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This article is about the city in Maryland. Baltimore_sentence_0

For the surrounding county, see Baltimore County, Maryland. Baltimore_sentence_1

For other uses, see Baltimore (disambiguation). Baltimore_sentence_2


Baltimore, MarylandBaltimore_header_cell_0_0_0
CountryBaltimore_header_cell_0_1_0 United StatesBaltimore_cell_0_1_1
StateBaltimore_header_cell_0_2_0 MarylandBaltimore_cell_0_2_1
CityBaltimore_header_cell_0_3_0 BaltimoreBaltimore_cell_0_3_1
Historic colonyBaltimore_header_cell_0_4_0 Province of MarylandBaltimore_cell_0_4_1
CountyBaltimore_header_cell_0_5_0 None (Independent city)Baltimore_cell_0_5_1
FoundedBaltimore_header_cell_0_6_0 1729Baltimore_cell_0_6_1
IncorporatedBaltimore_header_cell_0_7_0 1796–1797Baltimore_cell_0_7_1
Independent cityBaltimore_header_cell_0_8_0 1851Baltimore_cell_0_8_1
Named forBaltimore_header_cell_0_9_0 The 2nd Baron Baltimore (1605–1675)Baltimore_cell_0_9_1
TypeBaltimore_header_cell_0_11_0 Mayor–councilBaltimore_cell_0_11_1
BodyBaltimore_header_cell_0_12_0 Baltimore City CouncilBaltimore_cell_0_12_1
MayorBaltimore_header_cell_0_13_0 Brandon Scott (D)Baltimore_cell_0_13_1
City CouncilBaltimore_header_cell_0_14_0 Council membersBaltimore_cell_0_14_1
Houses of DelegatesBaltimore_header_cell_0_15_0 DelegatesBaltimore_cell_0_15_1
State SenateBaltimore_header_cell_0_16_0 State senatorsBaltimore_cell_0_16_1
U.S. HouseBaltimore_header_cell_0_17_0 RepresentativesBaltimore_cell_0_17_1
Independent cityBaltimore_header_cell_0_19_0 92.05 sq mi (238.41 km)Baltimore_cell_0_19_1
LandBaltimore_header_cell_0_20_0 80.95 sq mi (209.65 km)Baltimore_cell_0_20_1
WaterBaltimore_header_cell_0_21_0 11.10 sq mi (28.76 km)  12.1%Baltimore_cell_0_21_1
ElevationBaltimore_header_cell_0_22_0 0–480 ft (0–150 m)Baltimore_cell_0_22_1
Population (2010)Baltimore_header_cell_0_23_0
Independent cityBaltimore_header_cell_0_24_0 620,961Baltimore_cell_0_24_1
Estimate (2019)Baltimore_header_cell_0_25_0 593,490Baltimore_cell_0_25_1
DensityBaltimore_header_cell_0_26_0 7,331.92/sq mi (2,830.87/km)Baltimore_cell_0_26_1
UrbanBaltimore_header_cell_0_27_0 2,203,663 (US: 19th)Baltimore_cell_0_27_1
MetroBaltimore_header_cell_0_28_0 2,802,789 (US: 21st)Baltimore_cell_0_28_1
CSABaltimore_header_cell_0_29_0 9,797,063 (US: 4th)Baltimore_cell_0_29_1
DemonymBaltimore_header_cell_0_30_0 BaltimoreanBaltimore_cell_0_30_1
Time zoneBaltimore_header_cell_0_31_0 UTC−5 (EST)Baltimore_cell_0_31_1
Summer (DST)Baltimore_header_cell_0_32_0 UTC−4 (EDT)Baltimore_cell_0_32_1
ZIP CodesBaltimore_header_cell_0_33_0 ZIP CodesBaltimore_cell_0_33_1
Area codesBaltimore_header_cell_0_34_0 410, 443, and 667Baltimore_cell_0_34_1
FIPS codeBaltimore_header_cell_0_35_0 24-04000Baltimore_cell_0_35_1
GNIS feature IDBaltimore_header_cell_0_36_0 Baltimore_cell_0_36_1
Primary AirportBaltimore_header_cell_0_37_0 Baltimore-Washington International Airport

BWI (Major/International)Baltimore_cell_0_37_1

InterstatesBaltimore_header_cell_0_38_0 Interstate_83 Interstate_95_in_Maryland Interstate_97 Interstate_195_(Maryland) Interstate_395_(Maryland) Interstate_695_(Maryland) Interstate_795_(Maryland) Interstate_895_(Maryland)Baltimore_cell_0_38_1
U.S. RoutesBaltimore_header_cell_0_39_0 U.S._Route_1_in_Maryland U.S._Route_40_in_MarylandBaltimore_cell_0_39_1
WebsiteBaltimore_header_cell_0_40_0 Baltimore_cell_0_40_1

Baltimore (/ˈbɔːltɪmɔːr/ BAWL-tim-or, locally: /ˈbɔːlmər/) is the most populous city in the U.S. Baltimore_sentence_3

state of Maryland, as well as the 30th most populous city in the United States, with an estimated population of 593,490 in 2019. Baltimore_sentence_4

Baltimore is the largest independent city in the country and was designated as such by the Constitution of Maryland in 1851. Baltimore_sentence_5

As of 2017, the population of the Baltimore metropolitan area was estimated to be just under 2.802 million, making it the 21st largest metropolitan area in the country. Baltimore_sentence_6

Baltimore is located about 40 miles (64 km) northeast of Washington, D.C., making it a principal city in the Washington–Baltimore combined statistical area (CSA), the fourth-largest CSA in the nation, with a calculated 2018 population of 9,797,063. Baltimore_sentence_7

Prior to European colonization, the Baltimore region was home to the Susquehannock Native Americans. Baltimore_sentence_8

British colonists established the Port of Baltimore in 1706 to support the tobacco trade, and established the Town of Baltimore in 1729. Baltimore_sentence_9

The Battle of Baltimore was a pivotal engagement during the War of 1812, culminating in the bombardment of Fort McHenry, during which Francis Scott Key wrote a poem that would become "The Star-Spangled Banner", which was eventually designated as the American national anthem in 1931. Baltimore_sentence_10

During the Pratt Street Riot of 1861, the city was the site of some of the earliest violence associated with the American Civil War. Baltimore_sentence_11

The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, the oldest railroad in the United States, was built in 1830 and cemented Baltimore's status as a major transportation hub, giving producers in the Midwest and Appalachia access to the city's port. Baltimore_sentence_12

Baltimore's Inner Harbor was once the second leading port of entry for immigrants to the United States. Baltimore_sentence_13

In addition, Baltimore was a major manufacturing center. Baltimore_sentence_14

After a decline in major manufacturing, heavy industry, and restructuring of the rail industry, Baltimore has shifted to a service-oriented economy. Baltimore_sentence_15

Johns Hopkins Hospital and Johns Hopkins University are the city's top two employers. Baltimore_sentence_16

Baltimore and its surrounding region are home to the headquarters of a number of major organizations and government agencies, including the NAACP, ABET, the National Federation of the Blind, Catholic Relief Services, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, and the Social Security Administration. Baltimore_sentence_17

With hundreds of identified districts, Baltimore has been dubbed a "city of neighborhoods." Baltimore_sentence_18

Many of Baltimore's neighborhoods have rich histories: the city is home to some of the earliest National Register Historic Districts in the nation, including Fell's Point, Federal Hill, and Mount Vernon. Baltimore_sentence_19

These were added to the National Register between 1969 and 1971, soon after historic preservation legislation was passed. Baltimore_sentence_20

Baltimore has more public statues and monuments per capita than any other city in the country. Baltimore_sentence_21

Nearly one third of the city's buildings (over 65,000) are designated as historic in the National Register, which is more than any other U.S. city. Baltimore_sentence_22

History Baltimore_section_0

See also: History of Baltimore and Timeline of Baltimore Baltimore_sentence_23

The city has 66 National Register Historic Districts and 33 local historic districts. Baltimore_sentence_24

Over 65,000 properties are designated as historic buildings and listed in the NRHP, more than any other U.S. city. Baltimore_sentence_25

The historical records of the government of Baltimore are located at the Baltimore City Archives. Baltimore_sentence_26

Etymology Baltimore_section_1

The city is named after The 2nd Baron Baltimore, an Anglo-Irish member of the Irish House of Lords and founding proprietor of the Province of Maryland. Baltimore_sentence_27

Baltimore Manor was the name of the estate in County Longford which the Calvert family, Barons Baltimore, owned in Ireland. Baltimore_sentence_28

Baltimore is an anglicization of the Irish name Baile an Tí Mhóir, meaning "town of the big house." Baltimore_sentence_29

Before European settlement Baltimore_section_2

The Baltimore area had been inhabited by Native Americans since at least the 10th millennium BC, when Paleo-Indians first settled in the region. Baltimore_sentence_30

One Paleo-Indian site and several Archaic period and Woodland period archaeological sites have been identified in Baltimore, including four from the Late Woodland period. Baltimore_sentence_31

During the Late Woodland period, the archaeological culture known as the Potomac Creek complex resided in the area from Baltimore south to the Rappahannock River in present-day Virginia. Baltimore_sentence_32

In the early 1600s, the immediate Baltimore vicinity was sparsely populated, if at all, by Native Americans. Baltimore_sentence_33

The Baltimore County area northward was used as hunting grounds by the Susquehannock living in the lower Susquehanna River valley. Baltimore_sentence_34

This Iroquoian-speaking people "controlled all of the upper tributaries of the Chesapeake" but "refrained from much contact with Powhatan in the Potomac region" and south into Virginia. Baltimore_sentence_35

Pressured by the Susquehannock, the Piscataway tribe, an Algonquian-speaking people, stayed well south of the Baltimore area and inhabited primarily the north bank of the Potomac River in what are now Charles and southern Prince George's counties in the coastal areas south of the Fall Line. Baltimore_sentence_36

Colonial period Baltimore_section_3

European colonization of Maryland began with the arrival of an English ship at St. Clement's Island in the Potomac River on March 25, 1634. Baltimore_sentence_37

Europeans began to settle the area further north, beginning to populate the area of Baltimore County. Baltimore_sentence_38

The original county seat, known today as Old Baltimore, was located on Bush River within the present-day Aberdeen Proving Ground. Baltimore_sentence_39

The colonists engaged in sporadic warfare with the Susquehanna, whose numbers dwindled primarily from new infectious diseases, such as smallpox, endemic among the Europeans. Baltimore_sentence_40

In 1661 David Jones claimed the area known today as Jonestown on the east bank of the Jones Falls stream. Baltimore_sentence_41

The colonial General Assembly of Maryland created the Port of Baltimore at old Whetstone Point (now Locust Point) in 1706 for the tobacco trade. Baltimore_sentence_42

The Town of Baltimore, on the west side of the Jones Falls, was founded and laid out on July 30, 1729. Baltimore_sentence_43

By 1752 the town had just 27 homes, including a church and two taverns. Baltimore_sentence_44

Jonestown and Fells Point had been settled to the east. Baltimore_sentence_45

The three settlements, covering 60 acres (24 ha), became a commercial hub, and in 1768 were designated as the county seat. Baltimore_sentence_46

Since Maryland was a colony, Baltimore's streets were named to show loyalty to the mother country, e.g. King, Queen, King George and Caroline streets. Baltimore_sentence_47

Baltimore grew swiftly in the 18th century, its plantations producing grain and tobacco for sugar-producing colonies in the Caribbean. Baltimore_sentence_48

The profit from sugar encouraged the cultivation of cane in the Caribbean and the importation of food by planters there. Baltimore_sentence_49

Since Baltimore was the county seat, a courthouse was built in 1768 to serve both the city and county. Baltimore_sentence_50

Its square was a center of community meetings and discussions. Baltimore_sentence_51

Baltimore established its public market system in 1763. Baltimore_sentence_52

Lexington Market, founded in 1782, is known as one of the oldest continuously operating public markets in the United States today. Baltimore_sentence_53

Lexington Market was also a center of slave trading. Baltimore_sentence_54

Slaves were sold at numerous sites through the downtown area, with sales advertised in The Baltimore Sun. Baltimore_sentence_55

Both tobacco and sugar cane were labor-intensive crops. Baltimore_sentence_56

In 1774 Baltimore established the first post office system in what became the United States, and the first water company chartered in the newly independent nation (Baltimore Water Company, 1792). Baltimore_sentence_57

Baltimore played a key part in the American Revolution. Baltimore_sentence_58

City leaders such as Jonathan Plowman Jr. led many residents to resist British taxes, and merchants signed agreements refusing to trade with Britain. Baltimore_sentence_59

The Second Continental Congress met in the Henry Fite House from December 1776 to February 1777, effectively making the city the capital of the United States during this period. Baltimore_sentence_60

Antebellum period Baltimore_section_4

The Town of Baltimore, Jonestown, and Fells Point were incorporated as the City of Baltimore in 1796–1797. Baltimore_sentence_61

The city remained a part of surrounding Baltimore County and continued to serve as its county seat from 1768 to 1851, after which it became an independent city. Baltimore_sentence_62

The Battle of Baltimore against the British in 1814 inspired the U.S. national anthem, "The Star-Spangled Banner," and the construction of the Battle Monument which became the city's official emblem. Baltimore_sentence_63

A distinctive local culture started to take shape, and a unique skyline peppered with churches and monuments developed. Baltimore_sentence_64

Baltimore acquired its moniker "The Monumental City" after an 1827 visit to Baltimore by President John Quincy Adams. Baltimore_sentence_65

At an evening function, Adams gave the following toast: "Baltimore: the Monumental City—May the days of her safety be as prosperous and happy, as the days of her dangers have been trying and triumphant." Baltimore_sentence_66

Baltimore pioneered the use of gas lighting in 1816, and its population grew rapidly in the following decades, with concomitant development of culture and infrastructure. Baltimore_sentence_67

The construction of the federally funded National Road (which later became part of U.S. Baltimore_sentence_68

Route 40) and the private Baltimore and Ohio Railroad (B. Baltimore_sentence_69

& O.) Baltimore_sentence_70

made Baltimore a major shipping and manufacturing center by linking the city with major markets in the Midwest. Baltimore_sentence_71

By 1820 its population had reached 60,000, and its economy had shifted from its base in tobacco plantations to sawmilling, shipbuilding, and textile production. Baltimore_sentence_72

These industries benefited from war but successfully shifted into infrastructure development during peacetime. Baltimore_sentence_73

Baltimore suffered one of the worst riots of the antebellum South in 1835, when bad investments led to the Baltimore bank riot. Baltimore_sentence_74

Soon after the city created the world's first dental college, the Baltimore College of Dental Surgery, in 1840, and shared in the world's first telegraph line, between Baltimore and Washington, DC, in 1844. Baltimore_sentence_75

Civil war and after Baltimore_section_5

Maryland, a slave state with abundant popular support for secession in some areas, remained part of the Union during the American Civil War, due in part to the Union's strategic occupation of the city in 1861. Baltimore_sentence_76

The Union's capital, Washington, in the state of Maryland (geographically if not politically), was well-situated to impede Baltimore and Maryland's communication or commerce with the Confederacy. Baltimore_sentence_77

Baltimore saw the first casualties of the war on April 19, 1861, when Union Soldiers en route from the President Street Station to Camden Yards clashed with a secessionist mob in the Pratt Street riot. Baltimore_sentence_78

In the midst of the Long Depression which followed the Panic of 1873, the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad company attempted to lower its workers' wages, leading to strikes and riots in the city and beyond. Baltimore_sentence_79

Strikers clashed with the National Guard, leaving 10 dead and 25 wounded. Baltimore_sentence_80

20th century through 1968 Baltimore_section_6

On February 7, 1904, the Great Baltimore Fire destroyed over 1,500 buildings in 30 hours, leaving more than 70 blocks of the downtown area burned to the ground. Baltimore_sentence_81

Damages were estimated at $150 million in 1904 dollars. Baltimore_sentence_82

As the city rebuilt during the next two years, lessons learned from the fire led to improvements in firefighting equipment standards. Baltimore_sentence_83

Baltimore lawyer Milton Dashiell advocated for an ordinance to bar African-Americans from moving into the Eutaw Place neighborhood in northwest Baltimore. Baltimore_sentence_84

He proposed to recognize majority white residential blocks and majority black residential blocks and to prevent people from moving into housing on such blocks where they would be a minority. Baltimore_sentence_85

The Baltimore Council passed the ordinance, and it became law on December 20, 1910, with Democratic Mayor J. Barry Mahool's signature. Baltimore_sentence_86

The Baltimore segregation ordinance was the first of its kind in the United States. Baltimore_sentence_87

Many other southern cities followed with their own segregation ordinances, though the US Supreme Court ruled against them in Buchanan v. Warley (1917). Baltimore_sentence_88

The city grew in area by annexing new suburbs from the surrounding counties through 1918, when the city acquired portions of Baltimore County and Anne Arundel County. Baltimore_sentence_89

A state constitutional amendment, approved in 1948, required a special vote of the citizens in any proposed annexation area, effectively preventing any future expansion of the city's boundaries. Baltimore_sentence_90

Streetcars enabled the development of distant neighborhoods areas such as Edmonson Village whose residents could easily commute to work downtown. Baltimore_sentence_91

Driven by migration from the deep South and by white suburbanization, the relative size of the city's black population grew from 23.8% in 1950 to 46.4% in 1970. Baltimore_sentence_92

Encouraged by real estate blockbusting techniques, recently settled white areas rapidly became all-black neighborhoods, in a rapid process which was nearly total by 1970. Baltimore_sentence_93

1968 and after Baltimore_section_7

The Baltimore riot of 1968, coinciding with riots in other cities, followed the assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr. on April 4, 1968. Baltimore_sentence_94

Public order was not restored until April 12, 1968. Baltimore_sentence_95

The Baltimore riot cost the city an estimated $10 million (US$ 74 million in 2020). Baltimore_sentence_96

A total of 11,000 Maryland National Guard and federal troops were ordered into the city. Baltimore_sentence_97

The city experienced challenges again in 1974 when teachers, municipal workers, and police officers conducted strikes. Baltimore_sentence_98

Following the death of Freddie Gray in April 2015, the city experienced major protests and international media attention, as well as a clash between local youth and police which resulted in a state of emergency declaration and curfew. Baltimore_sentence_99

Baltimore has suffered from a high homicide rate for several decades, peaking in 1993, and again in 2015. Baltimore_sentence_100

These deaths have taken a severe toll, especially within the local black community. Baltimore_sentence_101

Development and promotion Baltimore_section_8

By the beginning of the 1970s, Baltimore's downtown area, known as the Inner Harbor, had been neglected and was occupied by a collection of abandoned warehouses. Baltimore_sentence_102

The nickname "Charm City" came from a 1975 meeting of advertisers seeking to improve the city's reputation. Baltimore_sentence_103

Efforts to redevelop the area started with the construction of the Maryland Science Center, which opened in 1976, the Baltimore World Trade Center (1977), and the Baltimore Convention Center (1979). Baltimore_sentence_104

Harborplace, an urban retail and restaurant complex, opened on the waterfront in 1980, followed by the National Aquarium, Maryland's largest tourist destination, and the Baltimore Museum of Industry in 1981. Baltimore_sentence_105

In 1995, the city opened the American Visionary Art Museum on Federal Hill. Baltimore_sentence_106

During the epidemic of HIV/AIDS in the United States, Baltimore City Health Department official Robert Mehl persuaded the city's mayor to form a committee to address food problems; the Baltimore-based charity Moveable Feast grew out of this initiative in 1990. Baltimore_sentence_107

By 2010, the organization's region of service had expanded from merely Baltimore to include all of the Eastern Shore of Maryland. Baltimore_sentence_108

In 1992, the Baltimore Orioles baseball team moved from Memorial Stadium to Oriole Park at Camden Yards, located downtown near the harbor. Baltimore_sentence_109

Pope John Paul II held an open-air mass at Camden Yards during his papal visit to the United States in October 1995. Baltimore_sentence_110

Three years later the Baltimore Ravens football team moved into M&T Bank Stadium next to Camden Yards. Baltimore_sentence_111

Baltimore has seen the reopening of the Hippodrome Theatre in 2004, the opening of the Reginald F. Lewis Museum of Maryland African American History & Culture in 2005, and the establishment of the National Slavic Museum in 2012. Baltimore_sentence_112

On April 12, 2012, Johns Hopkins held a dedication ceremony to mark the completion of one of the United States' largest medical complexes – the Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore – which features the Sheikh Zayed Cardiovascular and Critical Care Tower and The Charlotte R. Bloomberg Children's Center. Baltimore_sentence_113

The event, held at the entrance to the $1.1 billion 1.6 million-square-foot-facility, honored the many donors including Sheikh Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan, first president of the United Arab Emirates, and Michael Bloomberg. Baltimore_sentence_114

On September 19, 2016 the Baltimore City Council approved a $660 million bond deal for the $5.5 billion Port Covington redevelopment project championed by Under Armour founder Kevin Plank and his real estate company Sagamore Development. Baltimore_sentence_115

Port Covington surpassed the Harbor Point development as the largest tax-increment financing deal in Baltimore's history and among the largest urban redevelopment projects in the country. Baltimore_sentence_116

The waterfront development that includes the new headquarters for Under Armour, as well as shops, housing, offices, and manufacturing spaces is projected to create 26,500 permanent jobs with a $4.3 billion annual economic impact. Baltimore_sentence_117

Goldman Sachs invested $233 million into the redevelopment project. Baltimore_sentence_118

Geography Baltimore_section_9

Baltimore is in north-central Maryland on the Patapsco River close to where it empties into the Chesapeake Bay. Baltimore_sentence_119

The city is also located on the fall line between the Piedmont Plateau and the Atlantic coastal plain, which divides Baltimore into "lower city" and "upper city". Baltimore_sentence_120

The city's elevation ranges from sea level at the harbor to 480 feet (150 m) in the northwest corner near Pimlico. Baltimore_sentence_121

According to the 2010 Census, the city has a total area of 92.1 square miles (239 km), of which 80.9 sq mi (210 km) is land and 11.1 sq mi (29 km) is water. Baltimore_sentence_122

The total area is 12.1 percent water. Baltimore_sentence_123

Baltimore is almost surrounded by Baltimore County, but is politically independent of it. Baltimore_sentence_124

It is bordered by Anne Arundel County to the south. Baltimore_sentence_125

Cityscape Baltimore_section_10

Architecture Baltimore_section_11

Baltimore exhibits examples from each period of architecture over more than two centuries, and work from architects such as Benjamin Latrobe, George A. Frederick, John Russell Pope, Mies van der Rohe and I. Baltimore_sentence_126

M. Pei. Baltimore_sentence_127

The city is rich in architecturally significant buildings in a variety of styles. Baltimore_sentence_128

The Baltimore Basilica (1806–1821) is a neoclassical design by Benjamin Latrobe, and also the oldest Catholic cathedral in the United States. Baltimore_sentence_129

In 1813 Robert Cary Long, Sr., built for Rembrandt Peale the first substantial structure in the United States designed expressly as a museum. Baltimore_sentence_130

Restored is now the Municipal Museum of Baltimore, or popularly the Peale Museum. Baltimore_sentence_131

The McKim Free School was founded and endowed by John McKim. Baltimore_sentence_132

However, the building was erected by his son Isaac in 1822 after a design by William Howard and William Small. Baltimore_sentence_133

It reflects the popular interest in Greece when the nation was securing its independence and a scholarly interest in recently published drawings of Athenian antiquities. Baltimore_sentence_134

The Phoenix Shot Tower (1828), at 234.25 feet (71.40 m) tall, was the tallest building in the United States until the time of the Civil War, and is one of few remaining structures of its kind. Baltimore_sentence_135

It was constructed without the use of exterior scaffolding. Baltimore_sentence_136

The Sun Iron Building, designed by R.C. Baltimore_sentence_137

Hatfield in 1851, was the city's first iron-front building and was a model for a whole generation of downtown buildings. Baltimore_sentence_138

Brown Memorial Presbyterian Church, built in 1870 in memory of financier George Brown, has stained glass windows by Louis Comfort Tiffany and has been called "one of the most significant buildings in this city, a treasure of art and architecture" by Baltimore Magazine. Baltimore_sentence_139

The 1845 Greek Revival-style Lloyd Street Synagogue is one of the oldest synagogues in the United States. Baltimore_sentence_140

The Johns Hopkins Hospital, designed by Lt. Baltimore_sentence_141

Col. John S. Billings in 1876, was a considerable achievement for its day in functional arrangement and fireproofing. Baltimore_sentence_142

I.M. Baltimore_sentence_143

Pei's World Trade Center (1977) is the tallest equilateral pentagonal building in the world at 405 feet (123 m) tall. Baltimore_sentence_144

The Harbor East area has seen the addition of two new towers which have completed construction: a 24-floor tower that is the new world headquarters of Legg Mason, and a 21-floor Four Seasons Hotel complex. Baltimore_sentence_145

The streets of Baltimore are organized in a grid pattern, lined with tens of thousands of brick and formstone-faced rowhouses. Baltimore_sentence_146

In The Baltimore Rowhouse, Mary Ellen Hayward and Charles Belfoure considered the rowhouse as the architectural form defining Baltimore as "perhaps no other American city." Baltimore_sentence_147

In the mid-1790s, developers began building entire neighborhoods of the British-style rowhouses, which became the dominant house type of the city early in the 19th century. Baltimore_sentence_148

Formstone facings, now a common feature on Baltimore rowhouses, were an addition patented in 1937 by Albert Knight. Baltimore_sentence_149

John Waters characterized formstone as "the polyester of brick" in a 30-minute documentary film, Little Castles: A Formstone Phenomenon. Baltimore_sentence_150

Oriole Park at Camden Yards is a Major League Baseball park, opened in 1992, which was built as a retro style baseball park. Baltimore_sentence_151

Camden Yards, along with the National Aquarium, have helped revive the Inner Harbor from what once was an industrial district full of dilapidated warehouses into a bustling commercial district full of bars, restaurants and retail establishments. Baltimore_sentence_152

Today, the Inner Harbor has some of the most desirable real estate in the Mid-Atlantic. Baltimore_sentence_153

After an international competition, the University of Baltimore School of Law awarded the German firm Behnisch Architekten 1st prize for its design, which was selected for the school's new home. Baltimore_sentence_154

After the building's opening in 2013, the design won additional honors including an ENR National "Best of the Best" Award. Baltimore_sentence_155

Baltimore's newly rehabilitated Everyman Theatre was honored by the Baltimore Heritage at the 2013 Preservation Awards Celebration in 2013. Baltimore_sentence_156

Everyman Theatre will receive an Adaptive Reuse and Compatible Design Award as part of Baltimore Heritage's 2013 historic preservation awards ceremony. Baltimore_sentence_157

Baltimore Heritage is Baltimore's nonprofit historic and architectural preservation organization, which works to preserve and promote Baltimore's historic buildings and neighborhoods. Baltimore_sentence_158

Tallest buildings Baltimore_section_12

Main article: List of tallest buildings in Baltimore Baltimore_sentence_159

Neighborhoods Baltimore_section_13

See also: List of Baltimore neighborhoods Baltimore_sentence_160

Baltimore is officially divided into nine geographical regions: North, Northeast, East, Southeast, South, Southwest, West, Northwest, and Central, with each district patrolled by a respective Baltimore Police Department. Baltimore_sentence_161

Interstate 83 and Charles Street down to Hanover Street and Ritchie Highway serve as the east–west dividing line and Eastern Avenue to Route 40 as the north–south dividing line; however, Baltimore Street is north–south dividing line for the U.S. Baltimore_sentence_162

Postal Service. Baltimore_sentence_163

It is not uncommon for locals to divide the city simply by East or West Baltimore, using Charles Street or I-83 as a dividing line or into North and South using Baltimore Street as a dividing line. Baltimore_sentence_164

Central Baltimore Baltimore_section_14

Central Baltimore, originally called the Middle District, stretches north of the Inner Harbor up to the edge of Druid Hill Park. Baltimore_sentence_165

Downtown Baltimore has mainly served as a commercial district with limited residential opportunities; however, between 2000 and 2010, the downtown population grew 130 percent as old commercial properties have been replaced by residential property. Baltimore_sentence_166

Still the city's main commercial area and business district, it includes Baltimore's sports complexes: Oriole Park at Camden Yards, M&T Bank Stadium, and the Royal Farms Arena; and the shops and attractions in the Inner Harbor: Harborplace, the Baltimore Convention Center, the National Aquarium, Maryland Science Center, Pier Six Pavilion, and Power Plant Live. Baltimore_sentence_167

The University of Maryland, Baltimore, the University of Maryland Medical Center, and Lexington Market are also in the central district, as well as the Hippodrome and many nightclubs, bars, restaurants, shopping centers and various other attractions. Baltimore_sentence_168

The northern portion of Central Baltimore, between downtown and the Druid Hill Park, is home to many of the city's cultural opportunities. Baltimore_sentence_169

Maryland Institute College of Art, the Peabody Institute (music conservatory), George Peabody Library, Enoch Pratt Free Library – Central Library, the Lyric Opera House, the Joseph Meyerhoff Symphony Hall, the Walters Art Museum, the Maryland Historical Society and its Enoch Pratt Mansion, and several galleries are located in this region. Baltimore_sentence_170

North Baltimore Baltimore_section_15

North Baltimore lies directly north of Central Baltimore and is bounded on the east by The Alameda and on the west by Pimlico Road. Baltimore_sentence_171

Loyola University Maryland, Johns Hopkins University Homewood Campus, St. Baltimore_sentence_172

Mary's Seminary and University and Notre Dame of Maryland University are located in this district. Baltimore_sentence_173

Baltimore Polytechnic Institute high school for mathematics, science and engineering, and adjacent Western High School, the oldest remaining public girls secondary school in America, share a joint campus at West Cold Spring Lane and Falls Road. Baltimore_sentence_174

Several historic and notable neighborhoods are in this district: Govans (1755), Roland Park (1891), Guilford (1913), Homeland (1924), Hampden, Woodberry, Old Goucher (the original campus of Goucher College), and Jones Falls. Baltimore_sentence_175

Along the York Road corridor going north are the large neighborhoods of Charles Village, Waverly, and Mount Washington. Baltimore_sentence_176

The Station North Arts and Entertainment District is also located in North Baltimore. Baltimore_sentence_177

South Baltimore Baltimore_section_16

South Baltimore, a mixed industrial and residential area, consists of the "Old South Baltimore" peninsula below the Inner Harbor and east of the old B&O Railroad's Camden line tracks and Russell Street downtown. Baltimore_sentence_178

It is a culturally, ethnically, and socioeconomically diverse waterfront area with neighborhoods such as Locust Point and Riverside around a large park of the same name. Baltimore_sentence_179

Just south of the Inner Harbor, the historic Federal Hill neighborhood, is home to many working professionals, pubs and restaurants. Baltimore_sentence_180

At the end of the peninsula is historic Fort McHenry, a National Park since the end of World War I, when the old U.S. Army Hospital surrounding the 1798 star-shaped battlements was torn down. Baltimore_sentence_181

The area south of the Vietnam Veterans (Hanover Street) Bridge and the Patapsco River was annexed to the city in 1919 from being independent towns in Anne Arundel County. Baltimore_sentence_182

Across the Hanover Street Bridge are residential areas such as Cherry Hill, Brooklyn, and Curtis Bay, with Fort Armistead bordering the city's south side from Anne Arundel County. Baltimore_sentence_183

Northeast Baltimore Baltimore_section_17

Northeast is primarily a residential neighborhood, home to Morgan State University, bounded by the city line of 1919 on its northern and eastern boundaries, Sinclair Lane, Erdman Avenue, and Pulaski Highway to the south and The Alameda on to the west. Baltimore_sentence_184

Also in this wedge of the city on 33rd Street is Baltimore City College high school, third oldest active public secondary school in the United States, founded downtown in 1839. Baltimore_sentence_185

Across Loch Raven Boulevard is the former site of the old Memorial Stadium home of the Baltimore Colts, Baltimore Orioles, and Baltimore Ravens, now replaced by a YMCA athletic and housing complex. Baltimore_sentence_186

Lake Montebello is in Northeast Baltimore. Baltimore_sentence_187

East Baltimore Baltimore_section_18

Located below Sinclair Lane and Erdman Avenue, above Orleans Street, East Baltimore is mainly made up of residential neighborhoods. Baltimore_sentence_188

This section of East Baltimore is home to Johns Hopkins Hospital, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, and Johns Hopkins Children's Center on Broadway. Baltimore_sentence_189

Notable neighborhoods include: Armistead Gardens, Broadway East, Barclay, Ellwood Park, Greenmount, and McElderry Park. Baltimore_sentence_190

This area was the on-site film location for Homicide: Life on the Street, The Corner and The Wire. Baltimore_sentence_191

Southeast Baltimore Baltimore_section_19

Southeast Baltimore, located below Fayette Street, bordering the Inner Harbor and the Northwest Branch of the Patapsco River to the west, the city line of 1919 on its eastern boundaries and the Patapsco River to the south, is a mixed industrial and residential area. Baltimore_sentence_192

Patterson Park, the "Best Backyard in Baltimore," as well as the Highlandtown Arts District, and Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center are located in Southeast Baltimore. Baltimore_sentence_193

The Shops at Canton Crossing opened in 2013. Baltimore_sentence_194

The Canton neighborhood, is located along Baltimore's prime waterfront. Baltimore_sentence_195

Other historic neighborhoods include: Fells Point, Patterson Park, Butchers Hill, Highlandtown, Greektown, Harbor East, Little Italy, and Upper Fell's Point. Baltimore_sentence_196

Northwest Baltimore Baltimore_section_20

Northwestern is bounded by the county line to the north and west, Gwynns Falls Parkway on the south and Pimlico Road on the east, is home to Pimlico Race Course, Sinai Hospital, and the headquarters of the NAACP. Baltimore_sentence_197

Its neighborhoods are mostly residential and are dissected by Northern Parkway. Baltimore_sentence_198

The area has been the center of Baltimore's Jewish community since after World War II. Baltimore_sentence_199

Notable neighborhoods include: Pimlico, Mount Washington, and Cheswolde, and Park Heights. Baltimore_sentence_200

West Baltimore Baltimore_section_21

West Baltimore is west of downtown and the Martin Luther King, Jr. Boulevard and is bounded by Gwynns Falls Parkway, Fremont Avenue, and West Baltimore Street. Baltimore_sentence_201

The Old West Baltimore Historic District includes the neighborhoods of Harlem Park, Sandtown-Winchester, Druid Heights, Madison Park, and Upton. Baltimore_sentence_202

Originally a predominantly German neighborhood, by the last half of the 1800s, Old West Baltimore was home to a substantial section of the city's African American population. Baltimore_sentence_203

It became the largest neighborhood for the city's black community and its cultural, political, and economic center. Baltimore_sentence_204

Coppin State University, Mondawmin Mall, and Edmondson Village are located in this district. Baltimore_sentence_205

The area's crime problems have provided subject material for television series, such as The Wire. Baltimore_sentence_206

Local organizations, such as the Sandtown Habitat for Humanity and the Upton Planning Committee, have been steadily transforming parts of formerly blighted areas of West Baltimore into clean, safe communities. Baltimore_sentence_207

Southwest Baltimore Baltimore_section_22

Southwest Baltimore is bound by the Baltimore County line to the west, West Baltimore Street to the north, and Martin Luther King Jr. Boulevard and Russell Street/Baltimore-Washington Parkway (Maryland Route 295) to the east. Baltimore_sentence_208

Notable neighborhoods in Southwest Baltimore include: Pigtown, Carrollton Ridge, Ridgely's Delight, Leakin Park, Violetville, Lakeland, and Morrell Park. Baltimore_sentence_209

St. Agnes Hospital on Wilkens and Caton avenues is located in this district with the neighboring Cardinal Gibbons High School, which is the former site of Babe Ruth's alma mater, St. Mary's Industrial School. Baltimore_sentence_210

Also through this segment of Baltimore ran the beginnings of the historic National Road, which was constructed beginning in 1806 along Old Frederick Road and continuing into the county on Frederick Road into Ellicott City, Maryland. Baltimore_sentence_211

Other sides in this district are: Carroll Park, one of the city's largest parks, the colonial Mount Clare Mansion, and Washington Boulevard, which dates to pre-Revolutionary War days as the prime route out of the city to Alexandria, Virginia, and [[Georgetown_(Washington,_D.C. Baltimore_sentence_212

)|Georgetown]] on the Potomac River. Baltimore_sentence_213


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Adjacent communities Baltimore_section_23

The City of Baltimore is bordered by the following communities, all unincorporated census-designated places. Baltimore_sentence_214

Climate Baltimore_section_24

Baltimore has a humid subtropical climate in the Köppen climate classification, with long, hot summers, cool winters, and a summer peak to annual precipitation. Baltimore_sentence_215

Baltimore is part of USDA plant hardiness zones 7b and 8a. Baltimore_sentence_216

Summers are normally hot, with occasional late day thunderstorms. Baltimore_sentence_217

July the hottest month, has a mean temperature of 80.3 °F (26.8 °C). Baltimore_sentence_218

Winters are chilly to mild but variable, with sporadic snowfall: January has a daily average of 35.8 °F (2.1 °C), though temperatures reach 50 °F (10 °C) rather often, but can drop below 20 °F (−7 °C) when Arctic air masses affect the area. Baltimore_sentence_219

Spring and autumn are warm, with spring being the wettest season in terms of the number of precipitation days. Baltimore_sentence_220

Summers are hot and humid with a daily average in July of 80.7 °F (27.1 °C), and the combination of heat and humidity leads to rather frequent thunderstorms. Baltimore_sentence_221

A southeasterly bay breeze off the Chesapeake often occurs on summer afternoons when hot air rises over inland areas; prevailing winds from the southwest interacting with this breeze as well as the city proper's UHI can seriously exacerbate air quality. Baltimore_sentence_222

In late summer and early autumn the track of hurricanes or their remnants may cause flooding in downtown Baltimore, despite the city being far removed from the typical coastal storm surge areas. Baltimore_sentence_223

The average seasonal snowfall is 20.1 inches (51 cm), but it varies greatly depending on the winter, with some seasons seeing minimal snow while others see several major Nor'easters. Baltimore_sentence_224

Due to lessened urban heat island (UHI) as compared to the city proper and distance from the moderating Chesapeake Bay, the outlying and inland parts of the Baltimore metro area are usually cooler, especially at night, than the city proper and the coastal towns. Baltimore_sentence_225

Thus, in the northern and western suburbs, winter snowfall is more significant, and some areas average more than 30 in (76 cm) of snow per winter. Baltimore_sentence_226

It is by no means uncommon for the rain-snow line to set up in the metro area. Baltimore_sentence_227

Freezing rain and sleet occurs a few times each winter in the area, as warm air overrides cold air at the low to mid-levels of the atmosphere. Baltimore_sentence_228

When the wind blows from the east, the cold air gets dammed against the mountains to the west and the result is freezing rain or sleet. Baltimore_sentence_229

Extreme temperatures range from −7 °F (−22 °C) on February 9, 1934, and February 10, 1899, up to 108 °F (42 °C) on July 22, 2011. Baltimore_sentence_230

On average, 100 °F (38 °C)+ temperatures occur on 0.9 days annually, 90 °F (32 °C)+ on 37 days, and there are 10 days where the high fails to reach the freezing mark. Baltimore_sentence_231


Climate data for BaltimoreBaltimore_header_cell_1_0_0
MonthBaltimore_header_cell_1_1_0 JanBaltimore_header_cell_1_1_1 FebBaltimore_header_cell_1_1_2 MarBaltimore_header_cell_1_1_3 AprBaltimore_header_cell_1_1_4 MayBaltimore_header_cell_1_1_5 JunBaltimore_header_cell_1_1_6 JulBaltimore_header_cell_1_1_7 AugBaltimore_header_cell_1_1_8 SepBaltimore_header_cell_1_1_9 OctBaltimore_header_cell_1_1_10 NovBaltimore_header_cell_1_1_11 DecBaltimore_header_cell_1_1_12 YearBaltimore_header_cell_1_1_13
Average sea temperature °F (°C)Baltimore_header_cell_1_2_0 46.0


























Mean daily daylight hoursBaltimore_header_cell_1_3_0 10.0Baltimore_cell_1_3_1 11.0Baltimore_cell_1_3_2 12.0Baltimore_cell_1_3_3 13.0Baltimore_cell_1_3_4 14.0Baltimore_cell_1_3_5 15.0Baltimore_cell_1_3_6 15.0Baltimore_cell_1_3_7 14.0Baltimore_cell_1_3_8 12.0Baltimore_cell_1_3_9 11.0Baltimore_cell_1_3_10 10.0Baltimore_cell_1_3_11 9.0Baltimore_cell_1_3_12 12.2Baltimore_cell_1_3_13
Source: Weather AtlasBaltimore_header_cell_1_4_0

Demographics Baltimore_section_25

Population Baltimore_section_26

According to the United States Census, there were 593,490 people living in Baltimore City in 238,436 households as of July 1, 2019. Baltimore_sentence_232

The population decreased by 4.4% since the 2010 Census. Baltimore_sentence_233

Baltimore's population has declined at each census since its peak in 1950. Baltimore_sentence_234

In 2011, then-Mayor Stephanie Rawlings-Blake said her main goal was to increase the city's population by improving city services to reduce the number of people leaving the city and by passing legislation protecting immigrants' rights to stimulate growth. Baltimore_sentence_235

For the first time in decades, in July 2012, the U.S. Census Bureau's census estimate showed the population grew by 1,100 residents, a 0.2% increase from the previous year. Baltimore_sentence_236

Baltimore is sometimes identified as a sanctuary city. Baltimore_sentence_237

Mayor Jack Young said in 2019 that Baltimore will not assist ICE agents with immigration raids. Baltimore_sentence_238

Gentrification has increased since the 2000 census, primarily in East Baltimore, downtown, and Central Baltimore. Baltimore_sentence_239

Downtown Baltimore and its surrounding neighborhoods are seeing a resurgence of young professionals and immigrants, mirroring major cities across the country. Baltimore_sentence_240

After New York City, Baltimore was the second city in the United States to reach a population of 100,000. Baltimore_sentence_241

From the 1830 through 1850 U.S. censuses, Baltimore was the second most-populous city, before being surpassed by Philadelphia in 1860. Baltimore_sentence_242

It was among the top 10 cities in population in the United States in every census up to the 1980 census, and after World War II had a population of nearly 1 million. Baltimore_sentence_243

Characteristics Baltimore_section_27

Further information: Ethnic groups in Baltimore Baltimore_sentence_244


Demographic profileBaltimore_header_cell_2_0_0 2010Baltimore_header_cell_2_0_1 1990Baltimore_header_cell_2_0_2 1970Baltimore_header_cell_2_0_3 1940Baltimore_header_cell_2_0_4
WhiteBaltimore_cell_2_1_0 29.6%Baltimore_cell_2_1_1 39.1%Baltimore_cell_2_1_2 53.0%Baltimore_cell_2_1_3 80.6%Baltimore_cell_2_1_4
Non-Hispanic whitesBaltimore_cell_2_2_0 28.0%Baltimore_cell_2_2_1 38.6%Baltimore_cell_2_2_2 52.3%Baltimore_cell_2_2_3 80.6%Baltimore_cell_2_2_4
Black or African AmericanBaltimore_cell_2_3_0 63.7%Baltimore_cell_2_3_1 59.2%Baltimore_cell_2_3_2 46.4%Baltimore_cell_2_3_3 19.3%Baltimore_cell_2_3_4
Hispanic or Latino (of any race)Baltimore_cell_2_4_0 4.2%Baltimore_cell_2_4_1 1.0%Baltimore_cell_2_4_2 0.9%Baltimore_cell_2_4_3 0.1%Baltimore_cell_2_4_4
AsianBaltimore_cell_2_5_0 2.3%Baltimore_cell_2_5_1 1.1%Baltimore_cell_2_5_2 0.3%Baltimore_cell_2_5_3 0.1%Baltimore_cell_2_5_4

According to the 2010 Census, Baltimore's population is 63.7% Black, 29.6% White (6.9% German, 5.8% Italian, 4% Irish, 2% American, 2% Polish, 0.5% Greek) 2.3% Asian(0.54% Korean, 0.46% Indian, 0.37% Chinese, 0.36% Filipino, 0.21% Nepali, 0.16% Pakistani), and 0.4% Native American and Alaska Native. Baltimore_sentence_245

Across races, 4.2% of the population are of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin (1.63% Salvadoran, 1.21% Mexican, 0.63% Puerto Rican, 0.6% Honduran). Baltimore_sentence_246

Females made up 53.4% of the population. Baltimore_sentence_247

The median age was 35 years old, with 22.4% under 18 years old, 65.8% from 18 to 64 years old, and 11.8% 65 or older. Baltimore_sentence_248

Baltimore has one of the highest percentages of Africans of any city in the United States, the majority of whom are Nigerian. Baltimore_sentence_249

Nigerians make up roughly 5% of the population of Baltimore, and Yoruba is the third-most spoken language in Baltimore Public Schools. Baltimore_sentence_250

Baltimore also has one of the largest Caribbean American populations of any city, with the largest groups being Jamaicans, at roughly 1% of the population, and Trinidadians, at roughly 0.5% of the population. Baltimore_sentence_251

In 2005, approximately 30,778 people (6.5%) identified as gay, lesbian, or bisexual. Baltimore_sentence_252

In 2012, same-sex marriage in Maryland was legalized, going into effect January 1, 2013. Baltimore_sentence_253

Income and housing Baltimore_section_28

In 2009, the median household income was $42,241 and the median income per capita was $25,707, compared to the national median income of $53,889 per household and $28,930 per capita. Baltimore_sentence_254

In Baltimore, 23.7% of the population lived below the poverty line, compared to 13.5% nationwide. Baltimore_sentence_255

Housing in Baltimore is relatively inexpensive for large, coastal cities of its size. Baltimore_sentence_256

The median sale price for homes in Baltimore in 2012 was $95,000. Baltimore_sentence_257

Despite the housing collapse, and along with the national trends, Baltimore residents still face slowly increasing rent (up 3% in the summer of 2010). Baltimore_sentence_258

The homeless population in Baltimore is steadily increasing; it exceeded 4,000 people in 2011. Baltimore_sentence_259

The increase in the number of young homeless people was particularly severe. Baltimore_sentence_260

Life expectancy Baltimore_section_29

As of 2015, life expectancy in Baltimore was 74 to 75 years, compared to the U.S. average of 78 to 80. Baltimore_sentence_261

Fourteen neighborhoods had lower life expectancies than North Korea. Baltimore_sentence_262

The life expectancy in Downtown/Seton Hill was comparable to that of Yemen. Baltimore_sentence_263

Religion Baltimore_section_30

According to Pew Research Center, 25% of adults in Baltimore report affiliating with no religion. Baltimore_sentence_264

50% of the adult population of Baltimore are Protestants. Baltimore_sentence_265

Following Protestantism, Catholicism is the second largest religious affiliation, comprising 15% percent of the population, followed by Judaism (3%) and Muslim (2%). Baltimore_sentence_266

Around 1% identify with other Christian denominations. Baltimore_sentence_267

Languages Baltimore_section_31

As of 2010, 91% (526,705) of Baltimore residents five years old and older spoke only English at home. Baltimore_sentence_268

Close to 4% (21,661) spoke Spanish. Baltimore_sentence_269

Other languages, such as African languages, French, and Chinese are spoken by less than 1% of the population. Baltimore_sentence_270

Crime Baltimore_section_32

Main article: Crime in Baltimore Baltimore_sentence_271

Crime in Baltimore, generally concentrated in areas high in poverty, has been far above the national average for many years. Baltimore_sentence_272

Overall reported crime has dropped by 60% from the mid 1990s to the mid 2010s, but homicide rates remain high and exceed the national average. Baltimore_sentence_273

The worst years for crime in Baltimore overall were from 1993 to 1996; with 96,243 crimes reported in 1995. Baltimore_sentence_274

Baltimore's 344 homicides in 2015 represented the highest homicide rate in the city's recorded history—52.5 per 100,000 people, surpassing the record set in 1993—and the second-highest for U.S. cities behind St. Baltimore_sentence_275

Louis and ahead of Detroit. Baltimore_sentence_276

To put that in perspective, New York City, a city with a 2015 population of 8,491,079, recorded a total of 339 homicides in 2015. Baltimore_sentence_277

Baltimore had a 2015 population of 621,849; which means that in 2015 Baltimore had a homicide rate 14 times higher than New York City's. Baltimore_sentence_278

Of Baltimore's 344 homicides in 2015, 321 (93.3%) of the victims were African-American. Baltimore_sentence_279

Chicago, which saw 762 homicides in 2016 compared to Baltimore's 318, still had a homicide rate (27.2) that was half of Baltimore's because Chicago has a population four times greater than Baltimore's. Baltimore_sentence_280

As of 2018, the murder rate in Baltimore was higher than that of El Salvador, Guatemala, or Honduras. Baltimore_sentence_281

Drug use and deaths by drug use (particularly drugs used intravenously, such as heroin) are a related problem which has crippled Baltimore for decades. Baltimore_sentence_282

Among cities greater than 400,000, Baltimore ranked 2nd in its opiate drug death rate in the United States behind Dayton, Ohio. Baltimore_sentence_283

The DEA reported that 10% of Baltimore's population – about 64,000 people – are addicted to heroin. Baltimore_sentence_284

In 2011, Baltimore police reported 196 homicides, the lowest number in the city since 197 homicides in 1978 and far lower than the peak homicide count of 353 slayings in 1993. Baltimore_sentence_285

City leaders at the time credited a sustained focus on repeat violent offenders and increased community engagement for the continued drop, reflecting a nationwide decline in crime. Baltimore_sentence_286

On August 8, 2014, Baltimore's new youth curfew law went into effect. Baltimore_sentence_287

It prohibits unaccompanied children under age 14 from being on the streets after 9 p.m. and those aged 14–16 from being out after 10 p.m. during the week and 11 p.m. on weekends and during the summer. Baltimore_sentence_288

The goal is to keep children out of dangerous places and reduce crime. Baltimore_sentence_289

Crime in Baltimore reached another peak in 2015 when the year's tally of 344 homicides was second only to the record 353 in 1993, when Baltimore had about 100,000 more residents. Baltimore_sentence_290

The killings in 2015 were on pace with recent years in the early months of 2015 but skyrocketed after the unrest and rioting of late April. Baltimore_sentence_291

In five of the next eight months, killings topped 30–40 per month. Baltimore_sentence_292

Nearly 90 percent of 2015's homicides resulted from shootings, renewing calls for new gun laws. Baltimore_sentence_293

In 2016, according to annual crime statistics released by the Baltimore Police Department, there were 318 murders in the city. Baltimore_sentence_294

This total marked a 7.56 percent decline in homicides from 2015. Baltimore_sentence_295

In an interview with The Guardian, on November 2, 2017, David Simon, himself a former police reporter for The Baltimore Sun, ascribed the most recent surge in murders to the high-profile decision by Baltimore state's attorney, Marilyn Mosby, to charge six city police officers following the death of Freddie Gray after he fell into a coma while in police custody in April 2015. Baltimore_sentence_296

"What Mosby basically did was send a message to the Baltimore police department: 'I'm going to put you in jail for making a bad arrest.' Baltimore_sentence_297

So officers figured it out: 'I can go to jail for making the wrong arrest, so I'm not getting out of my car to clear a corner,' and that's exactly what happened post-Freddie Gray." Baltimore_sentence_298

In Baltimore, "arrest numbers have plummeted from more than 40,000 in 2014, the year before Gray's death and the subsequent charges against the officers, to about 18,000 [as of November 2017]. Baltimore_sentence_299

This happened even as homicides soared from 211 in 2014 to 344 in 2015 – an increase of 63%." Baltimore_sentence_300

Economy Baltimore_section_33

Once a predominantly industrial town, with an economic base focused on steel processing, shipping, auto manufacturing (General Motors Baltimore Assembly), and transportation, the city experienced deindustrialization which cost residents tens of thousands of low-skill, high-wage jobs. Baltimore_sentence_301

The city now relies on a low-wage service economy, which accounts for 31% of jobs in the city. Baltimore_sentence_302

Around the turn of the 20th century, Baltimore was the leading US manufacturer of rye whiskey and straw hats. Baltimore_sentence_303

It also led in refining of crude oil, brought to the city by pipeline from Pennsylvania. Baltimore_sentence_304

As of March 2018 the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics calculates Baltimore's unemployment rate at 5.8% while one quarter of Baltimore residents (and 37% of Baltimore children) live in poverty. Baltimore_sentence_305

The 2012 closure of a major steel plant at Sparrows Point is expected to have a further impact on employment and the local economy. Baltimore_sentence_306

The Census Bureau reported in 2013 that 207,000 workers commute into Baltimore city each day. Baltimore_sentence_307

Downtown Baltimore is the primary economic asset within Baltimore City and the region with 29.1 million square feet of office space. Baltimore_sentence_308

The tech sector is rapidly growing as the Baltimore metro ranks 8th in the CBRE Tech Talent Report among 50 U.S. metro areas for high growth rate and number of tech professionals. Baltimore_sentence_309

Forbes ranked Baltimore fourth among America's "new tech hot spots". Baltimore_sentence_310

The city is home to the Johns Hopkins Hospital. Baltimore_sentence_311

Other large companies in Baltimore include Under Armour, BRT Laboratories, Cordish Company, Legg Mason, McCormick & Company, T. Baltimore_sentence_312

Rowe Price, and Royal Farms. Baltimore_sentence_313

A sugar refinery owned by American Sugar Refining is one of Baltimore's cultural icons. Baltimore_sentence_314

Nonprofits based in Baltimore include Lutheran Services in America and Catholic Relief Services. Baltimore_sentence_315

Almost a quarter of the jobs in the Baltimore region were in science, technology, engineering and math as of mid 2013, in part attributed to the city's extensive undergraduate and graduate schools; maintenance and repair experts were included in this count. Baltimore_sentence_316

Port Baltimore_section_34

The center of international commerce for the region is the World Trade Center Baltimore. Baltimore_sentence_317

It houses the Maryland Port Administration and U.S. headquarters for major shipping lines. Baltimore_sentence_318

Baltimore is ranked 9th for total dollar value of cargo and 13th for cargo tonnage for all U.S. ports. Baltimore_sentence_319

In 2014, total cargo moving through the port totaled 29.5 million tons, down from 30.3 million tons in 2013. Baltimore_sentence_320

The value of cargo traveling through the port in 2014 came to $52.5 billion, down from $52.6 billion in 2013. Baltimore_sentence_321

The Port of Baltimore generates $3 billion in annual wages and salary, as well as supporting 14,630 direct jobs and 108,000 jobs connected to port work. Baltimore_sentence_322

In 2014, the port also generated more than $300 million in taxes. Baltimore_sentence_323

It serves over 50 ocean carriers making nearly 1,800 annual visits. Baltimore_sentence_324

Among all U.S. ports, Baltimore is first in handling automobiles, light trucks, farm and construction machinery; and imported forest products, aluminum, and sugar. Baltimore_sentence_325

The port is second in coal exports. Baltimore_sentence_326

The Port of Baltimore's cruise industry, which offers year-round trips on several lines supports over 500 jobs and brings in over $90 million to Maryland's economy annually. Baltimore_sentence_327

Growth at the port continues with the Maryland Port Administration plans to turn the southern tip of the former steel mill into a marine terminal, primarily for car and truck shipments, but also for anticipated new business coming to Baltimore after the completion of the Panama Canal expansion project. Baltimore_sentence_328

Tourism Baltimore_section_35

Baltimore's history and attractions have allowed the city to become a popular tourist destination on the East Coast. Baltimore_sentence_329

In 2014, the city hosted 24.5 million visitors, who spent $5.2 billion. Baltimore_sentence_330

The Baltimore Visitor Center, which is operated by Visit Baltimore, is located on Light Street in the Inner Harbor. Baltimore_sentence_331

Much of the city's tourism centers around the Inner Harbor, with the National Aquarium being Maryland's top tourist destination. Baltimore_sentence_332

Baltimore Harbor's restoration has made it "a city of boats," with several historic ships and other attractions on display and open for the public to visit. Baltimore_sentence_333

The USS Constellation, the last Civil War-era vessel afloat, is docked at the head of the Inner Harbor; the USS Torsk, a submarine that holds the Navy's record for dives (more than 10,000); and the Coast Guard cutter Taney, the last surviving U.S. warship that was in Pearl Harbor during the Japanese attack on December 7, 1941, and which engaged Japanese Zero aircraft during the battle. Baltimore_sentence_334

Also docked is the lightship Chesapeake, which for decades marked the entrance to Chesapeake Bay; and the Seven Foot Knoll Lighthouse, the oldest surviving screw-pile lighthouse on Chesapeake Bay, which once marked the mouth of the Patapsco River and the entrance to Baltimore. Baltimore_sentence_335

All of these attractions are owned and maintained by the Historic Ships in Baltimore organization. Baltimore_sentence_336

The Inner Harbor is also the home port of Pride of Baltimore II, the state of Maryland's "goodwill ambassador" ship, a reconstruction of a famous Baltimore Clipper ship. Baltimore_sentence_337

Other tourist destinations include sporting venues such as Oriole Park at Camden Yards, M&T Bank Stadium, and Pimlico Race Course, Fort McHenry, the Mount Vernon, Federal Hill, and Fells Point neighborhoods, Lexington Market, Horseshoe Casino, and museums such as the Walters Art Museum, the Baltimore Museum of Industry, the Babe Ruth Birthplace and Museum, the Maryland Science Center, and the B&O Railroad Museum. Baltimore_sentence_338

The Baltimore Convention Center is home to BronyCon, the world's largest convention for fans of My Little Pony: Friendship is Magic. Baltimore_sentence_339

The convention had over 6,300 attendees in 2017, and 10,011 attendees during its peak in 2015. Baltimore_sentence_340


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Culture Baltimore_section_36

Main article: Culture of Baltimore Baltimore_sentence_341

See also: List of people from Baltimore, Music of Baltimore, and List of museums in Baltimore Baltimore_sentence_342

Historically a working-class port town, Baltimore has sometimes been dubbed a "city of neighborhoods", with 72 designated historic districts traditionally occupied by distinct ethnic groups. Baltimore_sentence_343

Most notable today are three downtown areas along the port: the Inner Harbor, frequented by tourists due to its hotels, shops, and museums; Fells Point, once a favorite entertainment spot for sailors but now refurbished and gentrified (and featured in the movie Sleepless in Seattle); and Little Italy, located between the other two, where Baltimore's Italian-American community is based – and where U.S. House Speaker Nancy Pelosi grew up. Baltimore_sentence_344

Further inland, Mount Vernon is the traditional center of cultural and artistic life of the city; it is home to a distinctive Washington Monument, set atop a hill in a 19th-century urban square, that predates the more well-known monument in Washington, D.C. by several decades. Baltimore_sentence_345

Baltimore also has a significant German American population, and was the second largest port of immigration to the United States, behind Ellis Island in New York and New Jersey. Baltimore_sentence_346

Between 1820 and 1989, almost 2 million who were German, Polish, English, Irish, Russian, Lithuanian, French, Ukrainian, Czech, Greek and Italian came to Baltimore, most between the years 1861 to 1930. Baltimore_sentence_347

By 1913, when Baltimore was averaging forty thousand immigrants per year, World War I closed off the flow of immigrants. Baltimore_sentence_348

By 1970, Baltimore's heyday as an immigration center was a distant memory. Baltimore_sentence_349

There also was a Chinatown dating back to at least the 1880s which consisted of no more than 400 Chinese residents. Baltimore_sentence_350

A local Chinese-American association remains based there, but only one Chinese restaurant as of 2009. Baltimore_sentence_351

Baltimore has quite a history when it comes to making beer, an art that thrived in Baltimore from the 1800s to the 1950s with over 100 old breweries in the city's past. Baltimore_sentence_352

The best remaining example of that history is the old American Brewery Building on North Gay Street and the National Brewing Company building in the Brewer's Hill neighborhood. Baltimore_sentence_353

In the 1940s the National Brewing Company introduced the nation's first six-pack. Baltimore_sentence_354

National's two most prominent brands, were National Bohemian Beer colloquially "Natty Boh" and Colt 45. Baltimore_sentence_355

Listed on the Pabst website as a "Fun Fact", Colt 45 was named after running back #45 Jerry Hill of the 1963 Baltimore Colts and not the .45 caliber handgun ammunition round. Baltimore_sentence_356

Both brands are still made today, albeit outside of Maryland, and served all around the Baltimore area at bars, as well as Orioles and Ravens games. Baltimore_sentence_357

The Natty Boh logo appears on all cans, bottles, and packaging; and merchandise featuring him can still easily be found in shops in Maryland, including several in Fells Point. Baltimore_sentence_358

Each year the Artscape takes place in the city in the Bolton Hill neighborhood, due to its proximity to Maryland Institute College of Art. Baltimore_sentence_359

Artscape styles itself as the "largest free arts festival in America". Baltimore_sentence_360

Each May, the Maryland Film Festival takes place in Baltimore, using all five screens of the historic Charles Theatre as its anchor venue. Baltimore_sentence_361

Many movies and television shows have been filmed in Baltimore. Baltimore_sentence_362

The Wire was set and filmed in Baltimore. Baltimore_sentence_363

House of Cards and Veep are set in Washington, D.C. but filmed in Baltimore. Baltimore_sentence_364

Baltimore has cultural museums in many areas of study. Baltimore_sentence_365

The Baltimore Museum of Art, and the Walters Art Museum are internationally renowned for its collection of art. Baltimore_sentence_366

The Baltimore Museum of Art has the largest holding of works by Henri Matisse in the world. Baltimore_sentence_367

The American Visionary Art Museum has been designated by Congress as America's national museum for visionary art. Baltimore_sentence_368

The National Great Blacks In Wax Museum is the first African American wax museum in the country, featuring more than 150 life-size and lifelike wax figures. Baltimore_sentence_369

Cuisine Baltimore_section_37

Baltimore is known for its Maryland blue crabs, crab cake, Old Bay Seasoning, pit beef, and the "chicken box." Baltimore_sentence_370

The city has many restaurants in or around the Inner Harbor. Baltimore_sentence_371

The most known and acclaimed are the Charleston, Woodberry Kitchen, and the Charm City Cakes bakery featured on the Food Network's Ace of Cakes. Baltimore_sentence_372

The Little Italy neighborhood's biggest draw is the food. Baltimore_sentence_373

Fells Point also is a foodie neighborhood for tourists and locals and is where the oldest continuously running tavern in the country, "The Horse You Came in on Saloon," is located. Baltimore_sentence_374

Many of the city's upscale restaurants can be found in Harbor East. Baltimore_sentence_375

Five public markets are located across the city. Baltimore_sentence_376

The Baltimore Public Market System is the oldest continuously operating public market system in the United States. Baltimore_sentence_377

Lexington Market is one of the longest-running markets in the world and longest running in the country, having been around since 1782. Baltimore_sentence_378

The market continues to stand at its original site. Baltimore_sentence_379

Baltimore is the last place in America where one can still find arabbers, vendors who sell fresh fruits and vegetables from a horse-drawn cart that goes up and down neighborhood streets. Baltimore_sentence_380

Food- and drink-rating site Zagat ranked Baltimore second in a list of the 17 best food cities in the country in 2015. Baltimore_sentence_381

Local dialect Baltimore_section_38

Main article: Baltimore dialect Baltimore_sentence_382

Baltimore city, along with its surrounding regions, is home to a unique local dialect known as the Baltimore dialect. Baltimore_sentence_383

It is part of the larger Mid-Atlantic American English group and is noted to be very similar to the Philadelphia dialect, albeit with more southern influences. Baltimore_sentence_384

The so-called "Bawlmerese" accent is known for its characteristic pronunciation of its long "o" vowel, in which an "eh" sound is added before the long "o" sound (/oʊ/ shifts to [ɘʊ], or even [eʊ]). Baltimore_sentence_385

It also adopts Philadelphia's pattern of the short "a" sound, such that the tensed vowel in words like "bath" or "ask" does not match the more relaxed one in "sad" or "act". Baltimore_sentence_386

Baltimore native John Waters parodies the city and its dialect extensively in his films. Baltimore_sentence_387

Most of them are filmed and/or set in Baltimore, including the 1972 cult classic Pink Flamingos, as well as Hairspray and its Broadway musical remake. Baltimore_sentence_388

See also: List of films shot in Baltimore Baltimore_sentence_389

Performing arts Baltimore_section_39

Baltimore has three state-designated arts and entertainment (A & E) districts. Baltimore_sentence_390

The Station North Arts and Entertainment District, Highlandtown Arts District, and the Bromo Arts & Entertainment District. Baltimore_sentence_391

The Baltimore Office of Promotion & The Arts, a non-profit organization, produces events and arts programs as well as manages several facilities. Baltimore_sentence_392

It is the official Baltimore City Arts Council. Baltimore_sentence_393

BOPA coordinates Baltimore's major events including New Year's Eve and July 4 celebrations at the Inner Harbor, Artscape which is America's largest free arts festival, Baltimore Book Festival, Baltimore Farmers' Market & Bazaar, School 33 Art Center's Open Studio Tour and the Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Baltimore_sentence_394

Parade. Baltimore_sentence_395

The Baltimore Symphony Orchestra is an internationally renowned orchestra, founded in 1916 as a publicly funded municipal organization. Baltimore_sentence_396

The current Music Director is Marin Alsop, a protégé of Leonard Bernstein. Baltimore_sentence_397

Centerstage is the premier theater company in the city and a regionally well-respected group. Baltimore_sentence_398

The Lyric Opera House is the home of Lyric Opera Baltimore, which operates there as part of the Patricia and Arthur Modell Performing Arts Center. Baltimore_sentence_399

The Baltimore Consort has been a leading early music ensemble for over twenty-five years. Baltimore_sentence_400

The France-Merrick Performing Arts Center, home of the restored Thomas W. Lamb-designed Hippodrome Theatre, has afforded Baltimore the opportunity to become a major regional player in the area of touring Broadway and other performing arts presentations. Baltimore_sentence_401

Renovating Baltimore's historic theatres have become widespread throughout the city such as the Everyman, Centre, Senator and most recent Parkway theatre. Baltimore_sentence_402

Other buildings have been reused such as the former Mercantile Deposit and Trust Company bank building. Baltimore_sentence_403

It is now the Chesapeake Shakespeare Company Theater. Baltimore_sentence_404

Baltimore also boasts a wide array of professional (non-touring) and community theater groups. Baltimore_sentence_405

Aside from Center Stage, resident troupes in the city include The Vagabond Players, the oldest continuously operating community theater group in the country, Everyman Theatre, Single Carrot Theatre, and Baltimore Theatre Festival. Baltimore_sentence_406

Community theaters in the city include Fells Point Community Theatre and the Arena Players Inc., which is the nation's oldest continuously operating African American community theater. Baltimore_sentence_407

In 2009, the Baltimore Rock Opera Society, an all-volunteer theatrical company, launched its first production. Baltimore_sentence_408

Baltimore is home to the Pride of Baltimore Chorus, a three-time international silver medalist women's chorus, affiliated with Sweet Adelines International. Baltimore_sentence_409

The Maryland State Boychoir is located in the northeastern Baltimore neighborhood of Mayfield. Baltimore_sentence_410

Baltimore is the home of non-profit chamber music organization Vivre Musicale. Baltimore_sentence_411

VM won a 2011–2012 award for Adventurous Programming from the American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers and Chamber Music America. Baltimore_sentence_412

The Peabody Institute, located in the Mount Vernon neighborhood, is the oldest conservatory of music in the United States. Baltimore_sentence_413

Established in 1857, it is one of the most prestigious in the world, along with Juilliard, Eastman, and the Curtis Institute. Baltimore_sentence_414

The Morgan State University Choir is also one of the nation's most prestigious university choral ensembles. Baltimore_sentence_415

The city is home to the Baltimore School for the Arts, a public high school in the Mount Vernon neighborhood of Baltimore. Baltimore_sentence_416

The institution is nationally recognized for its success in preparation for students entering music (vocal/instrumental), theatre (acting/theater production), dance, and visual arts. Baltimore_sentence_417

Sports Baltimore_section_40

Main article: Sports in Baltimore Baltimore_sentence_418

Baseball Baltimore_section_41

Further information: List of World Series champions and American League Championship Series Baltimore_sentence_419

Baltimore has a long and storied baseball history, including its distinction as the birthplace of Babe Ruth in 1895. Baltimore_sentence_420

The original 19th century Baltimore Orioles were one of the most successful early franchises, featuring numerous hall of famers during its years from 1882 to 1899. Baltimore_sentence_421

As one of the eight inaugural American League franchises, the Baltimore Orioles played in the AL during the 1901 and 1902 seasons. Baltimore_sentence_422

The team moved to New York City before the 1903 season and was renamed the New York Highlanders, which later became the New York Yankees. Baltimore_sentence_423

Ruth played for the minor league Baltimore Orioles team, which was active from 1903 to 1914. Baltimore_sentence_424

After playing one season in 1915 as the Richmond Climbers, the team returned the following year to Baltimore, where it played as the Orioles until 1953. Baltimore_sentence_425

The team currently known as the Baltimore Orioles has represented Major League Baseball locally since 1954 when the St. Louis Browns moved to the city of Baltimore. Baltimore_sentence_426

The Orioles advanced to the World Series in 1966, 1969, 1970, 1971, 1979 and 1983, winning three times (1966, 1970 and 1983), while making the playoffs all but one year (1972) from 1969 through 1974. Baltimore_sentence_427

In 1995, local player (and later Hall of Famer) Cal Ripken, Jr. broke Lou Gehrig's streak of 2,130 consecutive games played, for which Ripken was named Sportsman of the Year by Sports Illustrated magazine. Baltimore_sentence_428

Six former Orioles players, including Ripken (2007), and two of the team's managers have been inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame. Baltimore_sentence_429

Since 1992, the Orioles' home ballpark has been Oriole Park at Camden Yards, which has been hailed as one of the league's best since it opened. Baltimore_sentence_430

Football Baltimore_section_42

Further information: History of the Baltimore Colts and History of the Baltimore Ravens Baltimore_sentence_431

Prior to an NFL team moving to Baltimore, there had been several attempts at a professional football team prior to the 1950s. Baltimore_sentence_432

Most were minor league or semi-professional teams. Baltimore_sentence_433

The first major league to base a team in Baltimore was the All-America Football Conference (AAFC), which had a team named the Baltimore Colts. Baltimore_sentence_434

The AAFC Colts played for three seasons in the AAFC (1947, 1948, and 1949), and when the AAFC folded following the 1949 season, moved to the NFL for a single year (1950) before going bankrupt. Baltimore_sentence_435

Three years later, the NFL's Dallas Texans would itself fold. Baltimore_sentence_436

Its assets and player contracts purchased by an ownership team headed by Baltimore businessman Carroll Rosenbloom, who moved the team to Baltimore, establishing a new team also named the Baltimore Colts. Baltimore_sentence_437

During the 1950s and 1960s, the Colts were one of the NFLs more successful franchises, led by Pro Football Hall of Fame quarterback Johnny Unitas who set a then-record of 47 consecutive games with a touchdown pass. Baltimore_sentence_438

The Colts advanced to the NFL Championship twice (1958 & 1959) and Super Bowl twice (1969 & 1971), winning all except Super Bowl III in 1969. Baltimore_sentence_439

After the 1983 season, the team left Baltimore for Indianapolis in 1984, where they became the Indianapolis Colts. Baltimore_sentence_440

The NFL returned to Baltimore when the former Cleveland Browns moved to Baltimore to become the Baltimore Ravens in 1996. Baltimore_sentence_441

Since then, the Ravens won a Super Bowl championship in 2000 and 2012, six AFC North division championships (2003, 2006, 2011, 2012, 2018, and 2019), and appeared in four AFC Championship Games (2000, 2008, 2011 and 2012). Baltimore_sentence_442

Baltimore also hosted a Canadian Football League franchise, the Baltimore Stallions for the 1994 and 1995 seasons. Baltimore_sentence_443

Following the 1995 season, and ultimate end to the Canadian Football League in the United States experiment, the team was sold and relocated to Montreal. Baltimore_sentence_444

Other teams and events Baltimore_section_43

The first professional sports organization in the United States, The Maryland Jockey Club, was formed in Baltimore in 1743. Baltimore_sentence_445

Preakness Stakes, the second race in the United States Triple Crown of Thoroughbred Racing, has been held every May at Pimlico Race Course in Baltimore since 1873. Baltimore_sentence_446

College lacrosse is a common sport in the spring, as the Johns Hopkins Blue Jays men's lacrosse team has won 44 national championships, the most of any program in history. Baltimore_sentence_447

In addition, Loyola University won its first men's NCAA lacrosse championship in 2012. Baltimore_sentence_448

The Baltimore Blast are a professional arena soccer team that play in the Major Arena Soccer League at the SECU Arena on the campus of Towson University. Baltimore_sentence_449

The Blast have won nine championships in various leagues, including the MASL. Baltimore_sentence_450

A previous entity of the Blast played in the Major Indoor Soccer League from 1980 to 1992, winning one championship. Baltimore_sentence_451

The FC Baltimore 1729 is a semi-professional soccer club playing for NPSL league, with the goal of bringing a community-oriented competitive soccer experience to the city of Baltimore. Baltimore_sentence_452

Their inaugural season started on May 11, 2018, and they play home games at CCBC Essex Field. Baltimore_sentence_453

The Baltimore Blues are a semi-professional rugby league club which began competition in the USA Rugby League in 2012. Baltimore_sentence_454

The Baltimore Bohemians are an American soccer club. Baltimore_sentence_455

They compete in the USL Premier Development League, the fourth tier of the American Soccer Pyramid. Baltimore_sentence_456

Their inaugural season started in the spring of 2012. Baltimore_sentence_457

The Baltimore Grand Prix debuted along the streets of the Inner Harbor section of the city's downtown on September 2–4, 2011. Baltimore_sentence_458

The event played host to the American Le Mans Series on Saturday and the IndyCar Series on Sunday. Baltimore_sentence_459

Support races from smaller series were also held, including Indy Lights. Baltimore_sentence_460

After three consecutive years, on September 13, 2013, it was announced that the event would not be held in 2014 or 2015 due to scheduling conflicts. Baltimore_sentence_461

The athletic equipment company Under Armour is also based out of Baltimore. Baltimore_sentence_462

Founded in 1996 by Kevin Plank, a University of Maryland alumnus, the company's headquarters are located in Tide Point, adjacent to Fort McHenry and the Domino Sugar factory. Baltimore_sentence_463

The Baltimore Marathon is the flagship race of several races. Baltimore_sentence_464

The marathon begins at the Camden Yards sports complex and travels through many diverse neighborhoods of Baltimore, including the scenic Inner Harbor waterfront area, historic Federal Hill, Fells Point, and Canton, Baltimore. Baltimore_sentence_465

The race then proceeds to other important focal points of the city such as Patterson Park, Clifton Park, Lake Montebello, the Charles Village neighborhood and the western edge of downtown. Baltimore_sentence_466

After winding through 42.195 kilometres (26.219 mi) of Baltimore, the race ends at virtually the same point at which it starts. Baltimore_sentence_467

The Baltimore Brigade were an Arena Football League team based in Baltimore that from 2017 to 2019 played at Royal Farms Arena. Baltimore_sentence_468

The team ceased operations along with the league in 2019. Baltimore_sentence_469

Parks and recreation Baltimore_section_44

The City of Baltimore boasts over 4,900 acres (1,983 ha) of parkland. Baltimore_sentence_470

The Baltimore City Department of Recreation and Parks manages the majority of parks and recreational facilities in the city including Patterson Park, Federal Hill Park, and Druid Hill Park. Baltimore_sentence_471

The city is also home to Fort McHenry National Monument and Historic Shrine, a coastal star-shaped fort best known for its role in the War of 1812. Baltimore_sentence_472

As of 2015, The Trust for Public Land, a national land conservation organization, ranks Baltimore 40th among the 75 largest U.S. cities. Baltimore_sentence_473

Politics and government Baltimore_section_45

Baltimore is an independent city, and not part of any county. Baltimore_sentence_474

For most governmental purposes under Maryland law, Baltimore City is treated as a county-level entity. Baltimore_sentence_475

The United States Census Bureau uses counties as the basic unit for presentation of statistical information in the United States, and treats Baltimore as a county equivalent for those purposes. Baltimore_sentence_476

Baltimore has been a Democratic stronghold for over 150 years, with Democrats dominating every level of government. Baltimore_sentence_477

In virtually all elections, the Democratic primary is the real contest. Baltimore_sentence_478

No Republican has been elected to the City Council since 1939, or as mayor since 1963. Baltimore_sentence_479

The city hosted the first six Democratic National Conventions, from 1832 through 1852, and hosted the DNC again in 1860, 1872, and 1912. Baltimore_sentence_480

City government Baltimore_section_46

Mayor Baltimore_section_47

For a full list of mayors, see List of Baltimore Mayors. Baltimore_sentence_481

Brandon Scott is the current mayor of Baltimore. Baltimore_sentence_482

He was elected in 2020 and took office on December 8, 2020. Baltimore_sentence_483

Scott succeeded Jack Young who had been mayor since May 2, 2019 upon the resignation of Catherine Pugh. Baltimore_sentence_484

Prior to Pugh's official resignation, Young was the president of the Baltimore City Council and had been the acting mayor since April 2. Baltimore_sentence_485

Catherine Pugh became the Democratic nominee for mayor in 2016 and won the mayoral election in 2016 with 57.1% of the vote; Pugh took office as mayor on December 6, 2016. Baltimore_sentence_486

Pugh took a leave of absence in April 2019 due to health concerns, then officially resigned from office on May 2. Baltimore_sentence_487

The resignation coincided with a scandal over a "self-dealing" book-sales arrangement. Baltimore_sentence_488

Stephanie Rawlings-Blake assumed the office of Mayor on February 4, 2010, when predecessor Dixon's resignation became effective. Baltimore_sentence_489

Rawlings-Blake had been serving as City Council President at the time. Baltimore_sentence_490

She was elected to a full term in 2011, defeating Pugh in the primary election and receiving 84% of the vote. Baltimore_sentence_491

Sheila Dixon became the first female mayor of Baltimore on January 17, 2007. Baltimore_sentence_492

As the former City Council President, she assumed the office of Mayor when former Mayor Martin O'Malley took office as Governor of Maryland. Baltimore_sentence_493

On November 6, 2007, Dixon won the Baltimore mayoral election. Baltimore_sentence_494

Mayor Dixon's administration ended less than three years after her election, the result of a criminal investigation that began in 2006 while she was still City Council President. Baltimore_sentence_495

She was convicted on a single misdemeanor charge of embezzlement on December 1, 2009. Baltimore_sentence_496

A month later, Dixon made an Alford plea to a perjury charge and agreed to resign from office; Maryland, like most states, does not allow convicted felons to hold office. Baltimore_sentence_497

Baltimore City Council Baltimore_section_48

Grassroots pressure for reform, voiced as Question P, restructured the city council in November 2002, against the will of the mayor, the council president, and the majority of the council. Baltimore_sentence_498

A coalition of union and community groups, organized by the Association of Community Organizations for Reform Now (ACORN), backed the effort. Baltimore_sentence_499

The Baltimore City Council is now made up of 14 single-member districts and one elected at-large council president. Baltimore_sentence_500

Bernard C. "Jack" Young has been the council president since February 2010, when he was unanimously elected by the other council members to replace Stephanie Rawlings-Blake, who had become mayor. Baltimore_sentence_501

Edward Reisinger, the 10th district representative, is the council's current vice president. Baltimore_sentence_502

Law enforcement Baltimore_section_49

The Baltimore City Police Department, founded 1784 as a "Night City Watch" and day Constables system and later reorganized as a City Department in 1853, with a following reorganization under State of Maryland supervision in 1859, with appointments made by the Governor of Maryland after a disturbing period of civic and elections violence with riots in the later part of the decade, is the current primary law enforcement agency serving the citizens of the City of Baltimore. Baltimore_sentence_503

Campus and building security for the city's public schools is provided by the Baltimore City Public Schools Police, established in the 1970s. Baltimore_sentence_504

In the period of 2011–2015, 120 lawsuits were brought against Baltimore police for alleged brutality and misconduct. Baltimore_sentence_505

The Freddie Gray settlement of $6.4 million exceeds the combined total settlements of the 120 lawsuits, as state law caps such payments. Baltimore_sentence_506

The Maryland Transportation Authority Police under the Maryland Department of Transportation, (originally established as the "Baltimore Harbor Tunnel Police" when opened in 1957) is the primary law enforcement agency on the Fort McHenry Tunnel Thruway (Interstate 95), the Baltimore Harbor Tunnel Thruway (Interstate 895), which go under the Northwest Branch of the Patapsco River, and Interstate 395, which has three ramp bridges crossing the Middle Branch of the Patapsco River which are under MdTA jurisdiction, the Baltimore-Washington International Airport, (BWI) and have limited concurrent jurisdiction with the Baltimore City Police Department under a "memorandum of understanding". Baltimore_sentence_507

Law enforcement on the fleet of transit buses and transit rail systems serving Baltimore is the responsibility of the Maryland Transit Administration Police, which is part of the Maryland Transit Administration of the state Department of Transportation. Baltimore_sentence_508

The MTA Police also share jurisdiction authority with the Baltimore City Police, governed by a memorandum of understanding. Baltimore_sentence_509

As the enforcement arm of the Baltimore circuit and district court system, the Baltimore City Sheriff's Office, created by state constitutional amendment in 1844, is responsible for the security of city courthouses and property, service of court-ordered writs, protective and peace orders, warrants, tax levies, prisoner transportation and traffic enforcement. Baltimore_sentence_510

Deputy Sheriffs are sworn law enforcement officials, with full arrest authority granted by the constitution of Maryland, the Maryland Police and Correctional Training Commission and the Sheriff of the City of Baltimore. Baltimore_sentence_511

The United States Coast Guard, operating out of their shipyard and facility (since 1899) at Arundel Cove on Curtis Creek, (off Pennington Avenue extending to Hawkins Point Road/Fort Smallwood Road) in the Curtis Bay section of southern Baltimore City and adjacent northern Anne Arundel County. Baltimore_sentence_512

The U.S.C.G. Baltimore_sentence_513

also operates and maintains a presence on Baltimore and Maryland waterways in the Patapsco River and Chesapeake Bay. Baltimore_sentence_514

"Sector Baltimore" is responsible for commanding law enforcement and search & rescue units as well as aids to navigation. Baltimore_sentence_515

Baltimore City Fire Department Baltimore_section_50

Main article: Baltimore City Fire Department Baltimore_sentence_516

The city of Baltimore is protected by the over 1,800 professional firefighters of the Baltimore City Fire Department (BCFD), which was founded in December 1858 and began operating the following year. Baltimore_sentence_517

Replacing several warring independent volunteer companies since the 1770s and the confusion resulting from a riot involving the "Know-Nothing" political party two years before, the establishment of a unified professional fire fighting force was a major advance in urban governance. Baltimore_sentence_518

The BCFD operates out of 37 fire stations located throughout the city and has a long history and sets of traditions in its various houses and divisions. Baltimore_sentence_519

State government Baltimore_section_51

See also: Baltimore City Delegation Baltimore_sentence_520

Since the legislative redistricting in 2002, Baltimore has had six legislative districts located entirely within its boundaries, giving the city six seats in the 47-member Maryland Senate and 18 in the 141-member Maryland House of Delegates. Baltimore_sentence_521

During the previous 10-year period, Baltimore had four legislative districts within the city limits, but four others overlapped the Baltimore County line. Baltimore_sentence_522

As of January 2011, all of Baltimore's state senators and delegates were Democrats. Baltimore_sentence_523

State agencies Baltimore_section_52

See also: List of state agencies headquartered in Baltimore Baltimore_sentence_524

Federal government Baltimore_section_53

Further information: Maryland's 2nd congressional district, Maryland's 3rd congressional district, and Maryland's 7th congressional district Baltimore_sentence_525

See also: United States Senate election in Maryland, 2006 Baltimore_sentence_526

Three of the state's eight congressional districts include portions of Baltimore: the 2nd, represented by Dutch Ruppersberger; the 3rd, represented by John Sarbanes; and the 7th, represented by Kweisi Mfume. Baltimore_sentence_527

All three are Democrats; a Republican has not represented a significant portion of Baltimore in Congress since John Boynton Philip Clayton Hill represented the 3rd District in 1927, and has not represented any of Baltimore since the Eastern Shore-based 1st District lost its share of Baltimore after the 2000 census; it was represented by Republican Wayne Gilchrest at the time. Baltimore_sentence_528

Maryland's senior United States Senator, Ben Cardin, is from Baltimore. Baltimore_sentence_529

He is one of three people in the last four decades to have represented the 3rd District before being elected to the United States Senate. Baltimore_sentence_530

Paul Sarbanes represented the 3rd from 1971 until 1977, when he was elected to the first of five terms in the Senate. Baltimore_sentence_531

Sarbanes was succeeded by Barbara Mikulski, who represented the 3rd from 1977 to 1987. Baltimore_sentence_532

Mikulski was succeeded by Cardin, who held the seat until handing it to John Sarbanes upon his election to the Senate in 2007. Baltimore_sentence_533

The Postal Service's Baltimore Main Post Office is located at 900 East Fayette Street in the Jonestown area. Baltimore_sentence_534

The national headquarters for the United States Social Security Administration is located in Woodlawn, just outside of Baltimore. Baltimore_sentence_535

Education Baltimore_section_54

See also: List of high schools in Maryland Baltimore_sentence_536

Colleges and universities Baltimore_section_55

Baltimore is the home of numerous places of higher learning, both public and private. Baltimore_sentence_537

100,000 college students from around the country attend Baltimore City's 12 accredited two-year or four-year colleges and universities. Baltimore_sentence_538

Among them are: Baltimore_sentence_539

Private Baltimore_section_56


Public Baltimore_section_57


Primary and secondary schools Baltimore_section_58

The city's public schools are managed by Baltimore City Public Schools and include schools that have been well known in the area: Carver Vocational-Technical High School, the first African American vocational high school and center that was established in the state of Maryland; Digital Harbor High School, one of the secondary schools that emphasizes information technology; Lake Clifton Eastern High School, which is the largest school campus in Baltimore City of physical size; the historic Frederick Douglass High School, which is the second oldest African American high school in the United States; Baltimore City College, the third oldest public high school in the country; and Western High School, the oldest public all-girls school in the nation. Baltimore_sentence_540

Baltimore City College (also known as "City") and Baltimore Polytechnic Institute (also known as "Poly") share the nation's second-oldest high school football rivalry. Baltimore_sentence_541

See also: List of private and parochial schools in Baltimore Baltimore_sentence_542

Transportation Baltimore_section_59

The city of Baltimore has a higher-than-average percentage of households without a car. Baltimore_sentence_543

In 2015, 30.7 percent of Baltimore households lacked a car, which decreased slightly to 28.9 percent in 2016. Baltimore_sentence_544

The national average was 8.7 percent in 2016. Baltimore_sentence_545

Baltimore averaged 1.65 cars per household in 2016, compared to a national average of 1.8. Baltimore_sentence_546

Roads and highways Baltimore_section_60

Baltimore's highway growth has done much to influence the development of the city and its suburbs. Baltimore_sentence_547

The first limited-access highway serving Baltimore was the Baltimore–Washington Parkway, which opened in stages between 1950 and 1954. Baltimore_sentence_548

Maintenance of it is split: the half closest to Baltimore is maintained by the state of Maryland, and the half closest to Washington by the National Park Service. Baltimore_sentence_549

Trucks are only permitted to use the northern part of the parkway. Baltimore_sentence_550

Trucks (tractor-trailers) continued to use U.S. Baltimore_sentence_551

Route 1 (US 1) until Interstate 95 (I-95) between Baltimore and Washington opened in 1971. Baltimore_sentence_552

The Interstate highways serving Baltimore are I-70, I-83 (the Jones Falls Expressway), I-95, I-395, I-695 (the Baltimore Beltway), I-795 (the Northwest Expressway), I-895 (the Harbor Tunnel Thruway), and I-97. Baltimore_sentence_553

The city's mainline Interstate highways—I-95, I-83, and I-70—do not directly connect to each other, and in the case of I-70 end at a park and ride lot just inside the city limits, because of freeway revolts in Baltimore. Baltimore_sentence_554

These revolts were led primarily by Barbara Mikulski, a former United States senator for Maryland, which resulted in the abandonment of the original plan. Baltimore_sentence_555

There are two tunnels traversing Baltimore Harbor within the city limits: the four-bore Fort McHenry Tunnel (opened in 1985 and serving I-95) and the two-bore Harbor Tunnel (opened in 1957 and serving I-895). Baltimore_sentence_556

The Baltimore Beltway crosses south of Baltimore Harbor over the Francis Scott Key Bridge. Baltimore_sentence_557

The first interstate highway built in Baltimore was I-83, called the Jones Falls Expressway (first portion built in the early 1960s). Baltimore_sentence_558

Running from the downtown toward the northwest (NNW), it was built through a natural corridor, which meant that no residents or housing were directly affected. Baltimore_sentence_559

A planned section from what is now its southern terminus to I-95 was abandoned. Baltimore_sentence_560

Its route through parkland received criticism. Baltimore_sentence_561

Planning for the Baltimore Beltway antedates the creation of the Interstate Highway System. Baltimore_sentence_562

The first portion completed was a small strip connecting the two sections of I-83, the Baltimore-Harrisburg Expressway and the Jones Falls Expressway. Baltimore_sentence_563

The only U.S. Baltimore_sentence_564

Highways in the city are US 1, which bypasses downtown, and US 40, which crosses downtown from east to west. Baltimore_sentence_565

Both run along major surface streets; however, US 40 utilizes a small section of a freeway cancelled in the 1970s in the west side of the city originally intended for Interstate 170. Baltimore_sentence_566

State routes in the city also travel along surface streets, with the exception of Maryland Route 295, which carries the Baltimore–Washington Parkway. Baltimore_sentence_567

The Baltimore City Department of Transportation (BCDOT) is responsible for several functions of the road transportation system in Baltimore, including repairing roads, sidewalks, and alleys; road signs; street lights; and managing the flow of transportation systems. Baltimore_sentence_568

In addition, the agency is in charge of vehicle towing and traffic cameras. Baltimore_sentence_569

BCDOT maintains all streets within the city of Baltimore. Baltimore_sentence_570

These include all streets that are marked as state and U.S. highways as well as the portions of I-83 and I-70 within the city limits. Baltimore_sentence_571

The only highways within the city that are not maintained by BCDOT are I-95, I-395, I-695, and I-895; those four highways are maintained by the Maryland Transportation Authority. Baltimore_sentence_572

Transit systems Baltimore_section_61

Public transit Baltimore_section_62

Public transit in Baltimore is mostly provided by the Maryland Transit Administration (abbreviated "MTA Maryland") and Charm City Circulator. Baltimore_sentence_573

MTA Maryland operates a comprehensive bus network, including many local, express, and commuter buses, a light rail network connecting Hunt Valley in the north to BWI Airport and Cromwell (Glen Burnie) in the south, and a subway line between Owings Mills and Johns Hopkins Hospital. Baltimore_sentence_574

A proposed rail line, known as the Red Line, which would link the Social Security Administration to Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center and perhaps the Canton and Dundalk communities, was cancelled as of June 2015 by Governor Larry Hogan; a proposal to extend Baltimore's existing subway line to Morgan State University, known as the Green Line, is in the planning stages. Baltimore_sentence_575

The Charm City Circulator (CCC), a shuttle bus service operated by Veolia Transportation for the Baltimore Department of Transportation, began operating in the downtown area in January 2010. Baltimore_sentence_576

Funded partly by a 16 percent increase in the city's parking fees, the circulator provides free bus service seven days a week, picking up passengers every 15 minutes at designated stops during service hours. Baltimore_sentence_577

The CCC's first bus line, the Orange route, travels between Hollins Market and Harbor East. Baltimore_sentence_578

Its Purple route, launched June 7, 2010, operates between Fort Avenue and 33rd St. Baltimore_sentence_579

The Green route runs between Johns Hopkins and City Hall. Baltimore_sentence_580

The Charm City Circulator operates a fleet of diesel and hybrid vehicles built by DesignLine, Orion, and Van Hool. Baltimore_sentence_581

Baltimore also has a water taxi service, operated by Baltimore Water Taxi. Baltimore_sentence_582

The water taxi's six routes provide service throughout the city's harbor, and was purchased by Under Armour CEO Kevin Plank's Sagamore Ventures in 2016. Baltimore_sentence_583

In June 2017, The BaltimoreLink started operating; it is the redesign of the region's initial bus system. Baltimore_sentence_584

The BaltimoreLink runs through downtown Baltimore every 10 minutes via color-coded, high-frequency CityLink routes. Baltimore_sentence_585

Intercity rail Baltimore_section_63

Baltimore is a top destination for Amtrak along the Northeast Corridor. Baltimore_sentence_586

Baltimore's Penn Station is one of the busiest in the country. Baltimore_sentence_587

In FY 2014, Penn Station was ranked the seventh-busiest rail station in the United States by number of passengers served each year. Baltimore_sentence_588

The building sits on a raised "island" of sorts between two open trenches, one for the Jones Falls Expressway and the other for the tracks of the Northeast Corridor (NEC). Baltimore_sentence_589

The NEC approaches from the south through the two-track, 7,660 feet (2,330 m) Baltimore and Potomac Tunnel, which opened in 1873 and whose 30 mph (50 km/h) limit, sharp curves, and steep grades make it one of the NEC's worst bottlenecks. Baltimore_sentence_590

The NEC's northern approach is the 1873 Union Tunnel, which has one single-track bore and one double-track bore. Baltimore_sentence_591

Just outside the city, Baltimore/Washington International (BWI) Thurgood Marshall Airport Rail Station is another stop. Baltimore_sentence_592

Amtrak's Acela Express, Palmetto, Carolinian, Silver Star, Silver Meteor, Vermonter, Crescent, and Northeast Regional trains are the scheduled passenger train services that stop in the city. Baltimore_sentence_593

Additionally, MARC commuter rail service connects the city's two main intercity rail stations, Camden Station and Penn Station, with Washington, D.C.'s [[Union_Station_(Washington,_D.C. Baltimore_sentence_594

)|Union Station]] as well as stops in between. Baltimore_sentence_595

The MARC consists of 3 lines; the Brunswick, Camden and Penn. Baltimore_sentence_596

On December 7, 2013 the Penn Line began weekend service. Baltimore_sentence_597

Airports Baltimore_section_64

Baltimore is served by two airports, both operated by the Maryland Aviation Administration, which is part of the Maryland Department of Transportation. Baltimore_sentence_598

Baltimore–Washington International Thurgood Marshall Airport, generally known as "BWI," lies about 10 miles (16 km) to the south of Baltimore in neighboring Anne Arundel County. Baltimore_sentence_599

The airport is named after Thurgood Marshall, a Baltimore native who was the first African American to serve on the Supreme Court of the United States. Baltimore_sentence_600

In terms of passenger traffic, BWI is the 22nd busiest airport in the United States. Baltimore_sentence_601

As of calendar year 2014, BWI is the largest, by passenger count, of three major airports serving the Baltimore–Washington Metropolitan Area. Baltimore_sentence_602

It is accessible by I-95 and the Baltimore–Washington Parkway via Interstate 195, the Baltimore Light Rail, and Amtrak and MARC Train at BWI Rail Station. Baltimore_sentence_603

Baltimore is also served by Martin State Airport, a general aviation facility, to the northeast in Baltimore County. Baltimore_sentence_604

Martin State Airport is linked to downtown Baltimore by Maryland Route 150 (Eastern Avenue) and by MARC Train at its own station. Baltimore_sentence_605

Pedestrians and bicycles Baltimore_section_65

Baltimore has a comprehensive system of bicycle routes in the city. Baltimore_sentence_606

These routes are not numbered, but are typically denoted with green signs displaying a silhouette of a bicycle upon an outline of the city's border, and denote the distance to destinations, much like bicycle routes in the rest of the state. Baltimore_sentence_607

The roads carrying bicycle routes are also labelled with either bike lanes, sharrows, or Share the Road signs. Baltimore_sentence_608

Many of these routes pass through the downtown area. Baltimore_sentence_609

The network of bicycle lanes in the city continues to expand, with over 140 miles (230 km) added between 2006 and 2014. Baltimore_sentence_610

Alongside bike lanes, Baltimore has also built bike boulevards, starting with Guilford Avenue in 2012. Baltimore_sentence_611

Baltimore currently has three major trail systems within the city. Baltimore_sentence_612

The Gwynns Falls Trail runs from the Inner Harbor to the I-70 Park and Ride, passing through Gwynns Falls Park and possessing numerous branches. Baltimore_sentence_613

There are also many pedestrian hiking trails traversing the park. Baltimore_sentence_614

The Jones Falls Trail currently runs from the Inner Harbor to the Cylburn Arboretum; however, it is currently undergoing expansion. Baltimore_sentence_615

Long-term plans call for it to extend to the Mount Washington Light Rail Stop, and possibly as far north as the Falls Road stop to connect to the Robert E. Lee boardwalk north of the city. Baltimore_sentence_616

It will also incorporate a spur alongside Western Run. Baltimore_sentence_617

The two aforementioned trails carry sections of the East Coast Greenway through the city. Baltimore_sentence_618

There is also the Herring Run Trail, which runs from Harford Road east to its end beyond Sinclair Lane, utilizing Herring Run Park; long-term plans also call for its extension to Morgan State University and north to points beyond. Baltimore_sentence_619

Other major bicycle projects include a protected cycle track installed on both Maryland Avenue and Mount Royal Avenue, expected to become the backbone of a downtown bicycle network. Baltimore_sentence_620

Installation for the cycletracks is expected in 2014 and 2016, respectively. Baltimore_sentence_621

In addition to the bicycle trails and cycletracks, Baltimore has the Stony Run Trail, a walking path that will eventually connect from the Jones Falls north to Northern Parkway, utilizing much of the old Ma and Pa Railroad corridor inside the city. Baltimore_sentence_622

In 2011, the city undertook a campaign to reconstruct many sidewalk ramps in the city, coinciding with mass resurfacing of the city's streets. Baltimore_sentence_623

A 2011 study by Walk Score ranked Baltimore the 14th most walkable of fifty largest U.S. cities. Baltimore_sentence_624

Port of Baltimore Baltimore_section_66

Main article: Helen Delich Bentley Port of Baltimore Baltimore_sentence_625

The port was founded in 1706, preceding the founding of Baltimore. Baltimore_sentence_626

The Maryland colonial legislature made the area near Locust Point as the port of entry for the tobacco trade with England. Baltimore_sentence_627

Fells Point, the deepest point in the natural harbor, soon became the colony's main ship building center, later on becoming leader in the construction of clipper ships. Baltimore_sentence_628

After Baltimore's founding, mills were built behind the wharves. Baltimore_sentence_629

The California Gold Rush led to many orders for fast vessels; many overland pioneers also relied upon canned goods from Baltimore. Baltimore_sentence_630

After the Civil War, a coffee ship was designed here for trade with Brazil. Baltimore_sentence_631

At the end of the nineteenth century, European ship lines had terminals for immigrants. Baltimore_sentence_632

The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad made the port a major transshipment point. Baltimore_sentence_633

Currently the port has major roll-on/roll-off facilities, as well as bulk facilities, especially steel handling. Baltimore_sentence_634

Water taxis also operate in the Inner Harbor. Baltimore_sentence_635

Governor Ehrlich participated in naming the port after Helen Delich Bentley during the 300th anniversary of the port. Baltimore_sentence_636

In 2007, Duke Realty Corporation began a new development near the Port of Baltimore, named the Chesapeake Commerce Center. Baltimore_sentence_637

This new industrial park is located on the site of a former General Motors plant. Baltimore_sentence_638

The total project comprises 184 acres (0.74 km) in eastern Baltimore City, and the site will yield 2,800,000 square feet (260,000 m) of warehouse/distribution and office space. Baltimore_sentence_639

Chesapeake Commerce Center has direct access to two major Interstate highways (I-95 and I-895) and is located adjacent to two of the major Port of Baltimore terminals. Baltimore_sentence_640

The Port of Baltimore is one of two seaports on the U.S. East Coast with a 50-foot (15 m) dredge to accommodate the largest shipping vessels. Baltimore_sentence_641

Along with cargo terminals, the port also has a passenger cruise terminal, which offers year-round trips on several lines, including Royal Caribbean's Grandeur of the Seas and Carnival's Pride. Baltimore_sentence_642

Overall five cruise lines have operated out of the port to the Bahamas and the Caribbean, while some ships traveled to New England and Canada. Baltimore_sentence_643

The terminal has become an embarkation point where passengers have the opportunity to park and board next to the ship visible from Interstate 95. Baltimore_sentence_644

Passengers from Pennsylvania, New York and New Jersey make up a third of the volume, with travelers from Maryland, Virginia, the District and even Ohio and the Carolinas making up the rest. Baltimore_sentence_645

Environment Baltimore_section_67

Baltimore's Inner Harbor, known for its skyline waterscape and its tourist-friendly areas, was horribly polluted. Baltimore_sentence_646

The waterway was often filled with garbage after heavy rainstorms, failing its 2014 water quality report card. Baltimore_sentence_647

The Waterfront Partnership of Baltimore took steps to remediate the waterways, in hopes that the harbor would be fishable and swimmable once again. Baltimore_sentence_648

Trash interceptors Baltimore_section_68

Main article: Trash interceptor § Baltimore's Mr. Trash Wheel Baltimore_sentence_649

Installed in May 2014, the water wheel trash interceptor known as Mr. Trash Wheel sits at the mouth of the Jones Falls River in Baltimore's Inner Harbor. Baltimore_sentence_650

A February 2015 agreement with a local waste-to-energy plant is believed to make Baltimore the first city to use reclaimed waterway debris to generate electricity. Baltimore_sentence_651

Mr. Trash Wheel is a permanent water wheel trash interceptor to clean up the city's polluted Inner Harbor. Baltimore_sentence_652

The Jones Falls river watershed drains 58 square miles (150 km) of land outside of Baltimore and is a significant source of trash that enters the harbor. Baltimore_sentence_653

Garbage collected by Mr. Trash Wheel could come from anywhere in the Jones Falls Watershed area. Baltimore_sentence_654

The wheel moves continuously, removing garbage and dumping it into an attached dumpster using only hydro and solar renewable power to keep its wheel turning. Baltimore_sentence_655

It has the capability to collect 50,000 pounds (22,700 kg) of trash per day. Baltimore_sentence_656

It has removed more than 350 tons of litter from Baltimore's landmark and tourist attraction in its first 18 months, estimated as consisting of approximately 200,000 bottles, 173,000 potato chip bags and 6.7 million cigarette butts. Baltimore_sentence_657

The Water Wheel has been very successful at trash removal, visibly decreasing the amount of garbage that collects in the harbor, especially after a rainfall. Baltimore_sentence_658

After the success of Mr. Trash Wheel, the Waterfront Partnership raised money to build a second Water Wheel at the end of Harris Creek, an entirely piped stream that flows beneath Baltimore's Canton neighborhood and empties into the Baltimore Harbor. Baltimore_sentence_659

Harris Creek is known to carry tons of trash every year. Baltimore_sentence_660

The planned new Water Wheel was inaugurated in December 2016, and dubbed "Professor Trash Wheel". Baltimore_sentence_661

Professor Trash Wheel prevents waste from exiting the Harbor and accessing the Chesapeake Bay and Atlantic Ocean. Baltimore_sentence_662

A number of additional projects are going on in Baltimore City and County that should result in better water quality scores. Baltimore_sentence_663

These projects include the Blue Alleys project, expanded street sweeping, and stream restoration. Baltimore_sentence_664

Other water pollution control Baltimore_section_69

In August 2010, the National Aquarium assembled, planted, and launched a floating wetland island designed by Biohabitats in Baltimore's Inner Harbor. Baltimore_sentence_665

Hundreds of years ago Baltimore's harbor shoreline would have been lined with tidal wetlands. Baltimore_sentence_666

Floating wetlands provide many environmental benefits to water quality and habitat enhancement, which is why the Waterfront Partnership of Baltimore has included them in their Healthy Harbor Initiative pilot projects. Baltimore_sentence_667

Biohabitats also developed a concept to transform a dilapidated wharf into a living pier that cleans Harbor water, provides habitat and is an aesthetic attraction. Baltimore_sentence_668

Currently under design, the top of the pier will become a constructed tidal wetland. Baltimore_sentence_669

Media Baltimore_section_70

Main article: Media in Baltimore Baltimore_sentence_670

Baltimore's main newspaper is The Baltimore Sun. Baltimore_sentence_671

It was sold by its Baltimore owners in 1986 to the Times Mirror Company, which was bought by the Tribune Company in 2000. Baltimore_sentence_672

The Baltimore News-American, another long-running paper that competed with the Sun, ceased publication in 1986. Baltimore_sentence_673

The city is home to the Baltimore Afro-American, an influential African American newspaper founded in 1892. Baltimore_sentence_674

In 2006, The Baltimore Examiner was launched to compete with The Sun. Baltimore_sentence_675

It was part of a national chain that includes The San Francisco Examiner and The Washington Examiner. Baltimore_sentence_676

In contrast to the paid subscription Sun, The Examiner was a free newspaper funded solely by advertisements. Baltimore_sentence_677

Unable to turn a profit and facing a deep recession, The Baltimore Examiner ceased publication on February 15, 2009. Baltimore_sentence_678

Despite being located 40 miles northeast of Washington, D.C., Baltimore is a major media market in its own right, with all major English language television networks represented in the city. Baltimore_sentence_679

WJZ-TV 13 is a CBS owned and operated station, and WBFF 45 is the flagship of Sinclair Broadcast Group, the largest station owner in the country. Baltimore_sentence_680

Other major television stations in Baltimore include WMAR-TV 2 (ABC), WBAL-TV 11 (NBC), WUTB 24 (MyNetworkTV), WNUV 54 (CW), and WMPB 67 (PBS). Baltimore_sentence_681

Nielsen ranked Baltimore as the 26th-largest television market for the 2008–2009 viewing season and the 27th-largest for 2009–2010. Baltimore_sentence_682

Arbitron's Fall 2010 rankings identified Baltimore as the 22nd largest radio market. Baltimore_sentence_683

Notable people Baltimore_section_71

Main article: List of people from Baltimore Baltimore_sentence_684


International relations Baltimore_section_72

Baltimore has ten sister cities, as designated by Sister Cities International: Baltimore_sentence_685

Baltimore's own Sister City Committees recognize eight of these sister cities, indicated above with a "B" notation. Baltimore_sentence_686

Three additional sister cities have "emeritus status": Baltimore_sentence_687


See also Baltimore_section_73


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: