Béla Bartók

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"Bartok" redirects here. Béla Bartók_sentence_0

For other uses, see Bartok (disambiguation). Béla Bartók_sentence_1

The native form of this personal name is Bartók Béla Viktor János. Béla Bartók_sentence_2

This article uses Western name order when mentioning individuals. Béla Bartók_sentence_3

Béla Viktor János Bartók (/ˈbeɪlə ˈbɑːrtɒk/; Hungarian: Bartók Béla, pronounced [ˈbɒrtoːk ˈbeːlɒ; 25 March 1881 – 26 September 1945) was a Hungarian composer, pianist, and ethnomusicologist. Béla Bartók_sentence_4

He is considered one of the most important composers of the 20th century; he and Franz Liszt are regarded as Hungary's greatest composers. Béla Bartók_sentence_5

Through his collection and analytical study of folk music, he was one of the founders of comparative musicology, which later became ethnomusicology. Béla Bartók_sentence_6

Biography Béla Bartók_section_0

Childhood and early years (1881–98) Béla Bartók_section_1

Early musical career (1899–1908) Béla Bartók_section_2

From 1899 to 1903, Bartók studied piano under István Thomán, a former student of Franz Liszt, and composition under János Koessler at the Royal Academy of Music in Budapest. Béla Bartók_sentence_7

There he met Zoltán Kodály, who made a strong impression on him and became a lifelong friend and colleague. Béla Bartók_sentence_8

In 1903, Bartók wrote his first major orchestral work, Kossuth, a symphonic poem which honored Lajos Kossuth, hero of the Hungarian Revolution of 1848. Béla Bartók_sentence_9

The music of Richard Strauss, whom he met in 1902 at the Budapest premiere of Also sprach Zarathustra, strongly influenced his early work. Béla Bartók_sentence_10

When visiting a holiday resort in the summer of 1904, Bartók overheard a young nanny, Lidi Dósa from Kibéd in Transylvania, sing folk songs to the children in her care. Béla Bartók_sentence_11

This sparked his lifelong dedication to folk music. Béla Bartók_sentence_12

From 1907, he also began to be influenced by the French composer Claude Debussy, whose compositions Kodály had brought back from Paris. Béla Bartók_sentence_13

Bartók's large-scale orchestral works were still in the style of Johannes Brahms and Richard Strauss, but he wrote a number of small piano pieces which showed his growing interest in folk music. Béla Bartók_sentence_14

The first piece to show clear signs of this new interest is the String Quartet No. Béla Bartók_sentence_15 1 in A minor (1908), which contains folk-like elements. Béla Bartók_sentence_16

He began teaching as a piano professor at the Royal Academy. Béla Bartók_sentence_17

This position freed him from touring Europe as a pianist and enabled him to work in Hungary. Béla Bartók_sentence_18

Among his notable students were Fritz Reiner, Sir Georg Solti, György Sándor, Ernő Balogh, and Lili Kraus. Béla Bartók_sentence_19

After Bartók moved to the United States, he taught Jack Beeson and Violet Archer. Béla Bartók_sentence_20

In 1908, he and Kodály traveled into the countryside to collect and research old Magyar folk melodies. Béla Bartók_sentence_21

Their growing interest in folk music coincided with a contemporary social interest in traditional national culture. Béla Bartók_sentence_22

They made some surprising discoveries. Béla Bartók_sentence_23

Magyar folk music had previously been categorised as Gypsy music. Béla Bartók_sentence_24

The classic example is Franz Liszt's famous Hungarian Rhapsodies for piano, which he based on popular art songs performed by Romani bands of the time. Béla Bartók_sentence_25

In contrast, Bartók and Kodály discovered that the old Magyar folk melodies were based on pentatonic scales, similar to those in Asian folk traditions, such as those of Central Asia, Anatolia and Siberia. Béla Bartók_sentence_26

Bartók and Kodály quickly set about incorporating elements of such Magyar peasant music into their compositions. Béla Bartók_sentence_27

They both frequently quoted folk song melodies verbatim and wrote pieces derived entirely from authentic songs. Béla Bartók_sentence_28

An example is his two volumes entitled For Children for solo piano, containing 80 folk tunes to which he wrote accompaniment. Béla Bartók_sentence_29

Bartók's style in his art music compositions was a synthesis of folk music, classicism, and modernism. Béla Bartók_sentence_30

His melodic and harmonic sense was profoundly influenced by the folk music of Hungary, Romania, and other nations. Béla Bartók_sentence_31

He was especially fond of the asymmetrical dance rhythms and pungent harmonies found in Bulgarian music. Béla Bartók_sentence_32

Most of his early compositions offer a blend of nationalist and late Romanticism elements. Béla Bartók_sentence_33

Middle years and career (1909–39) Béla Bartók_section_3

Personal life Béla Bartók_section_4

In 1909, at the age of 28, Bartók married Márta Ziegler (1893–1967), aged 16. Béla Bartók_sentence_34

Their son, Béla Bartók III, was born the next year. Béla Bartók_sentence_35

After nearly 15 years together, Bartók divorced Márta in June 1923. Béla Bartók_sentence_36

Two months after his divorce, he married Ditta Pásztory (1903–1982), a piano student, ten days after proposing to her. Béla Bartók_sentence_37

She was aged 19, he 42. Béla Bartók_sentence_38

Their son, Péter, was born in 1924. Béla Bartók_sentence_39

Raised as a Catholic, by his early adulthood Bartók had become an atheist. Béla Bartók_sentence_40

He later became attracted to Unitarianism and publicly converted to the Unitarian faith in 1916. Béla Bartók_sentence_41

Although Bartók was not conventionally religious, according to his son Béla Bartók III, "he was a nature lover: he always mentioned the miraculous order of nature with great reverence." Béla Bartók_sentence_42

As an adult, Béla III later became lay president of the Hungarian Unitarian Church. Béla Bartók_sentence_43

Opera Béla Bartók_section_5

In 1911, Bartók wrote what was to be his only opera, Bluebeard's Castle, dedicated to Márta. Béla Bartók_sentence_44

He entered it for a prize by the Hungarian Fine Arts Commission, but they rejected his work as not fit for the stage. Béla Bartók_sentence_45

In 1917 Bartók revised the score for the 1918 première, and rewrote the ending. Béla Bartók_sentence_46

Following the 1919 revolution in which he actively participated, he was pressured by the Horthy regime to remove the name of librettist Béla Balázs from the opera, as Balázs was of Jewish origin, was blacklisted, and had left the country for Vienna. Béla Bartók_sentence_47

Bluebeard's Castle received only one revival, in 1936, before Bartók emigrated. Béla Bartók_sentence_48

For the remainder of his life, although passionately devoted to Hungary, its people and its culture, he never felt much loyalty to the government or its official establishments. Béla Bartók_sentence_49

Folk music and composition Béla Bartók_section_6

After his disappointment over the Fine Arts Commission competition, Bartók wrote little for two or three years, preferring to concentrate on collecting and arranging folk music. Béla Bartók_sentence_50

He found the phonograph an essential tool for collecting folk music for its accuracy, objectivity, and manipulability. Béla Bartók_sentence_51

He collected first in the Carpathian Basin (then the Kingdom of Hungary), where he notated Hungarian, Slovak, Romanian, and Bulgarian folk music. Béla Bartók_sentence_52

He also collected in Moldavia, Wallachia, and (in 1913) Algeria. Béla Bartók_sentence_53

The outbreak of World War I forced him to stop the expeditions, but he returned to composing with a ballet called The Wooden Prince (1914–16) and the String Quartet No. Béla Bartók_sentence_54 2 in (1915–17), both influenced by Debussy. Béla Bartók_sentence_55

Bartók's libretto for The Miraculous Mandarin, another ballet, was influenced by Igor Stravinsky, Arnold Schoenberg and Richard Strauss. Béla Bartók_sentence_56

Though started in 1918, the story of prostitution, robbery, and murder was not performed on the stage until 1926 because of its sexual content. Béla Bartók_sentence_57

He next wrote his two violin sonatas (written in 1921 and 1922, respectively), which are harmonically and structurally some of his most complex pieces. Béla Bartók_sentence_58

In 1927–28, Bartók wrote his Third and Fourth String Quartets, after which his compositions demonstrated his mature style. Béla Bartók_sentence_59

Notable examples of this period are Music for Strings, Percussion and Celesta (1936) and Divertimento for String Orchestra (1939). Béla Bartók_sentence_60

The Fifth String Quartet was composed in 1934, and the Sixth String Quartet (his last) in 1939. Béla Bartók_sentence_61

In 1936 he travelled to Turkey to collect and study Turkish folk music. Béla Bartók_sentence_62

He worked in collaboration with Turkish composer Ahmet Adnan Saygun mostly around Adana. Béla Bartók_sentence_63

World War II and last years in America (1940–45) Béla Bartók_section_7

In 1940, as the European political situation worsened after the outbreak of World War II, Bartók was increasingly tempted to flee Hungary. Béla Bartók_sentence_64

He strongly opposed the Nazis and Hungary's alliance with Germany and the Axis powers under the Tripartite Pact. Béla Bartók_sentence_65

After the Nazis came to power in the early 1930s, Bartók refused to give concerts in Germany and broke away from his publisher there. Béla Bartók_sentence_66

His anti-fascist political views caused him a great deal of trouble with the establishment in Hungary. Béla Bartók_sentence_67

Having first sent his manuscripts out of the country, Bartók reluctantly emigrated to the U.S. with his wife, Ditta Pásztory, in October that year. Béla Bartók_sentence_68

They settled in New York City after arriving on the night of 29–30 October 1940 via a steamer from Lisbon. Béla Bartók_sentence_69

After joining them in 1942, their younger son, Péter Bartók, enlisted in the United States Navy where he served in the Pacific during the remainder of the war and later settled in Florida where he became a recording and sound engineer. Béla Bartók_sentence_70

His elder son, by his first marriage, Béla Bartók III, remained in Hungary and later worked as a railroad official until his retirement in the early 1980s. Béla Bartók_sentence_71

Although he became an American citizen in 1945, shortly before his death, Bartók never felt fully at home in the United States. Béla Bartók_sentence_72

He initially found it difficult to compose. Béla Bartók_sentence_73

Although he was well known in America as a pianist, ethnomusicologist and teacher, he was not well known as a composer. Béla Bartók_sentence_74

There was little American interest in his music during his final years. Béla Bartók_sentence_75

He and his wife Ditta gave some concerts, although demand for them was low. Béla Bartók_sentence_76

Bartók, who had made some recordings in Hungary, also recorded for Columbia Records after he came to the US; many of these recordings (some with Bartók's own spoken introductions) were later issued on LP and CD. Béla Bartók_sentence_77

Supported by a research fellowship from Columbia University, for several years, Bartók and Ditta worked on a large collection of Serbian and Croatian folk songs in Columbia's libraries. Béla Bartók_sentence_78

Bartók's economic difficulties during his first years in America were mitigated by publication royalties, teaching and performance tours. Béla Bartók_sentence_79

While his finances were always precarious, he did not live and die in poverty as was the common myth. Béla Bartók_sentence_80

He had enough friends and supporters to ensure that there was sufficient money and work available for him to live on. Béla Bartók_sentence_81

Bartók was a proud man and did not easily accept charity. Béla Bartók_sentence_82

Despite being short on cash at times, he often refused money that his friends offered him out of their own pockets. Béla Bartók_sentence_83

Although he was not a member of the ASCAP, the society paid for any medical care he needed during his last two years, to which Bartók reluctantly agreed. Béla Bartók_sentence_84

The first symptoms of his health problems began late in 1940, when his right shoulder began to show signs of stiffening. Béla Bartók_sentence_85

In 1942, symptoms increased and he started having bouts of fever. Béla Bartók_sentence_86

Bartók 's illness was at first thought to be a recurrence of the tuberculosis he had experienced as a young man, and one of his doctors in New York was Edgar Mayer, director of Will Rogers Memorial Hospital in Saranac Lake but medical examinations found no underlying disease. Béla Bartók_sentence_87

Finally, in April 1944, leukemia was diagnosed, but by this time, little could be done. Béla Bartók_sentence_88

As his body slowly failed, Bartók found more creative energy, and he produced a final set of masterpieces, partly thanks to the violinist Joseph Szigeti and the conductor Fritz Reiner (Reiner had been Bartók's friend and champion since his days as Bartók's student at the Royal Academy). Béla Bartók_sentence_89

Bartók's last work might well have been the String Quartet No. Béla Bartók_sentence_90

6 but for Serge Koussevitzky's commission for the Concerto for Orchestra. Béla Bartók_sentence_91

Koussevitsky's Boston Symphony Orchestra premièred the work in December 1944 to highly positive reviews. Béla Bartók_sentence_92

The Concerto for Orchestra quickly became Bartók's most popular work, although he did not live to see its full impact. Béla Bartók_sentence_93

In 1944, he was also commissioned by Yehudi Menuhin to write a Sonata for Solo Violin. Béla Bartók_sentence_94

In 1945, Bartók composed his Piano Concerto No. Béla Bartók_sentence_95 3, a graceful and almost neo-classical work, as a surprise 42nd birthday present for Ditta, but he died just over a month before her birthday, with the scoring not quite finished. Béla Bartók_sentence_96

He had also sketched his Viola Concerto, but had barely started the scoring at his death, leaving completed only the viola part and sketches of the orchestral part. Béla Bartók_sentence_97

Béla Bartók died at age 64 in a hospital in New York City from complications of leukemia (specifically, of secondary polycythemia) on 26 September 1945. Béla Bartók_sentence_98

His funeral was attended by only ten people. Béla Bartók_sentence_99

Aside from his widow and their son, other attendees included György Sándor. Béla Bartók_sentence_100

Bartók's body was initially interred in Ferncliff Cemetery in Hartsdale, New York. Béla Bartók_sentence_101

During the final year of communist Hungary in the late 1980s, the Hungarian government, along with his two sons, Béla III and Péter, requested that his remains be exhumed and transferred back to Budapest for burial, where Hungary arranged a state funeral for him on 7 July 1988. Béla Bartók_sentence_102

He was re-interred at Budapest's Farkasréti Cemetery, next to the remains of Ditta, who died in 1982, one year after what would have been Béla Bartók's 100th birthday. Béla Bartók_sentence_103

The two unfinished works were later completed by his pupil Tibor Serly. Béla Bartók_sentence_104

György Sándor was the soloist in the first performance of the Third Piano Concerto on 8 February 1946. Béla Bartók_sentence_105

Ditta Pásztory-Bartók later played and recorded it. Béla Bartók_sentence_106

The Viola Concerto was revised and published in the 1990s by Bartók's son; this version may be closer to what Bartók intended. Béla Bartók_sentence_107

Concurrently, Peter Bartók, in association with Argentinian musician Nelson Dellamaggiore, worked to reprint and revise past editions of the Third Piano Concerto. Béla Bartók_sentence_108

Statues Béla Bartók_section_8

Béla Bartók_unordered_list_0

  • A statue of Bartók stands in Brussels, Belgium, near the central train station in a public square, Spanjeplein-Place d'Espagne.Béla Bartók_item_0_0
  • A statue stands outside Malvern Court, London, south of the South Kensington tube station, and just north of 7 Sydney Place, where he stayed when performing in London. An English Heritage blue plaque, unveiled in 1997, now commemorates Bartók at 7 Sydney Place.Béla Bartók_item_0_1
  • A statue of him was installed in front of the house in which Bartók spent his last eight years in Hungary, at Csalán út 29, in the hills above Budapest. It is now operated as the Béla Bartók Memorial House (Bartók Béla Emlékház).Béla Bartók_item_0_2
  • A bust and plaque located at his last residence, in New York City at 309 W. 57th Street, inscribed: "The Great Hungarian Composer / Béla Bartók / (1881–1945) / Made His Home In This House / During the Last Year of His Life".Béla Bartók_item_0_3
  • A bust of him is located in the front yard of Ankara State Conservatory, Ankara, Turkey, right next to the bust of Ahmet Adnan Saygun.Béla Bartók_item_0_4
  • A bronze statue of Bartók, sculpted by Imre Varga in 2005, stands in the front lobby of the Royal Conservatory of Music, 273 Bloor Street West, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.Béla Bartók_item_0_5
  • A statue of Bartók, sculpted by Imre Varga, stands near the river Seine in the public park at Square Béla Bartók [], 26 place de Brazzaville, in Paris, France.Béla Bartók_item_0_6
  • Also to be noted, in the same park, a sculptural transcription of the composer's research on tonal harmony, the fountain/sculpture Cristaux designed by Jean-Yves Lechevallier in 1980.Béla Bartók_item_0_7
  • An expressionist sculpture by Hungarian sculptor András Beck in Square Henri-Collet [], Paris 16th arrondissement.Béla Bartók_item_0_8
  • A statue of him also stands in the city centre of Târgu Mureș, Romania.Béla Bartók_item_0_9

Music Béla Bartók_section_9

Further information: List of compositions by Béla Bartók and List of solo piano compositions by Béla Bartók Béla Bartók_sentence_109

Bartók's music reflects two trends that dramatically changed the sound of music in the 20th century: the breakdown of the diatonic system of harmony that had served composers for the previous two hundred years; and the revival of nationalism as a source for musical inspiration, a trend that began with Mikhail Glinka and Antonín Dvořák in the last half of the 19th century. Béla Bartók_sentence_110

In his search for new forms of tonality, Bartók turned to Hungarian folk music, as well as to other folk music of the Carpathian Basin and even of Algeria and Turkey; in so doing he became influential in that stream of modernism which used indigenous music and techniques. Béla Bartók_sentence_111

One characteristic style of music is his Night music, which he used mostly in slow movements of multi-movement ensemble or orchestral compositions in his mature period. Béla Bartók_sentence_112

It is characterised by "eerie dissonances providing a backdrop to sounds of nature and lonely melodies". Béla Bartók_sentence_113

An example is the third movement (Adagio) of his Music for Strings, Percussion and Celesta. Béla Bartók_sentence_114

His music can be grouped roughly in accordance with the different periods in his life. Béla Bartók_sentence_115

Early years (1890–1902) Béla Bartók_section_10

The works of Bartók's youth were written in a classical and early romantic style touched with influences of popular and Gypsy music. Béla Bartók_sentence_116

Between 1890 and 1894 (nine to 13 years of age) he wrote 31 piano pieces with corresponding opus numbers. Béla Bartók_sentence_117

Although most of these were simple dance pieces, in these early works Bartók began to tackle some more advanced forms, as in his ten-part programmatic A Duna folyása ("The Course of the Danube", 1890–94), which he played in his first public recital in 1892. Béla Bartók_sentence_118

In Catholic grammar school Bartók took to studying the scores of composers "from Bach to Wagner", his compositions then advancing in style and taking on similarities to Schumann and Brahms. Béla Bartók_sentence_119

Following his matriculation into the Budapest Academy in 1890 he composed very little, though he began to work on exercises in orchestration and familiarized himself thoroughly with the operas of Wagner. Béla Bartók_sentence_120

In 1902 his creative energies were revitalized by the discovery of the music of Richard Strauss, whose tone poem Also sprach Zarathustra, according to Bartók, "stimulated the greatest enthusiasm in me; at last I saw the way that lay before me." Béla Bartók_sentence_121

Bartók also owned the score to A Hero's Life, which he transcribed for the piano and committed to memory. Béla Bartók_sentence_122

New influences (1903–11) Béla Bartók_section_11

Under the influence of Strauss, Bartók composed in 1903 Kossuth, a symphonic poem in ten tableaux on the subject of the 1848 Hungarian war of independence, reflecting the composers growing interest in musical nationalism. Béla Bartók_sentence_123

A year later he renewed his opus numbers with the Rhapsody for Piano and Orchestra serving as Opus 1. Béla Bartók_sentence_124

Driven by nationalistic fervor and a desire to transcend the influence of prior composers, Bartók began a lifelong devotion to folk music which was sparked by his overhearing nanny Lidi Dósa's singing of Transylvanian folk songs at a Hungarian resort in 1904. Béla Bartók_sentence_125

Bartók began to collect Magyar peasant melodies, later extending to the folk music of other peoples of the Carpathian Basin, Slovaks, Romanians, Rusyns, Serbs and Croatians. Béla Bartók_sentence_126

His compositional output would gradually prune away romantic elements in favour of an idiom that embodied folk music as intrinsic and essential to its style. Béla Bartók_sentence_127

Later in life he would have this to say on the incorporation of folk and art music: Béla Bartók_sentence_128

Bartók became first acquainted with Debussy's music in 1907 and regarded his music highly. Béla Bartók_sentence_129

In an interview in 1939 Bartók said Béla Bartók_sentence_130

Debussy's influence is present in the Fourteen Bagatelles (1908). Béla Bartók_sentence_131

These made Ferruccio Busoni exclaim "At last something truly new!". Béla Bartók_sentence_132

Until 1911, Bartók composed widely differing works which ranged from adherence to romantic-style, to folk song arrangements and to his modernist opera Bluebeard's Castle. Béla Bartók_sentence_133

The negative reception of his work led him to focus on folk music research after 1911 and abandon composition with the exception of folk music arrangements. Béla Bartók_sentence_134

New inspiration and experimentation (1916–21) Béla Bartók_section_12

His pessimistic attitude towards composing was lifted by the stormy and inspiring contact with Klára Gombossy in the summer of 1915. Béla Bartók_sentence_135

This interesting episode in Bartók's life remained hidden until it was researched by Denijs Dille between 1979 and 1989. Béla Bartók_sentence_136

Bartók started composing again, including the Suite for piano opus 14 (1916), and The Miraculous Mandarin (1918) and he completed The Wooden Prince (1917). Béla Bartók_sentence_137

Bartók felt the result of World War I as a personal tragedy. Béla Bartók_sentence_138

Many regions he loved were severed from Hungary: Transylvania, the Banat (where he was born), and Pozsony where his mother had lived. Béla Bartók_sentence_139

Additionally, the political relations between Hungary and other successor states to the Austro-Hungarian empire prohibited his folk music research outside of Hungary. Béla Bartók_sentence_140

Bartók also wrote the noteworthy Eight Improvisations on Hungarian Peasant Songs in 1920, and the sunny Dance Suite in 1923, the year of his second marriage. Béla Bartók_sentence_141

"Synthesis of East and West" (1926–45) Béla Bartók_section_13

In 1926, Bartók needed a significant piece for piano and orchestra with which he could tour in Europe and America. Béla Bartók_sentence_142

In the preparation for writing his First Piano Concerto, he wrote his Sonata, Out of Doors, and Nine Little Pieces, all for solo piano. Béla Bartók_sentence_143

He increasingly found his own voice in his maturity. Béla Bartók_sentence_144

The style of his last period—named "Synthesis of East and West"—is hard to define let alone to put under one term. Béla Bartók_sentence_145

In his mature period, Bartók wrote relatively few works but most of them are large-scale compositions for large settings. Béla Bartók_sentence_146

Only his voice works have programmatic titles and his late works often adhere to classical forms. Béla Bartók_sentence_147

Among Bartók's most important works are all the six string quartets (1908, 1917, 1927, 1928, 1934, and 1939), the Cantata Profana (1930, Bartók declared that this was the work he felt and professed to be his most personal "credo", the Music for Strings, Percussion and Celesta (1936), the Concerto for Orchestra (1943) and the Third Piano Concerto (1945). Béla Bartók_sentence_148

He made a lasting contribution to the literature for younger students: for his son Péter's music lessons, he composed Mikrokosmos, a six-volume collection of graded piano pieces. Béla Bartók_sentence_149

Musical analysis Béla Bartók_section_14

Paul Wilson lists as the most prominent characteristics of Bartók's music from late 1920s onwards the influence of the Carpathian basin and European art music, and his changing attitude toward (and use of) tonality, but without the use of the traditional harmonic functions associated with major and minor scales. Béla Bartók_sentence_150

Although Bartók claimed in his writings that his music was always tonal, he rarely uses the chords or scales of tonality, and so the descriptive resources of tonal theory are of limited use. Béla Bartók_sentence_151

George and Elliott focus on alternative methods of signaling tonal centers, via axes of inversional symmetry. Béla Bartók_sentence_152

Others view Bartók's axes of symmetry in terms of atonal analytic protocols. Béla Bartók_sentence_153

Richard argues that inversional symmetry is often a byproduct of another atonal procedure, the formation of chords from transpositionally related dyads. Béla Bartók_sentence_154

Atonal pitch-class theory also furnishes the resources for exploring polymodal chromaticism, projected sets, privileged patterns, and large set types used as source sets such as the equal tempered twelve tone aggregate, octatonic scale (and alpha chord), the diatonic and heptatonia secunda seven-note scales, and less often the whole tone scale and the primary pentatonic collection. Béla Bartók_sentence_155

He rarely used the simple aggregate actively to shape musical structure, though there are notable examples such as the second theme from the first movement of his Second Violin Concerto, commenting that he "wanted to show Schoenberg that one can use all twelve tones and still remain tonal". Béla Bartók_sentence_156

More thoroughly, in the first eight measures of the last movement of his Second Quartet, all notes gradually gather with the twelfth (G♭) sounding for the first time on the last beat of measure 8, marking the end of the first section. Béla Bartók_sentence_157

The aggregate is partitioned in the opening of the Third String Quartet with C♯–D–D♯–E in the accompaniment (strings) while the remaining pitch classes are used in the melody (violin 1) and more often as 7–35 (diatonic or "white-key" collection) and 5–35 (pentatonic or "black-key" collection) such as in no. Béla Bartók_sentence_158

6 of the Eight Improvisations. Béla Bartók_sentence_159

There, the primary theme is on the black keys in the left hand, while the right accompanies with triads from the white keys. Béla Bartók_sentence_160

In measures 50–51 in the third movement of the Fourth Quartet, the first violin and cello play black-key chords, while the second violin and viola play stepwise diatonic lines. Béla Bartók_sentence_161

On the other hand, from as early as the Suite for piano, Op. 14 (1914), he occasionally employed a form of serialism based on compound interval cycles, some of which are maximally distributed, multi-aggregate cycles. Béla Bartók_sentence_162

Ernő Lendvai analyses Bartók's works as being based on two opposing tonal systems, that of the acoustic scale and the axis system, as well as using the golden section as a structural principle. Béla Bartók_sentence_163

Milton Babbitt, in his 1949 critique of Bartók's string quartets, criticized Bartók for using tonality and non-tonal methods unique to each piece. Béla Bartók_sentence_164

Babbitt noted that "Bartók's solution was a specific one, it cannot be duplicated". Béla Bartók_sentence_165

Bartók's use of "two organizational principles"—tonality for large scale relationships and the piece-specific method for moment to moment thematic elements—was a problem for Babbitt, who worried that the "highly attenuated tonality" requires extreme non-harmonic methods to create a feeling of closure. Béla Bartók_sentence_166

Catalogues and opus numbers Béla Bartók_section_15

The cataloguing of Bartók's works is somewhat complex. Béla Bartók_sentence_167

Bartók assigned opus numbers to his works three times, the last of these series ending with the Sonata for Violin and Piano No. Béla Bartók_sentence_168

1, Op. 21 in 1921. Béla Bartók_sentence_169

He ended this practice because of the difficulty of distinguishing between original works and ethnographic arrangements, and between major and minor works. Béla Bartók_sentence_170

Since his death, three attempts—two full and one partial—have been made at cataloguing. Béla Bartók_sentence_171

The first, and still most widely used, is András Szőllősy's chronological Sz. Béla Bartók_sentence_172

numbers, from 1 to 121. Béla Bartók_sentence_173

Denijs Dille [] subsequently reorganised the juvenilia (Sz. Béla Bartók_sentence_174

1–25) thematically, as DD numbers 1 to 77. Béla Bartók_sentence_175

The most recent catalogue is that of László Somfai; this is a chronological index with works identified by BB numbers 1 to 129, incorporating corrections based on the Béla Bartók Thematic Catalogue. Béla Bartók_sentence_176

On 1 January 2016, his works entered the public domain in the European Union. Béla Bartók_sentence_177

Discography Béla Bartók_section_16

Together with his like-minded contemporary Zoltán Kodály, Bartók embarked on an extensive programme of field research to capture the folk and peasant melodies of Magyar, Slovak and Romanian language territories. Béla Bartók_sentence_178

At first they would transcribe the melodies by hand, but later they began to use a wax cylinder recording machine invented by Thomas Edison. Béla Bartók_sentence_179

Compilations of Bartók's field recordings, interviews, and original piano playing have been released over the years, largely by the Hungarian record label Hungaroton: Béla Bartók_sentence_180

Béla Bartók_unordered_list_1

  • Bartók, Béla. 1994. Bartók at the Piano. Hungaroton 12326. 6-CD set.Béla Bartók_item_1_10
  • Bartók, Béla. 1995a. Bartók Plays Bartók – Bartók at the Piano 1929–41. Pearl 9166. CD recording.Béla Bartók_item_1_11
  • Bartók, Béla. 1995b. Bartók Recordings from Private Collections. Hungaroton 12334. CD recording.Béla Bartók_item_1_12
  • Bartók, Béla. 2003. Bartók Plays Bartók. Pearl 179. CD recording.Béla Bartók_item_1_13
  • Bartók, Béla. 2007. Bartók: Contrasts, Mikrokosmos. Membran/Documents 223546. CD recording.Béla Bartók_item_1_14
  • Bartók, Béla. 2008. Bartók Plays Bartók. Urania 340. CD recording.Béla Bartók_item_1_15
  • Bartók, Béla. 2016. Bartók the Pianist. Hungaroton HCD32790-91. Two CDs. Works by Bartók, Domenico Scarlatti, Zoltán Kodály, and Franz Liszt.Béla Bartók_item_1_16

A compilation of field recordings and transcriptions for two violas was also recently released by Tantara Records in 2014. Béla Bartók_sentence_181

On 18 March 2016 Decca Classics released Béla Bartók: The Complete Works, the first ever complete compilation of all of Bartók's compositions, including new recordings of never-before-recorded early piano and vocal works. Béla Bartók_sentence_182

However, none of the composer's own performances are included in this 32-disc set. Béla Bartók_sentence_183


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Béla Bartók.