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Regions with significant populationsBaganda_header_cell_0_0_0
UgandaBaganda_header_cell_0_1_0 5.56 million (16.5% of the total population, 2014 census)Baganda_cell_0_1_1
Related ethnic groupsBaganda_header_cell_0_4_0


PersonBaganda_header_cell_1_1_0 MugandaBaganda_cell_1_1_1
PeopleBaganda_header_cell_1_2_0 BagandaBaganda_cell_1_2_1
LanguageBaganda_header_cell_1_3_0 (O)LugandaBaganda_cell_1_3_1
CountryBaganda_header_cell_1_4_0 BugandaBaganda_cell_1_4_1

The Ganda people, or Baganda (endonym: Baganda; singular Muganda), are a Bantu ethnic group native to Buganda, a subnational kingdom within Uganda. Baganda_sentence_0

Traditionally composed of 52 clans (although since a 1993 survey, only 46 are officially recognised), the Baganda are the largest ethnic group in Uganda, comprising 16.5 percent of the population at the time of the 2014 census. Baganda_sentence_1

Sometimes described as "The King's Men" because of the importance of the king, or Kabaka, in their society, the Ganda number an estimated 5.56 million in Uganda. Baganda_sentence_2

In addition, there is a significant diaspora abroad, with organised communities in Canada, South Africa, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Baganda_sentence_3

Traditionally, they speak Luganda. Baganda_sentence_4

History Baganda_section_0

Main article: History of Buganda Baganda_sentence_5

Early history Baganda_section_1

The early history of the Ganda is unclear, with various conflicting traditions as to their origins. Baganda_sentence_6

One tradition holds that they are descendants of the legendary figure of Kintu, the first human according to Ganda mythology. Baganda_sentence_7

He was said to have married Nambi, the daughter of the creator deity Ggulu. Baganda_sentence_8

A related tradition holds that Kintu came from the east, from the direction of Mount Elgon, and passed through Busoga on the way to Buganda. Baganda_sentence_9

A separate tradition holds that the Ganda are the descendants of a people who came from the east or northeast around 1300. Baganda_sentence_10

According to the traditions chronicled by Sir Apolo Kagwa, Buganda's foremost ethnographer, Kintu was the first Muganda, and having descended to Earth at Podi is said to have moved on to Kibiro, and having reached Kyadondo in Uganda's modern-day Wakiso District have formed Buganda there. Baganda_sentence_11

As the Ganda are a Bantu people, it is most likely that their roots are in the region between West and Central Africa (around what is now Cameroon) and they arrived in their current location by way of the Bantu Migration. Baganda_sentence_12

As for the founding of the Kingdom of the Ganda (Buganda), the most widely acknowledged account is that it was founded by Kato Kintu. Baganda_sentence_13

This Kato Kintu is different from the mythical Kintu, as he is generally accepted as a historical who founded Buganda and became its first 'Kabaka', adopting the name Kintu in reference to the legend of Kintu to establish his legitimacy as a ruler. Baganda_sentence_14

He was successful in unifying what had previously been a number of warring tribes to form a strong kingdom. Baganda_sentence_15

As such by the 18th century, the formerly dominant Bunyoro kingdom was being eclipsed by Buganda. Baganda_sentence_16

Consolidating their efforts behind a centralized kingship, the Baganda (people of Buganda) shifted away from defensive strategies and toward expansion. Baganda_sentence_17

By the mid 19th century, Buganda had doubled and redoubled its territory conquering much on Bunyoro and becoming the dominant state in the region. Baganda_sentence_18

Newly conquered lands were placed under chiefs nominated by the king. Baganda_sentence_19

Buganda's armies and the royal tax collectors traveled swiftly to all parts of the kingdom along specially constructed roads which crossed streams and swamps by bridges and viaducts. Baganda_sentence_20

On Lake Victoria (which the Ganda called Nnalubale), a royal navy of outrigger canoes, commanded by an admiral who was chief of the Lungfish clan, could transport Baganda commandos to raid any shore of the lake. Baganda_sentence_21

Arrival and interference of British colonialists Baganda_section_2

The explorer John Speke, searching for the source of the Nile, had visited Buganda in the 1860s and back home in Britain given a glowing account of the advanced Bantu kingdom he had found in East Africa, and fellow explorers as well as colonialists were to soon follow him into the kingdom. Baganda_sentence_22

The journalist Henry Morton Stanley visited Buganda in 1875 and painted a good picture of the kingdom's strength, as well as providing an estimate of Buganda troop strength. Baganda_sentence_23

At Buganda's capital, Stanley found a well-ordered town of about 80,000 surrounding the king's palace, which was situated atop a commanding hill. Baganda_sentence_24

A wall more than four kilometers in circumference surrounded the palace compound, which was filled with grass-roofed houses, meeting halls, and storage buildings. Baganda_sentence_25

At the entrance to the court burned the royal gombolola (fire), which would only be extinguished when the Kabaka died. Baganda_sentence_26

Thronging the grounds were foreign ambassadors seeking audiences, chiefs going to the royal advisory council, messengers running errands, and a corps of young pages, who served the Kabaka while training to become future chiefs. Baganda_sentence_27

For communication across the kingdom, the messengers were supplemented by drum signals. Baganda_sentence_28

Stanley counted 125,000 troops marching off on a single campaign to the east, where a fleet of 230 war canoes waited to act as auxiliary naval support. Baganda_sentence_29

The British in their colonial ventures were much impressed with government as well as social and economic organization of Buganda, which they ranked as the most advanced nation they had encountered in East Africa and ranked it with other highly advanced nations like the ones they had encountered in Zimbabwe and Nigeria. Baganda_sentence_30

Under Kabaka Mwanga II, Buganda became a protectorate in 1894. Baganda_sentence_31

This did not last and the Kabaka declared war on Britain in on July 6, 1897. Baganda_sentence_32

He was defeated at the battle of Buddu on July 20 of the same year. Baganda_sentence_33

He fled to German East Africa where he was arrested and interned at Bukoba. Baganda_sentence_34

The Kabaka later escaped and led a rebel army to retake the kingdom before being defeated once again in 1898 and being exiled to the Seychelles. Baganda_sentence_35

Kabaka Mwanga II of Buganda was allowed near complete autonomy and a position as overlord of the other kingdoms. Baganda_sentence_36

While in exile, Mwanga II was received into the Anglican Church, was baptized with the name of Danieri (Daniel). Baganda_sentence_37

He spent the rest of his life in exile. Baganda_sentence_38

He died in 1903, aged 35 years. Baganda_sentence_39

In 1910 his remains were repatriated and buried at Kasubi. Baganda_sentence_40

The war against Kabaka Mwanga II had been expensive, and the new commissioner of Uganda in 1900, Sir Harry H. Johnston, had orders to establish an efficient administration and to levy taxes as quickly as possible. Baganda_sentence_41

Sir Johnston approached the chiefs in Buganda with offers of jobs in the colonial administration in return for their collaboration. Baganda_sentence_42

The chiefs did so but expected their interests (preserving Buganda as a self-governing entity, continuing the royal line of kabakas, and securing private land tenure for themselves and their supporters) to be met. Baganda_sentence_43

After much hard bargaining, the chiefs ended up with everything they wanted, including one-half of all the land in Buganda. Baganda_sentence_44

The half left to the British as "Crown Land" was later found to be largely swamp and scrub. Baganda_sentence_45

Johnston's Buganda Agreement of 1900 imposed a tax on huts and guns, designated the chiefs as tax collectors, and testified to the continued alliance of British and Baganda interests. Baganda_sentence_46

The British signed much less generous treaties with the other kingdoms (Toro in 1900, Ankole in 1901, and Bunyoro in 1933) without the provision of large-scale private land tenure. Baganda_sentence_47

Following Uganda's independence in 1962, the kingdom was abolished by Uganda's first Prime Minister Milton Obote in 1966. Baganda_sentence_48

Following years of disturbance under Obote and dictator Idi Amin, as well as several years of internal divisions among Uganda's ruling National Resistance Movement under Yoweri Museveni, the President of Uganda since 1986, the kingdom was finally restored in 1993. Baganda_sentence_49

Buganda is now a kingdom monarchy with a large degree of autonomy from the Ugandan state, although tensions between the kingdom and the country remain. Baganda_sentence_50

British rule and Uganda Protectorate Baganda_section_3

The Ganda came into contact with the British in the nineteenth century, resulting in widespread social upheavals in Buganda. Baganda_sentence_51

The population of the Ganda, said to have numbered three million during the reign of Muteesa I (1856–1884), diminished to around a 1.5 million as a result of famine and civil war. Baganda_sentence_52

By the early 1900s, their population had been reduced to around one million as a result of an epidemic of sleeping sickness. Baganda_sentence_53

Changes to Bugandan society, the first major change being the introduction of a standing army during Muteesa I's reign, were accelerated when Buganda became the centre of the newly formed Uganda Protectorate as part of the British Empire in 1894. Baganda_sentence_54

Land which had previously belonged solely to the Kabaka, was divided among the Kabaka and the tribal chiefs. Baganda_sentence_55

Many of the old clan burial-grounds, previously considered sacred, were desecrated. Baganda_sentence_56

Culture and social structure Baganda_section_4

Family life Baganda_section_5

The Baganda Post-Independence/Post-1962 Baganda_section_6

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