Baku

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For other uses, see Baku (disambiguation). Baku_sentence_0

Baku_table_infobox_0

Baku

BakıBaku_header_cell_0_0_0

CountryBaku_header_cell_0_1_0 AzerbaijanBaku_cell_0_1_1
GovernmentBaku_header_cell_0_2_0
MayorBaku_header_cell_0_3_0 Eldar AzizovBaku_cell_0_3_1
AreaBaku_header_cell_0_4_0
Capital city of AzerbaijanBaku_header_cell_0_5_0 2,140 km (830 sq mi)Baku_cell_0_5_1
ElevationBaku_header_cell_0_6_0 −28 m (−92 ft)Baku_cell_0_6_1
Population (2020)Baku_header_cell_0_7_0
Capital city of AzerbaijanBaku_header_cell_0_8_0 2,293,700Baku_cell_0_8_1
DensityBaku_header_cell_0_9_0 1,057/km (2,740/sq mi)Baku_cell_0_9_1
UrbanBaku_header_cell_0_10_0 3,125,000Baku_cell_0_10_1
MetroBaku_header_cell_0_11_0 5,105,200Baku_cell_0_11_1
Demonym(s)Baku_header_cell_0_12_0 Bakuvian

Azerbaijani: BakılıBaku_cell_0_12_1

Time zoneBaku_header_cell_0_13_0 UTC+4 (AZT)Baku_cell_0_13_1
Postal codeBaku_header_cell_0_14_0 AZ1000Baku_cell_0_14_1
Area code(s)Baku_header_cell_0_15_0 +994 12Baku_cell_0_15_1
Vehicle registrationBaku_header_cell_0_16_0 10–90-99 AZBaku_cell_0_16_1
WebsiteBaku_header_cell_0_17_0 Baku_cell_0_17_1
UNESCO World Heritage SiteBaku_header_cell_0_18_0
Official nameBaku_header_cell_0_19_0 Walled City of Baku with the Shirvanshah's Palace and Maiden TowerBaku_cell_0_19_1
TypeBaku_header_cell_0_20_0 CulturalBaku_cell_0_20_1
CriteriaBaku_header_cell_0_21_0 ivBaku_cell_0_21_1
DesignatedBaku_header_cell_0_22_0 2000 (24th session)Baku_cell_0_22_1
Reference no.Baku_header_cell_0_23_0 Baku_cell_0_23_1
EndangeredBaku_header_cell_0_24_0 2003–2009Baku_cell_0_24_1
State PartyBaku_header_cell_0_25_0 AzerbaijanBaku_cell_0_25_1
RegionBaku_header_cell_0_26_0 AsiaBaku_cell_0_26_1

Baku (US: /bɑːˈkuː, ˈbɑːkuː/, UK: /bæˈkuː, ˈbækuː/; Azerbaijani: Bakı, Azerbaijani: [bɑˈcɯ (listen)) is the capital and largest city of Azerbaijan, as well as the largest city on the Caspian Sea and of the Caucasus region. Baku_sentence_1

Baku is located 28 metres (92 ft) below sea level, which makes it the lowest lying national capital in the world and also the largest city in the world located below sea level. Baku_sentence_2

Baku lies on the southern shore of the Absheron Peninsula, alongside the Bay of Baku. Baku_sentence_3

At the beginning of 2009, Baku's urban population was estimated at just over two million people. Baku_sentence_4

Officially, about 25% of all inhabitants of the country live in Baku's metropolitan area. Baku_sentence_5

Baku is the sole metropolis in Azerbaijan. Baku_sentence_6

Baku is divided into twelve administrative raions and 48 townships. Baku_sentence_7

Among these are the townships on the islands of the Baku Archipelago, and the town of Oil Rocks built on stilts in the Caspian Sea, 60 kilometres (37 miles) away from Baku. Baku_sentence_8

The Inner City of Baku, along with the Shirvanshah's Palace and Maiden Tower, were inscribed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2000. Baku_sentence_9

According to the Lonely Planet's ranking, Baku is also among the world's top ten destinations for urban nightlife. Baku_sentence_10

The city is the scientific, cultural, and industrial centre of Azerbaijan. Baku_sentence_11

Many sizeable Azerbaijani institutions have their headquarters there. Baku_sentence_12

The Baku International Sea Trade Port is capable of handling two million tonnes of general and dry bulk cargoes per year. Baku_sentence_13

In recent years, Baku has become an important venue for international events. Baku_sentence_14

It hosted the 57th Eurovision Song Contest in 2012, the 2015 European Games, 4th Islamic Solidarity Games, the F1 Azerbaijan Grand Prix since 2016, hosted the final of the 2018–19 UEFA Europa League, and will be one of the host cities for UEFA Euro 2020. Baku_sentence_15

The city is renowned for its harsh winds, which is reflected in its nickname, the "City of Winds". Baku_sentence_16

Etymology Baku_section_0

Baku is long attested under the Perso-Arabic name باکو (Bākū). Baku_sentence_17

Early Arabic sources also refer to the city as Bākuh and Bākuya, all of which seem to come from a Persian name. Baku_sentence_18

The further etymology is unclear. Baku_sentence_19

A popular etymology in the 19th century considered it to be derived from Persian بادکوبه (Bâd-kube, meaning "wind-pounded city", a compound of bād, "wind", and kube, which is rooted in the verb کوبیدن kubidan, "to pound", thus referring to a place where wind would be strong and pounding, as is the case of Baku, which is known to experience fierce winter snow storms and harsh winds). Baku_sentence_20

This popular name (Badkubə in modern Azerbaijani script) actually gained currency as a nickname for the city by the 19th century (e.g., it is used in Akinchi, volume 1, issue 1, p. 1), and is also reflected in the city's modern nickname as the "City of Winds" (Azerbaijani: Küləklər şəhəri). Baku_sentence_21

Another and even less probable folk etymology explains the name as deriving from Baghkuy, meaning "God's town". Baku_sentence_22

Baga (now بغ bagh) and kuy are the Old Persian words for "god" and "town" respectively; the name Baghkuy may be compared with Baghdād ("God-given") in which dād is the Old Persian word for "give". Baku_sentence_23

During Soviet rule, the city was spelled in Cyrillic as "Бакы" in Azerbaijani (while the Russian spelling was and still is "Баку", Bakú). Baku_sentence_24

The modern Azerbaijani spelling, which has been using the Latin alphabet since 1991, is Bakı; the shift from the Perso-Arabic letter و (ū) to Cyrillic "ы" and, later, Latin "ı" may be compared to that in other Azerbaijani words (e.g. compare qāpū in old Perso-Arabic spelling with modern Azerbaijani , "door") or in suffixes, as و was often used to transcribe the vowel harmony in Azerbaijani (which was also the practice in Ottoman Turkish). Baku_sentence_25

(See also Azerbaijani alphabet.) Baku_sentence_26

History Baku_section_1

Main articles: History of Baku and Timeline of Baku Baku_sentence_27

Antiquity Baku_section_2

Around 100,000 years ago, the territory of modern Baku and Absheron was savanna with rich flora and fauna. Baku_sentence_28

Traces of human settlement go back to the Stone Age. Baku_sentence_29

From the Bronze Age there have been rock carvings discovered near Bayil, and a bronze figure of a small fish discovered in the territory of the Old City. Baku_sentence_30

These have led some to suggest the existence of a Bronze Age settlement within the city's territory. Baku_sentence_31

Near Nardaran, in a place called Umid Gaya, a prehistoric observatory was discovered, where on the rock the images of sun and various constellations are carved together with a primitive astronomic table. Baku_sentence_32

Further archeological excavations revealed various prehistoric settlements, native temples, statues and other artifacts within the territory of the modern city and around it. Baku_sentence_33

In the 1st century AD, the Romans organised two Caucasian campaigns and reached Baku. Baku_sentence_34

Near the city, in Gobustan, Roman inscriptions dating from 84 to 96 CE were discovered. Baku_sentence_35

This is one of the earliest written evidences for Baku. Baku_sentence_36

Rise of the Shirvanshahs and the Safavid era Baku_section_3

See also: Shirvanshah Baku_sentence_37

Baku was the realm of the Shirvanshahs during the 8th century AD. Baku_sentence_38

The city frequently came under assault of the Khazars and (starting from the 10th century) the Rus. Baku_sentence_39

Shirvanshah Akhsitan I built a navy in Baku and successfully repelled another Rus assault in 1170. Baku_sentence_40

After a devastating earthquake struck Shamakhi, the capital of Shirvan, Shirvanshah's court moved to Baku in 1191. Baku_sentence_41

The Shirvan era greatly influenced Baku and the remainder of what is present-day Azerbaijan. Baku_sentence_42

Between the 12th and 14th centuries, massive fortifications were undertaken in Baku and the surrounding towns. Baku_sentence_43

The Maiden Tower, the Ramana Tower, the Nardaran Fortress, the Shagan Castle, the Mardakan Castle, the Round Castle and also the famous Sabayil Castle on the island of the Bay of Baku was built during this period. Baku_sentence_44

The city walls of Baku were also rebuilt and strengthened. Baku_sentence_45

By the early 16th century Baku's wealth and strategic position attracted the focus of its larger neighbours; in the previous two centuries, it was under the rule of the in Iran-centred Kara Koyunlu and Ak Koyunlu. Baku_sentence_46

The fall of the Ak Koyunlu brought the city immediately into the sphere of the newly formed Iranian Safavid dynasty, led by king (shah) Ismail I (r. 1501–1524). Baku_sentence_47

Ismail I laid siege to Baku in 1501 and captured it; he allowed the Shirvanshahs to remain in power, under Safavid suzerainty. Baku_sentence_48

His successor, king Tahmasp I (r. 1524–1576), completely removed the Shirvanshahs from power, and made Baku a part of the Shirvan province. Baku_sentence_49

Baku remained as an integral part of his empire and the successive Iranian dynasties to come for the next centuries, until the irrevocable cession in the first half of the 19th century. Baku_sentence_50

The House of Shirvan, who ruled Baku since the 9th century, was extinguished in the course of the Safavid rule. Baku_sentence_51

At this time the city was enclosed within the lines of strong walls, which were washed by the sea on one side and protected by a wide trench on land. Baku_sentence_52

The Ottomans briefly gained control over Baku as a result of the Ottoman-Safavid War of 1578–1590; by 1607, it was again put under Iranian control. Baku_sentence_53

In 1604 Baku fortress was destroyed by Shah Abbas I (r. 1588-1629). Baku_sentence_54

Baku is noted for being a focal point for traders from all across the world during the Early modern period, commerce was active and the area was prosperous. Baku_sentence_55

Notably, traders from the Indian subcontinent established themselves in the region. Baku_sentence_56

These Indian traders built the Ateshgah of Baku during 17th–18th centuries; the temple was used as a Hindu, Sikh, and Parsi place of worship. Baku_sentence_57

Downfall of the Safavids and the Khanate of Baku Baku_section_4

In the wake of the demise of the Safavids, the Russians took advantage of the situation and invaded; the Safavids were forced to cede Baku to Russia for a few years. Baku_sentence_58

By 1730, the situation had deteriorated for the Russians; the successes of Nader Shah (r. 1736–1747) forced them to make an agreement near Ganja on 10 March 1735, ceding the city and all other conquered territories in the Caucasus back to Iran. Baku_sentence_59

The eruption of instability following Nader Shah's death gave rise to the various Caucasian khanates. Baku_sentence_60

The semi-autonomous Persian-ruled Baku Khanate was one of these. Baku_sentence_61

It was ruled by Mirza Muhammed Khan but soon became a dependency of the much stronger Quba Khanate. Baku_sentence_62

During this time, the population of Baku was small (approximately 5,000), and the economy was ruined as a result of constant warfare. Baku_sentence_63

Russo-Persian Wars and Iran's forced ceding Baku_section_5

From the late 18th century, Imperial Russia switched to a more aggressive geopolitical stance towards its two neighbours and rivals to the south, namely Iran and the Ottoman Empire. Baku_sentence_64

In the spring of 1796, by Catherine II's order, General Valerian Zubov's troops started a large campaign against Qajar Persia. Baku_sentence_65

Zubov had sent 13,000 men to capture Baku, and it was overrun subsequently without any resistance. Baku_sentence_66

On 13 June 1796, a Russian flotilla entered Baku Bay, and a garrison of Russian troops was placed inside the city. Baku_sentence_67

Later, however, Pavel I ordered the cessation of the campaign and the withdrawal of Russian forces following his predecessor, Catherine the Great's death. Baku_sentence_68

In March 1797, the tsarist troops left Baku and the city became part of Qajar Iran again. Baku_sentence_69

In 1813, following the Russo-Persian War of 1804–1813, Qajar Iran was forced to sign the Treaty of Gulistan with Russia, which provided for the irrevocable cession of Baku and most of Iran's territories in the North Caucasus and South Caucasus to Russia. Baku_sentence_70

During the next and final bout of hostilities between the two, the Russo-Persian War of 1826–1828, Baku was briefly recaptured by the Iranians. Baku_sentence_71

However, militarily superior, the Russians ended this war in a victory as well, and the resulting Treaty of Turkmenchay made its inclusion into the Russian Empire definite. Baku_sentence_72

When Baku was occupied by the Russian troops during the war of 1804–13, nearly the entire population of some 8,000 people was ethnic Tat. Baku_sentence_73

Discovery of oil Baku_section_6

Main article: Petroleum industry in Azerbaijan Baku_sentence_74

The Russians built the first oil-distilling factory in Balaxani in 1837. Baku_sentence_75

Drilling for oil began in the mid-1800s, with the first oil well drilled in the Bibi-Heybat suburb of Baku in 1846. Baku_sentence_76

It was mechanically drilled, though a number of hand-dug wells predate it. Baku_sentence_77

Large-scale oil exploration started in 1872 when Russian imperial authorities auctioned the parcels of oil-rich land around Baku to private investors. Baku_sentence_78

The pioneer of oil extracting from the bottom of the sea was Polish geologist Witold Zglenicki. Baku_sentence_79

Soon after investors appeared in Baku, including the Nobel Brothers in 1873 and the Rothschilds in 1882. Baku_sentence_80

An industrial area of oil refineries, better known as Black Town, was established near Baku by the early 1880s. Baku_sentence_81

Professor A. Baku_sentence_82 V. Williams Jackson of Columbia University wrote in his work From Constantinople to the Home of Omar Khayyam (1911): Baku_sentence_83

By the beginning of the 20th century, half of the oil sold in international markets was being extracted in Baku. Baku_sentence_84

The oil boom contributed to the massive growth of Baku. Baku_sentence_85

Between 1856 and 1910 Baku's population grew at a faster rate than that of London, Paris or New York. Baku_sentence_86

World War I Baku_section_7

In 1917, after the October Revolution and amidst the turmoil of World War I and the breakup of the Russian Empire, Baku came under the control of the Baku Commune, which was led by veteran Bolshevik Stepan Shahumyan. Baku_sentence_87

Seeking to capitalize on the existing ethnic conflicts, by spring 1918, Bolsheviks inspired and condoned civil warfare in and around Baku. Baku_sentence_88

During the famous March Days, Bolsheviks and Dashnaks seeking to establish control over Baku streets, were faced with armed Azerbaijani groups. Baku_sentence_89

The Azerbaijanis suffered defeat by the united forces of Baku Soviet and were massacred by Dashnak teams in what was called March Days. Baku_sentence_90

An estimated 3,000–12,000 Azerbaijanis were killed in their own capital. Baku_sentence_91

After the massacre, on 28 May 1918, the Azerbaijani faction of the Transcaucasian Sejm proclaimed the independence of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic (ADR) in Ganja, thereby becoming the first Muslim-majority democratic and secular republic. Baku_sentence_92

The newly independent Azerbaijani republic, being unable to defend the independence of the country on their own, asked the Ottoman Empire for military support in accordance with clause 4 of the treaty between the two countries. Baku_sentence_93

Shortly after, Azerbaijani forces, with support of the Ottoman Army of Islam led by Nuru Pasha, started their advance onto Baku, eventually capturing the city from the loose coalition of Bolsheviks, Esers, Dashnaks, Mensheviks and British forces under the command of General Lionel Dunsterville on 15 September 1918. Baku_sentence_94

After the Battle of Baku, the Azerbaijani irregular troops, with the tacit support of the Turkish command, conducted four days of pillaging and killing of 10,000 to 30,000 of the Armenian residents of Baku. Baku_sentence_95

This pogrom was known as the September Days. Baku_sentence_96

Shortly after this, Baku was proclaimed the new capital of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic. Baku_sentence_97

Turkey lost the war by October 1918, then conducted the Armistice of Mudros with the British, which meant Baku was to be evacuated. Baku_sentence_98

Headed by General William Thomson, British troops of 5,000 soldiers, including parts of Dunsterforce, arrived in Baku on 17 November. Baku_sentence_99

Thomson declared himself military governor of Baku and implemented martial law on the capital until "the civil power would be strong enough to release the forces from the responsibility to maintain the public order". Baku_sentence_100

British forces left before the end of 1919. Baku_sentence_101

Soviet period Baku_section_8

The independence of the Azerbaijani republic was significant but a short-lived chapter. Baku_sentence_102

On 28 April 1920, the 11th Red Army invaded Baku and reinstalled the Bolsheviks, making Baku the capital of the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic. Baku_sentence_103

The city underwent many major changes. Baku_sentence_104

As a result, Baku played a great role in many branches of Soviet life. Baku_sentence_105

Baku was the major oil city of the Soviet Union. Baku_sentence_106

Since about 1921, the city was headed by Baku City Executive Committee, commonly known in Russian as Bakgorispolkom. Baku_sentence_107

Together with Baku Party Committee (known as the Baksovet), it developed the economic significance of the Caspian metropolis. Baku_sentence_108

From 1922 to 1930, Baku was the venue for one of the major Trade fairs of the Soviet Union, serving as a commercial bridgehead to Iran and the Middle East. Baku_sentence_109

World War II Baku_section_9

Baku's growing importance as a major energy hub remained in sight of the major powers. Baku_sentence_110

During World War II and the Nazi German invasion of the southwestern Soviet Union, Baku had become of vital strategic importance. Baku_sentence_111

In fact, capturing the oil fields of Baku was one of the ultimate goals of Operation Edelweiss, carried out between May and November 1942. Baku_sentence_112

However, the German Army's closest approach to Baku was no closer than some 530 kilometres (329 miles) northwest of Baku in November 1942, falling far short of the city's capture before being driven back during the Soviet Operation Little Saturn in mid-December 1942. Baku_sentence_113

Fall of the Soviet Union and later Baku_section_10

After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Baku embarked on a process of restructuring on a scale unseen in its history. Baku_sentence_114

Thousands of buildings from the Soviet period were demolished to make way for a green belt on its shores; parks and gardens were built on the land reclaimed by filling up the beaches of the Baku Bay. Baku_sentence_115

Improvements were made in the general cleaning, maintenance, and garbage collection, and these services are now at Western European standards. Baku_sentence_116

The city is growing dynamically and developing at full speed on an east–west axis along the shores of the Caspian Sea. Baku_sentence_117

Sustainability has become a key factor in future urban development. Baku_sentence_118

Geography Baku_section_11

Baku is situated on the western coast of Caspian Sea. Baku_sentence_119

In the vicinity of the city there are a number of mud volcanoes (Keyraki, Bogkh-bogkha, Lokbatan and others) and salt lakes (Boyukshor, Khodasan and so on). Baku_sentence_120

Climate Baku_section_12

Baku has a temperate semi-arid climate (Köppen climate classification: BSk) with hot and humid summers, cool and occasionally wet winters, and strong winds all year long. Baku_sentence_121

However, unlike many other cities with such climate features, Baku does not see extremely hot summers and substantial sunshine hours. Baku_sentence_122

This is largely because of its northerly latitude and the fact that it is located on a peninsula on the shore of the Caspian Sea. Baku_sentence_123

Baku, and the Absheron Peninsula on which it is situated, is the most arid part of Azerbaijan (precipitation here is around or less than 200 mm (8 in) a year). Baku_sentence_124

The majority of the light annual precipitation occurs in seasons other than summer, but none of these seasons is particularly wet. Baku_sentence_125

During Soviet times, Baku, with its long hours of sunshine and dry healthy climate, was a vacation destination where citizens could enjoy beaches or relax in now-dilapidated spa complexes overlooking the Caspian Sea. Baku_sentence_126

The city's past as a Soviet industrial centre left it one of the most polluted cities in the world, as of 2008. Baku_sentence_127

At the same time Baku is noted as a very windy city throughout the year, hence the city's nickname the "City of Winds", and gale-force winds, the cold northern wind khazri and the warm southern wind gilavar are typical here in all seasons. Baku_sentence_128

Indeed, the city is renowned for its fierce winter snow storms and harsh winds. Baku_sentence_129

The speed of the khazri sometimes reaches 144 km/h (89 mph), which can cause damage to crops, trees and roof tiles. Baku_sentence_130

The daily mean temperature in July and August averages 26.4 °C (79.5 °F), and there is very little rainfall during that season. Baku_sentence_131

During summer the khazri sweeps through, bringing desired coolness. Baku_sentence_132

Winter is cool and occasionally wet, with the daily mean temperature in January and February averaging 4.3 °C (39.7 °F). Baku_sentence_133

During winter the khazri sweeps through, driven by polar air masses; temperatures on the coast frequently drop below freezing and make it feel bitterly cold. Baku_sentence_134

Winter snow storms are occasional; snow usually melts within a few days after each snowfall. Baku_sentence_135

Administrative divisions Baku_section_13

Today, Baku is divided into 12 rayonlar (sub-rayons) (administrative districts) and 5 settlements of city type. Baku_sentence_136

Demographics Baku_section_14

Until 1988, Baku had very large Russian, Armenian, and Jewish populations which contributed to cultural diversity and added in various ways (music, literature, architecture and progressive outlook) to Baku's history. Baku_sentence_137

With the onset of the First Nagorno-Karabakh War and the pogrom against Armenians starting in January 1990, the city's large Armenian population was expelled. Baku_sentence_138

Under Communism, the Soviets took over the majority of Jewish property in Baku and Kuba. Baku_sentence_139

After the collapse of the Soviet Union, Azerbaijani President Heydar Aliyev returned several synagogues and a Jewish college, nationalised by the Soviets, to the Jewish community. Baku_sentence_140

He encouraged the restoration of these buildings and is well liked by the Jews of Azerbaijan. Baku_sentence_141

Renovation has begun on seven of the original 11 synagogues, including the Gilah synagogue, built in 1896, and the large Kruei Synagogue. Baku_sentence_142

Baku_table_general_1

YearBaku_header_cell_1_0_0 AzerbaijanisBaku_header_cell_1_0_1 %Baku_header_cell_1_0_2 RussiansBaku_header_cell_1_0_3 %Baku_header_cell_1_0_4 ArmeniansBaku_header_cell_1_0_5 %Baku_header_cell_1_0_6 JewsBaku_header_cell_1_0_7 %Baku_header_cell_1_0_8 OthersBaku_header_cell_1_0_9 %Baku_header_cell_1_0_10 TotalBaku_header_cell_1_0_11
1851Baku_cell_1_1_0 more than 5,000Baku_cell_1_1_1 Baku_cell_1_1_2 Baku_cell_1_1_3 Baku_cell_1_1_4 405Baku_cell_1_1_5 5.5%Baku_cell_1_1_6 Baku_cell_1_1_7 Baku_cell_1_1_8 Baku_cell_1_1_9 Baku_cell_1_1_10 7,431Baku_cell_1_1_11
1886Baku_cell_1_2_0 37,530Baku_cell_1_2_1 43.3Baku_cell_1_2_2 21,390Baku_cell_1_2_3 24.7Baku_cell_1_2_4 24,490Baku_cell_1_2_5 28.3Baku_cell_1_2_6 391Baku_cell_1_2_7 0.5Baku_cell_1_2_8 2,810Baku_cell_1_2_9 3.2Baku_cell_1_2_10 86,611Baku_cell_1_2_11
1897Baku_cell_1_3_0 40,341Baku_cell_1_3_1 36Baku_cell_1_3_2 37,399Baku_cell_1_3_3 33.4Baku_cell_1_3_4 19,099Baku_cell_1_3_5 17.1Baku_cell_1_3_6 3,369Baku_cell_1_3_7 3Baku_cell_1_3_8 11,696Baku_cell_1_3_9 10.5Baku_cell_1_3_10 111,904Baku_cell_1_3_11
1903Baku_cell_1_4_0 44,257Baku_cell_1_4_1 28.4Baku_cell_1_4_2 59,955Baku_cell_1_4_3 38.5Baku_cell_1_4_4 26,151Baku_cell_1_4_5 16.8Baku_cell_1_4_6 n.a.Baku_cell_1_4_7 n.a.Baku_cell_1_4_8 28,513Baku_cell_1_4_9 18.3Baku_cell_1_4_10 155,876Baku_cell_1_4_11
1913Baku_cell_1_5_0 45,962Baku_cell_1_5_1 21.4Baku_cell_1_5_2 76,288Baku_cell_1_5_3 35.5Baku_cell_1_5_4 41,680Baku_cell_1_5_5 19.4Baku_cell_1_5_6 9,690Baku_cell_1_5_7 4.5Baku_cell_1_5_8 41,052Baku_cell_1_5_9 19.1Baku_cell_1_5_10 214,672Baku_cell_1_5_11
1926Baku_cell_1_6_0 118,737Baku_cell_1_6_1 26.2Baku_cell_1_6_2 167,373Baku_cell_1_6_3 36.9Baku_cell_1_6_4 76,656Baku_cell_1_6_5 16.9Baku_cell_1_6_6 19,589Baku_cell_1_6_7 4.3Baku_cell_1_6_8 70,978Baku_cell_1_6_9 15.7Baku_cell_1_6_10 453,333Baku_cell_1_6_11
1939Baku_cell_1_7_0 215,482Baku_cell_1_7_1 27.4Baku_cell_1_7_2 343,064Baku_cell_1_7_3 43.6Baku_cell_1_7_4 118,650Baku_cell_1_7_5 15.1Baku_cell_1_7_6 31,050Baku_cell_1_7_7 3.9Baku_cell_1_7_8 79,377Baku_cell_1_7_9 10.1Baku_cell_1_7_10 787,623Baku_cell_1_7_11
1959Baku_cell_1_8_0 211,372Baku_cell_1_8_1 32.9Baku_cell_1_8_2 223,242Baku_cell_1_8_3 34.7Baku_cell_1_8_4 137,111Baku_cell_1_8_5 21.3Baku_cell_1_8_6 24,057Baku_cell_1_8_7 3.7Baku_cell_1_8_8 56,725Baku_cell_1_8_9 8.7Baku_cell_1_8_10 652,507Baku_cell_1_8_11
1970Baku_cell_1_9_0 586,052Baku_cell_1_9_1 46.3Baku_cell_1_9_2 351,090Baku_cell_1_9_3 27.7Baku_cell_1_9_4 207,464Baku_cell_1_9_5 16.4Baku_cell_1_9_6 29,716Baku_cell_1_9_7 2.3Baku_cell_1_9_8 88,193Baku_cell_1_9_9 6.9Baku_cell_1_9_10 1,262,515Baku_cell_1_9_11
1979Baku_cell_1_10_0 530,556Baku_cell_1_10_1 52.4Baku_cell_1_10_2 229,873Baku_cell_1_10_3 22.7Baku_cell_1_10_4 167,226Baku_cell_1_10_5 16.5Baku_cell_1_10_6 22,916Baku_cell_1_10_7 2.3Baku_cell_1_10_8 62,865Baku_cell_1_10_9 6.2Baku_cell_1_10_10 1,013,436Baku_cell_1_10_11
1999Baku_cell_1_11_0 1,574,252Baku_cell_1_11_1 88Baku_cell_1_11_2 119,371Baku_cell_1_11_3 6.7Baku_cell_1_11_4 378Baku_cell_1_11_5 0.02Baku_cell_1_11_6 5,164Baku_cell_1_11_7 0.3Baku_cell_1_11_8 89,689Baku_cell_1_11_9 5Baku_cell_1_11_10 1,788,854Baku_cell_1_11_11
2009Baku_cell_1_12_0 1,848,107Baku_cell_1_12_1 90.3Baku_cell_1_12_2 108,525Baku_cell_1_12_3 5.3Baku_cell_1_12_4 104Baku_cell_1_12_5 0.01Baku_cell_1_12_6 6,056Baku_cell_1_12_7 0.6Baku_cell_1_12_8 83,023Baku_cell_1_12_9 4.1Baku_cell_1_12_10 2,045,815Baku_cell_1_12_11

Ethnic groups Baku_section_15

Today the vast majority of the population of Baku are ethnic Azerbaijanis (more than 90%). Baku_sentence_143

When Baku was occupied by the Russian troops during the war of 1804–13, nearly the entire population of some 8,000 people was ethnic Tat. Baku_sentence_144

The intensive growth of the population started in the middle of the 19th century when Baku was a small town with a population of about 7,000 people. Baku_sentence_145

The population increased again from about 13,000 in the 1860s to 112,000 in 1897 and 215,000 in 1913, making Baku the largest city in the Caucasus region. Baku_sentence_146

Baku has been a cosmopolitan city at certain times during its history, meaning ethnic Azerbaijanis did not constitute the majority of population. Baku_sentence_147

In 2003 Baku additionally had 153,400 internally displaced persons and 93,400 refugees. Baku_sentence_148

Religion Baku_section_16

The religion with the largest community of followers is Islam. Baku_sentence_149

The majority of the Muslims are Shia Muslims, and the Republic of Azerbaijan has the second highest Shia population percentage in the world after Iran. Baku_sentence_150

The city's notable mosques include Juma Mosque, Bibi-Heybat Mosque, Muhammad Mosque and Taza Pir Mosque. Baku_sentence_151

There are some other faiths practised among the different ethnic groups within the country. Baku_sentence_152

By article 48 of its Constitution, Azerbaijan is a secular state and ensures religious freedom. Baku_sentence_153

Religious minorities include Russian Orthodox Christians, Catholic Levantines, Georgian Orthodox Christians, Lutherans, Ashkenazi Jews and Sufi Muslims. Baku_sentence_154

Baku is the seat of the Catholic Apostolic Prefecture of Azerbaijan. Baku_sentence_155

Zoroastrianism, although extinct in the city as well as in the rest of the country by the present time, had a long history in Azerbaijan and the Zoroastrian New Year (Nowruz) continues to be the main holiday in the city as well as in the rest of Azerbaijan. Baku_sentence_156

Economy Baku_section_17

Main article: Economy of Baku Baku_sentence_157

Baku's largest industry is petroleum, and its petroleum exports make it a large contributor to Azerbaijan's balance of payments. Baku_sentence_158

The existence of petroleum has been known since the 8th century. Baku_sentence_159

In the 10th century, the Arabian traveler, Marudee, reported that both white and black oil were being extracted naturally from Baku. Baku_sentence_160

By the 15th century, oil for lamps was obtained from hand-dug surface wells. Baku_sentence_161

Commercial exploitation began in 1872, and by the beginning of the 20th century the Baku oil fields were the largest in the world. Baku_sentence_162

Towards the end of the 20th century much of the onshore petroleum had been exhausted, and drilling had extended into the sea offshore. Baku_sentence_163

By the end of the 19th century skilled workers and specialists flocked to Baku. Baku_sentence_164

By 1900 the city had more than 3,000 oil wells, of which 2,000 were producing oil at industrial levels. Baku_sentence_165

Baku ranked as one of the largest centres for the production of oil industry equipment before World War II. Baku_sentence_166

The World War II Battle of Stalingrad was fought to determine who would have control of Baku oil fields. Baku_sentence_167

Fifty years before the battle, Baku produced half of the world's oil supply. Baku_sentence_168

The oil economy of Baku is undergoing a resurgence, with the development of the massive Azeri-Chirag-Guneshli field (Shallow water Gunashli by SOCAR, deeper areas by a consortium led by BP), development of the Shah Deniz gas field, the expansion of the Sangachal Terminal and the construction of the BTC Pipeline. Baku_sentence_169

The Baku Stock Exchange is Azerbaijan's largest stock exchange, and largest in the Caucasian region by market capitalization. Baku_sentence_170

A relatively large number of transnational companies are headquartered in Baku. Baku_sentence_171

One of the more prominent institutions headquartered in Baku is the International Bank of Azerbaijan, which employs over 1,000 people. Baku_sentence_172

International banks with branches in Baku include HSBC, Société Générale and Credit Suisse. Baku_sentence_173

Tourism and shopping Baku_section_18

Baku is one of the most important tourist destinations in the Caucasus, with hotels in the city earning 7 million euros in 2009. Baku_sentence_174

Many sizable world hotel chains have a presence in the city. Baku_sentence_175

Baku has many popular tourist and entertainment spots, such as the downtown Fountains Square, the One and Thousand Nights Beach, Shikhov Beach and Oil Rocks. Baku_sentence_176

Baku's vicinities feature Yanar Dag, an ever-blazing spot of natural gas. Baku_sentence_177

On 2 September 2010 with the inauguration of National Flag Square, Baku set the world record for tallest flagpole; on 24 May 2011, the city of Dushanbe in Tajikistan set a new record with a 3 metres (9.8 feet)-higher flagpole. Baku_sentence_178

A few years later, the Flag Pole was dismantled and the National Flag Square was closed off with fences. Baku_sentence_179

Baku has several shopping malls; the most famous city centre malls are Port Baku, Park Bulvar, Ganjlik Mall, Metro Park, 28 MALL, Aygun city and AF MALL. Baku_sentence_180

The retail areas contain shops from chain stores up to high-end boutiques. Baku_sentence_181

The city is listed 48th in the 2011 list of the most expensive cities in the world conducted by the Mercer Human Resource Consulting. Baku_sentence_182

Its Nizami Street and also the Neftchilar Avenue are among the most expensive streets in the world. Baku_sentence_183

Culture Baku_section_19

In 2007 the Heydar Aliyev Cultural Centre, designed by Pritzker Prize-winning architect Zaha Hadid, was opened. Baku_sentence_184

Baku also has many museums such as Baku Museum of Modern Art and Azerbaijan State Museum of History, most notably featuring historical artifacts and art. Baku_sentence_185

Many of the city's cultural sites were celebrated in 2009 when Baku was designated an Islamic Culture Capital. Baku_sentence_186

Baku was chosen to host the Eurovision Dance Contest 2010. Baku_sentence_187

It has also become the first city hosting the first European Games in 2015. Baku_sentence_188

Theatres Baku_section_20

Baku_unordered_list_0

Among Baku's cultural venues are Azerbaijan State Philharmonic Hall, Azerbaijan State Academic Opera and Ballet Theatre. Baku_sentence_189

The main movie theatre is Azerbaijan Cinema. Baku_sentence_190

Festivals include Baku International Film Festival, Baku International Jazz Festival, Novruz Festival, Gül Bayramı (Flower Festival) and the National Theater Festival. Baku_sentence_191

International and local exhibitions are presented at the Baku Expo Centre. Baku_sentence_192

As of 2012, the city along with Ganja and Lankaran participates in Earth Hour movement. Baku_sentence_193

Museums Baku_section_21

Baku_unordered_list_1

Libraries Baku_section_22

Baku_unordered_list_2

Architecture Baku_section_23

Main article: Architecture in Baku Baku_sentence_194

Baku has wildly varying architecture, ranging from the Old City core to modern buildings and the spacious layout of Baku port. Baku_sentence_195

Many of the city's landmarks were built during the early 20th century, when architectural elements of the European styles were combined in eclectic style. Baku_sentence_196

Baku has an original and unique appearance, earning it a reputation as the 'Paris of the East'. Baku_sentence_197

Baku joined UNESCO's Network of Creative Cities as a Design City on 31 October 2019 on the occasion of World Cities' Day. Baku_sentence_198

Hamams Baku_section_24

There are a number of ancient hamams in Baku dating back to the 12th, 14th and 18th centuries. Baku_sentence_199

Hamams play a very important role in the architectural appearance of Baku. Baku_sentence_200

Teze Bey Hamam Baku_section_25

Teze Bey is the most popular hamam (traditional bath) in Baku. Baku_sentence_201

It was built in 1886 in the centre of Baku and in 2003 it was fully restored and modernised. Baku_sentence_202

Along with its modern amenities, Teze Bey features a swimming pool and architectural details inspired by Oriental, Russian and Finnish baths. Baku_sentence_203

Gum Hamam Baku_section_26

Gum Hamam was discovered during archaeological excavations underneath the sand; hence the name: Gum hamam (sand bath). Baku_sentence_204

It was built sometime during the 12th–14th centuries. Baku_sentence_205

Bairamali hamam Baku_section_27

In ancient times Bairamali Hamam was called "Bey Hamam". Baku_sentence_206

The original structure was built sometime during the 12th–14th centuries and was reconstructed in 1881. Baku_sentence_207

Agha Mikayil Hamam Baku_section_28

Agha Mikayil Hamam was constructed in the 18th century by Haji Agha Mikayil on Kichik Gala Street in the Old City (Icherisheher). Baku_sentence_208

It is still operating in its ancient setting. Baku_sentence_209

The Hamam is open to women on Mondays and Fridays and to men on the other days of the week. Baku_sentence_210

Modern architecture Baku_section_29

Late modern and postmodern architecture began to appear in the early 2000s. Baku_sentence_211

With economic development, old buildings such as Atlant House were razed to make way for new ones. Baku_sentence_212

Buildings with all-glass shells have appeared around the city, the most prominent examples being the International Mugham Center, Azerbaijan Tower, Heydar Aliyev Cultural Centre, Flame Towers, Baku Crystal Hall, Baku White City, SOCAR Tower and DENIZ Mall. Baku_sentence_213

These projects also caught the attention of international media as notable programmes such as Discovery Channel's Extreme Engineering did pieces focusing in on changes to the city. Baku_sentence_214

The Old City of Baku, also known as the Walled City of Baku, refers to the ancient Baku settlement. Baku_sentence_215

Most of the walls and towers, strengthened after the Russian conquest in 1806, survived. Baku_sentence_216

This section is picturesque, with its maze of narrow alleys and ancient buildings: the cobbled streets past the Palace of the Shirvanshahs, two caravansaries, the baths and the Juma Mosque (which used to house the Azerbaijan National Carpet and Arts Museum but is now a mosque again). Baku_sentence_217

The old town core also has dozens of small mosques, often without any particular sign to distinguish them as such. Baku_sentence_218

In 2003, UNESCO placed the Inner City on the List of World Heritage in Danger, citing damage from a November 2000 earthquake, poor conservation as well as "dubious" restoration efforts. Baku_sentence_219

In 2009 the Inner City was removed from the List of World Heritage in Danger. Baku_sentence_220

Visual arts Baku_section_30

The three main institutions for exhibiting modern and contemporary art in Baku are: Baku_sentence_221

Baku_unordered_list_3

Music and media Baku_section_31

The music scene in Baku can be traced back to ancient times and villages of Baku, generally revered as the fountainhead of meykhana and mugham in the Azerbaijan. Baku_sentence_222

In recent years, the success of Azerbaijani performers such as AySel, Farid Mammadov, Sabina Babayeva, Safura and Elnur Hüseynov in the Eurovision Song Contest has boosted the profile of Baku's music scene, prompting international attention. Baku_sentence_223

Following the victory of Azerbaijan's representative Eldar & Nigar at the Eurovision Song Contest 2011, Baku hosted the Eurovision Song Contest 2012. Baku_sentence_224

2005 was a landmark in the development of Azerbaijani jazz in the city. Baku_sentence_225

It has been home to legendary jazz musicians like Vagif Mustafazadeh, Aziza Mustafa Zadeh, Rafig Babayev and Rain Sultanov. Baku_sentence_226

Among Baku's prominent annual fairs and festivals is Baku International Jazz Festival, which features some of the world's most identifiable jazz names. Baku_sentence_227

Baku also has a thriving International Centre of Mugham, which is located in Baku Boulevard, Gulustan Palace and Buta Palace, one of the principal performing arts centres and music venues in the city. Baku_sentence_228

The majority of Azerbaijan's media companies (including television, newspaper and radio, such as, Azad Azerbaijan TV, Ictimai TV, Lider TV and Region TV) are headquartered in Baku. Baku_sentence_229

The films The World Is Not Enough and The Diamond Arm are set in the city, while Amphibian Man includes several scenes filmed in Old City. Baku_sentence_230

The city's radio stations include: Ictimai Radio, Radio Antenn, Burc FM, Avto FM, ASAN Radio and Lider FM Jazz Baku_sentence_231

Some of Baku's newspapers include the daily Azadliq, Zaman (The Time), Bakinskiy Rabochiy (Baku Worker), Echo and the English-language Baku Today. Baku_sentence_232

Baku is also featured in the video game Battlefield 4. Baku_sentence_233

Nightlife Baku_section_32

Many clubs that are open until dawn can be found throughout the city. Baku_sentence_234

Clubs with an eastern flavour provide special treats from the cuisine of Azerbaijan along with local music. Baku_sentence_235

Western-style clubs target younger, more energetic crowds. Baku_sentence_236

Most of the public houses and bars are located near Fountains Square and are usually open until the early hours of the morning. Baku_sentence_237

Baku is home to restaurants catering to every cuisine and occasion. Baku_sentence_238

Restaurants range from luxurious and expensive to ordinary and affordable. Baku_sentence_239

In the Lonely Planet "1000 Ultimate Experiences", Baku placed 8th among the top 10 party cities in the world. Baku_sentence_240

Parks and gardens Baku_section_33

Baku has large sections of greenery either preserved by the National Government or designated as green zones. Baku_sentence_241

The city, however, continues to lack a green belt development as economic activity pours into the capital, resulting in massive housing projects along the suburbs. Baku_sentence_242

Baku Boulevard is a pedestrian promenade that runs parallel to Baku's seafront. Baku_sentence_243

The boulevard contains an amusement park, yacht club, musical fountain, statues and monuments. Baku_sentence_244

The park is popular with dog-walkers and joggers, and is convenient for tourists. Baku_sentence_245

It is adjacent to the newly built International Centre of Mugham and the musical fountain. Baku_sentence_246

Other parks and gardens include Heydar Aliyev Park, Samad Vurgun Park, Narimanov Park, Alley of Honor and the Fountains Square. Baku_sentence_247

The Martyrs' Lane, formerly the Kirov Park, is dedicated to the memory of those who lost their lives during the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict and also to the 137 people killed on Black January. Baku_sentence_248

Sports Baku_section_34

Baku hosts a Formula One race on the Baku City Circuit. Baku_sentence_249

The first was the 2016 European Grand Prix, with the track going around the old city. Baku_sentence_250

The track measures 6.003 km (3.735 mi), and it has been on the Formula One calendar since its 2016 debut. Baku_sentence_251

The city will also host three group games and one quarter-final of the UEFA Euro 2020 European Football Championship. Baku_sentence_252

Since 2002, Baku has hosted 36 major sporting events and selected to host the 2015 European Games. Baku_sentence_253

Baku is also to host the fourth edition of the Islamic Solidarity Games in 2017. Baku_sentence_254

Baku is also one of world's leading chess centres, having produced famous grandmasters like Teimour Radjabov, Vugar Gashimov, Garry Kasparov, Shahriyar Mammadyarov and Rauf Mammadov, as well as the arbiter Faik Hasanov. Baku_sentence_255

The city also annually hosts the international tournaments such as Baku Chess Grand Prix, President's Cup, Baku Open and bidding to host 42nd Chess Olympiad in 2014. Baku_sentence_256

First class sporting facilities were built for the indoor games, including the Palace of Hand Games and Heydar Aliyev Sports and Exhibition Complex. Baku_sentence_257

It hosted many sporting events, including FIFA U-17 Women's World Cup, Rhythmic Gymnastics European Championships in 2007 and 2009, 2005 World Rhythmic Gymnastics Championships, 2007 FILA Wrestling World Championships and 2010 European Wrestling Championships, 2011 World Amateur Boxing Championships, 2009 Women's Challenge Cup and European Taekwondo Championships in 2007. Baku_sentence_258

Since 2011 the city annually hosts WTA tennis event called Baku Cup. Baku_sentence_259

The Synergy Baku Cycling Project participates in the Tour d'Azerbaïdjan a 2.2 multi-stage bicycle race on the UCI Europe Tour. Baku_sentence_260

Baku made a bid to host the 2016 Summer Olympics and 2020 Summer Olympics, but failed to become a Candidate City both times. Baku_sentence_261

The largest sport hub in the city is Baku Olympic Stadium with 68,700 seating capacity whose construction was completed in 2015. Baku_sentence_262

UEFA Europa League Final 2019 was played at the Olympic Stadium in Baku on 29 May 2019 between English sides Chelsea and Arsenal. Baku_sentence_263

The city's three main football clubs are Neftchi Baku, Inter Baku and Qarabağ FK of whom first has eight Premier League titles making Neftchi the most successful Azerbaijani football club. Baku_sentence_264

Baku also has several football clubs in the premier and regional leagues, including AZAL and Ravan in Premier League. Baku_sentence_265

The city's second largest stadium, Tofiq Bahramov Stadium hosts a number of domestic and international competitions and was the main sport centre of the city for a long period until the construction of Baku Olympic Stadium. Baku_sentence_266

In the Azerbaijan Women's Volleyball Super League, Baku is represented by Rabita Baku, Azerrail Baku, Lokomotiv Baku and Azeryol Baku. Baku_sentence_267

Transport Baku_section_35

Throughout history the transport system of Baku used the now-defunct horsecars, trams and narrow gauge railways. Baku_sentence_268

As of 2011, 1,000 black cabs are ordered by Baku Taxi Company, and as part of a programme originally announced by the Transport Ministry of Azerbaijan, there is a plan to introduce London cabs into Baku. Baku_sentence_269

The move was part of £16 million agreement between Manganese Bronze subsidiary LTI Limited and Baku Taxi Company. Baku_sentence_270

Local rail transport includes the Baku Funicular and the Baku Metro, a rapid-transit system notable for its art, murals, mosaics and ornate chandeliers. Baku_sentence_271

Baku Metro was opened in November 1967 and includes 3 lines and 25 stations at present; 170 million people used Baku Metro over the past five years. Baku_sentence_272

In 2008, the Chief of Baku Metro, Taghi Ahmadov, announced plans to construct 41 new stations over the next 17 years. Baku_sentence_273

These will serve the new bus complex as well as the international airport. Baku_sentence_274

In 2019, the Baku suburban railway opened. Baku_sentence_275

BakuCard is a single Smart Card for payment on all types of city transport. Baku_sentence_276

The intercity buses and metro use this type of card-based fare-payment system. Baku_sentence_277

Baku Railway Station is the terminus for national and international rail links to the city. Baku_sentence_278

The Kars–Tbilisi–Baku railway, which directly connects Turkey, Georgia and Azerbaijan, began to be constructed in 2007 and opened in 2017. Baku_sentence_279

The completed branch will connect Baku with Tbilisi in Georgia, and from there trains will continue to Akhalkalaki, and Kars in Turkey. Baku_sentence_280

Sea transport is vital for Baku, as the city is practically surrounded by the Caspian Sea to the east. Baku_sentence_281

Shipping services operate regularly from Baku across the Caspian Sea to Turkmenbashi (formerly Krasnovodsk) in Turkmenistan and to Bandar Anzali and Bandar Nowshar in Iran. Baku_sentence_282

The commuter ferries, along with the high-speed catamaran Seabus (Deniz Avtobusu), also form the main connection between the city and the Absheron peninsula. Baku_sentence_283

Baku Port was founded in 1902 and claims to be the largest Caspian Sea port. Baku_sentence_284

It has six facilities: the main cargo terminal, the container terminal, the ferry terminal, the oil terminal, the passenger terminal and the port fleet terminal. Baku_sentence_285

The port's throughput capacity reaches 15 million tonness of liquid bulk and up to 10 million tons of dry cargoes. Baku_sentence_286

In 2010, the Baku International Sea Trade Port is began reconstruction. Baku_sentence_287

The construction was planned to take place in three stages and to be completed by 2016. Baku_sentence_288

The estimated costs were 400 Million US$. Baku_sentence_289

From April to November Baku Port is accessible to ships loading cargoes for direct voyages from Western European and Mediterranean ports. Baku_sentence_290

The State Road M-1 and the European route E60 are the two main motorway connections between Europe and Azerbaijan. Baku_sentence_291

The motorway network around Baku is well developed and is constantly being extended. Baku_sentence_292

The Heydar Aliyev International Airport is the only commercial airport serving Baku. Baku_sentence_293

The new Baku Cargo Terminal was officially opened in March 2005. Baku_sentence_294

It was constructed to be a major cargo hub in the CIS countries and is actually now one of the biggest and most technically advanced in the region. Baku_sentence_295

There are also several smaller military airbases near Baku, such as Baku Kala Air Base, intended for private aircraft, helicopters and charters. Baku_sentence_296

Education Baku_section_36

See also: List of universities in Baku Baku_sentence_297

Baku State University, the first established university in Azerbaijan was opened in 1919 by the government of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic. Baku_sentence_298

In the early years of the Soviet era, Baku already had Azerbaijan State Oil Academy, Azerbaijan Medical University and Azerbaijan State Economic University. Baku_sentence_299

In the post-WWII period, a few more universities were established such as Azerbaijan Technical University, Azerbaijan University of Languages and the Azerbaijan Architecture and Construction University. Baku_sentence_300

After 1991 when Azerbaijan gained independence from the Soviet Union, the fall of communism led to the development of a number of private institutions, including Qafqaz University and Khazar University which are considered the most prestigious academic institutions. Baku_sentence_301

Apart from the private universities, the government established the Academy of Public Administration, the Azerbaijan Diplomatic Academy and various military academies. Baku_sentence_302

The largest universities according to the student population are Baku State University and Azerbaijan State Economic University. Baku_sentence_303

In addition, there are the Baku Music Academy and the Azerbaijan National Conservatoire in Baku established in the early 1920s. Baku_sentence_304

Publicly run kindergartens and elementary schools (years 1 through 11) are operated by local wards or municipal offices. Baku_sentence_305

The Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, the main state research organisation in Azerbaijan is locating in Baku as well. Baku_sentence_306

Moreover, Baku has numerous libraries, many of which contain vast collections of historic documents from the Roman, Byzantine, Ottoman and Soviet periods, as well as from other civilisations of the past. Baku_sentence_307

The most important libraries in terms of historic document collections include the Nizami Museum of Azerbaijan Literature, the National Library of Azerbaijan, the Mirza Alakbar Central Library, the Samad Vurgun Library and Baku Presidential Library. Baku_sentence_308

Secondary schools Baku_section_37

Baku_unordered_list_4

Health care Baku_section_38

According to the Ministry of Healthcare, healthcare facilities in Baku are "highly developed compared with the regions and doctors are waiting to work there, The regions, meanwhile, lack both doctors and clinics providing specialized medical treatment." Baku_sentence_309

Resulting in citizens travelling for many hours to Baku to receive adequate medical treatment. Baku_sentence_310

Notable residents Baku_section_39

Main article: List of people from Baku Baku_sentence_311

Further information: :Category:People from Baku Baku_sentence_312

Other prominent residents include: Academy Award winners Rustam Ibrahimbeyov and Vladimir Menshov, and famous musicians such as Gara Garayev and Vagif Mustafazadeh. Baku_sentence_313

International relations Baku_section_40

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Azerbaijan Baku_sentence_314

Twin towns and sister cities Baku_section_41

Baku is twinned with: Baku_sentence_315

Baku_table_general_2

CountryBaku_header_cell_2_0_0 CityBaku_header_cell_2_0_1 State / Province / Region / GovernorateBaku_header_cell_2_0_2 DateBaku_header_cell_2_0_3
SenegalBaku_cell_2_1_0 DakarBaku_cell_2_1_1 Dakar RegionBaku_cell_2_1_2 1967Baku_cell_2_1_3
ItalyBaku_cell_2_2_0 NaplesBaku_cell_2_2_1 CampaniaBaku_cell_2_2_2 1972Baku_cell_2_2_3
IraqBaku_cell_2_3_0 BasraBaku_cell_2_3_1 Basra GovernorateBaku_cell_2_3_2 1972Baku_cell_2_3_3
Bosnia and HerzegovinaBaku_cell_2_4_0 SarajevoBaku_cell_2_4_1 Sarajevo CantonBaku_cell_2_4_2 1975Baku_cell_2_4_3
United StatesBaku_cell_2_5_0 Christiansted, United States Virgin IslandsBaku_cell_2_5_1 Virgin IslandsBaku_cell_2_5_2 1976Baku_cell_2_5_3
United StatesBaku_cell_2_6_0 HoustonBaku_cell_2_6_1 TexasBaku_cell_2_6_2 1976Baku_cell_2_6_3
FranceBaku_cell_2_7_0 BordeauxBaku_cell_2_7_1 AquitaineBaku_cell_2_7_2 1979Baku_cell_2_7_3
IranBaku_cell_2_8_0 TabrizBaku_cell_2_8_1 East Azerbaijan ProvinceBaku_cell_2_8_2 1980Baku_cell_2_8_3
TurkeyBaku_cell_2_9_0 İzmirBaku_cell_2_9_1 İzmir ProvinceBaku_cell_2_9_2 1985Baku_cell_2_9_3
VietnamBaku_cell_2_10_0 Vũng TàuBaku_cell_2_10_1 Bà Rịa–Vũng Tàu ProvinceBaku_cell_2_10_2 1985Baku_cell_2_10_3
United StatesBaku_cell_2_11_0 Honolulu CountyBaku_cell_2_11_1 HawaiiBaku_cell_2_11_2 1998Baku_cell_2_11_3
TurkeyBaku_cell_2_12_0 SivasBaku_cell_2_12_1 Sivas ProvinceBaku_cell_2_12_2 2000Baku_cell_2_12_3
BrazilBaku_cell_2_13_0 Rio de JaneiroBaku_cell_2_13_1 State of Rio de JaneiroBaku_cell_2_13_2 2013Baku_cell_2_13_3
UkraineBaku_cell_2_14_0 KyivBaku_cell_2_14_1 Kyiv CityBaku_cell_2_14_2 Baku_cell_2_14_3
IsraelBaku_cell_2_15_0 HaifaBaku_cell_2_15_1 Baku_cell_2_15_2 Baku_cell_2_15_3

Partner cities Baku_section_42

Baku_unordered_list_5

  • Mainz, GermanyBaku_item_5_25

Partnership relations also exist at different levels with: Paris, Vienna, Tbilisi, Nur-Sultan, Minsk, Moscow, Volgograd, Kizlyar, Tashkent and Chengdu. Baku_sentence_316


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baku.