary_sentence_464

The first train travelled from Vienna to Lundenburg (Břeclav) on 6 June 1839 and one month later between the imperial capital in Vienna and the capital of Moravia Brünn (Brno) on 7 July. Austria-Hungary_sentence_465

At that point, the government realized the military possibilities of rail and began to invest heavily in construction. Austria-Hungary_sentence_466

Pozsony (Bratislava), Budapest, Prague, Kraków, Graz, Laibach (Ljubljana) and Venedig (Venice) became linked to the main network. Austria-Hungary_sentence_467

By 1854, the empire had almost 2,000 km (1,200 mi) of track, about 60–70% of it in state hands. Austria-Hungary_sentence_468

The government then began to sell off large portions of track to private investors to recoup some of its investments and because of the financial strains of the 1848 Revolution and of the Crimean War. Austria-Hungary_sentence_469

From 1854 to 1879, private interests conducted almost all rail construction. Austria-Hungary_sentence_470

What would become Cisleithania gained 7,952 km (4,941 mi) of track, and Hungary built 5,839 km (3,628 mi) of track. Austria-Hungary_sentence_471

During this time, many new areas joined the railway system and the existing rail networks gained connections and interconnections. Austria-Hungary_sentence_472

This period marked the beginning of widespread rail transportation in Austria-Hungary, and also the integration of transportation systems in the area. Austria-Hungary_sentence_473

Railways allowed the empire to integrate its economy far more than previously possible, when transportation depended on rivers. Austria-Hungary_sentence_474

After 1879, the Austrian and the Hungarian governments slowly began to renationalize their rail networks, largely because of the sluggish pace of development during the worldwide depression of the 1870s. Austria-Hungary_sentence_475

Between 1879 and 1900, more than 25,000 km (16,000 mi) of railways were built in Cisleithania and Hungary. Austria-Hungary_sentence_476

Most of this constituted "filling in" of the existing network, although some areas, primarily in the far east, gained rail connections for the first time. Austria-Hungary_sentence_477

The railway reduced transportation costs throughout the empire, opening new markets for products from other lands of the Dual Monarchy. Austria-Hungary_sentence_478

In 1914, of a total of 22,981 km (14,279.73 mi) of railway tracks in Austria, 18,859 km (11,718 mi) (82%) were state owned. Austria-Hungary_sentence_479

Railway network in the Kingdom of Hungary Austria-Hungary_section_40

The first Hungarian steam locomotive railway line was opened on 15 July 1846 between Pest and Vác. Austria-Hungary_sentence_480

In 1890 most large Hungarian private railway companies were nationalized as a consequence of the poor management of private companies, except the strong Austrian-owned Kaschau-Oderberg Railway (KsOd) and the Austrian-Hungarian Southern Railway (SB/DV). Austria-Hungary_sentence_481

They also joined the zone tariff system of the MÁV (Hungarian State Railways). Austria-Hungary_sentence_482

By 1910, the total length of the rail networks of Hungarian Kingdom reached 22,869 kilometres (14,210 miles), the Hungarian network linked more than 1,490 settlements. Austria-Hungary_sentence_483

Nearly half (52%) of the empire's railways were built in Hungary, thus the railroad density there became higher than that of Cisleithania. Austria-Hungary_sentence_484

This has ranked Hungarian railways the 6th most dense in the world (ahead of Germany and France). Austria-Hungary_sentence_485

A set of four commuter rail lines were built in Budapest, the BHÉV: Ráckeve line (1887), Szentendre line (1888), Gödöllő line (1888), Csepel line (1912) Austria-Hungary_sentence_486

Metropolitan transit systems Austria-Hungary_section_41

Tramway lines in the cities Austria-Hungary_section_42

Horse-drawn tramways appeared in the first half of the 19th century. Austria-Hungary_sentence_487

Between the 1850s and 1880s many were built. Austria-Hungary_sentence_488

Vienna (1865), Budapest (1866), Brno (1869). Austria-Hungary_sentence_489

Steam trams appeared in the late 1860s. Austria-Hungary_sentence_490

The electrification of tramways started from the late 1880s. Austria-Hungary_sentence_491

The first electrified tramway in Austria-Hungary was built in Budapest in 1887. Austria-Hungary_sentence_492

Electric tramway lines in the Austrian Empire: Austria-Hungary_sentence_493


  • Austria: Gmunden (1894); Linz, Vienna (1897); Graz (1898); Ljubljana (1901); Innsbruck (1905); Unterlach, Ybbs an der Donau (1907); Salzburg (1909); Klagenfurt, Sankt Pölten (1911); Piran (1912)Austria-Hungary_item_7_22
  • Austrian Littoral: Pula (1904).Austria-Hungary_item_7_23
  • Bohemia: Prague (1891); Teplice (1895); Liberec (1897); Ústí nad Labem, Plzeň, Olomouc (1899); Moravia, Brno, Jablonec nad Nisou (1900); Ostrava (1901); Mariánské Lázně (1902); Budějovice, České Budějovice, Jihlava (1909)Austria-Hungary_item_7_24
  • Austrian Silesia: Opava (Troppau) (1905), Cieszyn (Cieszyn) (1911)Austria-Hungary_item_7_25
  • Dalmatia: Dubrovnik (1910)Austria-Hungary_item_7_26
  • Galicia: Lviv (1894), Bielsko-Biała (1895); Kraków (1901); Tarnów, Cieszyn (1911)Austria-Hungary_item_7_27

Electric tramway lines in the Kingdom of Hungary: Austria-Hungary_sentence_494


Underground Austria-Hungary_section_43

The Budapest Metro Line 1 (originally the "Franz Joseph Underground Electric Railway Company") is the second oldest underground railway in the world (the first being the London Underground's Metropolitan Line and the third being Glasgow), and the first on the European mainland. Austria-Hungary_sentence_495

It was built from 1894 to 1896 and opened on 2 May 1896. Austria-Hungary_sentence_496

In 2002, it was listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Austria-Hungary_sentence_497

The M1 line became an IEEE Milestone due to the radically new innovations in its era: "Among the railway’s innovative elements were bidirectional tram cars; electric lighting in the subway stations and tram cars; and an overhead wire structure instead of a third-rail system for power." Austria-Hungary_sentence_498

Canals and river regulations Austria-Hungary_section_44

In 1900 the engineer C. Wagenführer drew up plans to link the Danube and the Adriatic Sea by a canal from Vienna to Trieste. Austria-Hungary_sentence_499

It was born from the desire of Austria-Hungary to have a direct link to the Adriatic Sea but was never constructed. Austria-Hungary_sentence_500

Regulation of the lower Danube and the Iron Gates Austria-Hungary_section_45

In 1831 a plan had already been drafted to make the passage navigable, at the initiative of the Hungarian politician István Széchenyi. Austria-Hungary_sentence_501

Finally Gábor Baross, Hungary's "Iron Minister", succeeded in financing this project. Austria-Hungary_sentence_502

The riverbed rocks and the associated rapids made the gorge valley an infamous passage for shipping. Austria-Hungary_sentence_503

In German, the passage is still known as the Kataraktenstrecke, even though the cataracts are gone. Austria-Hungary_sentence_504

Near the actual "Iron Gates" strait the Prigrada rock was the most important obstacle until 1896: the river widened considerably here and the water level was consequently low. Austria-Hungary_sentence_505

Upstream, the Greben rock near the "Kazan" gorge was notorious. Austria-Hungary_sentence_506

Regulation of the Tisza River Austria-Hungary_section_46

The length of the Tisza in Hungary used to be 1,419 kilometres (882 miles). Austria-Hungary_sentence_507

It flowed through the Great Hungarian Plain, which is one of the largest flat areas in central Europe. Austria-Hungary_sentence_508

Since plains can cause a river to flow very slowly, the Tisza used to follow a path with many curves and turns, which led to many large floods in the area. Austria-Hungary_sentence_509

After several small-scale attempts, István Széchenyi organised the "regulation of the Tisza" (Hungarian: a Tisza szabályozása) which started on 27 August 1846, and substantially ended in 1880. Austria-Hungary_sentence_510

The new length of the river in Hungary was 966 km (600 mi) (1,358 km (844 mi) total), with 589 km (366 mi) of "dead channels" and 136 km (85 mi) of new riverbed. Austria-Hungary_sentence_511

The resultant length of the flood-protected river comprises 2,940 km (1,830 mi) (out of 4,220 km (2,620 mi) of all Hungarian protected rivers). Austria-Hungary_sentence_512

Shipping and ports Austria-Hungary_section_47

The most important seaport was Trieste (today part of Italy), where the Austrian merchant marine was based. Austria-Hungary_sentence_513

Two major shipping companies (Austrian Lloyd and Austro-Americana) and several shipyards were located there. Austria-Hungary_sentence_514

From 1815 to 1866, Venice had been part of the Habsburg empire. Austria-Hungary_sentence_515

The loss of Venice prompted the development of the Austrian merchant marine. Austria-Hungary_sentence_516

By 1913, the commercial marine of Austria, comprised 16,764 vessels with a tonnage of 471,252, and crews number-ing 45,567. Austria-Hungary_sentence_517

Of the total (1913) 394 of 422,368 tons were steamers, and 16,370 of 48,884 tons were sailing vessels The Austrian Lloyd was one of the biggest ocean shipping companies of the time. Austria-Hungary_sentence_518

Prior to the beginning of World War I, the company owned 65 middle-sized and large steamers. Austria-Hungary_sentence_519

The Austro-Americana owned one third of this number, including the biggest Austrian passenger ship, the SS Kaiser Franz Joseph I. Austria-Hungary_sentence_520

In comparison to the Austrian Lloyd, the Austro-American concentrated on destinations in North and South America. Austria-Hungary_sentence_521

The Austro-Hungarian Navy became much more significant than previously, as industrialization provided sufficient revenues to develop it. Austria-Hungary_sentence_522

The ships of the Austro-Hungarian navy were built in Trieste's shipyards. Austria-Hungary_sentence_523

Pola (Pula, today part of Croatia) was also especially significant for the navy. Austria-Hungary_sentence_524

The most important seaport for the Hungarian part of the k.u.k. was Fiume (Rijeka, today part of Croatia), where the Hungarian shipping companies, such as the Adria, operated. Austria-Hungary_sentence_525

On the Danube, the DDSG had established the Óbuda Shipyard on the Hungarian Hajógyári Island in 1835.The largest Hungarian shipbuilding company was the Ganz-Danubius. Austria-Hungary_sentence_526

The commercial marine of the Kingdom of Hungary in 1913 comprised 545 vessels of 144,433 tons, and crews numbering 3,217. Austria-Hungary_sentence_527

Of the total number of vessels 134,000 of 142,539 tons were steamers, and 411 of 1,894 tons were sailing vessels. Austria-Hungary_sentence_528

The first Danubian steamer company, Donaudampfschiffahrtsgesellschaft (DDSG), was the largest inland shipping company in the world until the collapse of the k.u.k. Austria-Hungary_sentence_529

Military Austria-Hungary_section_48

Main article: Austro-Hungarian Armed Forces Austria-Hungary_sentence_530

The Austro-Hungarian Army was under the command of Archduke Albrecht, Duke of Teschen (1817–1895), an old-fashioned bureaucrat who opposed modernization. Austria-Hungary_sentence_531

The military system of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy was similar in both states, and rested since 1868 upon the principle of the universal and personal obligation of the citizen to bear arms. Austria-Hungary_sentence_532

Its military force was composed of the common army; the special armies, namely the Austrian Landwehr, and the Hungarian Honved, which were separate national institutions, and the Landsturm or levy-en masse. Austria-Hungary_sentence_533

As stated above, the common army stood under the administration of the joint minister of war, while the special armies were under the administration of the respective ministries of national defence. Austria-Hungary_sentence_534

The yearly contingent of recruits for the army was fixed by the military bills voted on by the Austrian and Hungarian parliaments, and was generally determined on the basis of the population, according to the last census returns. Austria-Hungary_sentence_535

It amounted in 1905 to 103,100 men, of which Austria furnished 59,211 men, and Hungary 43,889. Austria-Hungary_sentence_536

Besides 10,000 men were annually allotted to the Austrian Landwehr, and 12,500 to the Hungarian Honved. Austria-Hungary_sentence_537

The term of service was two years (three years in the cavalry) with the colours, seven or eight in the reserve and two in the Landwehr; in the case of men not drafted to the active army the same total period of service was spent in various special reserves. Austria-Hungary_sentence_538

The common minister of war was the head for the administration of all military affairs, except those of the Austrian Landwehr and of the Hungarian Honved, which were committed to the ministries for national defence of the two respective states. Austria-Hungary_sentence_539

But the supreme command of the army was nominally vested in the monarch, who had the power to take all measures regarding the whole army. Austria-Hungary_sentence_540

In practice the emperor's nephew Archduke Albrecht was his chief military advisor and made the policy decisions. Austria-Hungary_sentence_541

The Austro-Hungarian navy was mainly a coast defence force, and also included a flotilla of monitors for the Danube. Austria-Hungary_sentence_542

It was administered by the naval department of the ministry of war. Austria-Hungary_sentence_543

World War I Austria-Hungary_section_49

Main articles: Austro-Hungarian entry into World War I, Croatia during World War I, and Hungary in World War I Austria-Hungary_sentence_544

Preludes: Bosnia and Herzegovina Austria-Hungary_section_50

Main article: Bosnia and Herzegovina in Austria-Hungary Austria-Hungary_sentence_545

Russian Pan-Slavic organizations sent aid to the Balkan rebels and so pressured the tsar's government to declare war on the Ottoman Empire in 1877 in the name of protecting Orthodox Christians. Austria-Hungary_sentence_546

Unable to mediate between the Ottoman Empire and Russia over the control of Serbia, Austria-Hungary declared neutrality when the conflict between the two powers escalated into a war. Austria-Hungary_sentence_547

With help from Romania and Greece, Russia defeated the Ottomans and with the Treaty of San Stefano tried to create a large pro-Russian Bulgaria. Austria-Hungary_sentence_548

This treaty sparked an international uproar that almost resulted in a general European war. Austria-Hungary_sentence_549

Austria-Hungary and Britain feared that a large Bulgaria would become a Russian satellite that would enable the tsar to dominate the Balkans. Austria-Hungary_sentence_550

British prime minister Benjamin Disraeli moved warships into position against Russia to halt the advance of Russian influence in the eastern Mediterranean so close to Britain's route through the Suez Canal. Austria-Hungary_sentence_551

The Congress of Berlin rolled back the Russian victory by partitioning the large Bulgarian state that Russia had carved out of Ottoman territory and denying any part of Bulgaria full independence from the Ottomans. Austria-Hungary_sentence_552

Austria occupied Bosnia and Herzegovina as a way of gaining power in the Balkans. Austria-Hungary_sentence_553

Serbia, Montenegro and Romania became fully independent. Austria-Hungary_sentence_554

Nonetheless the Balkans remained a site of political unrest with teeming ambition for independence and great power rivalries. Austria-Hungary_sentence_555

At the Congress of Berlin in 1878 Gyula Andrássy (Minister of Foreign Affairs) managed to force Russia to retreat from further demands in the Balkans. Austria-Hungary_sentence_556

As a result, Greater Bulgaria was broken up and Serbian independence was guaranteed. Austria-Hungary_sentence_557

In that year, with Britain's support, Austria-Hungary stationed troops in Bosnia to prevent the Russians from expanding into nearby Serbia. Austria-Hungary_sentence_558

In another measure to keep the Russians out of the Balkans Austria-Hungary formed an alliance, the Mediterranean Entente, with Britain and Italy in 1887 and concluded mutual defence pacts with Germany in 1879 and Romania in 1883 against a possible Russian attack. Austria-Hungary_sentence_559

Following the Congress of Berlin the European powers attempted to guarantee stability through a complex series of alliances and treaties. Austria-Hungary_sentence_560

Anxious about Balkan instability and Russian aggression, and to counter French interests in Europe, Austria-Hungary forged a defensive alliance with Germany in October 1879 and in May 1882. Austria-Hungary_sentence_561

In October 1882 Italy joined this partnership in the Triple Alliance largely because of Italy's imperial rivalries with France. Austria-Hungary_sentence_562

Tensions between Russia and Austria-Hungary remained high, so Bismarck replaced the League of the Three Emperors with the Reinsurance Treaty with Russia to keep the Habsburgs from recklessly starting a war over Pan-Slavism. Austria-Hungary_sentence_563

The Sandžak-Raška / Novibazar region was under Austro-Hungarian occupation between 1878 and 1909, when it was returned to the Ottoman Empire, before being ultimately divided between kingdoms of Montenegro and Serbia. Austria-Hungary_sentence_564

On the heels of the Great Balkan Crisis, Austro-Hungarian forces occupied Bosnia and Herzegovina in August 1878 and the monarchy eventually annexed Bosnia and Herzegovina in October 1908 as a common holding of Cisleithania and Transleithania under the control of the Imperial & Royal finance ministry rather than attaching it to either territorial government. Austria-Hungary_sentence_565

The annexation in 1908 led some in Vienna to contemplate combining Bosnia and Herzegovina with Croatia to form a third Slavic component of the monarchy. Austria-Hungary_sentence_566

The deaths of Franz Joseph's brother, Maximilian (1867), and his only son, Rudolf made the Emperor's nephew, Franz Ferdinand, heir to the throne. Austria-Hungary_sentence_567

The Archduke was rumoured to have been an advocate for this trialism as a means to limit the power of the Hungarian aristocracy. Austria-Hungary_sentence_568

Status of Bosnia-Herzegovina Austria-Hungary_section_51

A proclamation issued on the occasion of its annexation to the Habsburg Monarchy in 1908 promised these lands constitutional institutions, which should secure to their inhabitants full civil rights and a share in the management of their own affairs by means of a local representative assembly. Austria-Hungary_sentence_569

In performance of this promise a constitution was promulgated in 1910. Austria-Hungary_sentence_570

This included a Territorial Statute (Landesstatut) with the setting up of a Territorial Diet, regulations for the election and procedure of the Diet, a law of associations, a law of public meetings, and a law dealing with the district councils. Austria-Hungary_sentence_571

According to this statute Bosnia-Herzegovina formed a single administrative territory under the responsible direction and supervision of the Ministry of Finance of the Dual Monarchy in Vienna. Austria-Hungary_sentence_572

The administration of the country, together with the carrying out of the laws, devolved upon the Territorial Government in Sarajevo, which was subordinate and responsible to the Common Ministry of Finance. Austria-Hungary_sentence_573

The existing judicial and administrative authorities of the Territory retained their previous organization and functions. Austria-Hungary_sentence_574

That statute introduced the modern rights and laws in Bosnia – Herzegovina, and it guaranteed generally the civil rights of the inhabitants of the Territory, namely citizenship, personal liberty, protection by the competent judicial authorities, liberty of creed and conscience, preservation of the national individuality and language, freedom of speech, freedom of learning and education, inviolability of the domicile, secrecy of posts and telegraphs, inviolability of property, the right of petition, and finally the right of holding meetings. Austria-Hungary_sentence_575

The Diet (Sabor) of Bosnia-Herzegovina set up consisted of a single Chamber, elected on the principle of the representation of interests. Austria-Hungary_sentence_576

It numbered 92 members. Austria-Hungary_sentence_577

Of these 20 consisted of representatives of all the religious confessions, the president of the Supreme Court, the president of the Chamber of Advocates, the president of the Chamber of Commerce, and the mayor of Sarajevo. Austria-Hungary_sentence_578

In addition to these were 72 deputies, elected by three curiae or electoral groups. Austria-Hungary_sentence_579

The first curia included the large landowners, the highest taxpayers, and people who had reached a certain standard of education without regard to the amount they paid in taxes. Austria-Hungary_sentence_580

To the second curia belonged inhabitants of the towns not qualified to vote in the first; to the third, country dwellers disqualified in the same way. Austria-Hungary_sentence_581

With this curial system was combined the grouping of the mandates and of the electors according to the three dominant creeds (Catholic, Serbian Orthodox, Muslim). Austria-Hungary_sentence_582

To the adherents of other creeds the right was conceded of voting with one or other of the religious electoral bodies within the curia to which they belonged. Austria-Hungary_sentence_583

Sarajevo assassination Austria-Hungary_section_52

Main article: Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand Austria-Hungary_sentence_584

On 28 June 1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand visited the Bosnian capital, Sarajevo. Austria-Hungary_sentence_585

A group of six assassins (Cvjetko Popović, Gavrilo Princip, Muhamed Mehmedbašić, Nedeljko Čabrinović, Trifko Grabež, Vaso Čubrilović) from the nationalist group Mlada Bosna, supplied by the Black Hand, had gathered on the street where the Archduke's motorcade would pass. Austria-Hungary_sentence_586

Čabrinović threw a grenade at the car, but missed. Austria-Hungary_sentence_587

It injured some people nearby, and Franz Ferdinand's convoy could carry on. Austria-Hungary_sentence_588

The other assassins failed to act as the cars drove past them quickly. Austria-Hungary_sentence_589

About an hour later, when Franz Ferdinand was returning from a visit at the Sarajevo Hospital, the convoy took a wrong turn into a street where Gavrilo Princip by coincidence stood. Austria-Hungary_sentence_590

With a pistol, Princip shot and killed Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sophie. Austria-Hungary_sentence_591

The reaction among the Austrian people was mild, almost indifferent. Austria-Hungary_sentence_592

As historian Z. Austria-Hungary_sentence_593

A. Austria-Hungary_sentence_594

B. Zeman later wrote, "the event almost failed to make any impression whatsoever. Austria-Hungary_sentence_595

On Sunday and Monday [June 28 and 29], the crowds in Vienna listened to music and drank wine, as if nothing had happened." Austria-Hungary_sentence_596

Escalation of violence in Bosnia Austria-Hungary_section_53

Main articles: Anti-Serb riots in Sarajevo and Schutzkorps Austria-Hungary_sentence_597

The assassination excessively intensified the existing traditional religion-based ethnic hostilities in Bosnia. Austria-Hungary_sentence_598

However, in Sarajevo itself, Austrian authorities encouraged violence against the Serb residents, which resulted in the Anti-Serb riots of Sarajevo, in which Catholic Croats and Bosnian Muslims killed two and damaged numerous Serb-owned buildings. Austria-Hungary_sentence_599

Writer Ivo Andrić referred to the violence as the "Sarajevo frenzy of hate." Austria-Hungary_sentence_600

Violent actions against ethnic Serbs were organized not only in Sarajevo but also in many other larger Austro-Hungarian cities in modern-day Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. Austria-Hungary_sentence_601

Austro-Hungarian authorities in Bosnia and Herzegovina imprisoned and extradited approximately 5,500 prominent Serbs, 700 to 2,200 of whom died in prison. Austria-Hungary_sentence_602

460 Serbs were sentenced to death and a predominantly Muslim special militia known as the Schutzkorps was established and carried out the persecution of Serbs. Austria-Hungary_sentence_603

Decision for war Austria-Hungary_section_54

Main article: Causes of World War I Austria-Hungary_sentence_604

While the empire's military spending had not even doubled since the 1878 Congress of Berlin, Germany's spending had risen fivefold, and the British, Russian, and French expenditures threefold. Austria-Hungary_sentence_605

The empire had lost ethnic Italian areas to Piedmont because of nationalist movements that had swept through Italy, and many Austro-Hungarians perceived as imminent the threat of losing to Serbia the southern territories inhabited by Slavs. Austria-Hungary_sentence_606

Serbia had recently gained considerable territory in the Second Balkan War of 1913, causing much distress in government circles in Vienna and Budapest. Austria-Hungary_sentence_607

Former ambassador and foreign minister Count Alois Aehrenthal had assumed that any future war would be in the Balkan region. Austria-Hungary_sentence_608

Hungarian prime minister and political scientist István Tisza opposed the expansion of the monarchy in the Balkans (see Bosnian crisis in 1908) because "the Dual Monarchy already had too many Slavs", which would further threaten the integrity of the Dual Monarchy. Austria-Hungary_sentence_609

In March 1914, Tisza wrote a memorandum to Emperor Franz Joseph with a strongly apocalyptic, predictive and embittered tone. Austria-Hungary_sentence_610

He used the hitherto unknown word "Weltkrieg" (meaning World War). Austria-Hungary_sentence_611

"It is my firm conviction that Germany's two neighbors [Russia and France] are carefully proceeding with military preparations, but will not start the war so long as they have not attained a grouping of the Balkan states against us that confronts the monarchy with an attack from three sides and pins down the majority of our forces on our eastern and southern front." Austria-Hungary_sentence_612

On the day of the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, Tisza immediately traveled to Vienna where he met Minister of Foreign Affairs Count Leopold Berchtold and Army Commander Count Franz Conrad von Hötzendorf. Austria-Hungary_sentence_613

They proposed to solve the dispute with arms, attacking Serbia. Austria-Hungary_sentence_614

Tisza proposed to give the government of Serbia time to take a stand as to whether it was involved in the organisation of the murder and proposed a peaceful resolution, arguing that the international situation would settle soon. Austria-Hungary_sentence_615

Returning to Budapest, he wrote to Emperor Franz Joseph saying he would not take any responsibility for the armed conflict because there was no proof that Serbia had plotted the assassination. Austria-Hungary_sentence_616

Tisza opposed a war with Serbia, stating (correctly, as it turned out) that any war with the Serbs was bound to trigger a war with Russia and hence a general European war. Austria-Hungary_sentence_617

He did not trust in the Italian alliance, due to the political aftermath of the Second Italian War of Independence. Austria-Hungary_sentence_618

He thought that even a successful Austro-Hungarian war would be disastrous for the integrity of Kingdom of Hungary, where Hungary would be the next victim of Austrian politics. Austria-Hungary_sentence_619

After a successful war against Serbia, Tisza foresaw a possible Austrian military attack against the Kingdom of Hungary, where the Austrians want to break up the territory of Hungary. Austria-Hungary_sentence_620

Some members of the government, such as Count Franz Conrad von Hötzendorf, had wanted to confront the resurgent Serbian nation for some years in a preventive war, but the Emperor, 84 years old and an enemy of all adventures, disapproved. Austria-Hungary_sentence_621

The foreign ministry of Austro-Hungarian Empire sent ambassador László Szőgyény to Potsdam, where he inquired about the standpoint of the German Emperor on 5 July. Austria-Hungary_sentence_622

Szőgyény described what happened in a secret report to Vienna later that day: Austria-Hungary_sentence_623

But now the leaders of Austria-Hungary, especially General Count Leopold von Berchtold, backed by its ally Germany, decided to confront Serbia militarily before it could incite a revolt; using the assassination as an excuse, they presented a list of ten demands called the July Ultimatum, expecting Serbia would never accept. Austria-Hungary_sentence_624

When Serbia accepted nine of the ten demands but only partially accepted the remaining one, Austria-Hungary declared war. Austria-Hungary_sentence_625

Franz Joseph I finally followed the urgent counsel of his top advisers. Austria-Hungary_sentence_626

Over the course of July and August 1914, these events caused the start of World War I, as Russia mobilized in support of Serbia, setting off a series of counter-mobilizations. Austria-Hungary_sentence_627

In support of his German ally, on Thursday, 6 August 1914, the Emperor Franz Joseph signed the declaration of war on Russia. Austria-Hungary_sentence_628

Italy initially remained neutral, although it had an alliance with Austria-Hungary. Austria-Hungary_sentence_629

In 1915, it switched to the side of the Entente powers, hoping to gain territory from its former ally. Austria-Hungary_sentence_630

Wartime foreign policy Austria-Hungary_section_55

Further information: Diplomatic history of World War I Austria-Hungary_sentence_631

The Austro-Hungarian Empire played a relatively passive diplomatic role in the war, as it was increasingly dominated and controlled by Germany. Austria-Hungary_sentence_632

The only goal was to punish Serbia and try to stop the ethnic breakup of the Empire, and it completely failed. Austria-Hungary_sentence_633

Instead as the war went on the ethnic unity declined; the Allies encouraged breakaway demands from minorities and the Empire faced disintegration. Austria-Hungary_sentence_634

Starting in late 1916 the new Emperor Karl removed the pro-German officials and opened peace overtures to the Allies, whereby the entire war could be ended by compromise, or perhaps Austria would make a separate peace from Germany. Austria-Hungary_sentence_635

The main effort was vetoed by Italy, which had been promised large slices of Austria for joining the Allies in 1915. Austria-Hungary_sentence_636

Austria was only willing to turn over the Trentino region but nothing more. Austria-Hungary_sentence_637

Karl was seen as a defeatist, which weakened his standing at home and with both the Allies and Germany. Austria-Hungary_sentence_638

As the Imperial economy collapsed into severe hardship and even starvation, its multi-ethnic army lost its morale and was increasingly hard pressed to hold its line. Austria-Hungary_sentence_639

In the capital cities of Vienna and Budapest, the leftist and liberal movements and opposition parties strengthened and supported the separatism of ethnic minorities. Austria-Hungary_sentence_640

As it became apparent that the Allies would win the war, nationalist movements, which had previously been calling for a greater degree of autonomy for their majority areas, started demanding full independence. Austria-Hungary_sentence_641

The Emperor had lost much of his power to rule, as his realm disintegrated. Austria-Hungary_sentence_642

Homefront Austria-Hungary_section_56

See also: Hungary in World War I Austria-Hungary_sentence_643

The heavily rural Empire did have a small industrial base, but its major contribution was manpower and food. Austria-Hungary_sentence_644

Nevertheless, Austria-Hungary was more urbanized (25%) than its actual opponents in the First World War, like the Russian Empire (13.4%), Serbia (13.2%) or Romania (18.8%). Austria-Hungary_sentence_645

Furthermore, the Austro-Hungarian Empire had also more industrialized economy and higher GDP per capita than the Kingdom of Italy, which was economically the far most developed actual opponent of the Empire. Austria-Hungary_sentence_646

On the home front, food grew scarcer and scarcer, as did heating fuel. Austria-Hungary_sentence_647

The hog population fell 90 percent, as the dwindling supplies of ham and bacon percent of the Army. Austria-Hungary_sentence_648

Hungary, with its heavy agricultural base, was somewhat better fed. Austria-Hungary_sentence_649

The Army conquered productive agricultural areas in Romania and elsewhere, but refused to allow food shipments to civilians back home. Austria-Hungary_sentence_650

Morale fell every year, and the diverse nationalities gave up on the Empire and looked for ways to establish their own nation states. Austria-Hungary_sentence_651

Inflation soared, from an index of 129 in 1914 to 1589 in 1918, wiping out the cash savings of the middle-class. Austria-Hungary_sentence_652

In terms of war damage to the economy, the war used up about 20 percent of the GDP. Austria-Hungary_sentence_653

The dead soldiers amounted to about four percent of the 1914 labor force, and the wounded ones to another six percent. Austria-Hungary_sentence_654

Compared all the major countries in the war, the death and casualty rate was toward the high-end regarding the present-day territory of Austra. Austria-Hungary_sentence_655

By summer 1918, "Green Cadres" of army deserters formed armed bands in the hills of Croatia-Slavonia and civil authority disintegrated. Austria-Hungary_sentence_656

By late October violence and massive looting erupted and there were efforts to form peasant republics. Austria-Hungary_sentence_657

However The Croatian political leadership was focused on creating a new state (Yugoslavia) and worked with the advancing Serbian army to impose control and end the uprisings. Austria-Hungary_sentence_658

Military events Austria-Hungary_section_57

The Austro-Hungarian Empire conscripted 7.8 million soldiers during the WW1. Austria-Hungary_sentence_659

General von Hötzendorf was the Chief of the Austro-Hungarian General Staff. Austria-Hungary_sentence_660

Franz Joseph I, who was much too old to command the army, appointed Archduke Friedrich von Österreich-Teschen as Supreme Army Commander (Armeeoberkommandant), but asked him to give Von Hötzendorf freedom to take any decisions. Austria-Hungary_sentence_661

Von Hötzendorf remained in effective command of the military forces until Emperor Karl I took the supreme command himself in late 1916 and dismissed Conrad von Hötzendorf in 1917. Austria-Hungary_sentence_662

Meanwhile, economic conditions on the homefront deteriorated rapidly. Austria-Hungary_sentence_663

The Empire depended on agriculture, and agriculture depended on the heavy labor of millions of men who were now in the Army. Austria-Hungary_sentence_664

Food production fell, the transportation system became overcrowded, and industrial production could not successfully handle the overwhelming need for munitions. Austria-Hungary_sentence_665

Germany provided a great deal of help, but it was not enough. Austria-Hungary_sentence_666

Furthermore, the political instability of the multiple ethnic groups of Empire now ripped apart any hope for national consensus in support of the war. Austria-Hungary_sentence_667

Increasingly there was a demand for breaking up the Empire and setting up autonomous national states based on historic language-based cultures. Austria-Hungary_sentence_668

The new Emperor sought peace terms from the Allies, but his initiatives were vetoed by Italy. Austria-Hungary_sentence_669

Serbian front 1914–1916 Austria-Hungary_section_58

Main article: Serbian Campaign (World War I) Austria-Hungary_sentence_670

At the start of the war, the army was divided in two: the smaller part attacked Serbia while the larger part fought against the formidable Imperial Russian Army. Austria-Hungary_sentence_671

The invasion of Serbia in 1914 was a disaster: by the end of the year, the Austro-Hungarian Army had taken no territory, but had lost 227,000 out of a total force of 450,000 men. Austria-Hungary_sentence_672

However, in the autumn of 1915, the Serbian Army was defeated by the Central Powers, which led to the occupation of Serbia. Austria-Hungary_sentence_673

Near the end of 1915, in a massive rescue operation involving more than 1,000 trips made by Italian, French and British steamers, 260,000 Serb surviving soldiers were transported to Brindisi and Corfu, where they waited for the chance of the victory of Allied Powers to reclaim their country. Austria-Hungary_sentence_674

Corfu hosted the Serbian government in exile after the collapse of Serbia, and served as a supply base to the Greek front. Austria-Hungary_sentence_675

In April 1916 a large number of Serbian troops were transported in British and French naval vessels from Corfu to mainland Greece. Austria-Hungary_sentence_676

The contingent numbering over 120,000 relieved a much smaller army at the Macedonian front and fought alongside British and French troops. Austria-Hungary_sentence_677

Russian front 1914–1917 Austria-Hungary_section_59

Main article: Eastern Front (World War I) Austria-Hungary_sentence_678

On the Eastern front, the war started out equally poorly. Austria-Hungary_sentence_679

The Austro-Hungarian Army was defeated at the Battle of Lemberg and the great fortress city of Przemyśl was besieged and fell in March 1915. Austria-Hungary_sentence_680

The Gorlice–Tarnów Offensive started as a minor German offensive to relieve the pressure of the Russian numerical superiority on the Austro-Hungarians, but the cooperation of the Central Powers resulted in huge Russian losses and the total collapse of the Russian lines, and their 100 km (62 mi) long retreat into Russia. Austria-Hungary_sentence_681

The Russian Third Army perished. Austria-Hungary_sentence_682

In summer 1915, the Austro-Hungarian Army, under a unified command with the Germans, participated in the successful Gorlice–Tarnów Offensive. Austria-Hungary_sentence_683

From June 1916, the Russians focused their attacks on the Austro-Hungarian army in the Brusilov Offensive, recognizing the numerical inferiority of the Austro-Hungarian army. Austria-Hungary_sentence_684

By the end of September 1916, Austria-Hungary mobilized and concentrated new divisions, and the successful Russian advance was halted and slowly repelled; but the Austrian armies took heavy losses (about 1 million men) and never recovered. Austria-Hungary_sentence_685

The Battle of Zborov (1917) was the first significant action of the Czechoslovak Legions, who fought for the independence of Czechoslovakia against the Austro-Hungarian army. Austria-Hungary_sentence_686

However the huge losses in men and material inflicted on the Russians during the offensive contributed greatly to the revolutions of 1917, and it caused an economic crash in the Russian Empire. Austria-Hungary_sentence_687

Italian front 1915–1918 Austria-Hungary_section_60

Main article: Italian Front (World War I) Austria-Hungary_sentence_688

In May 1915, Italy attacked Austria-Hungary. Austria-Hungary_sentence_689

Italy was the only military opponent of Austria-Hungary which had a similar degree of industrialization and economic level; moreover, her army was numerous (≈1,000,000 men were immediately fielded), but suffered from poor leadership, training and organization. Austria-Hungary_sentence_690

Chief of Staff Luigi Cadorna marched his army towards the Isonzo river, hoping to seize Ljubljana, and to eventually threaten Vienna. Austria-Hungary_sentence_691

However, the Royal Italian Army were halted on the river, where four battles took place over five months (23 June – 2 December 1915). Austria-Hungary_sentence_692

The fight was extremely bloody and exhausting for both the contenders. Austria-Hungary_sentence_693

On 15 May 1916, the Austrian Chief of Staff Conrad von Hötzendorf launched the Strafexpedition ("punitive expedition"): the Austrians broke through the opposing front and occupied the Asiago plateau. Austria-Hungary_sentence_694

The Italians managed to resist and in a counteroffensive seized Gorizia on 9 August. Austria-Hungary_sentence_695

Nonetheless, they had to stop on the Carso, a few kilometres away from the border. Austria-Hungary_sentence_696

At this point, several months of indecisive trench warfare ensued (analogous to the Western front). Austria-Hungary_sentence_697

As the Russian Empire collapsed as a result of the Bolshevik Revolution and Russians ended their involvement in the war, Germans and Austrians were able to move on the Western and Southern fronts much manpower from the erstwhile Eastern fighting. Austria-Hungary_sentence_698

On 24 October 1917, Austrians (now enjoying decisive German support) attacked at Caporetto using new infiltration tactics; although they advanced more than 100 km (62.14 mi) in the direction of Venice and gained considerable supplies, they were halted and could not cross the Piave river. Austria-Hungary_sentence_699

Italy, although suffering massive casualties, recovered from the blow, and a coalition government under Vittorio Emanuele Orlando was formed. Austria-Hungary_sentence_700

Italy also enjoyed support by the Entente powers: by 1918, large amounts of war materials and a few auxiliary American, British, and French divisions arrived in the Italian battle zone. Austria-Hungary_sentence_701

Cadorna was replaced by General Armando Diaz; under his command, the Italians retook the initiative and won the decisive Battle of the Piave river (15–23 June 1918), in which some 60,000 Austrian and 43,000 Italian soldiers were killed. Austria-Hungary_sentence_702

The multiethnic Austro-Hungarian Empire started to disintegrate, leaving its army alone on the battlefields. Austria-Hungary_sentence_703

The final battle was at Vittorio Veneto; after 4 days of stiff resistance, Italian troops crossed the Piave River, and after losing 90,000 men the defeated Austrian troops retreated in disarray pursued by the Italians. Austria-Hungary_sentence_704

The Italians captured 448,000 Austrian-Hungarian soldiers (about one-third of the imperial-royal army), 24 of whom were generals, 5,600 cannons and mortars, and 4,000 machine guns. Austria-Hungary_sentence_705

The military breakdown also marked the start of the rebellion for the numerous ethnicities who made up the multiethnic Empire, as they refused to keep on fighting for a cause which now appeared senseless. Austria-Hungary_sentence_706

These events marked the end of Austria-Hungary, which collapsed on 31 October 1918. Austria-Hungary_sentence_707

The armistice was signed at Villa Giusti on 3 November. Austria-Hungary_sentence_708

Romanian front 1916–1917 Austria-Hungary_section_61

Main article: Romania during World War I Austria-Hungary_sentence_709

On 27 August 1916, Romania declared war against Austria-Hungary. Austria-Hungary_sentence_710

The Romanian Army crossed the borders of Eastern Hungary (Transylvania), and despite initial successes, by November 1916, the Central Powers formed by the Austro-Hungarian, German, Bulgarian, and Ottoman armies, had defeated the Romanian and Russian armies of the Entente Powers, and occupied the southern part of Romania (including Oltenia, Muntenia and Dobruja). Austria-Hungary_sentence_711

Within 3 months of war, the Central Powers came near Bucharest, the Romanian capital city. Austria-Hungary_sentence_712

On 6 December, the Central Powers captured Bucharest, and part of the population moved to the unoccupied Romanian territory, in Moldavia, together with the Romanian government, royal court and public authorities, which relocated to Iași. Austria-Hungary_sentence_713

In 1917, after several defensive victories (managing to stop the German-Austro-Hungarian advance), with Russia's withdrawal from the war following the October Revolution, Romania was forced to drop out of the war. Austria-Hungary_sentence_714

Whereas the German army realized it needed close cooperation from the homefront, Habsburg officers saw themselves as entirely separate from the civilian world, and superior to it. Austria-Hungary_sentence_715

When they occupied productive areas, such as southern Romania, they seized food stocks and other supplies for their own purposes, and blocked any shipments intended for civilians back in the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Austria-Hungary_sentence_716

The result was that the officers lived well, as the civilians began to starve. Austria-Hungary_sentence_717

Vienna even transferred training units to Serbia and Poland for the sole purpose of feeding them. Austria-Hungary_sentence_718

In all, the Army obtained about 15 percent of its cereal needs from occupied territories. Austria-Hungary_sentence_719

Role of Hungary Austria-Hungary_section_62

Although the Kingdom of Hungary composed only 42% of the population of Austria-Hungary, the thin majority – more than 3.8 million soldiers – of the Austro-Hungarian armed forces were conscripted from the Kingdom of Hungary during the First World War. Austria-Hungary_sentence_720

Roughly 600,000 soldiers were killed in action, and 700,000 soldiers were wounded in the war. Austria-Hungary_sentence_721

Austria-Hungary held on for years, as the Hungarian half provided sufficient supplies for the military to continue to wage war. Austria-Hungary_sentence_722

This was shown in a transition of power after which the Hungarian prime minister, Count István Tisza, and foreign minister, Count István Burián, had decisive influence over the internal and external affairs of the monarchy. Austria-Hungary_sentence_723

By late 1916, food supply from Hungary became intermittent and the government sought an armistice with the Entente powers. Austria-Hungary_sentence_724

However, this failed as Britain and France no longer had any regard for the integrity of the monarchy because of Austro-Hungarian support for Germany. Austria-Hungary_sentence_725

Analysis of defeat Austria-Hungary_section_63

The setbacks that the Austrian army suffered in 1914 and 1915 can be attributed to a large extent by the incompetence of the Austrian high command. Austria-Hungary_sentence_726

After attacking Serbia, its forces soon had to be withdrawn to protect its eastern frontier against Russia's invasion, while German units were engaged in fighting on the Western Front. Austria-Hungary_sentence_727

This resulted in a greater than expected loss of men in the invasion of Serbia. Austria-Hungary_sentence_728

Furthermore, it became evident that the Austrian high command had had no plans for a possible continental war and that the army and navy were also ill-equipped to handle such a conflict. Austria-Hungary_sentence_729

From 1916, the Austro-Hungarian war effort became more and more subordinated to the direction of German planners. Austria-Hungary_sentence_730

The Austrians viewed the German army favorably, on the other hand by 1916 the general belief in Germany was that Germany, in its alliance with Austria-Hungary, was "shackled to a corpse". Austria-Hungary_sentence_731

The operational capability of the Austro-Hungarian army was seriously affected by supply shortages, low morale and a high casualty rate, and by the army's composition of multiple ethnicities with different languages and customs. Austria-Hungary_sentence_732

The last two successes for the Austrians, the Romanian Offensive and the Caporetto Offensive, were German-assisted operations. Austria-Hungary_sentence_733

As the Dual Monarchy became more politically unstable, it became more and more dependent on German assistance. Austria-Hungary_sentence_734

The majority of its people, other than Hungarians and German Austrians, became increasingly restless. Austria-Hungary_sentence_735

In 1917, the Eastern front of the Entente Powers completely collapsed. Austria-Hungary_sentence_736

The Austro-Hungarian Empire then withdrew from all defeated countries. Austria-Hungary_sentence_737

By 1918, the economic situation had deteriorated. Austria-Hungary_sentence_738

Leftist and pacifist political movements organized strikes in factories, and uprisings in the army had become commonplace. Austria-Hungary_sentence_739

During the Italian battles, the Czechoslovaks and Southern Slavs declared their independence. Austria-Hungary_sentence_740

On 31 October Hungary ended the personal union with Austria, officially dissolving the Monarchy. Austria-Hungary_sentence_741

At the last Italian offensive, the Austro-Hungarian Army took to the field without any food and munition supply, and fought without any political supports for a de facto non-existent empire. Austria-Hungary_sentence_742

On the end of the decisive joint Italian, British and French offensive at Vittorio Veneto, the disintegrated Austria-Hungary signed the Armistice of Villa Giusti on 3 November 1918. Austria-Hungary_sentence_743

The government had failed badly on the homefront. Austria-Hungary_sentence_744

Historian Alexander Watson reports: Austria-Hungary_sentence_745

Dissolution Austria-Hungary_section_64

Main article: Dissolution of Austria-Hungary Austria-Hungary_sentence_746

The Austro-Hungarian Monarchy collapsed with dramatic speed in the autumn of 1918. Austria-Hungary_sentence_747

In the capital cities of Vienna and Budapest, the leftist and liberal movements and politicians (the opposition parties) strengthened and supported the separatism of ethnic minorities. Austria-Hungary_sentence_748

These leftist or left-liberal pro-Entente maverick parties opposed the monarchy as a form of government and considered themselves internationalist rather than patriotic. Austria-Hungary_sentence_749

Eventually, the German defeat and the minor revolutions in Vienna and Budapest gave political power to the left/liberal political parties. Austria-Hungary_sentence_750

As it became apparent that the Allied powers would win World War I, nationalist movements, which had previously been calling for a greater degree of autonomy for various areas, started pressing for full independence. Austria-Hungary_sentence_751

The Emperor had lost much of his power to rule, as his realm disintegrated. Austria-Hungary_sentence_752

Alexander Watson argues that, "The Habsburg regime's doom was sealed when Wilson's response to the note, sent two and a half weeks earlier, arrived on 20 October." Austria-Hungary_sentence_753

Wilson rejected the continuation of the dual monarchy as a negotiable possibility. Austria-Hungary_sentence_754

As one of his Fourteen Points, President Woodrow Wilson demanded that the nationalities of Austria-Hungary have the "freest opportunity to autonomous development". Austria-Hungary_sentence_755

In response, Emperor Karl I agreed to reconvene the Imperial Parliament in 1917 and allow the creation of a confederation with each national group exercising self-governance. Austria-Hungary_sentence_756

However, the leaders of these national groups rejected the idea; they deeply distrusted Vienna and were now determined to get independence. Austria-Hungary_sentence_757

On 14 October 1918, Foreign Minister Baron István Burián von Rajecz asked for an armistice based on the Fourteen Points. Austria-Hungary_sentence_758

In an apparent attempt to demonstrate good faith, Emperor Karl issued a proclamation ("Imperial Manifesto of 16 October 1918") two days later which would have significantly altered the structure of the Austrian half of the monarchy. Austria-Hungary_sentence_759

The Polish majority regions of Galicia and Lodomeria were to be granted the option of seceding from the empire, and it was understood that they would join their ethnic brethren in Russia and Germany in resurrecting a Polish state. Austria-Hungary_sentence_760

The rest of Cisleithania was transformed into a federal union composed of four parts—German, Czech, South Slav and Ukrainian. Austria-Hungary_sentence_761

Each of these was to be governed by a national council that would negotiate the future of the empire with Vienna. Austria-Hungary_sentence_762

Trieste was to receive a special status. Austria-Hungary_sentence_763

No such proclamation could be issued in Hungary, where Hungarian aristocrats still believed they could subdue other nationalities and maintain the "Holy Kingdom of St. Stephen". Austria-Hungary_sentence_764

It was a dead letter. Austria-Hungary_sentence_765

Four days later, on 18 October, United States Secretary of State Robert Lansing replied that the Allies were now committed to the causes of the Czechs, Slovaks and South Slavs. Austria-Hungary_sentence_766

Therefore, Lansing said, autonomy for the nationalities – the tenth of the Fourteen Points – was no longer enough and Washington could not deal on the basis of the Fourteen Points anymore. Austria-Hungary_sentence_767

In fact, a Czechoslovak provisional government had joined the Allies on 14 October. Austria-Hungary_sentence_768

The South Slavs in both halves of the monarchy had already declared in favor of uniting with Serbia in a large South Slav state by way of the 1917 Corfu Declaration signed by members of the Yugoslav Committee. Austria-Hungary_sentence_769

Indeed, the Croatians had begun disregarding orders from Budapest earlier in October. Austria-Hungary_sentence_770

The Lansing note was, in effect, the death certificate of Austria-Hungary. Austria-Hungary_sentence_771

The national councils had already begun acting more or less as provisional governments of independent countries. Austria-Hungary_sentence_772

With defeat in the war imminent after the Italian offensive in the Battle of Vittorio Veneto on 24 October, Czech politicians peacefully took over command in Prague on 28 October (later declared the birthday of Czechoslovakia) and followed up in other major cities in the next few days. Austria-Hungary_sentence_773

On 30 October, the Slovaks followed in Martin. Austria-Hungary_sentence_774

On 29 October, the Slavs in both portions of what remained of Austria-Hungary proclaimed the State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs. Austria-Hungary_sentence_775

They also declared that their ultimate intention was to unite with Serbia and Montenegro in a large South Slav state. Austria-Hungary_sentence_776

On the same day, the Czechs and Slovaks formally proclaimed the establishment of Czechoslovakia as an independent state. Austria-Hungary_sentence_777

In Hungary, the most prominent opponent of continued union with Austria, Count Mihály Károlyi, seized power in the Aster Revolution on 31 October. Austria-Hungary_sentence_778

Charles was all but forced to appoint Károlyi as his Hungarian prime minister. Austria-Hungary_sentence_779

One of Károlyi's first acts was to cancel the compromise agreement, officially dissolving the Austro-Hungarian state. Austria-Hungary_sentence_780

By the end of October, there was nothing left of the Habsburg realm but its majority-German Danubian and Alpine provinces, and Karl's authority was being challenged even there by the German-Austrian state council. Austria-Hungary_sentence_781

Karl's last Austrian prime minister, Heinrich Lammasch, concluded that Karl was in an impossible situation, and persuaded Karl that the best course was to relinquish, at least temporarily, his right to exercise sovereign authority. Austria-Hungary_sentence_782

Consequences Austria-Hungary_section_65

On 11 November, Karl issued a carefully worded proclamation in which he recognized the Austrian people's right to determine the form of the state and relinquished his right to take part in Austrian state affairs. Austria-Hungary_sentence_783

He also dismissed Lammasch and his government from office and released the officials in the Austrian half of the empire from their oath of loyalty to him. Austria-Hungary_sentence_784

Two days later, he issued a similar proclamation for Hungary. Austria-Hungary_sentence_785

However, he did not abdicate, remaining available in the event the people of either state should recall him. Austria-Hungary_sentence_786

For all intents and purposes, this was the end of Habsburg rule. Austria-Hungary_sentence_787

Karl's refusal to abdicate was ultimately irrelevant. Austria-Hungary_sentence_788

On the day after he announced his withdrawal from Austria's politics, the German-Austrian National Council proclaimed the Republic of German Austria. Austria-Hungary_sentence_789

Károlyi followed suit on 16 November, proclaiming the Hungarian Democratic Republic. Austria-Hungary_sentence_790

The Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye (between the victors of World War I and Austria) and the Treaty of Trianon (between the victors and Hungary) regulated the new borders of Austria and Hungary, leaving both as small landlocked states. Austria-Hungary_sentence_791

The Allies assumed without question that the minority nationalities wanted to leave Austria and Hungary, and also allowed them to annex significant blocks of German- and Hungarian-speaking territory. Austria-Hungary_sentence_792

As a result, the Republic of Austria lost roughly 60% of the old Austrian Empire's territory. Austria-Hungary_sentence_793

It also had to drop its plans for union with Germany, as it was not allowed to unite with Germany without League approval. Austria-Hungary_sentence_794

The restored Kingdom of Hungary, which had replaced the republican government in 1920, lost roughly 72% of the pre-war territory of the Kingdom of Hungary. Austria-Hungary_sentence_795

The decisions of the nations of the former Austria-Hungary and of the victors of the Great War, contained in the heavily one-sided treaties, had devastating political and economic effects. Austria-Hungary_sentence_796

The previously rapid economic growth of the Dual Monarchy ground to a halt because the new borders became major economic barriers. Austria-Hungary_sentence_797

All the formerly well-established industries, as well as the infrastructure supporting them, were designed to satisfy the needs of an extensive realm. Austria-Hungary_sentence_798

As a result, the emerging countries were forced to make considerable sacrifices to transform their economies. Austria-Hungary_sentence_799

The treaties created major political unease. Austria-Hungary_sentence_800

As a result of these economic difficulties, extremist movements gained strength; and there was no regional superpower in central Europe. Austria-Hungary_sentence_801

The new Austrian state was, at least on paper, on shakier ground than Hungary. Austria-Hungary_sentence_802

Unlike its former Hungarian partner, Austria had never been a nation in any real sense. Austria-Hungary_sentence_803

While the Austrian state had existed in one form or another for 700 years, it was united only by loyalty to the Habsburgs. Austria-Hungary_sentence_804

With the loss of 60% of the Austrian Empire's prewar territory, Vienna was now an imperial capital without an empire to support it. Austria-Hungary_sentence_805

However, after a brief period of upheaval and the Allies' foreclosure of union with Germany, Austria established itself as a federal republic. Austria-Hungary_sentence_806

Despite the temporary Anschluss with Nazi Germany, it still survives today. Austria-Hungary_sentence_807

Adolf Hitler cited that all "Germans" – such as him and the others from Austria, etc. – should be united with Germany. Austria-Hungary_sentence_808

By comparison, Hungary had been a nation and a state for over 900 years. Austria-Hungary_sentence_809

Hungary, however, was severely disrupted by the loss of 72% of its territory, 64% of its population and most of its natural resources. Austria-Hungary_sentence_810

The Hungarian Democratic Republic was short-lived and was temporarily replaced by the communist Hungarian Soviet Republic. Austria-Hungary_sentence_811

Romanian troops ousted Béla Kun and his communist government during the Hungarian–Romanian War of 1919. Austria-Hungary_sentence_812

In the summer of 1919, a Habsburg, Archduke Joseph August, became regent, but was forced to stand down after only two weeks when it became apparent the Allies would not recognise him. Austria-Hungary_sentence_813

Finally, in March 1920, royal powers were entrusted to a regent, Miklós Horthy, who had been the last commanding admiral of the Austro-Hungarian Navy and had helped organize the counter-revolutionary forces. Austria-Hungary_sentence_814

It was this government that signed the Treaty of Trianon under protest on 4 June 1920 at the Grand Trianon Palace in Versailles, France. Austria-Hungary_sentence_815

In March and again in October 1921, ill-prepared attempts by Karl to regain the throne in Budapest collapsed. Austria-Hungary_sentence_816

The initially wavering Horthy, after receiving threats of intervention from the Allied Powers and the Little Entente, refused his cooperation. Austria-Hungary_sentence_817

Soon afterward, the Hungarian government nullified the Pragmatic Sanction, effectively dethroning the Habsburgs. Austria-Hungary_sentence_818

Two years earlier, Austria had passed the "Habsburg Law," which both dethroned the Habsburgs and banished all Habsburgs from Austrian territory. Austria-Hungary_sentence_819

While Karl was banned from ever returning to Austria again, other Habsburgs could return if they gave up all claims to the throne. Austria-Hungary_sentence_820

Subsequently, the British took custody of Karl and removed him and his family to the Portuguese island of Madeira, where he died the following year. Austria-Hungary_sentence_821

Successor states Austria-Hungary_section_66

Main articles: Treaty of Trianon and Treaty of Saint Germain Austria-Hungary_sentence_822

The following successor states were formed (entirely or in part) on the territory of the former Austria-Hungary: Austria-Hungary_sentence_823


Austro-Hungarian lands were also ceded to the Kingdom of Italy. Austria-Hungary_sentence_824

The Principality of Liechtenstein, which had formerly looked to Vienna for protection, formed a customs and defense union with Switzerland, and adopted the Swiss currency instead of the Austrian. Austria-Hungary_sentence_825

In April 1919, Vorarlberg – the westernmost province of Austria – voted by a large majority to join Switzerland; however, both the Swiss and the Allies disregarded this result. Austria-Hungary_sentence_826

Territorial legacy Austria-Hungary_section_67

The following present-day countries and parts of countries were within the boundaries of Austria-Hungary when the empire was dissolved: Austria-Hungary_sentence_827

Empire of Austria (Cisleithania): Austria-Hungary_sentence_828


Kingdom of Hungary (Transleithania): Austria-Hungary_sentence_829


Austro-Hungarian Condominium Austria-Hungary_sentence_830


Possessions of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy Austria-Hungary_sentence_831


  • The empire was unable to gain and maintain large colonies owing to its geographical position. Its only possession outside of Europe was its concession in Tianjin, China, which it was granted in return for supporting the Eight-Nation Alliance in suppressing the Boxer Rebellion. However although the city was only an Austro-Hungarian possession for 16 years, the Austro-Hungarians left their mark on that area of the city, in the form of architecture that still stands in the city.Austria-Hungary_item_13_58

Other parts of Europe had been part of the Habsburg monarchy once but had left it before its dissolution in 1918. Austria-Hungary_sentence_832

Prominent examples are the regions of Lombardy and Veneto in Italy, Silesia in Poland, most of Belgium and Serbia, and parts of northern Switzerland and southwestern Germany. Austria-Hungary_sentence_833

They persuaded the government to search out foreign investment to build up infrastructure such as railroads. Austria-Hungary_sentence_834

Despite these measures, Austria-Hungary remained resolutely monarchist and authoritarian. Austria-Hungary_sentence_835

Flags and heraldry Austria-Hungary_section_68

Main article: Flags of Austria-Hungary Austria-Hungary_sentence_836

See also Austria-Hungary_section_69


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: