BBC

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This article is about the British Broadcasting Corporation. BBC_sentence_0

For the limited company operating between 1922 and 1926 also abbreviated BBC, see British Broadcasting Company. BBC_sentence_1

"The BBC" and "British Broadcasting Corporation" redirect here. BBC_sentence_2

For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). BBC_sentence_3

BBC_table_infobox_0

British Broadcasting CorporationBBC_table_caption_0
TypeBBC_header_cell_0_0_0 Statutory corporation with a royal charterBBC_cell_0_0_1
IndustryBBC_header_cell_0_1_0 Mass mediaBBC_cell_0_1_1
PredecessorBBC_header_cell_0_2_0 British Broadcasting CompanyBBC_cell_0_2_1
FoundedBBC_header_cell_0_3_0 18 October 1922; 98 years ago (1922-10-18) (as British Broadcasting Company)

1 January 1927; 93 years ago (1927-01-01) (as British Broadcasting Corporation)BBC_cell_0_3_1

FounderBBC_header_cell_0_4_0 HM Government

John Reith, first Director-GeneralBBC_cell_0_4_1

HeadquartersBBC_header_cell_0_5_0 Broadcasting House, London, England, UKBBC_cell_0_5_1
Area servedBBC_header_cell_0_6_0 WorldwideBBC_cell_0_6_1
Key peopleBBC_header_cell_0_7_0 BBC_cell_0_7_1
ProductsBBC_header_cell_0_8_0 BBC_cell_0_8_1
ServicesBBC_header_cell_0_9_0 BBC_cell_0_9_1
RevenueBBC_header_cell_0_10_0 £4.889 billion (2019)BBC_cell_0_10_1
Operating incomeBBC_header_cell_0_11_0 £−52 million (2019)BBC_cell_0_11_1
Net incomeBBC_header_cell_0_12_0 £−69 million (2019)BBC_cell_0_12_1
Total assetsBBC_header_cell_0_13_0 £1.172 billion (2019)BBC_cell_0_13_1
OwnerBBC_header_cell_0_14_0 Public ownedBBC_cell_0_14_1
Number of employeesBBC_header_cell_0_15_0 22,401 (2019)BBC_cell_0_15_1
DivisionsBBC_header_cell_0_16_0 BBC StudiosBBC_cell_0_16_1
WebsiteBBC_header_cell_0_17_0 Q9531#P856BBC_cell_0_17_1

The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a public service broadcaster, headquartered at Broadcasting House in Westminster, London. BBC_sentence_4

It is the world's oldest national broadcaster, and the largest broadcaster in the world by number of employees, employing over 22,000 staff in total, of whom more than 16,000 are in public sector broadcasting. BBC_sentence_5

The total number of BBC staff amounts to 35,402 including part-time, flexible, and fixed-contract staff. BBC_sentence_6

The BBC is established under a Royal Charter and operates under its Agreement with the Secretary of State for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport. BBC_sentence_7

Its work is funded principally by an annual television licence fee which is charged to all British households, companies, and organisations using any type of equipment to receive or record live television broadcasts and iPlayer catch-up. BBC_sentence_8

The fee is set by the British Government, agreed by Parliament, and used to fund the BBC's radio, TV, and online services covering the nations and regions of the UK. BBC_sentence_9

Since 1 April 2014, it has also funded the BBC World Service (launched in 1932 as the BBC Empire Service), which broadcasts in 28 languages and provides comprehensive TV, radio, and online services in Arabic and Persian. BBC_sentence_10

Around a quarter of BBC's revenue comes from its commercial subsidiary BBC Studios (formerly BBC Worldwide), which sells BBC programmes and services internationally and also distributes the BBC's international 24-hour English-language news services BBC World News, and from BBC.com, provided by BBC Global News Ltd. BBC_sentence_11

In 2009, the company was awarded the Queen's Award for Enterprise in recognition of its international achievements. BBC_sentence_12

From its inception, through the Second World War (where its broadcasts helped to unite the nation), to the popularisation of television in the post-WW2 era and the internet in the late 20th and early 21st centuries, the BBC has played a prominent role in British life and culture. BBC_sentence_13

It is also known colloquially as "The Beeb", "Auntie", or a combination of both (as "Auntie Beeb"). BBC_sentence_14

History BBC_section_0

Further information: Timeline of the BBC BBC_sentence_15

The birth of British broadcasting, 1920 to 1922 BBC_section_1

Britain's first live public broadcast was made from the factory of Marconi's Wireless Telegraph Company in Chelmsford in June 1920. BBC_sentence_16

It was sponsored by the Daily Mail's Lord Northcliffe and featured the famous Australian soprano Dame Nellie Melba. BBC_sentence_17

The Melba broadcast caught the people's imagination and marked a turning point in the British public's attitude to radio. BBC_sentence_18

However, this public enthusiasm was not shared in official circles where such broadcasts were held to interfere with important military and civil communications. BBC_sentence_19

By late 1920, pressure from these quarters and uneasiness among the staff of the licensing authority, the General Post Office (GPO), was sufficient to lead to a ban on further Chelmsford broadcasts. BBC_sentence_20

But by 1922, the GPO had received nearly 100 broadcast licence requests and moved to rescind its ban in the wake of a petition by 63 wireless societies with over 3,000 members. BBC_sentence_21

Anxious to avoid the same chaotic expansion experienced in the United States, the GPO proposed that it would issue a single broadcasting licence to a company jointly owned by a consortium of leading wireless receiver manufacturers, to be known as the British Broadcasting Company Ltd. John Reith, a Scottish Calvinist, was appointed its General Manager in December 1922 a few weeks after the company made its first official broadcast. BBC_sentence_22

L. BBC_sentence_23 Stanton Jefferies was its first Director of Music. BBC_sentence_24

The company was to be financed by a royalty on the sale of BBC wireless receiving sets from approved domestic manufacturers. BBC_sentence_25

To this day, the BBC aims to follow the Reithian directive to "inform, educate and entertain". BBC_sentence_26

From private company towards public service corporation, 1923 to 1926 BBC_section_2

The financial arrangements soon proved inadequate. BBC_sentence_27

Set sales were disappointing as amateurs made their own receivers and listeners bought rival unlicensed sets. BBC_sentence_28

By mid-1923, discussions between the GPO and the BBC had become deadlocked and the Postmaster-General commissioned a review of broadcasting by the Sykes Committee. BBC_sentence_29

The Committee recommended a short term reorganisation of licence fees with improved enforcement in order to address the BBC's immediate financial distress, and an increased share of the licence revenue split between it and the GPO. BBC_sentence_30

This was to be followed by a simple 10 shillings licence fee with no royalty once the wireless manufacturers' protection expired. BBC_sentence_31

The BBC's broadcasting monopoly was made explicit for the duration of its current broadcast licence, as was the prohibition on advertising. BBC_sentence_32

The BBC was also banned from presenting news bulletins before 19:00 and was required to source all news from external wire services. BBC_sentence_33

Mid-1925 found the future of broadcasting under further consideration, this time by the Crawford committee. BBC_sentence_34

By now, the BBC, under Reith's leadership, had forged a consensus favouring a continuation of the unified (monopoly) broadcasting service, but more money was still required to finance rapid expansion. BBC_sentence_35

Wireless manufacturers were anxious to exit the loss-making consortium with Reith keen that the BBC be seen as a public service rather than a commercial enterprise. BBC_sentence_36

The recommendations of the Crawford Committee were published in March the following year and were still under consideration by the GPO when the 1926 general strike broke out in May. BBC_sentence_37

The strike temporarily interrupted newspaper production, and with restrictions on news bulletins waived, the BBC suddenly became the primary source of news for the duration of the crisis. BBC_sentence_38

The crisis placed the BBC in a delicate position. BBC_sentence_39

On the one hand Reith was acutely aware that the government might exercise its right to commandeer the BBC at any time as a mouthpiece of the government if the BBC were to step out of line, but on the other he was anxious to maintain public trust by appearing to be acting independently. BBC_sentence_40

The government was divided on how to handle the BBC but ended up trusting Reith, whose opposition to the strike mirrored the PM's own. BBC_sentence_41

Although Winston Churchill in particular wanted to commander the BBC to use it "to the best possible advantage", Reith wrote that Stanley Baldwin's government wanted to be able to say "that they did not commandeer [the BBC], but they know that they can trust us not to be really impartial". BBC_sentence_42

Thus the BBC was granted sufficient leeway to pursue the government's objectives largely in a manner of its own choosing. BBC_sentence_43

The resulting coverage of both striker and government viewpoints impressed millions of listeners who were unaware that the PM had broadcast to the nation from Reith's home, using one of Reith's sound bites inserted at the last moment, or that the BBC had banned broadcasts from the Labour Party and delayed a peace appeal by the Archbishop of Canterbury. BBC_sentence_44

Supporters of the strike nicknamed the BBC the BFC for British Falsehood Company. BBC_sentence_45

Reith personally announced the end of the strike which he marked by reciting from Blake's "Jerusalem" signifying that England had been saved. BBC_sentence_46

While the BBC tends to characterise its coverage of the general strike by emphasising the positive impression created by its balanced coverage of the views of government and strikers, Jean Seaton, Professor of Media History and the Official BBC Historian, has characterised the episode as the invention of "modern propaganda in its British form". BBC_sentence_47

Reith argued that trust gained by 'authentic impartial news' could then be used. BBC_sentence_48

Impartial news was not necessarily an end in itself. BBC_sentence_49

The BBC did well out of the crisis, which cemented a national audience for its broadcasting, and it was followed by the Government's acceptance of the recommendation made by the Crawford Committee (1925–26) that the British Broadcasting Company be replaced by a non-commercial, Crown-chartered organisation: the British Broadcasting Corporation. BBC_sentence_50

1927 to 1939 BBC_section_3

The British Broadcasting Corporation came into existence on 1 January 1927, and Reith – newly knighted – was appointed its first Director General. BBC_sentence_51

To represent its purpose and (stated) values, the new corporation adopted the coat of arms, including the motto "Nation shall speak peace unto Nation". BBC_sentence_52

British radio audiences had little choice apart from the upscale programming of the BBC. BBC_sentence_53

Reith, an intensely moralistic executive, was in full charge. BBC_sentence_54

His goal was to broadcast "All that is best in every department of human knowledge, endeavour and achievement.... BBC_sentence_55

The preservation of a high moral tone is obviously of paramount importance." BBC_sentence_56

Reith succeeded in building a high wall against an American-style free-for-all in radio in which the goal was to attract the largest audiences and thereby secure the greatest advertising revenue. BBC_sentence_57

There was no paid advertising on the BBC; all the revenue came from a tax on receiving sets. BBC_sentence_58

Highbrow audiences, however, greatly enjoyed it. BBC_sentence_59

At a time when American, Australian and Canadian stations were drawing huge audiences cheering for their local teams with the broadcast of baseball, rugby and hockey, the BBC emphasised service for a national rather than a regional audience. BBC_sentence_60

Boat races were well covered along with tennis and horse racing, but the BBC was reluctant to spend its severely limited air time on long football or cricket games, regardless of their popularity. BBC_sentence_61

John Reith and the BBC, with support from the Crown, determined the universal needs of the people of Britain and broadcast content according to these perceived standards. BBC_sentence_62

Reith effectively censored anything that he felt would be harmful, directly or indirectly. BBC_sentence_63

While recounting his time with the BBC in 1935, Raymond Postgate claims that BBC broadcasters were made to submit a draft of their potential broadcast for approval. BBC_sentence_64

It was expected that they tailored their content to accommodate the modest, church-going elderly or a member of the Clergy. BBC_sentence_65

Until 1928, entertainers broadcasting on the BBC, both singers and "talkers" were expected to avoid biblical quotations, Clerical impersonations and references, references to drink or Prohibition in America, vulgar and doubtful matter and political allusions. BBC_sentence_66

The BBC excluded popular foreign music and musicians from its broadcasts, while promoting British alternatives. BBC_sentence_67

On 5 March 1928, Stanley Baldwin, the Prime Minister, maintained the censorship of editorial opinions on public policy, but allowed the BBC to address matters of religious, political or industrial controversy. BBC_sentence_68

The resulting political "talk series", designed to inform England on political issues, were criticised by Members of Parliament, including Winston Churchill, David Lloyd George and Sir Austen Chamberlain. BBC_sentence_69

Those who opposed these chats claimed that they silence the opinions of those in Parliament who are not nominated by Party Leaders or Party Whips, thus stifling independent, non-official views. BBC_sentence_70

In October 1932, the policemen of the Metropolitan Police Federation marched in protest of a proposed pay cut. BBC_sentence_71

Fearing dissent within the police force and public support for the movement, the BBC censored its coverage of the events, only broadcasting official statements from the government. BBC_sentence_72

Throughout the 1930s, political broadcasts had been closely monitored by the BBC. BBC_sentence_73

In 1935, the BBC censored the broadcasts of Oswald Mosley and Harry Pollitt. BBC_sentence_74

Mosley was a leader of the British Union of Fascists, and Pollitt a leader of the Communist Party of Great Britain. BBC_sentence_75

They had been contracted to provide a series of five broadcasts on their party's politics. BBC_sentence_76

The BBC, in conjunction with The Foreign Office of Britain, first suspended this series and ultimately cancelled it without the notice of the public. BBC_sentence_77

Less radical politicians faced similar censorship. BBC_sentence_78

In 1938, Winston Churchill proposed a series of talks regarding British domestic and foreign politics and affairs but was similarly censored. BBC_sentence_79

The censorship of political discourse by the BBC was a precursor to the total shutdown of political debate that manifested over the BBC's wartime airwaves. BBC_sentence_80

The Foreign Office maintained that the public should not be aware of their role in the censorship. BBC_sentence_81

From 1935 to 1939, the BBC also attempted to unite the British Empire's radio waves, sending staff to Egypt, Palestine, Newfoundland, Jamaica, India, Canada and South Africa. BBC_sentence_82

Reith personally visited South Africa, lobbying for state run radio programmes which was accepted by South African Parliament in 1936. BBC_sentence_83

A similar programme was adopted in Canada. BBC_sentence_84

Through collaboration with these state run broadcasting centres, Reith left a legacy of cultural influence across the empire of Great Britain with his departure from the corporation in 1938. BBC_sentence_85

Experimental television broadcasts were started in 1929, using an electromechanical 30-line system developed by John Logie Baird. BBC_sentence_86

Limited regular broadcasts using this system began in 1934, and an expanded service (now named the BBC Television Service) started from Alexandra Palace in November 1936, alternating between an improved Baird mechanical 240 line system and the all-electronic 405 line Marconi-EMI system. BBC_sentence_87

The superiority of the electronic system saw the mechanical system dropped early the following year. BBC_sentence_88

BBC versus other media BBC_section_4

The success of broadcasting provoked animosities between the BBC and well established media such as theatres, concert halls and the recording industry. BBC_sentence_89

By 1929, the BBC complained that the agents of many comedians refused to sign contracts for broadcasting, because they feared it harmed the artist "by making his material stale" and that it "reduces the value of the artist as a visible music-hall performer". BBC_sentence_90

On the other hand, the BBC was "keenly interested" in a cooperation with the recording companies who "in recent years ... have not been slow to make records of singers, orchestras, dance bands, etc. who have already proved their power to achieve popularity by wireless." BBC_sentence_91

Radio plays were so popular that the BBC had received 6,000 manuscripts by 1929, most of them written for stage and of little value for broadcasting: "Day in and day out, manuscripts come in, and nearly all go out again through the post, with a note saying 'We regret, etc.'" In the 1930s music broadcasts also enjoyed great popularity, for example the friendly and wide-ranging organ broadcasts at St George's Hall, Langham Place, by Reginald Foort, who held the official role of BBC Staff Theatre Organist from 1936 to 1938; Foort continued to work for the BBC as a freelance into the 1940s and enjoyed a nationwide following. BBC_sentence_92

Second World War BBC_section_5

Television broadcasting was suspended from 1 September 1939 to 7 June 1946, during the Second World War, and it was left to BBC Radio broadcasters such as Reginald Foort to keep the nation's spirits up. BBC_sentence_93

The BBC moved much of its radio operations out of London, initially to Bristol, and then to Bedford. BBC_sentence_94

Concerts were broadcast from the Corn Exchange; the Trinity Chapel in St Paul's Church, Bedford was the studio for the daily service from 1941 to 1945, and, in the darkest days of the war in 1941, the Archbishops of Canterbury and York came to St Paul's to broadcast to the UK and all parts of the world on the National Day of Prayer. BBC_sentence_95

BBC employees during the war included George Orwell who spent two years with the broadcaster. BBC_sentence_96

During his role as Prime Minister during the Second World War, Winston Churchill would deliver 33 major wartime speeches by radio, all of which were carried by the BBC within the UK. BBC_sentence_97

On 18 June 1940, French general Charles de Gaulle, in exile in London as the leader of the Free French, made a speech, broadcast by the BBC, urging the French people not to capitulate to the Nazis. BBC_sentence_98

In 1938, John Reith and the British government, specifically the Ministry of Information which had been set up for WWII, designed a censorship apparatus for the inevitability of war. BBC_sentence_99

Due to the BBC's advancements in shortwave radio technology, the corporation could broadcast across the world during World War II. BBC_sentence_100

Within Europe, the BBC European Service would gather intelligence and information regarding the current events of the war in English. BBC_sentence_101

Regional BBC workers, based on their regional geo-political climate, would then further censor the material their broadcasts would cover. BBC_sentence_102

Nothing was to be added outside of the preordained news items. BBC_sentence_103

For example, the BBC Polish Service was heavily censored due to fears of jeopardising relations with the Soviet Union. BBC_sentence_104

Controversial topics, i.e. the contested Polish and Soviet border, the deportation of Polish citizens, the arrests of Polish Home Army members and the Katyn massacre, were not included in Polish broadcasts. BBC_sentence_105

American radio broadcasts were broadcast across Europe on BBC channels. BBC_sentence_106

This material also passed through the BBC's censorship office, which surveilled and edited American coverage of British affairs. BBC_sentence_107

By 1940, across all BBC broadcasts, music by composers from enemy nations was censored. BBC_sentence_108

In total, 99 German, 38 Austrian and 38 Italian composers were censored. BBC_sentence_109

The BBC argued that like the Italian or German languages, listeners would be irritated by the inclusion of enemy composers. BBC_sentence_110

Any potential broadcaster said to have pacifist, communist or fascist ideologies were not allowed on the BBC's airwaves. BBC_sentence_111

Later 20th century BBC_section_6

There was a widely reported urban myth that, upon resumption of the BBC television service after the war, announcer Leslie Mitchell started by saying, "As I was saying before we were so rudely interrupted ..." In fact, the first person to appear when transmission resumed was Jasmine Bligh and the words said were "Good afternoon, everybody. BBC_sentence_112

How are you? BBC_sentence_113

Do you remember me, Jasmine Bligh ... BBC_sentence_114

?" BBC_sentence_115

The European Broadcasting Union was formed on 12 February 1950, in Torquay with the BBC among the 23 founding broadcasting organisations. BBC_sentence_116

Competition to the BBC was introduced in 1955, with the commercial and independently operated television network of ITV. BBC_sentence_117

However, the BBC monopoly on radio services would persist until 8 October 1973 when under the control of the newly renamed Independent Broadcasting Authority (IBA), the UK's first Independent local radio station, LBC came on-air in the London area. BBC_sentence_118

As a result of the Pilkington Committee report of 1962, in which the BBC was praised for the quality and range of its output, and ITV was very heavily criticised for not providing enough quality programming, the decision was taken to award the BBC a second television channel, BBC2, in 1964, renaming the existing service BBC1. BBC_sentence_119

BBC2 used the higher resolution 625 line standard which had been standardised across Europe. BBC_sentence_120

BBC2 was broadcast in colour from 1 July 1967 and was joined by BBC1 and ITV on 15 November 1969. BBC_sentence_121

The 405 line VHF transmissions of BBC1 (and ITV) were continued for compatibility with older television receivers until 1985. BBC_sentence_122

Starting in 1964, a series of pirate radio stations (starting with Radio Caroline) came on the air and forced the British government finally to regulate radio services to permit nationally based advertising-financed services. BBC_sentence_123

In response, the BBC reorganised and renamed their radio channels. BBC_sentence_124

On 30 September 1967, the Light Programme was split into Radio 1 offering continuous "Popular" music and Radio 2 more "Easy Listening". BBC_sentence_125

The "Third" programme became Radio 3 offering classical music and cultural programming. BBC_sentence_126

The Home Service became Radio 4 offering news, and non-musical content such as quiz shows, readings, dramas and plays. BBC_sentence_127

As well as the four national channels, a series of local BBC radio stations were established in 1967, including Radio London. BBC_sentence_128

In 1969, the BBC Enterprises department was formed to exploit BBC brands and programmes for commercial spin-off products. BBC_sentence_129

In 1979, it became a wholly owned limited company, BBC Enterprises Ltd. BBC_sentence_130

In 1974, the BBC's teletext service, Ceefax, was introduced, created initially to provide subtitling, but developed into a news and information service. BBC_sentence_131

In 1978, BBC staff went on strike just before the Christmas of that year, thus blocking out the transmission of both channels and amalgamating all four radio stations into one. BBC_sentence_132

Since the deregulation of the UK television and radio market in the 1980s, the BBC has faced increased competition from the commercial sector (and from the advertiser-funded public service broadcaster Channel 4), especially on satellite television, cable television, and digital television services. BBC_sentence_133

In the late 1980s, the BBC began a process of divestment by spinning off and selling parts of its organisation. BBC_sentence_134

In 1988, it sold off the Hulton Press Library, a photographic archive which had been acquired from the Picture Post magazine by the BBC in 1957. BBC_sentence_135

The archive was sold to Brian Deutsch and is now owned by Getty Images. BBC_sentence_136

During the 1990s, this process continued with the separation of certain operational arms of the corporation into autonomous but wholly owned subsidiaries of the BBC, with the aim of generating additional revenue for programme-making. BBC_sentence_137

BBC Enterprises was reorganised and relaunched in 1995, as BBC Worldwide Ltd. BBC_sentence_138

In 1998, BBC studios, outside broadcasts, post production, design, costumes and wigs were spun off into BBC Resources Ltd. BBC_sentence_139

The BBC Research Department has played a major part in the development of broadcasting and recording techniques. BBC_sentence_140

The BBC was also responsible for the development of the NICAM stereo standard. BBC_sentence_141

In recent decades, a number of additional channels and radio stations have been launched: Radio 5 was launched in 1990, as a sports and educational station, but was replaced in 1994, with Radio 5 Live to become a live radio station, following the success of the Radio 4 service to cover the 1991 Gulf War. BBC_sentence_142

The new station would be a news and sport station. BBC_sentence_143

In 1997, BBC News 24, a rolling news channel, launched on digital television services and the following year, BBC Choice launched as the third general entertainment channel from the BBC. BBC_sentence_144

The BBC also purchased The Parliamentary Channel, which was renamed BBC Parliament. BBC_sentence_145

In 1999, BBC Knowledge launched as a multimedia channel, with services available on the newly launched BBC Text digital teletext service, and on BBC Online. BBC_sentence_146

The channel had an educational aim, which was modified later on in its life to offer documentaries. BBC_sentence_147

2000 to 2011 BBC_section_7

In 2002, several television and radio channels were reorganised. BBC_sentence_148

BBC Knowledge was replaced by BBC Four and became the BBC's arts and documentaries channel. BBC_sentence_149

CBBC, which had been a programming strand as Children's BBC since 1985, was split into CBBC and CBeebies, for younger children, with both new services getting a digital channel: the CBBC Channel and CBeebies Channel. BBC_sentence_150

In addition to the television channels, new digital radio stations were created: 1Xtra, 6 Music and BBC7. BBC_sentence_151

BBC 1Xtra was a sister station to Radio 1 and specialised in modern black music, BBC 6 Music specialised in alternative music genres and BBC7 specialised in archive, speech and children's programming. BBC_sentence_152

The following few years resulted in repositioning of some channels to conform to a larger brand: in 2003, BBC Choice was replaced by BBC Three, with programming for younger adults and shocking real life documentaries, BBC News 24 became the BBC News Channel in 2008, and BBC Radio 7 became BBC Radio 4 Extra in 2011, with new programmes to supplement those broadcast on Radio 4. BBC_sentence_153

In 2008, another channel was launched, BBC Alba, a Scottish Gaelic service. BBC_sentence_154

During this decade, the corporation began to sell off a number of its operational divisions to private owners; BBC Broadcast was spun off as a separate company in 2002, and in 2005, it was sold off to Australian-based Macquarie Capital Alliance Group and Macquarie Bank Limited and rebranded Red Bee Media. BBC_sentence_155

The BBC's IT, telephony and broadcast technology were brought together as BBC Technology Ltd in 2001, and the division was later sold to the German company Siemens IT Solutions and Services (SIS). BBC_sentence_156

SIS was subsequently acquired from Siemens by the French company Atos. BBC_sentence_157

Further divestments included BBC Books (sold to Random House in 2006); BBC Outside Broadcasts Ltd (sold in 2008 to Satellite Information Services); Costumes and Wigs (stock sold in 2008 to Angels The Costumiers); and BBC Magazines (sold to Immediate Media Company in 2011). BBC_sentence_158

After the sales of OBs and costumes, the remainder of BBC Resources was reorganised as BBC Studios and Post Production, which continues today as a wholly owned subsidiary of the BBC. BBC_sentence_159

The 2004 Hutton Inquiry and the subsequent Report raised questions about the BBC's journalistic standards and its impartiality. BBC_sentence_160

This led to resignations of senior management members at the time including the then Director General, Greg Dyke. BBC_sentence_161

In January 2007, the BBC released minutes of the board meeting which led to Greg Dyke's resignation. BBC_sentence_162

Unlike the other departments of the BBC, the BBC World Service was funded by the Foreign and Commonwealth Office. BBC_sentence_163

The Foreign and Commonwealth Office, more commonly known as the Foreign Office or the FCO, is the British government department responsible for promoting the interests of the United Kingdom abroad. BBC_sentence_164

In 2006, BBC HD launched as an experimental service, and became official in December 2007. BBC_sentence_165

The channel broadcast HD simulcasts of programmes on BBC One, BBC Two, BBC Three and BBC Four as well as repeats of some older programmes in HD. BBC_sentence_166

In 2010, an HD simulcast of BBC One launched: BBC One HD. BBC_sentence_167

The channel uses HD versions of BBC One's schedule and uses upscaled versions of programmes not currently produced in HD. BBC_sentence_168

The BBC HD channel closed in March 2013 and was replaced by BBC2 HD in the same month. BBC_sentence_169

On 18 October 2007, BBC Director General Mark Thompson announced a controversial plan to make major cuts and reduce the size of the BBC as an organisation. BBC_sentence_170

The plans included a reduction in posts of 2,500; including 1,800 redundancies, consolidating news operations, reducing programming output by 10% and selling off the flagship Television Centre building in London. BBC_sentence_171

These plans have been fiercely opposed by unions, who have threatened a series of strikes; however, the BBC have stated that the cuts are essential to move the organisation forward and concentrate on increasing the quality of programming. BBC_sentence_172

On 20 October 2010, the Chancellor of the Exchequer George Osborne announced that the television licence fee would be frozen at its current level until the end of the current charter in 2016. BBC_sentence_173

The same announcement revealed that the BBC would take on the full cost of running the BBC World Service and the BBC Monitoring service from the Foreign and Commonwealth Office, and partially finance the Welsh broadcaster S4C. BBC_sentence_174

2011 to present BBC_section_8

Further cuts were announced on 6 October 2011, so the BBC could reach a total reduction in their budget of 20%, following the licence fee freeze in October 2010, which included cutting staff by 2,000 and sending a further 1,000 to the MediaCityUK development in Salford, with BBC Three moving online only in 2016, the sharing of more programmes between stations and channels, sharing of radio news bulletins, more repeats in schedules, including the whole of BBC Two daytime and for some original programming to be reduced. BBC_sentence_175

BBC HD was closed on 26 March 2013, and replaced with an HD simulcast of BBC Two; however, flagship programmes, other channels and full funding for CBBC and CBeebies would be retained. BBC_sentence_176

Numerous BBC facilities have been sold off, including New Broadcasting House on Oxford Road in Manchester. BBC_sentence_177

Many major departments have been relocated to Broadcasting House in central London and MediaCityUK in Salford, particularly since the closure of BBC Television Centre in March 2013. BBC_sentence_178

On 16 February 2016, the BBC Three television service was discontinued and replaced by a digital outlet under the same name, targeting its young adult audience with web series and other content. BBC_sentence_179

Under the new royal charter instituted 2017, the corporation must publish an annual report to Ofcom, outlining its plans and public service obligations for the next year. BBC_sentence_180

In its 2017–18 report, released July 2017, the BBC announced plans to "re-invent" its output to better compete against commercial streaming services such as Netflix. BBC_sentence_181

These plans included increasing the diversity of its content on television and radio, a major increase in investments towards digital children's content, and plans to make larger investments in Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland to "rise to the challenge of better reflecting and representing a changing UK." BBC_sentence_182

In 2016 the BBC Director General Tony Hall announced a savings target of £800 million per year by 2021, which is about 23% of annual licence fee revenue. BBC_sentence_183

Having to take on the £700 million cost for free TV licences for the over-75 pensioners, and rapid inflation in drama and sport coverage costs, was given as the reason. BBC_sentence_184

Duplication of management and content spending would be reduced, and there would be a review of BBC News. BBC_sentence_185

In 2020 the BBC announced a BBC News savings target of £80 million per year by 2022, involving about 520 staff reductions. BBC_sentence_186

BBC director of news and current affairs Fran Unsworth said there would be further moves toward digital broadcasting, in part to attract back a youth audience, and more pooling of reporters to stop separate teams covering the same news. BBC_sentence_187

In 2020 the BBC reported a £119 million deficit because of delays to cost reduction plans, and the forthcoming ending of the remaining £253 million funding towards pensioner licence fees would increase financial pressures. BBC_sentence_188

Governance and corporate structure BBC_section_9

The BBC is a statutory corporation, independent from direct government intervention, with its activities being overseen from April 2017 by the BBC Board and regulated by Ofcom. BBC_sentence_189

The Chairman is Sir David Clementi. BBC_sentence_190

Charter BBC_section_10

The BBC operates under a Royal Charter. BBC_sentence_191

The current Charter came into effect on 1 January 2017 and runs until 31 December 2026. BBC_sentence_192

The 2017 charter abolished the BBC Trust and replaced it with external regulation by Ofcom, with governance by the BBC Board. BBC_sentence_193

Under the Royal Charter, the BBC must obtain a licence from the Home Secretary. BBC_sentence_194

This licence is accompanied by an agreement which sets the terms and conditions under which the BBC is allowed to broadcast. BBC_sentence_195

BBC Board BBC_section_11

Main article: BBC Board BBC_sentence_196

The BBC Board was formed in April 2017. BBC_sentence_197

It replaced the previous governing body, the BBC Trust, which in itself had replaced the Board of Governors in 2007. BBC_sentence_198

The Board sets the strategy for the corporation, assesses the performance of the BBC Executive Board in delivering the BBC's services, and appoints the Director-General. BBC_sentence_199

Regulation of the BBC is now the responsibility of Ofcom. BBC_sentence_200

The Board consists of the following members. BBC_sentence_201

BBC_table_general_1

NameBBC_header_cell_1_0_0 PositionBBC_header_cell_1_0_1
Sir David ClementiBBC_cell_1_1_0 ChairmanBBC_cell_1_1_1
Tim DavieBBC_cell_1_2_0 Director-General of the BBCBBC_cell_1_2_1
Sir Nicholas SerotaBBC_cell_1_3_0 Senior Independent DirectorBBC_cell_1_3_1
Simon BurkeBBC_cell_1_4_0 Non-executive DirectorBBC_cell_1_4_1
Baroness Tanni Grey-ThompsonBBC_cell_1_5_0 Non-executive DirectorBBC_cell_1_5_1
Ian HargreavesBBC_cell_1_6_0 Non-executive DirectorBBC_cell_1_6_1
Tom IlubeBBC_cell_1_7_0 Non-executive DirectorBBC_cell_1_7_1
Shirley GarroodBBC_cell_1_8_0 Non-executive DirectorBBC_cell_1_8_1
Steve MorrisonBBC_cell_1_9_0 Member for ScotlandBBC_cell_1_9_1
Dr Ashley SteelBBC_cell_1_10_0 Member for EnglandBBC_cell_1_10_1
Dame Elan Closs StephensBBC_cell_1_11_0 Member for WalesBBC_cell_1_11_1
Ken MacQuarrieBBC_cell_1_12_0 Director, Nations and RegionsBBC_cell_1_12_1
Francesca UnsworthBBC_cell_1_13_0 Director, News and Current AffairsBBC_cell_1_13_1
To be appointed by the Northern Ireland ExecutiveBBC_cell_1_14_0 Member for Northern IrelandBBC_cell_1_14_1

Executive Committee BBC_section_12

The Executive Committee is responsible for the day-to-day operations of the broadcaster. BBC_sentence_202

Consisting of senior managers of the BBC, the Committee meets once per month and is responsible for operational management and delivery of services within a framework set by the Board, and is chaired by the Director-General, currently Tim Davie, who is chief executive and (from 1994) editor-in-chief. BBC_sentence_203

BBC_table_general_2

NameBBC_header_cell_2_0_0 PositionBBC_header_cell_2_0_1
Tim DavieBBC_cell_2_1_0 Director-General (Chair of the Executive Committee)BBC_cell_2_1_1
Kerris BrightBBC_cell_2_2_0 Chief Customer OfficerBBC_cell_2_2_1
Tom FussellBBC_cell_2_3_0 CEO, BBC StudiosBBC_cell_2_3_1
Glyn IsherwoodBBC_cell_2_4_0 Chief Operating OfficerBBC_cell_2_4_1
Ken MacQuarrieBBC_cell_2_5_0 Director of Nations & RegionsBBC_cell_2_5_1
Charlotte MooreBBC_cell_2_6_0 Chief Content OfficerBBC_cell_2_6_1
Gautam RangarajanBBC_cell_2_7_0 Group Director of Strategy and PerformanceBBC_cell_2_7_1
June SarpongBBC_cell_2_8_0 Director, Creative DiversityBBC_cell_2_8_1
Bob ShennanBBC_cell_2_9_0 Managing DirectorBBC_cell_2_9_1
Fran UnsworthBBC_cell_2_10_0 Director of News & Current AffairsBBC_cell_2_10_1

Operational divisions BBC_section_13

The corporation has the following in-house divisions covering the BBC's output and operations: BBC_sentence_204

BBC_unordered_list_0

  • Content, headed by Charlotte Moore is in charge of the corporation's television channels including the commissioning of programming.BBC_item_0_0
  • Radio and Education headed by James Purnell is in charge of BBC Radio and music content across the BBC under the BBC Music brand, including music programmes on BBC Television, events such as the BBC Proms and the numerous orchestras such as the BBC Philharmonic, as well as the children's channel CBBC.BBC_item_0_1
  • News and Current Affairs headed by Fran Unsworth operates the BBC News operation, including the national, regional and international output on television, radio and online, as well as the output of the BBC Global News division. It is also in charge of the corporation's Current Affairs programming and have some responsibility for sports output.BBC_item_0_2
  • Design + Engineering, headed by Peter O'Kane, is in charge of digital output, such as BBC Online, BBC iPlayer, BBC Red Button service and developing new technologies through BBC Research & Development.BBC_item_0_3
  • Managing Director Group headed by Bob Shennan pan-BBC functions including Finance, HR, Strategy, Security and Property.BBC_item_0_4
  • Nations and Regions, headed by Ken MacQuarrie is responsible for the corporation's divisions in Scotland, Northern Ireland, Wales, the English Regions.BBC_item_0_5

Commercial divisions BBC_section_14

The BBC also operates a number of wholly owned commercial divisions: BBC_sentence_205

BBC_unordered_list_1

  • BBC Studios is the former in-house television production; Entertainment, Music & Events, Factual and Scripted (drama and comedy). Following a merger with BBC Worldwide in April 2018, it also operates international channels and sells programmes and merchandise in the UK and abroad to gain additional income that is returned to BBC programmes. It is kept separate from the corporation due to its commercial nature.BBC_item_1_6
  • BBC World News department is in charge of the production and distribution of its commercial global television channel. It works closely with the BBC News group, but is not governed by it, and shares the corporation's facilities and staff. It also works with BBC Studios, the channel's distributor.BBC_item_1_7
  • BBC Studioworks is also separate and officially owns and operates some of the BBC's studio facilities, such as the BBC Elstree Centre, leasing them out to productions from within and outside of the corporation.BBC_item_1_8

MI5 vetting policy BBC_section_15

From as early as the 1930s until the 1990s, MI5, the British domestic intelligence service, engaged in vetting of applicants for BBC positions, a policy designed to keep out persons deemed subversive. BBC_sentence_206

In 1933, BBC executive Colonel Alan Dawnay began to meet with the head of MI5, Sir Vernon Kell, to informally trade information; from 1935, a formal arrangement was made wherein job applicants would be secretly vetted by MI5 for their political views (without their knowledge). BBC_sentence_207

The BBC took up a policy of denying any suggestion of such a relationship by the press (the existence of MI5 itself was not officially acknowledged until the Security Service Act 1989. BBC_sentence_208

This relationship garnered wider public attention after an article by David Leigh and Paul Lashmar appeared in The Observer in August 1985, revealing that MI5 had been vetting appointments, running operations out of Room 105 in Broadcasting House. BBC_sentence_209

At the time of the exposé, the operation was being run by Ronnie Stonham. BBC_sentence_210

A memo from 1984 revealed that blacklisted organisations included the far-left Communist Party of Great Britain, the Socialist Workers Party, the Workers Revolutionary Party and the Militant Tendency, as well as the far-right National Front and the British National Party. BBC_sentence_211

An association with one of these groups could result in a denial of a job application. BBC_sentence_212

In October 1985, the BBC announced that it would stop the vetting process, except for a few people in top roles, as well as those in charge of Wartime Broadcasting Service emergency broadcasting (in event of a nuclear war) and staff in the BBC World Service. BBC_sentence_213

In 1990, following the Security Service Act 1989, vetting was further restricted to only those responsible for wartime broadcasting and those with access to secret government information. BBC_sentence_214

Michael Hodder, who succeeded Stonham, had the MI5 vetting files sent to the BBC Information and Archives in Reading, Berkshire. BBC_sentence_215

Finances BBC_section_16

The BBC has the second largest budget of any UK-based broadcaster with an operating expenditure of £4.722 billion in 2013/14 compared with £6.471 billion for British Sky Broadcasting in 2013/14 and £1.843 billion for ITV in the calendar year 2013. BBC_sentence_216

Revenue BBC_section_17

See also: Television licence and Television licensing in the United Kingdom BBC_sentence_217

The principal means of funding the BBC is through the television licence, costing £154.50 per year per household since April 2019. BBC_sentence_218

Such a licence is required to legally receive broadcast television across the UK, the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man. BBC_sentence_219

No licence is required to own a television used for other means, or for sound only radio sets (though a separate licence for these was also required for non-TV households until 1971). BBC_sentence_220

The cost of a television licence is set by the government and enforced by the criminal law. BBC_sentence_221

A discount is available for households with only black-and-white television sets. BBC_sentence_222

A 50% discount is also offered to people who are registered blind or severely visually impaired, and the licence is completely free for any household containing anyone aged 75 or over. BBC_sentence_223

However, from August 2020, the licence fee will only be waived if over 75 and receiving pension credit. BBC_sentence_224

The BBC pursues its licence fee collection and enforcement under the trading name "TV Licensing". BBC_sentence_225

The revenue is collected privately by Capita, an outside agency, and is paid into the central government Consolidated Fund, a process defined in the Communications Act 2003. BBC_sentence_226

Funds are then allocated by the Department of Culture, Media and Sport (DCMS) and the Treasury and approved by Parliament via legislation. BBC_sentence_227

Additional revenues are paid by the Department for Work and Pensions to compensate for subsidised licences for eligible over-75-year-olds. BBC_sentence_228

The licence fee is classified as a tax, and its evasion is a criminal offence. BBC_sentence_229

Since 1991, collection and enforcement of the licence fee has been the responsibility of the BBC in its role as TV Licensing Authority. BBC_sentence_230

The BBC carries out surveillance (mostly using subcontractors) on properties (under the auspices of the Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act 2000) and may conduct searches of a property using a search warrant. BBC_sentence_231

According to TV Licensing, 216,900 people in the UK were caught watching TV without a licence in 2018/19. BBC_sentence_232

Licence fee evasion makes up around one-tenth of all cases prosecuted in magistrates' courts, representing 0.3% of court time. BBC_sentence_233

Income from commercial enterprises and from overseas sales of its catalogue of programmes has substantially increased over recent years, with BBC Worldwide contributing some £243 million to the BBC's core public service business. BBC_sentence_234

According to the BBC's 2018/19 Annual Report, its total income was £4.8 billion (£4,889 billion) a decrease from £5,062 billion in 2017/18 – partly owing to a 3.7% phased reduction in government funding for free over-75s TV licences, which can be broken down as follows: BBC_sentence_235

BBC_unordered_list_2

  • £3.690 billion in licence fees collected from householders;BBC_item_2_9
  • £1.199 billion from the BBC's commercial businesses and government grants some of which will cease in 2020BBC_item_2_10

The licence fee has, however, attracted criticism. BBC_sentence_236

It has been argued that in an age of multi-stream, multi-channel availability, an obligation to pay a licence fee is no longer appropriate. BBC_sentence_237

The BBC's use of private sector company Capita Group to send letters to premises not paying the licence fee has been criticised, especially as there have been cases where such letters have been sent to premises which are up to date with their payments, or do not require a TV licence. BBC_sentence_238

The BBC uses advertising campaigns to inform customers of the requirement to pay the licence fee. BBC_sentence_239

Past campaigns have been criticised by Conservative MP Boris Johnson and former MP Ann Widdecombe for having a threatening nature and language used to scare evaders into paying. BBC_sentence_240

Audio clips and television broadcasts are used to inform listeners of the BBC's comprehensive database. BBC_sentence_241

There are a number of pressure groups campaigning on the issue of the licence fee. BBC_sentence_242

The majority of the BBC's commercial output comes from its commercial arm BBC Worldwide who sell programmes abroad and exploit key brands for merchandise. BBC_sentence_243

Of their 2012/13 sales, 27% were centred on the five key "superbrands" of Doctor Who, Top Gear, Strictly Come Dancing (known as Dancing with the Stars internationally), the BBC's archive of natural history programming (collected under the umbrella of BBC Earth) and the (now sold) travel guide brand Lonely Planet. BBC_sentence_244

Expenditure BBC_section_18

The following expenditure figures are from 2012/13 and show the expenditure of each service they are obliged to provide: BBC_sentence_245

BBC_table_general_3

DepartmentBBC_header_cell_3_0_0 Total cost (£million)BBC_header_cell_3_0_1
Television including BBC Red ButtonBBC_cell_3_1_0 2,471.5BBC_cell_3_1_1
RadioBBC_cell_3_2_0 669.5BBC_cell_3_2_1
BBC OnlineBBC_cell_3_3_0 176.6BBC_cell_3_3_1
Licence fee collectionBBC_cell_3_4_0 111.1BBC_cell_3_4_1
Orchestras and performing groupsBBC_cell_3_5_0 29.2BBC_cell_3_5_1
S4CBBC_cell_3_6_0 30BBC_cell_3_6_1
Digital switchoverBBC_cell_3_7_0 56.9BBC_cell_3_7_1
RestructuringBBC_cell_3_8_0 23.1BBC_cell_3_8_1
PropertyBBC_cell_3_9_0 181.6BBC_cell_3_9_1
TechnologyBBC_cell_3_10_0 175.1BBC_cell_3_10_1
BBC TrustBBC_cell_3_11_0 11.9BBC_cell_3_11_1
Libraries, learning support and community eventsBBC_cell_3_12_0 33.6BBC_cell_3_12_1
Other, including training, marketing, finance and policyBBC_cell_3_13_0 925.9BBC_cell_3_13_1
TotalBBC_cell_3_14_0 4,896BBC_cell_3_14_1

A significantly large portion of the BBC's income is spent on the corporation's Television and Radio services with each service having a different budget based upon their content. BBC_sentence_246

BBC_table_general_4

ServiceBBC_header_cell_4_0_0 Total cost
2012/13 (£million)BBC_header_cell_4_0_1
Difference from

2011/12 (£million)BBC_header_cell_4_0_2

BBC One including regionsBBC_cell_4_1_0 1,463.2BBC_cell_4_1_1 +125.6BBC_cell_4_1_2
BBC TwoBBC_cell_4_2_0 543.1BBC_cell_4_2_1 +6BBC_cell_4_2_2
BBC ThreeBBC_cell_4_3_0 121.7BBC_cell_4_3_1 +8.8BBC_cell_4_3_2
BBC FourBBC_cell_4_4_0 70.2BBC_cell_4_4_1 +2.4BBC_cell_4_4_2
CBBCBBC_cell_4_5_0 108.7BBC_cell_4_5_1 +1.4BBC_cell_4_5_2
CBeebiesBBC_cell_4_6_0 43BBC_cell_4_6_1 +0.6BBC_cell_4_6_2
BBC NewsBBC_cell_4_7_0 61.5BBC_cell_4_7_1 +4BBC_cell_4_7_2
BBC ParliamentBBC_cell_4_8_0 10.5BBC_cell_4_8_1 +1.2BBC_cell_4_8_2
BBC AlbaBBC_cell_4_9_0 7.8BBC_cell_4_9_1 −0.2BBC_cell_4_9_2
BBC Red ButtonBBC_cell_4_10_0 41.8BBC_cell_4_10_1 +4.6BBC_cell_4_10_2
TotalBBC_cell_4_11_0 2,471.5BBC_cell_4_11_1 +136.6BBC_cell_4_11_2

BBC_table_general_5

ServiceBBC_header_cell_5_0_0 Total cost

2012/13 (£million)BBC_header_cell_5_0_1

Difference from

2011/12 (£million)BBC_header_cell_5_0_2

BBC Radio 1BBC_cell_5_1_0 54.2BBC_cell_5_1_1 +3.6BBC_cell_5_1_2
BBC Radio 1XtraBBC_cell_5_2_0 11.8BBC_cell_5_2_1 +0.7BBC_cell_5_2_2
BBC Radio 2BBC_cell_5_3_0 62.1BBC_cell_5_3_1 +1.6BBC_cell_5_3_2
BBC Radio 3BBC_cell_5_4_0 54.3BBC_cell_5_4_1 +1.8BBC_cell_5_4_2
BBC Radio 4BBC_cell_5_5_0 122.1BBC_cell_5_5_1 +6.2BBC_cell_5_5_2
BBC Radio 4 ExtraBBC_cell_5_6_0 7.2BBC_cell_5_6_1 −1BBC_cell_5_6_2
BBC Radio 5 LiveBBC_cell_5_7_0 76BBC_cell_5_7_1 +6.7BBC_cell_5_7_2
BBC Radio 5 Live Sports ExtraBBC_cell_5_8_0 5.6BBC_cell_5_8_1 +0.3BBC_cell_5_8_2
BBC Radio 6 MusicBBC_cell_5_9_0 11.5BBC_cell_5_9_1 −0.2BBC_cell_5_9_2
BBC Asian NetworkBBC_cell_5_10_0 13BBC_cell_5_10_1 0BBC_cell_5_10_2
BBC Local RadioBBC_cell_5_11_0 152.5BBC_cell_5_11_1 +6BBC_cell_5_11_2
BBC Radio ScotlandBBC_cell_5_12_0 32.7BBC_cell_5_12_1 +0.6BBC_cell_5_12_2
BBC Radio nan GàidhealBBC_cell_5_13_0 6.3BBC_cell_5_13_1 +0.3BBC_cell_5_13_2
BBC Radio WalesBBC_cell_5_14_0 18.8BBC_cell_5_14_1 +1.1BBC_cell_5_14_2
BBC Radio CymruBBC_cell_5_15_0 17.6BBC_cell_5_15_1 +1.7BBC_cell_5_15_2
BBC Radio Ulster and BBC Radio FoyleBBC_cell_5_16_0 23.8BBC_cell_5_16_1 0BBC_cell_5_16_2
TotalBBC_cell_5_17_0 669.5BBC_cell_5_17_1 +29.4BBC_cell_5_17_2

Headquarters and regional offices BBC_section_19

Main article: List of BBC properties BBC_sentence_247

Further information: Broadcasting House, Broadcasting House (Belfast), BBC Wales headquarters building, and BBC Television Centre BBC_sentence_248

Broadcasting House in Portland Place, London, is the official headquarters of the BBC. BBC_sentence_249

It is home to six of the ten BBC national radio networks, BBC Radio 1, BBC Radio 1xtra, BBC Asian Network, BBC Radio 3, BBC Radio 4, and BBC Radio 4 Extra. BBC_sentence_250

It is also the home of BBC News, which relocated to the building from BBC Television Centre in 2013. BBC_sentence_251

On the front of the building are statues of Prospero and Ariel, characters from William Shakespeare's play The Tempest, sculpted by Eric Gill. BBC_sentence_252

Renovation of Broadcasting House began in 2002, and was completed in 2012. BBC_sentence_253

Until it closed at the end of March 2013, BBC Television was based at BBC Television Centre, a purpose built television facility and the second built in the country located in White City, London. BBC_sentence_254

This facility has been host to a number of famous guests and programmes through the years, and its name and image is familiar with many British citizens. BBC_sentence_255

Nearby, the BBC White City complex contains numerous programme offices, housed in Centre House, the Media Centre and Broadcast Centre. BBC_sentence_256

It is in this area around Shepherd's Bush that the majority of BBC employees work. BBC_sentence_257

As part of a major reorganisation of BBC property, the entire BBC News operation relocated from the News Centre at BBC Television Centre to the refurbished Broadcasting House to create what is being described as "one of the world's largest live broadcast centres". BBC_sentence_258

The BBC News Channel and BBC World News relocated to the premises in early 2013. BBC_sentence_259

Broadcasting House is now also home to most of the BBC's national radio stations, and the BBC World Service. BBC_sentence_260

The major part of this plan involved the demolition of the two post-war extensions to the building and construction of an extension designed by Sir Richard MacCormac of MJP Architects. BBC_sentence_261

This move concentrated the BBC's London operations, allowing them to sell Television Centre. BBC_sentence_262

In addition to the scheme above, the BBC is in the process of making and producing more programmes outside London, involving production centres such as Belfast, Cardiff, Glasgow, Newcastle and, most notably, in Greater Manchester as part of the "BBC North Project" scheme where several major departments, including BBC North West, BBC Manchester, BBC Sport, BBC Children's, CBeebies, Radio 5 Live, BBC Radio 5 Live Sports Extra, BBC Breakfast, BBC Learning and the BBC Philharmonic have all moved from their previous locations in either London or New Broadcasting House, Manchester to the new 200-acre (80ha) MediaCityUK production facilities in Salford, that form part of the large BBC North Group division and will therefore become the biggest staffing operation outside London. BBC_sentence_263

As well as the two main sites in London (Broadcasting House and White City), there are seven other important BBC production centres in the UK, mainly specialising in different productions. BBC_sentence_264

Cardiff is home to BBC Cymru Wales, which specialises in drama production. BBC_sentence_265

Open since 2012, and containing 7 new studios, Roath Lock is notable as the home of productions such as Doctor Who and Casualty. BBC_sentence_266

Broadcasting House Belfast, home to BBC Northern Ireland, specialises in original drama and comedy, and has taken part in many co-productions with independent companies and notably with RTÉ in the Republic of Ireland. BBC_sentence_267

BBC Scotland, based in Pacific Quay, Glasgow is a large producer of programmes for the network, including several quiz shows. BBC_sentence_268

In England, the larger regions also produce some programming. BBC_sentence_269

Previously, the largest hub of BBC programming from the regions is BBC North West. BBC_sentence_270

At present they produce all religious and ethical programmes on the BBC, as well as other programmes such as A Question of Sport. BBC_sentence_271

However, this is to be merged and expanded under the BBC North project, which involved the region moving from New Broadcasting House, Manchester, to MediaCityUK. BBC_sentence_272

BBC Midlands, based at The Mailbox in Birmingham, also produces drama and contains the headquarters for the English regions and the BBC's daytime output. BBC_sentence_273

Other production centres include Broadcasting House Bristol, home of BBC West and famously the BBC Natural History Unit and to a lesser extent, Quarry Hill in Leeds, home of BBC Yorkshire. BBC_sentence_274

There are also many smaller local and regional studios throughout the UK, operating the BBC regional television services and the BBC Local Radio stations. BBC_sentence_275

The BBC also operates several news gathering centres in various locations around the world, which provide news coverage of that region to the national and international news operations. BBC_sentence_276

Technology (Atos service) BBC_section_20

In 2004, the BBC contracted out its former BBC Technology division to the German engineering and electronics company Siemens IT Solutions and Services (SIS), outsourcing its IT, telephony and broadcast technology systems. BBC_sentence_277

When Atos Origin acquired the SIS division from Siemens in December 2010 for €850 million (£720m), the BBC support contract also passed to Atos, and in July 2011, the BBC announced to staff that its technology support would become an Atos service. BBC_sentence_278

Siemens staff working on the BBC contract were transferred to Atos; the BBC's Information Technology systems are now managed by Atos. BBC_sentence_279

In 2011, the BBC's Chief Financial Officer Zarin Patel stated to the House of Commons Public Accounts Committee that, following criticism of the BBC's management of major IT projects with Siemens (such as the Digital Media Initiative), the BBC partnership with Atos would be instrumental in achieving cost savings of around £64 million as part of the BBC's "Delivering Quality First" programme. BBC_sentence_280

In 2012, the BBC's Chief Technology Officer, John Linwood, expressed confidence in service improvements to the BBC's technology provision brought about by Atos. BBC_sentence_281

He also stated that supplier accountability had been strengthened following some high-profile technology failures which had taken place during the partnership with Siemens. BBC_sentence_282

Services BBC_section_21

Television BBC_section_22

Main article: BBC Television BBC_sentence_283

The BBC operates several television channels in the UK. BBC_sentence_284

BBC One and BBC Two are the flagship television channels; others are BBC Four, BBC News, BBC Parliament, and two children's channels, CBBC and CBeebies. BBC_sentence_285

Digital television is now entrenched in the UK, with analogue transmission completely phased out as of December 2012. BBC_sentence_286

It also operates the internet television service BBC Three, which ceased broadcasting as a linear television channel in February 2016. BBC_sentence_287

BBC One is a regionalised TV service which provides opt-outs throughout the day for local news and other local programming. BBC_sentence_288

These variations are more pronounced in the BBC "Nations", i.e. Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales, where the presentation is mostly carried out locally on BBC One and Two, and where programme schedules can vary greatly from that of the network. BBC_sentence_289

BBC Two variations exist in the Nations; however, English regions today rarely have the option to opt out as regional programming now only exists on BBC One. BBC_sentence_290

BBC Two was also the first channel to be transmitted on 625 lines in 1964, then carry a small-scale regular colour service from 1967. BBC_sentence_291

BBC One would follow in November 1969. BBC_sentence_292

A new Scottish Gaelic television channel, BBC Alba, was launched in September 2008. BBC_sentence_293

It is also the first multi-genre channel to come entirely from Scotland with almost all of its programmes made in Scotland. BBC_sentence_294

The service was initially only available via satellite but since June 2011 has been available to viewers in Scotland on Freeview and cable television. BBC_sentence_295

The BBC currently operates HD simulcasts of all its nationwide channels with the exception of BBC Parliament. BBC_sentence_296

Until 26 March 2013, a separate channel called BBC HD was available, in place of BBC Two HD. BBC_sentence_297

It launched on 9 June 2006, following a 12-month trial of the broadcasts. BBC_sentence_298

It became a proper channel in 2007, and screened HD programmes as simulcasts of the main network, or as repeats. BBC_sentence_299

The corporation has been producing programmes in the format for many years, and stated that it hoped to produce 100% of new programmes in HDTV by 2010. BBC_sentence_300

On 3 November 2010, a high-definition simulcast of BBC One was launched, entitled BBC One HD, and BBC Two HD launched on 26 March 2013, replacing BBC HD. BBC_sentence_301

Scotland's new television channel, BBC Scotland, launched in February 2019. BBC_sentence_302

In the Republic of Ireland, Belgium, the Netherlands and Switzerland, the BBC channels are available in a number of ways. BBC_sentence_303

In these countries digital and cable operators carry a range of BBC channels. BBC_sentence_304

These include BBC One, BBC Two, BBC Four and BBC World News, although viewers in the Republic of Ireland may receive BBC services via overspill from transmitters in Northern Ireland or Wales, or via "deflectors"—transmitters in the Republic which rebroadcast broadcasts from the UK, received off-air, or from digital satellite. BBC_sentence_305

Since 1975, the BBC has also provided its TV programmes to the British Forces Broadcasting Service (BFBS), allowing members of UK military serving abroad to watch them on four dedicated TV channels. BBC_sentence_306

From 27 March 2013, BFBS will carry versions of BBC One and BBC Two, which will include children's programming from CBBC, as well as carrying programming from BBC Three on a new channel called BFBS Extra. BBC_sentence_307

Since 2008, all the BBC channels are available to watch online through the BBC iPlayer service. BBC_sentence_308

This online streaming ability came about following experiments with live streaming, involving streaming certain channels in the UK. BBC_sentence_309

In February 2014, Director-General Tony Hall announced that the corporation needed to save £100 million. BBC_sentence_310

In March 2014, the BBC confirmed plans for BBC Three to become an internet-only channel. BBC_sentence_311

Genome Project BBC_section_23

Main article: BBC Genome Project BBC_sentence_312

In December 2012, the BBC completed a digitisation exercise, scanning the listings of all BBC programmes from an entire run of about 4,500 copies of the Radio Times magazine from the first, 1923, issue to 2009 (later listings already being held electronically), the "BBC Genome project", with a view to creating an online database of its programme output. BBC_sentence_313

An earlier ten months of listings are to be obtained from other sources. BBC_sentence_314

They identified around five million programmes, involving 8.5 million actors, presenters, writers and technical staff. BBC_sentence_315

The Genome project was opened to public access on 15 October 2014, with corrections to OCR errors and changes to advertised schedules being crowdsourced. BBC_sentence_316

Radio BBC_section_24

Main articles: BBC Radio and BBC Local Radio BBC_sentence_317

The BBC has ten radio stations serving the whole of the UK, a further seven stations in the "national regions" (Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland), and 39 other local stations serving defined areas of England. BBC_sentence_318

Of the ten national stations, five are major stations and are available on FM and/or AM as well as on DAB and online. BBC_sentence_319

These are BBC Radio 1, offering new music and popular styles and being notable for its chart show; BBC Radio 2, playing Adult contemporary, country and soul music amongst many other genres; BBC Radio 3, presenting classical and jazz music together with some spoken-word programming of a cultural nature in the evenings; BBC Radio 4, focusing on current affairs, factual and other speech-based programming, including drama and comedy; and BBC Radio 5 Live, broadcasting 24-hour news, sport and talk programmes. BBC_sentence_320

In addition to these five stations, the BBC runs a further five stations that broadcast on DAB and online only. BBC_sentence_321

These stations supplement and expand on the big five stations, and were launched in 2002. BBC_sentence_322

BBC Radio 1Xtra sisters Radio 1, and broadcasts new black music and urban tracks. BBC_sentence_323

BBC Radio 5 Live Sports Extra sisters 5 Live and offers extra sport analysis, including broadcasting sports that previously were not covered. BBC_sentence_324

BBC Radio 6 Music offers alternative music genres and is notable as a platform for new artists. BBC_sentence_325

BBC Radio 7, later renamed BBC Radio 4 Extra, provided archive drama, comedy and children's programming. BBC_sentence_326

Following the change to Radio 4 Extra, the service has dropped a defined children's strand in favour of family-friendly drama and comedy. BBC_sentence_327

In addition, new programmes to complement Radio 4 programmes were introduced such as Ambridge Extra, and Desert Island Discs revisited. BBC_sentence_328

The final station is the BBC Asian Network, providing music, talk and news to this section of the community. BBC_sentence_329

This station evolved out of Local radio stations serving certain areas, and as such this station is available on Medium Wave frequency in some areas of the Midlands. BBC_sentence_330

As well as the national stations, the BBC also provides 40 BBC Local Radio stations in England and the Channel Islands, each named for and covering a particular city and its surrounding area (e.g. BBC Radio Bristol), county or region (e.g. BBC Three Counties Radio), or geographical area (e.g. BBC Radio Solent covering the central south coast). BBC_sentence_331

A further six stations broadcast in what the BBC terms "the national regions": Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland. BBC_sentence_332

These are BBC Radio Wales (in English), BBC Radio Cymru (in Welsh), BBC Radio Scotland (in English), BBC Radio nan Gaidheal (in Scottish Gaelic), BBC Radio Ulster, and BBC Radio Foyle, the latter being an opt-out station from Radio Ulster for the north-west of Northern Ireland. BBC_sentence_333

The BBC's UK national channels are also broadcast in the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man (although these Crown dependencies are outside the UK), and in the former there are two local stations – BBC Guernsey and BBC Radio Jersey. BBC_sentence_334

There is no BBC local radio station, however, in the Isle of Man, partly because the island has long been served by the popular independent commercial station, Manx Radio, which predates the existence of BBC Local Radio. BBC_sentence_335

BBC services in the dependencies are financed from television licence fees which are set at the same level as those payable in the UK, although collected locally. BBC_sentence_336

This is the subject of some controversy in the Isle of Man since, as well as having no BBC Local Radio service, the island also lacks a local television news service analogous to that provided by BBC Channel Islands. BBC_sentence_337

For a worldwide audience, the BBC World Service provides news, current affairs and information in 28 languages, including English, around the world and is available in over 150 capital cities. BBC_sentence_338

It is broadcast worldwide on shortwave radio, DAB and online and has an estimated weekly audience of 192 million, and its websites have an audience of 38 million people per week. BBC_sentence_339

Since 2005, it is also available on DAB in the UK, a step not taken before, due to the way it is funded. BBC_sentence_340

The service is funded by a Parliamentary Grant-in-Aid, administered by the Foreign Office; however, following the Government's spending review in 2011, this funding will cease, and it will be funded for the first time through the Licence fee. BBC_sentence_341

In recent years, some services of the World Service have been reduced; the Thai service ended in 2006, as did the Eastern European languages, with resources diverted instead into the new BBC Arabic Television. BBC_sentence_342

Historically, the BBC was the only legal radio broadcaster based in the UK mainland until 1967, when University Radio York (URY), then under the name Radio York, was launched as the first, and now oldest, legal independent radio station in the country. BBC_sentence_343

However, the BBC did not enjoy a complete monopoly before this as several Continental stations, such as Radio Luxembourg, had broadcast programmes in English to Britain since the 1930s and the Isle of Man-based Manx Radio began in 1964. BBC_sentence_344

Today, despite the advent of commercial radio, BBC radio stations remain among the most listened to in the country, with Radio 2 having the largest audience share (up to 16.8% in 2011–12) and Radios 1 and 4 ranked second and third in terms of weekly reach. BBC_sentence_345

BBC programming is also available to other services and in other countries. BBC_sentence_346

Since 1943, the BBC has provided radio programming to the British Forces Broadcasting Service, which broadcasts in countries where British troops are stationed. BBC_sentence_347

BBC Radio 1 is also carried in the United States and Canada on Sirius XM Radio (online streaming only). BBC_sentence_348

The BBC is a patron of The Radio Academy. BBC_sentence_349

News BBC_section_25

Main article: BBC News BBC_sentence_350

BBC News is the largest broadcast news gathering operation in the world, providing services to BBC domestic radio as well as television networks such as the BBC News, BBC Parliament and BBC World News. BBC_sentence_351

In addition to this, news stories are available on the BBC Red Button service and BBC News Online. BBC_sentence_352

In addition to this, the BBC has been developing new ways to access BBC News, as a result has launched the service on BBC Mobile, making it accessible to mobile phones and PDAs, as well as developing alerts by e-mail, digital television, and on computers through a desktop alert. BBC_sentence_353

Ratings figures suggest that during major incidents such as the 7 July 2005 London bombings or royal events, the UK audience overwhelmingly turns to the BBC's coverage as opposed to its commercial rivals. BBC_sentence_354

On 7 July 2005, the day that there were a series of coordinated bomb blasts on London's public transport system, the BBC Online website recorded an all time bandwidth peak of 11 Gb/s at 12.00 on 7 July. BBC_sentence_355

BBC News received some 1 billion total hits on the day of the event (including all images, text and HTML), serving some 5.5 terabytes of data. BBC_sentence_356

At peak times during the day there were 40,000 page requests per second for the BBC News website. BBC_sentence_357

The previous day's announcement of the 2012 Olympics being awarded to London caused a peak of around 5 Gbit/s. BBC_sentence_358

The previous all-time high at BBC Online was caused by the announcement of the Michael Jackson verdict, which used 7.2 Gbit/s. BBC_sentence_359

Internet BBC_section_26

Main article: BBC Online BBC_sentence_360

The BBC's online presence includes a comprehensive news website and archive. BBC_sentence_361

The BBC's first official online service was the , which was launched on 11 May 1994. BBC_sentence_362

The service was subsequently relaunched as BBC Online in 1997, before being renamed BBCi, then bbc.co.uk, before it was rebranded back as BBC Online. BBC_sentence_363

The website is funded by the Licence fee, but uses GeoIP technology, allowing advertisements to be carried on the site when viewed outside of the UK. BBC_sentence_364

The BBC claims the site to be "Europe's most popular content-based site" and states that 13.2 million people in the UK visit the site's more than two million pages each day. BBC_sentence_365

The centre of the website is the Homepage, which features a modular layout. BBC_sentence_366

Users can choose which modules, and which information, is displayed on their homepage, allowing the user to customise it. BBC_sentence_367

This system was first launched in December 2007, becoming permanent in February 2008, and has undergone a few aesthetical changes since then. BBC_sentence_368

The Homepage then has links to other micro-sites, such as BBC News Online, Sport, Weather, TV and Radio. BBC_sentence_369

As part of the site, every programme on BBC Television or Radio is given its own page, with bigger programmes getting their own micro-site, and as a result it is often common for viewers and listeners to be told website addresses (URLs) for the programme website. BBC_sentence_370

Another large part of the site also allows users to watch and listen to most Television and Radio output live and for seven days after broadcast using the BBC iPlayer platform, which launched on 27 July 2007, and initially used peer-to-peer and DRM technology to deliver both radio and TV content of the last seven days for offline use for up to 30 days, since then video is now streamed directly. BBC_sentence_371

Also, through participation in the Creative Archive Licence group, bbc.co.uk allowed legal downloads of selected archive material via the internet. BBC_sentence_372

The BBC has often included learning as part of its online service, running services such as BBC Jam, Learning Zone Class Clips and also runs services such as BBC WebWise and First Click which are designed to teach people how to use the internet. BBC_sentence_373

BBC Jam was a free online service, delivered through broadband and narrowband connections, providing high-quality interactive resources designed to stimulate learning at home and at school. BBC_sentence_374

Initial content was made available in January 2006; however, BBC Jam was suspended on 20 March 2007 due to allegations made to the European Commission that it was damaging the interests of the commercial sector of the industry. BBC_sentence_375

In recent years, some major on-line companies and politicians have complained that BBC Online receives too much funding from the television licence, meaning that other websites are unable to compete with the vast amount of advertising-free on-line content available on BBC Online. BBC_sentence_376

Some have proposed that the amount of licence fee money spent on BBC Online should be reduced—either being replaced with funding from advertisements or subscriptions, or a reduction in the amount of content available on the site. BBC_sentence_377

In response to this the BBC carried out an investigation, and has now set in motion a plan to change the way it provides its online services. BBC_sentence_378

BBC Online will now attempt to fill in gaps in the market, and will guide users to other websites for currently existing market provision. BBC_sentence_379

(For example, instead of providing local events information and timetables, users will be guided to outside websites already providing that information.) BBC_sentence_380

Part of this plan included the BBC closing some of its websites, and rediverting money to redevelop other parts. BBC_sentence_381

On 26 February 2010, The Times claimed that Mark Thompson, Director General of the BBC, proposed that the BBC's web output should be cut by 50%, with online staff numbers and budgets reduced by 25% in a bid to scale back BBC operations and allow commercial rivals more room. BBC_sentence_382

On 2 March 2010, the BBC reported that it will cut its website spending by 25% and close BBC 6 Music and Asian Network, as part of Mark Thompson's plans to make "a smaller, fitter BBC for the digital age". BBC_sentence_383

Interactive television BBC_section_27

Main article: BBC Red Button BBC_sentence_384

BBC Red Button is the brand name for the BBC's interactive digital television services, which are available through Freeview (digital terrestrial), as well as Freesat, Sky (satellite), and Virgin Media (cable). BBC_sentence_385

Unlike Ceefax, the service's analogue counterpart, BBC Red Button is able to display full-colour graphics, photographs, and video, as well as programmes and can be accessed from any BBC channel. BBC_sentence_386

The service carries News, Weather and Sport 24 hours a day, but also provides extra features related to programmes specific at that time. BBC_sentence_387

Examples include viewers to play along at home to gameshows, to give, voice and vote on opinions to issues, as used alongside programmes such as Question Time. BBC_sentence_388

At some points in the year, when multiple sporting events occur, some coverage of less mainstream sports or games are frequently placed on the Red Button for viewers to watch. BBC_sentence_389

Frequently, other features are added unrelated to programmes being broadcast at that time, such as the broadcast of the Doctor Who animated episode Dreamland in November 2009. BBC_sentence_390

Music BBC_section_28

The BBC employs 5 staff orchestras, a professional choir, and supports two amateur choruses, based in BBC venues across the UK; the BBC Symphony Orchestra, the BBC Singers and BBC Symphony Chorus based in London, the BBC Scottish Symphony Orchestra in Glasgow, the BBC Philharmonic in Salford, the BBC Concert Orchestra based in Watford, and the BBC National Orchestra of Wales and BBC National Chorus of Wales in Cardiff. BBC_sentence_391

It also buys a selected number of broadcasts from the Ulster Orchestra in Belfast and the BBC Big Band. BBC_sentence_392

The BBC Proms have been produced by the BBC every year since 1927, stepping in to fund the popular classical music festival when music publishers Chappell and Co withdrew their support. BBC_sentence_393

In 1930, the newly formed BBC Symphony Orchestra gave all 49 Proms, and have performed at every Last Night of the Proms since then. BBC_sentence_394

Nowadays, the BBC's orchestras and choirs are the backbone of the Proms, giving around 40%–50% of all performances each season. BBC_sentence_395

Many famous musicians of every genre have played at the BBC, such as The Beatles (Live at the BBC is one of their many albums). BBC_sentence_396

The BBC is also responsible for the broadcast of Glastonbury Festival, Reading Festival and United Kingdom coverage of the Eurovision Song Contest, a show with which the broadcaster has been associated for over 60 years. BBC_sentence_397

The BBC also operates the division of BBC Audiobooks sometimes found in association with Chivers Audiobooks. BBC_sentence_398

Other BBC_section_29

The BBC operates other ventures in addition to their broadcasting arm. BBC_sentence_399

In addition to broadcasting output on television and radio, some programmes are also displayed on the BBC Big Screens located in several central-city locations. BBC_sentence_400

The BBC and the Foreign and Commonwealth Office also jointly run BBC Monitoring, which monitors radio, television, the press and the internet worldwide. BBC_sentence_401

The BBC also developed several computers throughout the 1980s, most notably the BBC Micro, which ran alongside the corporation's educational aims and programming. BBC_sentence_402

In 1951, in conjunction with Oxford University Press the BBC published The BBC Hymn Book which was intended to be used by radio listeners to follow hymns being broadcast. BBC_sentence_403

The book was published both with and without music, the music edition being entitled The BBC Hymn Book with Music. BBC_sentence_404

The book contained 542 popular hymns. BBC_sentence_405

Ceefax BBC_section_30

Main article: Ceefax BBC_sentence_406

The BBC provided the world's first teletext service called Ceefax (near-homonymous with "See Facts") on 23 September 1974 until 23 October 2012 on the BBC 1 analogue channel then later on BBC 2. BBC_sentence_407

It showed informational pages such as News, Sport and the Weather. BBC_sentence_408

on New Year's Eve in 1974, competition from ITV's Oracle tried to compete with Ceefax. BBC_sentence_409

Oracle closed on New Year's Eve, 1992. BBC_sentence_410

During its lifetime it attracted millions of viewers, right up to 2012, prior to the digital switchover in the United Kingdom. BBC_sentence_411

It ceased transmission at 23:32:19 BST on 23 October 2012 after 38 years. BBC_sentence_412

Since then, the BBC's Red Button Service has provided a digital-like information system that replaced Ceefax. BBC_sentence_413

BritBox BBC_section_31

In 2016, the BBC, in partnership with fellow UK Broadcasters ITV and Channel 4 (who later withdrew from the project), set up 'project kangaroo' to develop an international online streaming service to rival services such as Netflix and Hulu. BBC_sentence_414

During the development stages 'Britflix' was touted as a potential name. BBC_sentence_415

However, the service eventually launched as BritBox in March 2017. BBC_sentence_416

The online platform shows a catalogue of classic BBC and ITV shows, as well as making a number of programmes available shortly after their UK broadcast. BBC_sentence_417

As of 2019, BritBox is available in the United States and Canada with the potential availability for new markets in the future, including the UK by late 2019. BBC_sentence_418

In October 2019, BritBox was released in its testing phase in the UK. BBC_sentence_419

Commercial activities BBC_section_32

Main article: BBC Studios BBC_sentence_420

BBC Studios (formerly BBC Worldwide) is the wholly owned commercial subsidiary of the BBC, responsible for the commercial exploitation of BBC programmes and other properties, including a number of television stations throughout the world. BBC_sentence_421

It was formed following the restructuring of its predecessor, BBC Enterprises, in 1995. BBC_sentence_422

The company owns and administers a number of commercial stations around the world operating in a number of territories and on a number of different platforms. BBC_sentence_423

The channel BBC Entertainment shows current and archive entertainment programming to viewers in Europe, Africa, Asia and the Middle East, with the BBC Studios channels BBC America and BBC Canada (Joint venture with Corus Entertainment) showing similar programming in the North America region and BBC UKTV in the Australasia region. BBC_sentence_424

The company also airs two channels aimed at children, an international CBeebies channel and BBC Kids, a joint venture with Knowledge Network Corporation, which airs programmes under the CBeebies and BBC K brands. BBC_sentence_425

The company also runs the channels BBC Knowledge, broadcasting factual and learning programmes, and BBC Lifestyle, broadcasting programmes based on themes of Food, Style and Wellbeing. BBC_sentence_426

In addition to this, BBC Studios runs an international version of the channel BBC HD, and provides HD simulcasts of the channels BBC Knowledge and BBC America. BBC_sentence_427

BBC Studios also distributes the 24-hour international news channel BBC World News. BBC_sentence_428

The station is separate from BBC Studios to maintain the station's neutral point of view, but is distributed by BBC Studios. BBC_sentence_429

The channel itself is the oldest surviving entity of its kind, and has 50 foreign news bureaus and correspondents in nearly all countries in the world. BBC_sentence_430

As officially surveyed, it is available to more than 294 million households, significantly more than CNN's estimated 200 million. BBC_sentence_431

In addition to these international channels, BBC Studios also owns the UKTV network of seven channels. BBC_sentence_432

These channels contain BBC archive programming to be rebroadcast on their respective channels: Alibi, crime dramas; Dave (slogan: "The Home of Witty Banter"); Drama, drama, launched in 2013; Eden, nature; Gold, comedy; W, Entertainment; and Yesterday, history programming. BBC_sentence_433

In addition to these channels, many BBC programmes are sold via BBC Studios to foreign television stations with comedy, documentaries and historical drama productions being the most popular. BBC_sentence_434

In addition, BBC television news appears nightly on many Public Broadcasting Service stations in the United States, as do reruns of BBC programmes such as EastEnders, and in New Zealand on TVNZ 1. BBC_sentence_435

In addition to programming, BBC Studios produces material to accompany programmes. BBC_sentence_436

The company maintained the publishing arm of the BBC, BBC Magazines, which published the Radio Times as well as a number of magazines that support BBC programming such as BBC Top Gear, BBC Good Food, BBC Sky at Night, BBC History, BBC Wildlife and BBC Music. BBC_sentence_437

BBC Magazines was sold to Exponent Private Equity in 2011, which merged it with Origin Publishing (previously owned by BBC Worldwide between 2004 and 2006) to form Immediate Media Company. BBC_sentence_438

BBC Studios also publishes books, to accompany programmes such as Doctor Who under the BBC Books brand, a publishing imprint majority owned by Random House. BBC_sentence_439

Soundtrack albums, talking books and sections of radio broadcasts are also sold under the brand BBC Records, with DVDs also being sold and licensed in large quantities to consumers both in the UK and abroad under the 2 Entertain brand. BBC_sentence_440

Archive programming and classical music recordings are sold under the brand BBC Legends. BBC_sentence_441

Cultural significance BBC_section_33

Until the development, popularisation, and domination of television, radio was the broadcast medium upon which people in the United Kingdom relied. BBC_sentence_442

It "reached into every home in the land, and simultaneously united the nation, an important factor during the Second World War". BBC_sentence_443

The BBC introduced the world's first "high-definition" 405-line television service in 1936. BBC_sentence_444

It suspended its television service during the Second World War and until 1946, but remained the only television broadcaster in the UK until 1955, when Independent Television (ITV) began operating. BBC_sentence_445

This heralded the transformation of television into a popular and dominant medium. BBC_sentence_446

Nevertheless, "throughout the 1950s radio still remained the dominant source of broadcast comedy". BBC_sentence_447

Further, the BBC was the only legal radio broadcaster until 1968 (when URY obtained their first licence). BBC_sentence_448

Despite the advent of commercial television and radio, with competition from ITV, Channel 4 and Sky, the BBC has remained one of the main elements in British popular culture through its obligation to produce TV and radio programmes for mass audiences. BBC_sentence_449

However, the arrival of BBC2 allowed the BBC also to make programmes for minority interests in drama, documentaries, current affairs, entertainment, and sport. BBC_sentence_450

Examples cited include the television series Civilisation, Doctor Who, I, Claudius, Monty Python's Flying Circus, Pot Black, and Tonight, but other examples can be given in each of these fields as shown by the BBC's entries in the British Film Institute's 2000 list of the 100 Greatest British Television Programmes, with the BBC's acclaimed 1970s sitcom Fawlty Towers (featuring John Cleese as Basil Fawlty) topping the list. BBC_sentence_451

Top of the Pops, the world's longest running weekly music show, first aired in January 1964, with The Rolling Stones the first to perform on it. BBC_sentence_452

Some BBC shows have had a direct impact on society. BBC_sentence_453

For example, The Great British Bake Off is credited with reinvigorating interest in baking throughout the UK, with stores reporting sharp rises in sales of baking ingredients and accessories. BBC_sentence_454

The export of BBC programmes both through services like the BBC World Service and BBC World News, as well as through the channels operated by BBC Worldwide, means that audiences can consume BBC productions worldwide. BBC_sentence_455

The term "BBC English" was used as an alternative name for Received Pronunciation, and the English Pronouncing Dictionary uses the term "BBC Pronunciation" to label its recommendations. BBC_sentence_456

However, the BBC itself now makes more use of regional accents in order to reflect the diversity of the UK, while continuing to expect clarity and fluency of its presenters. BBC_sentence_457

From its "starchy" beginnings, the BBC has also become more inclusive, and now attempts to accommodate the interests of all strata of society and all minorities, because they all pay the licence fee. BBC_sentence_458

Colloquial terms BBC_section_34

Older domestic UK audiences often refer to the BBC as "the Beeb", a nickname originally coined by Peter Sellers on The Goon Show in the 1950s, when he referred to the "Beeb Beeb Ceeb". BBC_sentence_459

It was then borrowed, shortened and popularised by radio DJ Kenny Everett. BBC_sentence_460

David Bowie's recording sessions at the BBC was released as Bowie at the Beeb, while Queen's recording sessions with the BBC was released as At the Beeb. BBC_sentence_461

Another nickname, now less commonly used, is "Auntie", said to originate from the old-fashioned "Auntie knows best" attitude, or the idea of aunties and uncles who are present in the background of one's life (but possibly a reference to the "aunties" and "uncles" who presented children's programmes in the early days) in the days when John Reith, the BBC's first director general, was in charge. BBC_sentence_462

The term "Auntie" for the BBC is often credited to radio disc jockey Jack Jackson. BBC_sentence_463

To celebrate the fiftieth anniversary of the BBC the song "Auntie" was released in 1972. BBC_sentence_464

The two nicknames have also been used together as "Auntie Beeb". BBC_sentence_465

Controversy and criticism BBC_section_35

Main articles: Criticism of the BBC and BBC controversies BBC_sentence_466

Throughout its existence, the BBC has faced numerous accusations regarding many topics: the Iraq war, politics, ethics and religion, as well as funding and staffing. BBC_sentence_467

It also has been involved in numerous controversies because of its coverage of specific news stories and programming. BBC_sentence_468

In October 2014, the BBC Trust issued the "BBC complaints framework", outlining complaints and appeals procedures. BBC_sentence_469

However, the regulatory oversight of the BBC may be transferred to OFCOM. BBC_sentence_470

The British "House of Commons Select Committee on Culture Media and Sport" recommended in its report "The Future of the BBC", that OFCOM should become the final arbiter of complaints made about the BBC. BBC_sentence_471

The BBC has long faced accusations from conservatives of liberal and left-wing bias. BBC_sentence_472

Accusations of a bias against the Premiership of Margaret Thatcher and the Conservative Party were often made against the BBC by members of that government, with Margaret Thatcher herself considering the broadcaster's news coverage to be biased and irresponsible. BBC_sentence_473

In 2011, Peter Sissons, a main news presenter at the BBC from 1989 to 2009, said that "at the core of the BBC, in its very DNA, is a way of thinking that is firmly of the Left". BBC_sentence_474

Another BBC presenter, Andrew Marr, commented that "the BBC is not impartial or neutral. BBC_sentence_475

It has a liberal bias, not so much a party-political bias. BBC_sentence_476

It is better expressed as a cultural liberal bias." BBC_sentence_477

Former BBC director Roger Mosey classified it as "liberal defensive." BBC_sentence_478

The BBC was accused of propaganda by conservative journalist and author Toby Young due to what he believed to be an anti-Brexit approach, which included a day of live programming on migration. BBC_sentence_479

Conversely, writing for The Guardian, the left-wing columnist Owen Jones stated "the truth is the BBC is stacked full of rightwingers," and he cited as an example of bias its employment of "ultra-Thatcherite" Andrew Neil as a politics presenter. BBC_sentence_480

Paul Mason, the former Economics Editor of the BBC's Newsnight programme, criticised the BBC as "unionist" in relation to its coverage of the Scottish independence referendum campaign and said its senior employees tended to be of a "neo-liberal" point of view. BBC_sentence_481

The BBC has also been characterised as a pro-monarchist institution. BBC_sentence_482

A 2018 opinion poll by BMG Research found that 40% of the British public think that the BBC is politically partisan, with a nearly even split between those that believe it leans to the left or right. BBC_sentence_483

In 2008, the BBC was criticised by some for referring to the men who carried out the November 2008 Mumbai attacks as "gunmen" rather than "terrorists". BBC_sentence_484

In protest against the use of the word "gunmen" by the BBC, journalist Mobashar Jawed "M.J." Akbar refused to take part in an interview following the Mumbai terror attacks, and criticised the BBC's reportage of the incident. BBC_sentence_485

British parliamentarian Stephen Pound has supported these claims, referring to the BBC's whitewashing of the terror attacks as "the worst sort of mealy mouthed posturing. BBC_sentence_486

It is desperation to avoid causing offence which ultimately causes more offence to everyone." BBC_sentence_487

A BBC World Service newsreader who presented a daily show produced for Kyrgyzstan was claimed to have participated in an opposition movement with the goal of overthrowing the government led by president Kurmanbek Bakiyev. BBC_sentence_488

The BBC presenter resigned from his post in 2010 once the allegations of his participation in the revolution became public. BBC_sentence_489

Logo and symbols of the BBC BBC_section_36

Main article: Logo of the BBC BBC_sentence_490

BBC_unordered_list_3

  • BBC_item_3_11
  • BBC_item_3_12
  • BBC_item_3_13
  • BBC_item_3_14
  • BBC_item_3_15

See also BBC_section_37

BBC_unordered_list_4


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BBC.