Azerbaijan Democratic Republic

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Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_table_infobox_0

Azerbaijan Democratic Republic

آذربایجان خلق جومهوریتی

Azərbaycan Demokratik RespublikasıAzerbaijan Democratic Republic_header_cell_0_0_0
CapitalAzerbaijan Democratic Republic_header_cell_0_1_0 Ganja (until Sep 1918)

BakuAzerbaijan Democratic Republic_cell_0_1_1

Common languagesAzerbaijan Democratic Republic_header_cell_0_2_0 AzerbaijaniAzerbaijan Democratic Republic_cell_0_2_1
GovernmentAzerbaijan Democratic Republic_header_cell_0_3_0 Parliamentary republicAzerbaijan Democratic Republic_cell_0_3_1
Prime MinisterAzerbaijan Democratic Republic_header_cell_0_4_0 Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_cell_0_4_1
1918–1919Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_header_cell_0_5_0 Fatali Khan KhoyskiAzerbaijan Democratic Republic_cell_0_5_1
1919–1920Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_header_cell_0_6_0 Nasib YusifbeyliAzerbaijan Democratic Republic_cell_0_6_1
1920Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_header_cell_0_7_0 Mammad Hasan HajinskiAzerbaijan Democratic Republic_cell_0_7_1
SpeakerAzerbaijan Democratic Republic_header_cell_0_8_0 Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_cell_0_8_1
1918Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_header_cell_0_9_0 Mammad Amin RasulzadeAzerbaijan Democratic Republic_cell_0_9_1
1918–1920Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_header_cell_0_10_0 Alimardan TopchubashovAzerbaijan Democratic Republic_cell_0_10_1
Historical eraAzerbaijan Democratic Republic_header_cell_0_11_0 Interwar periodAzerbaijan Democratic Republic_cell_0_11_1
IndependenceAzerbaijan Democratic Republic_header_cell_0_12_0 28 May 1918Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_cell_0_12_1
Soviet invasionAzerbaijan Democratic Republic_header_cell_0_13_0 28 April 1920Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_cell_0_13_1
Area Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_header_cell_0_14_0
1918Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_header_cell_0_15_0 99,908.87 km (38,575.03 sq mi)Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_cell_0_15_1
PopulationAzerbaijan Democratic Republic_header_cell_0_16_0
1917Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_header_cell_0_17_0 2,861,862Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_cell_0_17_1
CurrencyAzerbaijan Democratic Republic_header_cell_0_18_0 Azerbaijani manatAzerbaijan Democratic Republic_cell_0_18_1
ISO 3166 codeAzerbaijan Democratic Republic_header_cell_0_19_0 AZAzerbaijan Democratic Republic_cell_0_19_1
Preceded by

Succeeded by




Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic




Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist RepublicAzerbaijan Democratic Republic_cell_0_20_0

Preceded byAzerbaijan Democratic Republic_cell_0_21_0 Succeeded byAzerbaijan Democratic Republic_cell_0_21_1
Transcaucasian Democratic Federative RepublicAzerbaijan Democratic Republic_cell_0_22_0 Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist RepublicAzerbaijan Democratic Republic_cell_0_22_1
Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_cell_0_23_0 Transcaucasian Democratic Federative RepublicAzerbaijan Democratic Republic_cell_0_23_1
Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist RepublicAzerbaijan Democratic Republic_cell_0_24_0 Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_cell_0_24_1
Today part ofAzerbaijan Democratic Republic_header_cell_0_25_0 Armenia

 Azerbaijan  GeorgiaAzerbaijan Democratic Republic_cell_0_25_1

The Azerbaijan Democratic Republic (ADR; Azerbaijani: Azərbaycan Demokratik Respublikası), was the third secular democratic republic in the Turkic and Muslim worlds, after the Crimean People's Republic and Idel-Ural Republic. Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_sentence_0

The ADR was founded by the Azerbaijani National Council in Tiflis on 28 May 1918 after the collapse of the Russian Empire. Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_sentence_1

Its established borders were with Russia to the north, the Democratic Republic of Georgia to the north-west, the First Republic of Armenia to the west, and Iran to the south. Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_sentence_2

It had a population of around 3 million. Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_sentence_3

Ganja was the temporary capital of the Republic as Baku was under Bolshevik control. Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_sentence_4

The name of "Azerbaijan" which the leading Musavat party adopted, for political reasons, was, prior to the establishment of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic in 1918, exclusively used to identify the adjacent region of contemporary northwestern Iran. Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_sentence_5

Under the ADR, a government system was developed in which a Parliament elected on the basis of universal, free, and proportionate representation was the supreme organ of state authority; the Council of Ministers was held responsible before it. Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_sentence_6

Fatali Khan Khoyski became its first prime minister. Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_sentence_7

Besides the Musavat majority, Ahrar, Ittihad, Muslim Social Democrats as well as representatives of Armenian (21 out of 120 seats), Russian, Polish, Jewish and German minorities gained seats in the parliament. Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_sentence_8

Some members supported Pan-Islamist and Pan-Turkist ideas. Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_sentence_9

Among the important accomplishments of the Parliament was the extension of suffrage to women, making Azerbaijan one of the first countries in the world, and the very first majority-Muslim nation, to grant women equal political rights with men. Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_sentence_10

Another important accomplishment of the ADR was the establishment of Baku State University, which was the first modern-type university founded in Azerbaijan. Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_sentence_11

Establishment Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_section_0

Policy Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_section_1

Despite existing for only two years, the multiparty Azerbaijani Parliamentary republic and the coalition governments managed to achieve a number of measures on the nation and state-building, education, creation of an army, independent financial and economic systems, international recognition of the ADR as a de facto state pending de jure recognition, official recognition and diplomatic relations with a number of states, preparing of a Constitution and equal rights for all. Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_sentence_12

This laid an important foundation for the re-establishment of independence in 1991. Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_sentence_13

However, Parliament was in complicated circumstance, education, the enlightenment of the population was crucial factors in its policy. Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_sentence_14

New schools for girls, hospitals in villages, libraries, courses for teachers were founded in different parts of the country by the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic. Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_sentence_15

The foundation of Baku State University on September 1, 1919, demonstrates that education was an essential factor in the policy of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic. Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_sentence_16

Although the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic collapsed, Baku State University played great in gaining freedom again in the future. Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_sentence_17

Parliament started to create an opportunity for a young generation to study abroad in order to increase the number of educated people. Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_sentence_18

100 students were sent abroad with the help of state fund. Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_sentence_19

Domestic Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_section_2

Political life in the ADR was dominated by the Musavat Party, the local winner of the Constituent Assembly elections of 1917. Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_sentence_20

The first parliament of the republic opened on December 5, 1918. Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_sentence_21

Musavat had 38 members in parliament, which consisted of 96 deputies, and with some independent MPs formed the biggest faction. Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_sentence_22

The republic was governed by five cabinets (the 6th was being in the process when Azerbaijan was occupied by the Bolsheviks): Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_sentence_23

Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_table_general_1

CabinetsAzerbaijan Democratic Republic_header_cell_1_0_0 PremierAzerbaijan Democratic Republic_header_cell_1_0_1 TermAzerbaijan Democratic Republic_header_cell_1_0_2
FirstAzerbaijan Democratic Republic_cell_1_1_0 Fatali Khan KhoyskiAzerbaijan Democratic Republic_cell_1_1_1 May 28 – June 17, 1918Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_cell_1_1_2
SecondAzerbaijan Democratic Republic_cell_1_2_0 June 17 – December 7, 1918Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_cell_1_2_1
ThirdAzerbaijan Democratic Republic_cell_1_3_0 December 26, 1918 – March 14, 1919Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_cell_1_3_1
FourthAzerbaijan Democratic Republic_cell_1_4_0 Nasib YusifbeyliAzerbaijan Democratic Republic_cell_1_4_1 April 14 – December 22, 1919Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_cell_1_4_2
FifthAzerbaijan Democratic Republic_cell_1_5_0 December 22, 1919 – April 1, 1920Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_cell_1_5_1
SixthAzerbaijan Democratic Republic_cell_1_6_0 Mammad Hasan HajinskiAzerbaijan Democratic Republic_cell_1_6_1 abortedAzerbaijan Democratic Republic_cell_1_6_2

All cabinets were formed by a coalition of Musavat and other parties including the Muslim Socialist Bloc, the Independents, Ehrar, and the Muslim Social Democratic Party. Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_sentence_24

The conservative Ittihad party was the major opposition force and didn't participate in the cabinet formations, except its member was State Inspector General in the last Cabinet. Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_sentence_25

The premier in the first three cabinets was Fatali Khan Khoyski; in the last two, Nasib Yusifbeyli. Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_sentence_26

The formation of the next cabinet was assigned to Mammad Hasan Hajinski, but he was unable to form it, due to lack of time and majority backing in the parliament, and also the Bolshevik invasion. Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_sentence_27

The Chairman of the Parliament, Alimardan Topchubashev, was recognized as the head of state. Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_sentence_28

In this capacity, he represented Azerbaijan at the Versailles Paris Peace Conference in 1919. Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_sentence_29

Foreign relations Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_section_3

ADR government remained neutral on the issue of the Russian Civil War and never sided with the Red or White Army. Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_sentence_30

Throughout its existence from 1918 to 1920, the Republic of Azerbaijan had diplomatic relations with a number of states. Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_sentence_31

The first peace and friendship treaty of the Republic - Treaty of Batum was signed with the Ottoman Empire. Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_sentence_32

Thus, the Ottoman Empire became the first foreign country to recognize the independence of ADR. Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_sentence_33

Among the representation of the ADR abroad were the Azerbaijani Peace Delegation in Paris, consisting of the chair Alimardan Topchubashev, A.A. Sheykh Ul-Islamov, M. Maharramov, M. Mir-Mehdiyev and advisor B. Hajibayov; Diplomatic Representative to Georgia, Farist Bey Vekilov, to Armenia – Abdurahman Bey Akhverdiyev, advisor Agha Salah Musayev; to Persia – Agha-khan Khiatkhan and his assistant Alakpar Bey Sadikhov; in ConstantinopleYusif Bey Vezirov, his financial advisor, Jangir Bey GayibovGeneral Consul in Batumi, Mahmud Bey Efendiyev; Consul to Ukraine, Jamal Sadikhov and Consul in Crimea, Sheykh Ali Useynov. Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_sentence_34

Agreements on the principles of mutual relations were signed with some of them; sixteen states established their missions in Baku. Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_sentence_35

Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_description_list_0

Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_table_general_2

CountryAzerbaijan Democratic Republic_header_cell_2_0_0 EnvoyAzerbaijan Democratic Republic_header_cell_2_0_1 AddressAzerbaijan Democratic Republic_header_cell_2_0_2
United KingdomAzerbaijan Democratic Republic_cell_2_1_0 Vice Consul GevelkeAzerbaijan Democratic Republic_cell_2_1_1 Kladbisshenskaya Str, 11

(Russian-Asian Bank Depository)Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_cell_2_1_2

ArmeniaAzerbaijan Democratic Republic_cell_2_2_0 Diplomatic Representative G.A. BekzadyanAzerbaijan Democratic Republic_cell_2_2_1 Telefonnaya Str, 5Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_cell_2_2_2
BelgiumAzerbaijan Democratic Republic_cell_2_3_0 Consul AyvazovAzerbaijan Democratic Republic_cell_2_3_1 Gorchakovskaya Str, 19Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_cell_2_3_2
GreeceAzerbaijan Democratic Republic_cell_2_4_0 Consul KoussisAzerbaijan Democratic Republic_cell_2_4_1 Corner of Gogolevskaya and Molokanskaya streetAzerbaijan Democratic Republic_cell_2_4_2
GeorgiaAzerbaijan Democratic Republic_cell_2_5_0 Diplomatic Representative Grigol AlshibaiaAzerbaijan Democratic Republic_cell_2_5_1 Politseyskaya Str, 20Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_cell_2_5_2
DenmarkAzerbaijan Democratic Republic_cell_2_6_0 E.F. BisringAzerbaijan Democratic Republic_cell_2_6_1 Birzhevaya Str, 32

(Elektricheskaya Sila company building)Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_cell_2_6_2

ItalyAzerbaijan Democratic Republic_cell_2_7_0 Chief of the 8th Mission, Enrico Ensom

Consul L. GrikurovAzerbaijan Democratic Republic_cell_2_7_1

Molokanskaya, 35

Krasnovodskaya, 8Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_cell_2_7_2

LithuaniaAzerbaijan Democratic Republic_cell_2_8_0 Consul Vincas MickevičiusAzerbaijan Democratic Republic_cell_2_8_1 Pozenovskaya, 15Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_cell_2_8_2
PersiaAzerbaijan Democratic Republic_cell_2_9_0 Consul Saad Ul VizirovAzerbaijan Democratic Republic_cell_2_9_1 Corner of Gubernskaya Str and Spasskaya StrAzerbaijan Democratic Republic_cell_2_9_2
PolandAzerbaijan Democratic Republic_cell_2_10_0 Consul S. RylskyAzerbaijan Democratic Republic_cell_2_10_1 Politseyskaya Str, 15Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_cell_2_10_2
United StatesAzerbaijan Democratic Republic_cell_2_11_0 Consul RandolphAzerbaijan Democratic Republic_cell_2_11_1 Krasnovodskaya Str, 8Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_cell_2_11_2
UkraineAzerbaijan Democratic Republic_cell_2_12_0 Consul GolovanAzerbaijan Democratic Republic_cell_2_12_1 Nikolayevskaya Str, 8

(Mirzabeyov brothers' house)Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_cell_2_12_2

FinlandAzerbaijan Democratic Republic_cell_2_13_0 Consul VegeliusAzerbaijan Democratic Republic_cell_2_13_1 Balaxanı

(Nobel Brothers' office)Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_cell_2_13_2

FranceAzerbaijan Democratic Republic_cell_2_14_0 Consul EmelyanovAzerbaijan Democratic Republic_cell_2_14_1 Vodovoznaya Str.

(Mitrofanovs house)Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_cell_2_14_2

SwitzerlandAzerbaijan Democratic Republic_cell_2_15_0 Consul ClateauAzerbaijan Democratic Republic_cell_2_15_1 Birzhevaya Str, 14Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_cell_2_15_2
SwedenAzerbaijan Democratic Republic_cell_2_16_0 Consul R.K. Vander-PlougAzerbaijan Democratic Republic_cell_2_16_1 Corner of Persidskaya and Gubernskaya streetsAzerbaijan Democratic Republic_cell_2_16_2

Recognition by Allies Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_section_4

A delegation from Azerbaijan attended the Paris Peace Conference, 1919. Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_sentence_36

Upon its arrival, the Azerbaijani delegation addressed a note to U.S. Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_sentence_37 President Woodrow Wilson, making the following requests: Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_sentence_38

Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_description_list_1

  • Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_item_1_0
    • 1. That the independence of Azerbaijan be recognized,Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_item_1_1
    • 2. That Wilsonian principles be applied to Azerbaijan,Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_item_1_2
    • 3. That the Azerbaijani delegation be admitted to the Paris Peace Conference,Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_item_1_3
    • 4. That Azerbaijan be admitted to the League of Nations,Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_item_1_4
    • 5. That the United States War Department extend military help to AzerbaijanAzerbaijan Democratic Republic_item_1_5
    • 6. That diplomatic relations be established between the United States of America and the Republic of Azerbaijan.Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_item_1_6

President Wilson granted the delegation an audience, at which he displayed a cold and rather unsympathetic attitude. Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_sentence_39

As the Azerbaijani delegation reported to its Government, Wilson had stated that the Conference did not want to partition the world into small pieces. Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_sentence_40

Wilson advised Azerbaijan that it would be better for them to develop a spirit of confederation and that such a confederation of all the peoples of Transcaucasia could receive the protection of some Power on the basis of a mandate granted by the League of Nations. Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_sentence_41

The Azerbaijani question, Wilson concluded, could not be solved prior to the general settlement of the Russian question. Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_sentence_42

However, despite Wilson's attitude, on January 12, 1920, the Allied Supreme Council extended de facto recognition to Azerbaijan, along with Georgia, and Armenia. Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_sentence_43

Bulletin d'information de l'Azerbaidjan wrote: "The Supreme Council at one of its last sessions recognized the de facto independence of the Caucasian Republics: Azerbaijan, Georgia, and Armenia. Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_sentence_44

The delegation of Azerbaijan and Georgia had been notified of this decision by M. Jules Cambon at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs on 15th January, 1920". Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_sentence_45

Furthermore, in the House of Commons the [British] Under-Secretary for Foreign Affairs, Mr. Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_sentence_46 Greenwood, was asked on what date recognition had been extended to Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia, and whether "in accordance with such recognition, official representatives have been exchanged, and the boundaries of the Transcaucasian Republics defined", Mr. Greenwood replied: Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_sentence_47

The Allies recognized the Transcaucasian Republics partly because of their fear of Bolshevism, but their activities directed against Bolshevism, at least in Transcaucasia, did not go much beyond words, the strongest of which was status quo, recognition, demarche, and a list of standard diplomatic remonstrances. Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_sentence_48

After the Azerbaijani delegation successfully completed its mission at the Paris Peace Conference, the parliament adopted a law on the establishment of diplomatic missions in France, Great Britain, Italy, the United States, and Poland. Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_sentence_49

In addition, the consulates of Azerbaijan started operating in Tabriz, Khoy, Anzali, Rasht, Ahar, Mashhad, Batumi, Kiev, Crimea, Ashgabat, and elsewhere. Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_sentence_50

Baku, Georgia, Armenia, Iran, Belgium, the Netherlands, Greece, Denmark, Italy, France, Sweden, Switzerland, England, USA, Ukraine, Lithuania, Poland, Finland, and other countries have official representations at different levels. Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_sentence_51

Persia Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_section_5

The name of "Azerbaijan" which the leading Musavat party adopted, for political reasons, was prior to the establishment of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic in 1918 exclusively used to identify the adjacent region of contemporary northwestern Iran. Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_sentence_52

The decision to use the name "Azerbaijan" drew some protests from Iran. Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_sentence_53

According to Tadeusz Swietochowski: Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_sentence_54

On 16 July 1919, the Council of Ministers [of ADR] appointed Adil Khan Ziatkhan, who had up to that time served as Assistant Minister of Foreign Affairs, diplomatic representative of Azerbaijan to the court of the Persian King of Kings. Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_sentence_55

A Persian delegation headed by Seyed Ziaed-Din Tabatai came to Baku, to negotiate transit, tariff, mail, customs, and other such agreements. Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_sentence_56

Speeches were made in which the common bonds between Caucasian Azerbaijan and Iran were stressed. Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_sentence_57

Territorial disputes Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_section_6

Much like its other counterparts in the Caucasus, the ADR's early years of existence were plagued with territorial disputes. Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_sentence_58

In particular, these included disputes with the First Republic of Armenia (Nakhchivan, Nagorno-Karabakh, Zangezur (today the Armenian province of Syunik), and Qazakh) and the Democratic Republic of Georgia (Balakan, Zaqatala, and Qakh). Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_sentence_59

The ADR also claimed territories of the Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus (Derbent), but they were not as persistent about these claims as they were about the territories they disputed between Armenia and Georgia. Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_sentence_60

Armenian-Azerbaijani war Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_section_7

Main articles: Armenian–Azerbaijani War and Battle of Baku Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_sentence_61

In the summer of 1918, the Dashnaks, together with the SRs and the Mensheviks, expelled the Bolsheviks, who refused to ask for British support, and founded the Centro Caspian Dictatorship (1 August 1918 – 15 September 1918). Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_sentence_62

The CCD was supported by the British who sent an expeditionary force to Baku to help the Armenians and the Mensheviks. Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_sentence_63

The purpose of the British forces (led by Major General Lionel Dunsterville, who arrived from Persia's Enzeli at the head of a 1,000-strong elite force) was to seize the oil fields in Baku ahead of Enver Pasha's advancing Turkish troops (Army of Islam) or the Kaiser's German troops (who were in neighboring Georgia) and to block a Bolshevik consolidation in the Caucasus and Central Asia. Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_sentence_64

The city of Baku only became the capital of the Republic in September 1918. Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_sentence_65

Unable to resist advancing Turkish troops during the Battle of Baku, Dunsterville ordered the evacuation of the city on September 14, after six weeks of occupation, and withdrew to Iran; most of the Armenian population escaped with the British forces. Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_sentence_66

The Ottoman Army of Islam and its Azeri allies, led by Nuri Pasha, entered Baku on September 15 and slaughtered between 10,000 – 20,000 Armenians in retaliation for the March massacre of Muslims. Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_sentence_67

The capital of the ADR was finally moved from Ganja to Baku. Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_sentence_68

However, after the Armistice of Mudros between Great Britain and Turkey on October 30, Turkish troops were replaced by the Allies of World War I. Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_sentence_69

Headed by British general William Montgomery Thomson, who had declared himself the military governor of Baku, 5,000 Commonwealth soldiers arrived in Baku on November 17, 1918. Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_sentence_70

By General Thomson's order, martial law was implemented in Baku. Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_sentence_71

Fight for survival Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_section_8

The ADR found itself in a difficult position, hemmed in from the north by advancing Denikin forces, unfriendly Iran in the south; the British administration was not hostile but indifferent to the plight of Muslims. Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_sentence_72

General Thomson initially did not recognize the Republic but tacitly cooperated with it. Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_sentence_73

On April 25, 1919, a violent protest organized by Talysh workers of pro-Bolshevik orientation exploded in Lankaran and deposed the Mughan Territorial Administration, a military dictatorship led by Russian colonel T. P. Sukhorukov. Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_sentence_74

On May 15, the Extraordinary Congress of the "Councils of Workers' and Peasants' Deputies" of Lankaran district proclaimed the Mughan Soviet Republic. Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_sentence_75

By mid-1919 the situation in Azerbaijan had more or less stabilized, and British forces left on August 19, 1919. Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_sentence_76

This made the ADR pursue a neutral policy with regard to the Russian Civil War. Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_sentence_77

On June 16, 1919, the ADR and Georgia signed a defensive treaty against the White troops of General Anton Denikin's Volunteer Army who were threatening to start an offensive on their borders. Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_sentence_78

Denikin concluded a secret military pact with Armenia. Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_sentence_79

The Republic of Armenia with its forces formed the 7th corps of Denikin's army and gained military support from the White Movement. Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_sentence_80

This fact increased the tension between the ADR and Armenia. Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_sentence_81

However, the war never materialized as by January 1920, Denikin's army was completely defeated by the XI Red Army, which later started to concentrate its troops on Azerbaijan's borders. Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_sentence_82

Armenia and Azerbaijan were engaged in fighting over Karabakh for some part of 1919. Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_sentence_83

The fighting increased in intensity by February 1920 and martial law was introduced in Karabakh, which was enforced by the newly formed National Army, led by general Samedbey Mehmandarov. Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_sentence_84

Fall of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic (April 1920) Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_section_9

Main articles: Red Army invasion of Azerbaijan and Azerbaijan SSR Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_sentence_85

Maps Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_section_10

Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_unordered_list_2

  • Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_item_2_7
  • Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_item_2_8

See also Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_section_11

Azerbaijan Democratic Republic_unordered_list_3


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Azerbaijan Democratic Republic.