Azerbaijani language

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"Azeri language" redirects here. Azerbaijani language_sentence_0

For the extinct Iranian language, see Old Azeri. Azerbaijani language_sentence_1

Azerbaijani language_table_infobox_0

AzerbaijaniAzerbaijani language_header_cell_0_0_0
PronunciationAzerbaijani language_header_cell_0_1_0 [ɑːzæɾbɑjˈdʒɑn diˈliAzerbaijani language_cell_0_1_1
Native toAzerbaijani language_header_cell_0_2_0 Azerbaijani language_cell_0_2_1
RegionAzerbaijani language_header_cell_0_3_0 Iranian Azerbaijan, TranscaucasusAzerbaijani language_cell_0_3_1
EthnicityAzerbaijani language_header_cell_0_4_0 AzerbaijanisAzerbaijani language_cell_0_4_1
Native speakersAzerbaijani language_header_cell_0_5_0 45-50 millionAzerbaijani language_cell_0_5_1
Language familyAzerbaijani language_header_cell_0_6_0 TurkicAzerbaijani language_cell_0_6_1
Standard formsAzerbaijani language_header_cell_0_7_0 Shirvani (In Republic of Azerbaijan)

Tabrizi (In Iranian Azerbaijan)Azerbaijani language_cell_0_7_1

DialectsAzerbaijani language_header_cell_0_8_0 Azerbaijani language_cell_0_8_1
Writing systemAzerbaijani language_header_cell_0_9_0 Azerbaijani language_cell_0_9_1
Official statusAzerbaijani language_header_cell_0_10_0
Official language inAzerbaijani language_header_cell_0_11_0 Azerbaijan

 Dagestan (Russia)

Organisations:Azerbaijani language_cell_0_11_1

Regulated byAzerbaijani language_header_cell_0_12_0 Azerbaijani language_cell_0_12_1
Language codesAzerbaijani language_header_cell_0_13_0
ISO 639-1Azerbaijani language_header_cell_0_14_0 Azerbaijani language_cell_0_14_1
ISO 639-2Azerbaijani language_header_cell_0_15_0 Azerbaijani language_cell_0_15_1
ISO 639-3Azerbaijani language_header_cell_0_16_0 – inclusive code

Individual codes:  – North Azerbaijani  – South Azerbaijani  – Salchuq  – QashqaiAzerbaijani language_cell_0_16_1

GlottologAzerbaijani language_header_cell_0_17_0 Modern Azeric

  North Azerbaijani   South AzerbaijaniAzerbaijani language_cell_0_17_1

LinguasphereAzerbaijani language_header_cell_0_18_0 part of 44-AAB-aAzerbaijani language_cell_0_18_1

Azerbaijani (/ˌæzərbaɪˈdʒɑːni/) or Azeri (/æˈzɛəri, ɑː-, ə-/), also referred to as Azerbaijani Turkic or Azerbaijani Turkish, is a Turkic language spoken primarily by the Azerbaijani people, who live mainly in the Republic of Azerbaijan (former Soviet) where the North Azerbaijani variety is spoken, and in the Azerbaijan region of Iran, where the South Azerbaijani variety is spoken. Azerbaijani language_sentence_2

Although there is a very high degree of mutual intelligibility between both forms of Azerbaijani, there are significant differences in phonology, lexicon, morphology, syntax and sources of loanwords. Azerbaijani language_sentence_3

North Azerbaijani has official status in the Republic of Azerbaijan and Dagestan (a federal subject of Russia) but South Azerbaijani does not have official status in Iran, where the majority of Azerbaijani people live. Azerbaijani language_sentence_4

It is also spoken to lesser varying degrees in Azerbaijani communities of Georgia and Turkey and by diaspora communities, primarily in Europe and North America. Azerbaijani language_sentence_5

Both Azerbaijani varieties are members of the Oghuz branch of the Turkic languages. Azerbaijani language_sentence_6

The standardized form of North Azerbaijani (spoken in the Republic of Azerbaijan and Russia) is based on the Shirvani dialect, while Iranian Azerbaijani uses the Tabrizi dialect as its prestige variety. Azerbaijani language_sentence_7

Azerbaijani is closely related to Gagauz, Qashqai, Crimean Tatar, Turkish and Turkmen, sharing varying degrees of mutual intelligibility with each of those languages. Azerbaijani language_sentence_8

According to linguistic comparative studies, the closest relative of Azerbaijani is the Turkmen language. Azerbaijani language_sentence_9

Etymology and background Azerbaijani language_section_0

Historically the language was referred by its native speakers as Türki meaning "Turkic" or Azərbaycan türkcəsi meaning "Azerbaijani Turkic". Azerbaijani language_sentence_10

Prior to the establishment of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic, who adopted the name of "Azerbaijan" for political reasons in 1918, the name of "Azerbaijan" was exclusively used to identify the adjacent region of contemporary northwestern Iran. Azerbaijani language_sentence_11

After the establishment of the Azerbaijan SSR, on the order of Soviet leader Stalin, the "name of the formal language" of the Azerbaijan SSR was "changed from Turkic to Azerbaijani". Azerbaijani language_sentence_12

History and evolution Azerbaijani language_section_1

Main articles: Languages of Azerbaijan and Languages of Iran Azerbaijani language_sentence_13

Azerbaijani evolved from the Eastern branch of Oghuz Turkic ("Western Turkic") which spread to the Caucasus, in Eastern Europe, and northern Iran, in Western Asia, during the medieval Turkic migrations. Azerbaijani language_sentence_14

Persian and Arabic influenced the language, but Arabic words were mainly transmitted through the intermediary of literary Persian. Azerbaijani language_sentence_15

Azerbaijani is, perhaps after Uzbek, the Turkic language upon which Persian and other Iranian languages have exerted the strongest impact—mainly in phonology, syntax, and vocabulary, less in morphology. Azerbaijani language_sentence_16

The Turkic language of Azerbaijan gradually supplanted the Iranian languages in what is now northwestern Iran, and a variety of languages of the Caucasus and Iranian languages spoken in the Caucasus, particularly Udi and Old Azeri. Azerbaijani language_sentence_17

By the beginning of the 16th century, it had become the dominant language of the region. Azerbaijani language_sentence_18

It was a spoken language in the court of the Safavids, Afsharids and Qajars. Azerbaijani language_sentence_19

The historical development of Azerbaijani can be divided into two major periods: early (c. 16th to 18th century) and modern (18th century to present). Azerbaijani language_sentence_20

Early Azerbaijani differs from its descendant in that it contained a much larger number of Persian, and Arabic loanwords, phrases and syntactic elements. Azerbaijani language_sentence_21

Early writings in Azerbaijani also demonstrate linguistic interchangeability between Oghuz and Kypchak elements in many aspects (such as pronouns, case endings, participles, etc.). Azerbaijani language_sentence_22

As Azerbaijani gradually moved from being merely a language of epic and lyric poetry to being also a language of journalism and scientific research, its literary version has become more or less unified and simplified with the loss of many archaic Turkic elements, stilted Iranisms and Ottomanisms, and other words, expressions, and rules that failed to gain popularity among the Azerbaijani masses. Azerbaijani language_sentence_23

Between c. 1900 and 1930, there were several competing approaches to the unification of the national language in what is now the Azerbaijan Republic, popularized by scholars such as Hasan bey Zardabi and Mammad agha Shahtakhtinski. Azerbaijani language_sentence_24

Despite major differences, they all aimed primarily at making it easy for semi-literate masses to read and understand literature. Azerbaijani language_sentence_25

They all criticized the overuse of Persian, Arabic, and European elements in both colloquial and literary language and called for a simpler and more popular style. Azerbaijani language_sentence_26

The Russian conquest of Transcaucasia in the 19th century split the language community across two states; the Soviet Union promoted the development of the language but set it back considerably with two successive script changes – from the Persian to Latin and then to the Cyrillic script – while Iranian Azerbaijanis continued to use the Persian script as they always had. Azerbaijani language_sentence_27

Despite the wide use of Azerbaijani in the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic, it became the official language of Azerbaijan only in 1956. Azerbaijani language_sentence_28

After independence, the Republic of Azerbaijan decided to switch back to a modified Latin script. Azerbaijani language_sentence_29

Azerbaijani literature Azerbaijani language_section_2

Main article: Azerbaijani literature Azerbaijani language_sentence_30

The development of Azerbaijani literature is closely associated with Anatolian Turkish, written in Perso-Arabic script. Azerbaijani language_sentence_31

Examples of its detachment date to the 14th century or earlier. Azerbaijani language_sentence_32

Kadi Burhan al-Din, Hesenoghlu, and Imadaddin Nasimi helped to establish Azerbaiijani as a literary language in the 14th century through poetry and other works. Azerbaijani language_sentence_33

The ruler and poet Ismail I wrote under the pen name Khatā'ī (which means "sinner" in Persian) during the fifteenth century. Azerbaijani language_sentence_34

During the 16th century, the poet, writer and thinker Fuzûlî wrote mainly in Azerbaijani but also translated his poems into Arabic and Persian. Azerbaijani language_sentence_35

Starting in the 1830s, several newspapers were published in Iran during the reign of the Azerbaijani speaking Qajar dynasty but it is unknown whether any of these newspapers were written in Azerbaijani. Azerbaijani language_sentence_36

In 1875 Akinchi (Əkinçi / اکينچی‎) ("The Ploughman") became the first Azerbaijani newspaper to be published in the Russian Empire. Azerbaijani language_sentence_37

It was started by Hasan bey Zardabi, a journalist and education advocate. Azerbaijani language_sentence_38

Following the rule of the Qajar dynasty, Iran was ruled by Reza Shah who banned the publication of texts in Azerbaijani. Azerbaijani language_sentence_39

Modern literature in the Republic of Azerbaijan is based on the Shirvani dialect mainly, while in Iranian Azerbaijan it is based on the Tabrizi dialect. Azerbaijani language_sentence_40

Mohammad-Hossein Shahriar is an important figure in Azerbaijani poetry. Azerbaijani language_sentence_41

His most important work is Heydar Babaya Salam and it is considered to be a pinnacle of Azerbaijani literature and gained popularity in the Turkic-speaking world. Azerbaijani language_sentence_42

It was translated into more than 30 languages. Azerbaijani language_sentence_43

In the mid-19th century, Azerbaijani literature was taught at schools in Baku, Ganja, Shaki, Tbilisi, and Yerevan. Azerbaijani language_sentence_44

Since 1845, it has also been taught in the Saint Petersburg State University in Russia. Azerbaijani language_sentence_45

In 2018, Azerbaijani language and literature programs are offered in the United States at several universities, including Indiana University, UCLA, and University of Texas at Austin. Azerbaijani language_sentence_46

The vast majority, if not all Azerbaijani language courses teach North Azerbaijani written in the Latin script and not South Azerbaijani written in the Perso-Arabic script. Azerbaijani language_sentence_47

Modern literature in the Republic of Azerbaijan is primarily based on the Shirvani dialect, while in the Iranian Azerbaijan region (historic Azerbaijan) it is based on the Tabrizi one. Azerbaijani language_sentence_48

Lingua franca Azerbaijani language_section_3

Azerbaijani served as a lingua franca throughout most parts of Transcaucasia except the Black Sea coast, in southern Dagestan, the Eastern Anatolia Region and Iranian Azerbaijan from the 16th to the early 20th centuries, alongside the cultural, administrative, court literature, and most importantly official language of all these regions, namely Persian. Azerbaijani language_sentence_49

From the early 16th century up to the course of the 19th century, these regions and territories were all ruled by the Safavids, Afsharids and Qajars until the cession of Transcaucasia proper and Dagestan by Qajar Iran to the Russian Empire per the 1813 Treaty of Gulistan and the 1828 Treaty of Turkmenchay. Azerbaijani language_sentence_50

Per the 1829 Caucasus School Statute, Azerbaijani was to be taught in all district schools of Ganja, Shusha, Nukha (present-day Shaki), Shamakhi, Quba, Baku, Derbent, Yerevan, Nakhchivan, Akhaltsikhe, and Lankaran. Azerbaijani language_sentence_51

Beginning in 1834, it was introduced as a language of study in Kutaisi instead of Armenian. Azerbaijani language_sentence_52

In 1853, Azerbaijani became a compulsory language for students of all backgrounds in all of Transcaucasia with the exception of the Tiflis Governorate. Azerbaijani language_sentence_53

North vs. South Azerbaijani Azerbaijani language_section_4

Azerbaijani is one of the Oghuz languages within the Turkic language family. Azerbaijani language_sentence_54

Ethnologue classifies North Azerbaijani (spoken mainly in the Republic of Azerbaijan and Russia) and South Azerbaijani (spoken in Iran, Iraq, and Syria) as separate languages with "significant differences in phonology, lexicon, morphology, syntax, and loanwords." Azerbaijani language_sentence_55

Svante Cornell wrote in his 2001 book Small Nations and Great Powers that "it is certain that Russian and Iranian words (sic), respectively, have entered the vocabulary on either side of the Araxes river, but this has not occurred to an extent that it could pose difficulties for communication.". Azerbaijani language_sentence_56

There are numerous dialects, with 21 North Azerbaijani dialects and 11 South Azerbaijani dialects identified by Ethnologue. Azerbaijani language_sentence_57

Four varieties have been accorded ISO 639-3 language codes: North Azerbaijani, South Azerbaijani, Salchuq, and Qashqai. Azerbaijani language_sentence_58

The Glottolog 4.1 database classifies North Azerbaijani, with 20 dialects, and South Azerbaijani, with 13 dialects, under the Modern Azeric family, a branch of Central Oghuz. Azerbaijani language_sentence_59

According to the Linguasphere Observatory, all Oghuz languages form part of a single "outer language" of which North and South Azerbaijani are "inner languages". Azerbaijani language_sentence_60

North Azerbaijani Azerbaijani language_section_5

North Azerbaijani, or Northern Azerbaijani, is the official language of the Republic of Azerbaijan. Azerbaijani language_sentence_61

It is closely related to the modern-day Istanbul Turkish, the official language of Turkey. Azerbaijani language_sentence_62

It is also spoken in southern Dagestan, along the Caspian coast in the southern Caucasus Mountains and in scattered regions throughout Central Asia. Azerbaijani language_sentence_63

As of 2011, there are some 9.23 million speakers of North Azerbaijani including 4 million monolingual speakers (many North Azerbaijani speakers also speak Russian, as is common throughout former USSR countries). Azerbaijani language_sentence_64

The Shirvan dialect as spoken in Baku is the basis of standard Azerbaijani. Azerbaijani language_sentence_65

Since 1992, it has been officially written with a Latin script in the Republic of Azerbaijan, but the older Cyrillic script was still widely used in the late 1990s. Azerbaijani language_sentence_66

Ethnologue lists 21 North Azerbaijani dialects: Quba, Derbend, Baku, Shamakhi, Salyan, Lankaran, Qazakh, Airym, Borcala, Terekeme, Qyzylbash, Nukha, Zaqatala (Mugaly), Qabala, Yerevan, Nakhchivan, Ordubad, Ganja, Shusha (Karabakh), Karapapak. Azerbaijani language_sentence_67

South Azerbaijani Azerbaijani language_section_6

South Azerbaijani is widely spoken in Iranian Azerbaijan and, to a lesser extent, in neighboring regions of Turkey and Iraq, with smaller communities in Syria. Azerbaijani language_sentence_68

In Iran, the Persian word for Azerbaijani is borrowed as Torki "Turkic". Azerbaijani language_sentence_69

In Iran, it is spoken mainly in East Azerbaijan, West Azerbaijan, Ardabil and Zanjan. Azerbaijani language_sentence_70

It is also widely spoken in Tehran and across Tehran Province, as Azerbaijanis form by far the largest minority in the city and the wider province, comprising about 1/6, of its total population. Azerbaijani language_sentence_71

The CIA World Factbook reports in 2010 the percentage of Iranian Azerbaijani speakers at around 16 percent of the Iranian population, or approximately 13 million people worldwide, and ethnic Azeris form by far the second largest ethnic group of Iran, thus making the language also the second most spoken language in the nation. Azerbaijani language_sentence_72

Ethnologue reports 10.9 million Iranian Azerbaijani in Iran in 2016 and 13,823,350 worldwide. Azerbaijani language_sentence_73

Dialects of South Azerbaijani include: Aynallu (Inallu, Inanlu), Qarapapaq, Tabrizi, Qashqai, Afshari (Afsar, Afshar), Shahsavani (Shahseven), Muqaddam, Baharlu (Kamesh), Nafar, Qaragözlü, Pishaqchi, Bayatlu, Qajar, Marandli. Azerbaijani language_sentence_74

Azerbaijani vs. Turkish Azerbaijani language_section_7

Azerbaijan and Turkey have had close diplomatic relations. Azerbaijani language_sentence_75

North and South Azerbaijani speakers and Turkish speakers can communicate with varying degrees of mutual intelligibility. Azerbaijani language_sentence_76

Turkish soap operas are very popular with Azeris in both Iran and Azerbaijan. Azerbaijani language_sentence_77

Reza Shah Pahlavi of Iran (who spoke South Azerbaijani) met with Mustafa Kemal Atatürk of Turkey (who spoke Turkish) in 1934 and were filmed speaking together. Azerbaijani language_sentence_78

Speakers of Turkish and Azerbaijani can, to an extent, communicate with each other as both languages have substantial variation and are to a degree mutually intelligible. Azerbaijani language_sentence_79

Azerbaijani exhibits a similar stress pattern to Turkish but simpler in some respects. Azerbaijani language_sentence_80

Azerbaijani is a strongly stressed and partially stress-timed language, unlike Turkish which is weakly stressed and syllable-timed. Azerbaijani language_sentence_81

Here are some words with a different pronunciation in Azerbaijani and Turkish that mean the same in both languages: Azerbaijani language_sentence_82

Azerbaijani language_table_general_1

North Azerbaijani/South AzerbaijaniAzerbaijani language_header_cell_1_0_0 TurkishAzerbaijani language_header_cell_1_0_1 EnglishAzerbaijani language_header_cell_1_0_2
ayaqqabı/başmaqAzerbaijani language_cell_1_1_0 ayakkabıAzerbaijani language_cell_1_1_1 shoeAzerbaijani language_cell_1_1_2
ayaq/ayaqAzerbaijani language_cell_1_2_0 ayakAzerbaijani language_cell_1_2_1 footAzerbaijani language_cell_1_2_2
kitab/kitabAzerbaijani language_cell_1_3_0 kitapAzerbaijani language_cell_1_3_1 bookAzerbaijani language_cell_1_3_2
qardaş/qardaşAzerbaijani language_cell_1_4_0 kardeşAzerbaijani language_cell_1_4_1 brotherAzerbaijani language_cell_1_4_2
qan/qanAzerbaijani language_cell_1_5_0 kanAzerbaijani language_cell_1_5_1 bloodAzerbaijani language_cell_1_5_2
qaz/qazAzerbaijani language_cell_1_6_0 kazAzerbaijani language_cell_1_6_1 gooseAzerbaijani language_cell_1_6_2
qaş/qaşAzerbaijani language_cell_1_7_0 kaşAzerbaijani language_cell_1_7_1 eyebrowAzerbaijani language_cell_1_7_2
qar/qarAzerbaijani language_cell_1_8_0 karAzerbaijani language_cell_1_8_1 snowAzerbaijani language_cell_1_8_2
daş/daşAzerbaijani language_cell_1_9_0 taşAzerbaijani language_cell_1_9_1 stoneAzerbaijani language_cell_1_9_2
qatar/qatarAzerbaijani language_cell_1_10_0 trenAzerbaijani language_cell_1_10_1 trainAzerbaijani language_cell_1_10_2

Phonology Azerbaijani language_section_8

Phonotactics Azerbaijani language_section_9

Azerbaijani phonotactics is similar to other Oghuz Turkic languages, except: Azerbaijani language_sentence_83

Azerbaijani language_unordered_list_0

  • Trimoraic syllables with long vowels are permissible.Azerbaijani language_item_0_0
  • There is an ongoing metathesis of neighboring consonants in a word. Speakers tend to reorder consonants in the order of decreasing sonority and back-to-front (for example, iləri becomes irəli, köprü becomes körpü, topraq becomes torpaq). Some of the metatheses are so common in the educated speech that they are reflected in orthography (all the above examples are like that). This phenomenon is more common in rural dialects but observed even in educated young urban speakers.Azerbaijani language_item_0_1
  • Intramorpheme /q/ becomes /x/.Azerbaijani language_item_0_2

Consonants Azerbaijani language_section_10

Azerbaijani language_table_general_2

Consonant phonemes of Standard AzerbaijaniAzerbaijani language_table_caption_2
Azerbaijani language_header_cell_2_0_0 LabialAzerbaijani language_header_cell_2_0_1 DentalAzerbaijani language_header_cell_2_0_3 AlveolarAzerbaijani language_header_cell_2_0_5 Palato- alveolarAzerbaijani language_header_cell_2_0_7 PalatalAzerbaijani language_header_cell_2_0_9 VelarAzerbaijani language_header_cell_2_0_11 GlottalAzerbaijani language_header_cell_2_0_13
NasalAzerbaijani language_header_cell_2_1_0 Azerbaijani language_cell_2_1_1 mAzerbaijani language_cell_2_1_2 Azerbaijani language_cell_2_1_3 Azerbaijani language_cell_2_1_4 Azerbaijani language_cell_2_1_5 nAzerbaijani language_cell_2_1_6 Azerbaijani language_cell_2_1_7 Azerbaijani language_cell_2_1_8 Azerbaijani language_cell_2_1_9 Azerbaijani language_cell_2_1_10 Azerbaijani language_cell_2_1_11 Azerbaijani language_cell_2_1_12 Azerbaijani language_cell_2_1_13 Azerbaijani language_cell_2_1_14
StopAzerbaijani language_header_cell_2_2_0 pAzerbaijani language_cell_2_2_1 bAzerbaijani language_cell_2_2_2 tAzerbaijani language_cell_2_2_3 dAzerbaijani language_cell_2_2_4 Azerbaijani language_cell_2_2_5 Azerbaijani language_cell_2_2_6 t͡ʃAzerbaijani language_cell_2_2_7 d͡ʒAzerbaijani language_cell_2_2_8 cAzerbaijani language_cell_2_2_9 (ɟ)Azerbaijani language_cell_2_2_10 (k)Azerbaijani language_cell_2_2_11 ɡAzerbaijani language_cell_2_2_12 Azerbaijani language_cell_2_2_13 Azerbaijani language_cell_2_2_14
FricativeAzerbaijani language_header_cell_2_3_0 fAzerbaijani language_cell_2_3_1 vAzerbaijani language_cell_2_3_2 sAzerbaijani language_cell_2_3_3 zAzerbaijani language_cell_2_3_4 Azerbaijani language_cell_2_3_5 Azerbaijani language_cell_2_3_6 ʃAzerbaijani language_cell_2_3_7 ʒAzerbaijani language_cell_2_3_8 Azerbaijani language_cell_2_3_9 Azerbaijani language_cell_2_3_10 xAzerbaijani language_cell_2_3_11 ɣAzerbaijani language_cell_2_3_12 hAzerbaijani language_cell_2_3_13 Azerbaijani language_cell_2_3_14
ApproximantAzerbaijani language_header_cell_2_4_0 Azerbaijani language_cell_2_4_1 Azerbaijani language_cell_2_4_2 Azerbaijani language_cell_2_4_3 Azerbaijani language_cell_2_4_4 Azerbaijani language_cell_2_4_5 lAzerbaijani language_cell_2_4_6 Azerbaijani language_cell_2_4_7 Azerbaijani language_cell_2_4_8 Azerbaijani language_cell_2_4_9 jAzerbaijani language_cell_2_4_10 Azerbaijani language_cell_2_4_11 Azerbaijani language_cell_2_4_12 Azerbaijani language_cell_2_4_13 Azerbaijani language_cell_2_4_14
FlapAzerbaijani language_header_cell_2_5_0 Azerbaijani language_cell_2_5_1 Azerbaijani language_cell_2_5_2 Azerbaijani language_cell_2_5_3 Azerbaijani language_cell_2_5_4 Azerbaijani language_cell_2_5_5 ɾAzerbaijani language_cell_2_5_6 Azerbaijani language_cell_2_5_7 Azerbaijani language_cell_2_5_8 Azerbaijani language_cell_2_5_9 Azerbaijani language_cell_2_5_10 Azerbaijani language_cell_2_5_11 Azerbaijani language_cell_2_5_12 Azerbaijani language_cell_2_5_13 Azerbaijani language_cell_2_5_14

Azerbaijani language_ordered_list_1

  1. as in Turkish, in native words the velar consonant /ɡ/ is palatalized to [ɟ] when adjacent to the front vowels, but unlike Turkish, Azerbaijani at different periods has been written using Arabic, Roman and Cyrillic letters and in each case the two allophones of /ɡ/ had their own letter. ق, q, г for [ɡ] and گ, g, ҝ for [ɟ].Azerbaijani language_item_1_3
  2. The sound [k] is used only in loanwords; the historical unpalatalized [k] became voiced to [ɡ].Azerbaijani language_item_1_4
  3. /t͡ʃ/ and /d͡ʒ/ are realised as [t͡s] and [d͡z] respectively in the areas around Tabriz and to the west, south and southwest of Tabriz (including Kirkuk in Iraq); in the Nakhchivan and Ayrum dialects, in Cəbrayil and some Caspian coastal dialects;.Azerbaijani language_item_1_5
  4. Sounds /t͡s/ and /d͡z/ may also be recognized as separate phonemic sounds in the Tabrizi and southern dialects.Azerbaijani language_item_1_6
  5. In most dialects of Azerbaijani, /c/ is realized as ç when it is found in the syllabic coda or is preceded by a voiceless consonant (as in çörək [t͡ʃøˈɾæç] – "bread"; səksən [sæçˈsæn] – "eighty").Azerbaijani language_item_1_7
  6. /w/ exists in the Kirkuk dialect as an allophone of /v/ in Arabic loanwords.Azerbaijani language_item_1_8
  7. In the Baku subdialect, /ov/ may be realised as [oʊ], and /ev/ and /øv/ as [øy], e.g. /ɡovurˈmɑ/ → [ɡoʊrˈmɑ], /sevˈdɑ/ → [søyˈdɑ], /døvˈrɑn/ → [døyˈrɑn], as well as with surnames ending in -ov or -ev (borrowed from Russian).Azerbaijani language_item_1_9
  8. In colloquial speech, /x/ is usually pronounced as [χ]Azerbaijani language_item_1_10

Dialect consonants Azerbaijani language_section_11

Azerbaijani language_unordered_list_2

  • Dz dz—[d͡z]Azerbaijani language_item_2_11
  • Ć ć—[t͡s]Azerbaijani language_item_2_12
  • Ŋ ŋ—[ŋ]Azerbaijani language_item_2_13
  • Q̇ q̇—[ɢ]Azerbaijani language_item_2_14
  • Ð ð—[ð]Azerbaijani language_item_2_15
  • W w—[w/ɥ]Azerbaijani language_item_2_16

Examples: Azerbaijani language_sentence_84

Azerbaijani language_unordered_list_3

  • [d͡z]—dzan [d͡zɑn̪]Azerbaijani language_item_3_17
  • [t͡s]—ćay [t͡sɑj]Azerbaijani language_item_3_18
  • [ŋ]—ataŋın [ʔɑt̪ɑŋən̪]Azerbaijani language_item_3_19
  • [ɢ]—q̇ar [ɢɑɾ]Azerbaijani language_item_3_20
  • [ð]—əðəli [ʔæðæl̪ɪ]Azerbaijani language_item_3_21
  • [w]—dowşan [d̪ɔːwʃɑn̪]Azerbaijani language_item_3_22
  • [ɥ]—töwlə [t̪œːɥl̪æ]Azerbaijani language_item_3_23

Vowels Azerbaijani language_section_12

The vowels of the Azerbaijani are, in alphabetical order, a /ɑ/, e /e/, ə /æ/, ı /ɯ/, i /i/, o /o/, ö /ø/, u /u/, ü /y/. Azerbaijani language_sentence_85

There are no diphthongs in standard Azerbaijani when two vowels come together; when that occurs in some Arabic loanwords, diphthong is removed by either syllable separation at V.V boundary or fixing the pair as VC/CV pair, depending on the word. Azerbaijani language_sentence_86

Azerbaijani language_table_general_3

Vowels of Standard AzerbaijaniAzerbaijani language_table_caption_3
Azerbaijani language_header_cell_3_0_0 FrontAzerbaijani language_header_cell_3_0_1 BackAzerbaijani language_header_cell_3_0_3
UnroundedAzerbaijani language_header_cell_3_1_0 RoundedAzerbaijani language_header_cell_3_1_1 UnroundedAzerbaijani language_header_cell_3_1_2 RoundedAzerbaijani language_header_cell_3_1_3
CloseAzerbaijani language_header_cell_3_2_0 iAzerbaijani language_cell_3_2_1 yAzerbaijani language_cell_3_2_2 ɯAzerbaijani language_cell_3_2_3 uAzerbaijani language_cell_3_2_4
MidAzerbaijani language_header_cell_3_3_0 eAzerbaijani language_cell_3_3_1 øAzerbaijani language_cell_3_3_2 Azerbaijani language_cell_3_3_3 oAzerbaijani language_cell_3_3_4
OpenAzerbaijani language_header_cell_3_4_0 æAzerbaijani language_cell_3_4_1 Azerbaijani language_cell_3_4_2 ɑAzerbaijani language_cell_3_4_3 Azerbaijani language_cell_3_4_4

The typical phonetic quality of South Azerbaijani vowels is as follows: Azerbaijani language_sentence_87

Azerbaijani language_unordered_list_4

  • /i, u, æ/ are close to cardinal i, u, a.Azerbaijani language_item_4_24
  • The F1 and F2 formant frequencies overlap for /œ/ and /ɯ/. Their acoustic quality is more or less close-mid central ɵ, ɘ. The main role in the distinction of two vowels is played by the different F3 frequencies in audition and rounding in articulation. Phonologically, however, they are more distinct: /œ/ is phonologically a mid front rounded vowel, the front counterpart of /o/ and the rounded counterpart of /e/. /ɯ/ is phonologically a close back unrounded vowel, the back counterpart of /i/ and the unrounded counterpart of /u/.Azerbaijani language_item_4_25
  • The other mid vowels /e, o/ are closer to close-mid e, o than open-mid ɛ, ɔ.Azerbaijani language_item_4_26
  • /ɑ/ is phonetically near-open back ɑ̝.Azerbaijani language_item_4_27

Writing systems Azerbaijani language_section_13

Main article: Azerbaijani alphabet Azerbaijani language_sentence_88

Before 1929, Azerbaijani was written only in the Perso-Arabic alphabet. Azerbaijani language_sentence_89

In 1929–1938 a Latin alphabet was in use for North Azerbaijani (although it was different from the one used now), from 1938 to 1991 the Cyrillic script was used, and in 1991 the current Latin alphabet was introduced, although the transition to it has been rather slow. Azerbaijani language_sentence_90

For instance, until an Aliyev decree on the matter in 2001, newspapers would routinely write headlines in the Latin script, leaving the stories in Cyrillic; the transition also resulted in some misrendering of İ as Ì. Azerbaijani language_sentence_91

In Iran, Azerbaijani is still written in the Persian alphabet, and in Dagestan, in Cyrillic script. Azerbaijani language_sentence_92

The Perso-Arabic Azerbaijani alphabet is an abjad; that is, it does not represent vowels. Azerbaijani language_sentence_93

Also, some consonants can be represented by more than one letter. Azerbaijani language_sentence_94

The Azerbaijani Latin alphabet is based on the Turkish Latin alphabet, which in turn was based on former Azerbaijani Latin alphabet because of their linguistic connections and mutual intelligibility. Azerbaijani language_sentence_95

The letters Әə, Xx, and Qq are available only in Azerbaijani for sounds which do not exist as separate phonemes in Turkish. Azerbaijani language_sentence_96

Azerbaijani language_table_general_4

Old Latin
(1929-1938 version;
no longer in use;
replaced by 1991 version)Azerbaijani language_header_cell_4_0_0
Official Latin
since 1991)Azerbaijani language_header_cell_4_0_1
(1958 version,
still official
in Dagestan)Azerbaijani language_header_cell_4_0_2
until 1929)Azerbaijani language_header_cell_4_0_3
IPAAzerbaijani language_header_cell_4_0_4
A aAzerbaijani language_cell_4_1_0 А аAzerbaijani language_cell_4_1_2 آ / ـاAzerbaijani language_cell_4_1_3 /ɑ/Azerbaijani language_cell_4_1_4
B вAzerbaijani language_cell_4_2_0 B bAzerbaijani language_cell_4_2_1 Б бAzerbaijani language_cell_4_2_2 Azerbaijani language_cell_4_2_3 /b/Azerbaijani language_cell_4_2_4
Ç çAzerbaijani language_cell_4_3_0 C cAzerbaijani language_cell_4_3_1 Ҹ ҹAzerbaijani language_cell_4_3_2 Azerbaijani language_cell_4_3_3 /dʒ/Azerbaijani language_cell_4_3_4
C cAzerbaijani language_cell_4_4_0 Ç çAzerbaijani language_cell_4_4_1 Ч чAzerbaijani language_cell_4_4_2 چAzerbaijani language_cell_4_4_3 /tʃ/Azerbaijani language_cell_4_4_4
D dAzerbaijani language_cell_4_5_0 Д дAzerbaijani language_cell_4_5_2 Azerbaijani language_cell_4_5_3 /d/Azerbaijani language_cell_4_5_4
E eAzerbaijani language_cell_4_6_0 Е еAzerbaijani language_cell_4_6_2 ئAzerbaijani language_cell_4_6_3 /e/Azerbaijani language_cell_4_6_4
Ə əAzerbaijani language_cell_4_7_0 Ә әAzerbaijani language_cell_4_7_2 ا / َ / ەAzerbaijani language_cell_4_7_3 /æ/Azerbaijani language_cell_4_7_4
F fAzerbaijani language_cell_4_8_0 Ф фAzerbaijani language_cell_4_8_2 Azerbaijani language_cell_4_8_3 /f/Azerbaijani language_cell_4_8_4
G gAzerbaijani language_cell_4_9_0 Ҝ ҝAzerbaijani language_cell_4_9_2 گAzerbaijani language_cell_4_9_3 /ɟ/Azerbaijani language_cell_4_9_4
Ƣ ƣAzerbaijani language_cell_4_10_0 Ğ ğAzerbaijani language_cell_4_10_1 Ғ ғAzerbaijani language_cell_4_10_2 Azerbaijani language_cell_4_10_3 /ɣ/Azerbaijani language_cell_4_10_4
H hAzerbaijani language_cell_4_11_0 Һ һAzerbaijani language_cell_4_11_2 ﺡ / ﻩAzerbaijani language_cell_4_11_3 /h/Azerbaijani language_cell_4_11_4
X xAzerbaijani language_cell_4_12_0 Х хAzerbaijani language_cell_4_12_2 خAzerbaijani language_cell_4_12_3 /x/Azerbaijani language_cell_4_12_4
Ь ьAzerbaijani language_cell_4_13_0 I ıAzerbaijani language_cell_4_13_1 Ы ыAzerbaijani language_cell_4_13_2 یٛAzerbaijani language_cell_4_13_3 /ɯ/Azerbaijani language_cell_4_13_4
I iAzerbaijani language_cell_4_14_0 İ iAzerbaijani language_cell_4_14_1 И иAzerbaijani language_cell_4_14_2 یAzerbaijani language_cell_4_14_3 /i/Azerbaijani language_cell_4_14_4
Ƶ ƶAzerbaijani language_cell_4_15_0 J jAzerbaijani language_cell_4_15_1 Ж жAzerbaijani language_cell_4_15_2 ژAzerbaijani language_cell_4_15_3 /ʒ/Azerbaijani language_cell_4_15_4
K kAzerbaijani language_cell_4_16_0 К кAzerbaijani language_cell_4_16_2 کAzerbaijani language_cell_4_16_3 /c/, /k/Azerbaijani language_cell_4_16_4
Q qAzerbaijani language_cell_4_17_0 Г гAzerbaijani language_cell_4_17_2 Azerbaijani language_cell_4_17_3 /ɡ/Azerbaijani language_cell_4_17_4
L lAzerbaijani language_cell_4_18_0 Л лAzerbaijani language_cell_4_18_2 Azerbaijani language_cell_4_18_3 /l/Azerbaijani language_cell_4_18_4
M mAzerbaijani language_cell_4_19_0 М мAzerbaijani language_cell_4_19_2 Azerbaijani language_cell_4_19_3 /m/Azerbaijani language_cell_4_19_4
N nAzerbaijani language_cell_4_20_0 Н нAzerbaijani language_cell_4_20_2 Azerbaijani language_cell_4_20_3 /n/Azerbaijani language_cell_4_20_4
Ꞑ ꞑAzerbaijani language_cell_4_21_0 Ng ngAzerbaijani language_cell_4_21_1 Нҝ нҝAzerbaijani language_cell_4_21_2 ݣ / نگAzerbaijani language_cell_4_21_3 /ŋ/Azerbaijani language_cell_4_21_4
O oAzerbaijani language_cell_4_22_0 О оAzerbaijani language_cell_4_22_2 وْAzerbaijani language_cell_4_22_3 /o/Azerbaijani language_cell_4_22_4
Ө өAzerbaijani language_cell_4_23_0 Ö öAzerbaijani language_cell_4_23_1 Ө өAzerbaijani language_cell_4_23_2 ؤAzerbaijani language_cell_4_23_3 /ø/Azerbaijani language_cell_4_23_4
P pAzerbaijani language_cell_4_24_0 П пAzerbaijani language_cell_4_24_2 پAzerbaijani language_cell_4_24_3 /p/Azerbaijani language_cell_4_24_4
R rAzerbaijani language_cell_4_25_0 Р рAzerbaijani language_cell_4_25_2 Azerbaijani language_cell_4_25_3 /r/Azerbaijani language_cell_4_25_4
S sAzerbaijani language_cell_4_26_0 С сAzerbaijani language_cell_4_26_2 ﺙ / ﺱ / ﺹAzerbaijani language_cell_4_26_3 /s/Azerbaijani language_cell_4_26_4
Ş şAzerbaijani language_cell_4_27_0 Ш шAzerbaijani language_cell_4_27_2 Azerbaijani language_cell_4_27_3 /ʃ/Azerbaijani language_cell_4_27_4
T tAzerbaijani language_cell_4_28_0 Т тAzerbaijani language_cell_4_28_2 ﺕ / ﻁAzerbaijani language_cell_4_28_3 /t/Azerbaijani language_cell_4_28_4
U uAzerbaijani language_cell_4_29_0 У уAzerbaijani language_cell_4_29_2 ۇAzerbaijani language_cell_4_29_3 /u/Azerbaijani language_cell_4_29_4
Y yAzerbaijani language_cell_4_30_0 Ü üAzerbaijani language_cell_4_30_1 Ү үAzerbaijani language_cell_4_30_2 ۆAzerbaijani language_cell_4_30_3 /y/Azerbaijani language_cell_4_30_4
V vAzerbaijani language_cell_4_31_0 В вAzerbaijani language_cell_4_31_2 Azerbaijani language_cell_4_31_3 /v/Azerbaijani language_cell_4_31_4
J jAzerbaijani language_cell_4_32_0 Y yAzerbaijani language_cell_4_32_1 Ј јAzerbaijani language_cell_4_32_2 یAzerbaijani language_cell_4_32_3 /j/Azerbaijani language_cell_4_32_4
Z zAzerbaijani language_cell_4_33_0 З зAzerbaijani language_cell_4_33_2 ﺫ / ﺯ / ﺽ / ﻅAzerbaijani language_cell_4_33_3 /z/Azerbaijani language_cell_4_33_4
-Azerbaijani language_cell_4_34_0 ʼAzerbaijani language_cell_4_34_2 عAzerbaijani language_cell_4_34_3 /ʔ/Azerbaijani language_cell_4_34_4

Northern Azerbaijani, unlike Turkish, respells foreign names to conform with Latin Azerbaijani spelling, e.g. is spelled Buş and Schröder becomes Şröder. Azerbaijani language_sentence_97

Hyphenation across lines directly corresponds to spoken syllables, except for geminated consonants which are hyphenated as two separate consonants as morphonology considers them two separate consonants back to back but enunciated in the onset of the latter syllable as a single long consonant, as in other Turkic languages. Azerbaijani language_sentence_98

Vocabulary Azerbaijani language_section_14

Interjections Azerbaijani language_section_15

Some samples include: Azerbaijani language_sentence_99

Secular: Azerbaijani language_sentence_100

Azerbaijani language_unordered_list_5

  • Of ("Ugh!")Azerbaijani language_item_5_28
  • Tez Ol ("Be quick!")Azerbaijani language_item_5_29
  • Tez olun qızlar mədrəsəyə ("Be quick girls, to school!", a slogan for an education campaign in Azerbaijan)Azerbaijani language_item_5_30

Invoking deity: Azerbaijani language_sentence_101

Azerbaijani language_unordered_list_6

  • implicitly:Azerbaijani language_item_6_31
    • Aman ("Mercy")Azerbaijani language_item_6_32
    • Çox şükür ("Much thanks")Azerbaijani language_item_6_33
  • explicitly:Azerbaijani language_item_6_34
    • Allah Allah (pronounced as Allahallah) ("Goodness gracious")Azerbaijani language_item_6_35
    • Hay Allah; Vallah "By God [I swear it]".Azerbaijani language_item_6_36
    • Çox şükür allahım ("Much thanks my god")Azerbaijani language_item_6_37

Formal and informal Azerbaijani language_section_16

Numbers Azerbaijani language_section_17

Azerbaijani language_table_general_5

NumberAzerbaijani language_header_cell_5_0_0 WordAzerbaijani language_header_cell_5_0_1
0Azerbaijani language_cell_5_1_0 sıfır /ˈsɯfɯɾ/Azerbaijani language_cell_5_1_1
1Azerbaijani language_cell_5_2_0 bir /biɾ/Azerbaijani language_cell_5_2_1
2Azerbaijani language_cell_5_3_0 iki /ici/Azerbaijani language_cell_5_3_1
3Azerbaijani language_cell_5_4_0 üç /yt͡ʃ/Azerbaijani language_cell_5_4_1
4Azerbaijani language_cell_5_5_0 dörd /døɾd/Azerbaijani language_cell_5_5_1
5Azerbaijani language_cell_5_6_0 beş /beʃ/Azerbaijani language_cell_5_6_1
6Azerbaijani language_cell_5_7_0 altı /ɑltɯ/Azerbaijani language_cell_5_7_1
7Azerbaijani language_cell_5_8_0 yeddi /jed:i/Azerbaijani language_cell_5_8_1
8Azerbaijani language_cell_5_9_0 səkkiz /sækciz/Azerbaijani language_cell_5_9_1
9Azerbaijani language_cell_5_10_0 doqquz /doɡ:uz/Azerbaijani language_cell_5_10_1
10Azerbaijani language_cell_5_11_0 on /on/Azerbaijani language_cell_5_11_1

For numbers 11–19, the numbers literally mean "10 one, 10 two" and so on. Azerbaijani language_sentence_102

Azerbaijani language_table_general_6

NumberAzerbaijani language_header_cell_6_0_0 WordAzerbaijani language_header_cell_6_0_1
20Azerbaijani language_cell_6_1_0 iyirmi /ijiɾmi/Azerbaijani language_cell_6_1_1
30Azerbaijani language_cell_6_2_0 otuz /otuz/Azerbaijani language_cell_6_2_1
40Azerbaijani language_cell_6_3_0 qırx /ɡɯɾx/Azerbaijani language_cell_6_3_1
50Azerbaijani language_cell_6_4_0 əlli /ælli/Azerbaijani language_cell_6_4_1

Greater numbers are constructed by combining in tens and thousands larger to smaller in the same way, without using a conjunction in between. Azerbaijani language_sentence_103

See also Azerbaijani language_section_18

Azerbaijani language_unordered_list_7

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: language.