Banat

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For other uses, see Banat (disambiguation), Banate (disambiguation), and Ban (title). Banat_sentence_0

Banat_table_infobox_0

Banat

Banat  (Romanian) Банат / Banat  (Serbian) Bánság  (Hungarian)Banat_header_cell_0_0_0

CountryBanat_header_cell_0_1_0 Banat_cell_0_1_1
Largest cityBanat_header_cell_0_2_0 TimișoaraBanat_cell_0_2_1
AreaBanat_header_cell_0_3_0
TotalBanat_header_cell_0_4_0 27,104 km (10,465 sq mi)Banat_cell_0_4_1
Population (2017 est)Banat_header_cell_0_5_0
TotalBanat_header_cell_0_6_0 979,119Banat_cell_0_6_1
DensityBanat_header_cell_0_7_0 36/km (94/sq mi)Banat_cell_0_7_1

The Banat (UK: /ˈbænɪt, ˈbɑːn-/, US: /bɑːˈnɑːt/) is a geographical and historical region straddling between Central and Eastern Europe that is currently divided among three countries: the eastern part lies in western Romania (the counties of Timiș, Caraș-Severin, Arad south of the Mureș river, and the western part of Mehedinți); the western part in northeastern Serbia (mostly included in Vojvodina, except a small part included in the Belgrade Region); and a small northern part lies within southeastern Hungary (Csongrád-Csanád County). Banat_sentence_1

The region's historical ethnic diversity was severely affected by the events of World War II, and today Banat is overwhelmingly populated by ethnic Romanians, Serbs and Hungarians but small populations of other ethnic groups also live in the region and nearly all are citizens of either Serbia, Romania or Hungary. Banat_sentence_2

Names Banat_section_0

Further information: Ban (title), Banate (disambiguation), and Banat (disambiguation) Banat_sentence_3

During the Middle Ages, the term "banate" was designating a frontier province led by a military governor who was called ban. Banat_sentence_4

Such provinces existed mainly in South Slavic, Hungarian and Romanian lands. Banat_sentence_5

In South Slavic and other regional languages, terms for "banate" were: Serbian – бановина / banovina, Hungarian – bánság, Romanian – banat and Latin – banatus. Banat_sentence_6

At the time of the medieval Hungarian kingdom, the territory of modern-day Banat appeared in written sources as "Temesköz" (first mentioned in 1374). Banat_sentence_7

The Hungarian name mainly referred to the lowland areas between the Mureş, Tisza and Danube Rivers. Banat_sentence_8

Its Ottoman name was "Eyalet of Temeşvar" (later "Eyalet of Yanova"). Banat_sentence_9

During the Turkish occupation, the territory of Temesköz (Banat) was also called "Rascia" ("the country of the Serbs", 1577). Banat_sentence_10

In the early modern period, there were two banates that partially or entirely included the territory of what is referred to in the current era as Banat: the Banate of Lugoj and Caransebeș in 16th and 17th century and the Banat of Temeswar or Banat of Temes in 18th and 19th centuries. Banat_sentence_11

The word "Banat" without any other qualification, typically refers to the historical Banat of Temeswar, which acquired this title after the 1718 Treaty of Passarowitz. Banat_sentence_12

The name was also used from 1941 to 1944, during Axis occupation, for the short-lived political entity (see: Banat (1941–44)), which covered only today's Serbian part of the historical Banat. Banat_sentence_13

The name Banat is similar in different languages of the region; Romanian: Banat, Serbo-Croatian: Banat / Банат (pronounced [bǎnaːt), Hungarian: Bánát or Bánság, Bulgarian: Банат, German: Banat, Ukrainian: Банат, Turkish: Banat, Slovak: Banát, Czech: Banát, Greek: Βάνατον, Vànaton. Banat_sentence_14

Some of these languages would also have other terms, from their own frame of reference, to describe this historical and geographic region. Banat_sentence_15

Geography Banat_section_1

Main articles: Geography of Romania, Geography of Serbia, and Geography of Vojvodina Banat_sentence_16

The Banat is defined as the part of the Pannonian Basin bordered by the River Danube to the south, the River Tisa to the west, the River Mureș to the north, and the Southern Carpathian Mountains to the east. Banat_sentence_17

The total area of the region is 28,526 km (11,014 sq mi). Banat_sentence_18

Its historical capital was Timișoara, now in Timiș County in Romania. Banat_sentence_19

The territory of the Banat is presently part of the Romanian counties Timiș, Caraș-Severin, Arad and Mehedinți; the Serbian autonomous province of Vojvodina and Belgrade City District; and the Hungarian Csongrád-Csanád County. Banat_sentence_20

The Romanian Banat, with an area of 18,966 km (7,323 sq mi), is mountainous in the south and southeast, while in the north, west and south-west it is flat and in some places marshy. Banat_sentence_21

The climate, except in the marshy parts, is generally healthy. Banat_sentence_22

Wheat, barley, oats, rye, maize, flax, hemp and tobacco are grown in large quantities, and the products of the vineyards are of a good quality. Banat_sentence_23

Game is plentiful and the rivers swarm with fish. Banat_sentence_24

The mineral wealth is great, including copper, tin, lead, zinc, iron and especially coal. Banat_sentence_25

Amongst its numerous mineral springs, the most important are those of Mehadia, with sulphurous waters, which were already known in the Roman period as the Termae Herculis (Băile Herculane). Banat_sentence_26

The present "Banat Region" of Romania includes some areas that are mountainous and were not part of the historical Banat or of the Pannonian plain. Banat_sentence_27

In Serbia, the Banat is mostly plains. Banat_sentence_28

Wheat, barley, oats, rye, maize, hemp and sunflower are grown, and mineral wealth consists of oil and natural gas. Banat_sentence_29

A popular tourist destination in the Banat is Deliblatska Peščara. Banat_sentence_30

There are also several ethnic minorities in the region, including Hungarians (10.21% of the population), Romanians, Slovaks, Bulgarians, Macedonians, Roma people, and others. Banat_sentence_31

History Banat_section_2

For earlier events, see Prehistory of Transylvania, Prehistory of Romania, Prehistoric Serbia, and Prehistoric Hungary. Banat_sentence_32

Prehistory and antiquity Banat_section_3

Main articles: Scordisci, Dacia, Celts, Celts in Transylvania, Roman Empire, Roman Dacia, and Ancient history of Transylvania Banat_sentence_33

The first known inhabitants of present-day Banat were the Neolithic populations. Banat_sentence_34

In the 4th century BC, Celtic tribes settled in this area. Banat_sentence_35

Various Hallstatt and La Tène objects were found in this area. Banat_sentence_36

The most important tribes were the Scordisci and the Taurisci. Banat_sentence_37

The Scordisci, who formed a powerful state even minted their own coins, imitating the Macedonian tetradrachm. Banat_sentence_38

The Scordisci subdued as all the other tribes in the region to the getic ruler Burebista, therefore their region was part of the Dacian kingdom under Burebista in the first century BC, but the balance of power in the area partially changed during the campaigns of Augustus. Banat_sentence_39

At the beginning of the 2nd century A.D., Trajan led two wars against the Dacians: the campaigns of 101–102, and 105–106. Banat_sentence_40

Eventually, the territory of Banat fell under Roman rule. Banat_sentence_41

It became an important link between Dacia province and the other parts of the Empire. Banat_sentence_42

Roman rule had a significant impact: castra and guard stations were established and roads and public buildings built. Banat_sentence_43

The public bath establishments of Ad Aquas Herculis, modern-day Băile Herculane were also established. Banat_sentence_44

Some of the important Roman settlements in Banat were: Arcidava (today Vărădia), Centum Putea (today Surducu Mare), Berzobis (today Berzovia), Tibiscum (today Jupa), Agnaviae (today Zăvoi), Ad Pannonios (today Teregova), Praetorium (today Mehadia), and Dierna (today Orșova). Banat_sentence_45

In 273 A.D. Emperor Aurelian withdrew the Roman Army from Dacia. Banat_sentence_46

The area fell into the hands of foederati such as the Sarmatians (Iazyges, Roxolani, Limigantes) and later the Goths, who also took control of other parts of Dacia. Banat_sentence_47

Banat_unordered_list_0

  • Banat_item_0_0
  • Banat_item_0_1

Migration Period and Early Middle Ages Banat_section_4

Main articles: Romania in the Early Middle Ages, Transylvania in the Middle Ages, Serbia in the Middle Ages, Origin of the Romanians, and Slavs Banat_sentence_48

The Goths were forced out by the Huns, who organized their ruling center in the Pannonian Basin (the Pannonian Plain), an area that included the northwestern part of today's Banat. Banat_sentence_49

After the death of Attila, the Hunnic empire disintegrated in days. Banat_sentence_50

The previously subjected Gepids formed a new kingdom in the area, only to be defeated 100 years later by the Avars. Banat_sentence_51

One governing center of the Avars was formed in the region, which played an important role in the Avar–Byzantine wars. Banat_sentence_52

An inscription on one of the vessels from the Treasure of Sânnicolau Mare (which origin is disputed) recorded names of two local rulers, Butaul and Buyla, who bore Slavic ruling titles of župan. Banat_sentence_53

The Avar rule over the area lasted until the 9th century, until Charlemagne's campaigns. Banat_sentence_54

The Banat region became part of the First Bulgarian Empire a few decades later. Banat_sentence_55

Archaeological evidence shows the Avars and Gepids lived here until the middle of the 10th century. Banat_sentence_56

The Avar rule had triggered considerable Slavic migration to the southern Pannonian plain and to the Balkans. Banat_sentence_57

In 895, the Hungarians living in Etelköz entered the Byzantine-Bulgarian war as allies of Byzantium, and defeated the Bulgars. Banat_sentence_58

Because of this, the Bulgarians allied with the Pechenegs, who attacked the Hungarian settlements. Banat_sentence_59

This led to the process of what is known as the Hungarian conquest of the Pannonian basin, referred to by them as "hometaking" (honfoglalás) in Hungarian. Banat_sentence_60

This also resulted in the loss of part of the territories north of the Danube for the Bulgarian Empire. Banat_sentence_61

According to Gesta Hungarorum chronicle, a local ruler known as Glad ruled over the Banat and his army was formed by Vlachs, Bulgarians, and Cumans Ahtum was another early-11th-century ruler in the territory now known as Banat. Banat_sentence_62

His primary source is the Long Life of Saint Gerard, a 14th-century hagiography. Banat_sentence_63

Chanadinus, Ahtum's former commander-in-chief, defeated and killed Ahtum, occupying his realm. Banat_sentence_64

Hungarian administration (11th–16th centuries) Banat_section_5

Main articles: Banat in the Middle Ages, Romania in the Middle Ages, and Serbia in the Middle Ages Banat_sentence_65

Banat was administered by the First Bulgarian Empire from the 9th to the 11th century, but that control gradually migrated to the Kingdom of Hungary which administered it from the 11th century up until 1552, when the region of Temesvár (today Timișoara) was captured by the Ottoman Empire. Banat_sentence_66

The area of the Timiș river was not the land of the Hungarian royal tribe. Banat_sentence_67

When nomadic Hungarians came to Transylvania there was no direct Bulgarian political rule there. Banat_sentence_68

In the eastern part of the Carpathian basin the Byzantine rite became more influential after Ajtony's (Latin: Ahtum) conversion to Christianity. Banat_sentence_69

This was halted with the establishment of the Kingdom of Hungary. Banat_sentence_70

István I reasserted dominance over the last local leader, Ajtony. Banat_sentence_71

He was a semi-independent ruler of Banat and an Orthodox Christian who constructed a Byzantine monastery at Morisena. Banat_sentence_72

His vassal Csanád defeated him by the will of King Stephen I of Hungary. Banat_sentence_73

The territory of the modern Banat did not form a separate territorial unit in medieval Kingdom of Hungary, it was an integral part of it. Banat_sentence_74

The territory was shared by Krassó, Keve, Temes, Csanád, Arad and Torontál Counties. Banat_sentence_75

In 1233, under the Kingdom of Hungary administration, the Banate of Severin, a military frontier area was formed, including some eastern parts of the modern Banat. Banat_sentence_76

In the 14th century, the region became of priority concern to the Kingdom, as the southern border of the Banat was the most important defensive line against Ottoman expansion from the Southeast. Banat_sentence_77

Banat_unordered_list_1

  • Banat_item_1_2
  • Banat_item_1_3
  • Banat_item_1_4
  • Banat_item_1_5

Ottoman administration (1552–1716) Banat_section_6

Main articles: Eyalet of Temeşvar, Early Modern Romania, and Ottoman Serbia Banat_sentence_78

The Ottoman Empire took over the area and incorporated the Banat in 1552. Banat_sentence_79

It was absorbed as an Ottoman eyalet (province) named the Eyalet of Temeşvar. Banat_sentence_80

The Banat region was mainly populated by Rascians (Serbs) in the west and Vlachs (Romanians) in the east; thus, in some historical sources it was referred to as Rascia and in others Wallachia. Banat_sentence_81

Numerous Ottoman Muslims settled in the area, living mostly in the cities and associated with trade and administration. Banat_sentence_82

Not all of the Banat fell immediately under Turkish rule. Banat_sentence_83

Eastern regions around Lugoj and Caransebeș came under the rule of Princes of Transylvania. Banat_sentence_84

In that area, a new banate was formed, known as the Banate of Lugoj and Caransebeș. Banat_sentence_85

In the spring of 1594, shortly after the beginning of Austro-Turkish War (1593-1606), Serbian Christians in Eyalet of Temeşvar started an Uprising against Turkish rule. Banat_sentence_86

The local Romanians also participated in this uprising. Banat_sentence_87

At first, rebels were successful. Banat_sentence_88

They took the city of Vršac and various other towns in Banat and started negotiations with Prince of Transylvania. Banat_sentence_89

One of the leaders of the uprising was local Serbian Orthodox Bishop Theodore. Banat_sentence_90

In the middle of the 17th century, the territory of Banate of Lugoj and Caransebeș finally fell under Turkish rule and was incorporated into Eyalet of Temeşvar. Banat_sentence_91

During Austro-Turkish War (1683-1699), local Serbian uprisings broke out in various parts of Eyalet of Temeşvar. Banat_sentence_92

Austrian armies and Serbian militia tried to drive out sultans army from the province, but Turks succeeded in holding the fort of Temesvár. Banat_sentence_93

In 1689, Serbian patriarch Arsenije III sided with Austrians. Banat_sentence_94

His jurisdiction (including the province) was officially recognized by the charters of emperor Leopold I in 1690, 1691 and 1695. Banat_sentence_95

Under the Treaty of Karlowitz (1699), northern parts of the Eyalet of Temeşvar were incorporated into the Habsburg Monarchy, but the territory of Banat remained under Turkish rule. Banat_sentence_96

Banat_unordered_list_2

  • Banat_item_2_6
  • Banat_item_2_7
  • Banat_item_2_8
  • Banat_item_2_9
  • Banat_item_2_10
  • Banat_item_2_11

Habsburg administration (1716–1867) Banat_section_7

Main articles: Habsburg Monarchy, Banat of Temeswar, Early Modern Romania, and History of Serbia (1804–1918) Banat_sentence_97

At the beginning of the next Austro-Turkish War (1716–1718), Prince Eugene of Savoy took the Banat region from the Turks. Banat_sentence_98

After the Treaty of Passarowitz (1718), the region became a province of the Habsburg Monarchy. Banat_sentence_99

It was not incorporated into the Kingdom of Hungary. Banat_sentence_100

Special provincial administration was established, centered in Temesvár. Banat_sentence_101

In 1738, over 50 Romanian villages from Serbia and Banat were destroyed and dwellers murdered by Austrians and Serb militia during a revolt of Romanians. Banat_sentence_102

Also governor of the province was not given the title of "ban", the region became known as the Banate of Temes or Banat of Temeswar. Banat_sentence_103

It remained a separate province within the Habsburg Monarchy and under military administration until 1751, when Empress Maria Theresa of Austria reorganized the province, dividing it between military and civil administration. Banat_sentence_104

The Banat of Temeswar province was abolished in 1778, when civilian part of the region was incorporated into the Kingdom of Hungary and divided into counties. Banat_sentence_105

The southern part of the Banat region remained within the Military Frontier (Banat Krajina) until the Frontier was abolished in 1871. Banat_sentence_106

During the Ottoman rule, parts of Banat had a low population density due to years of warfare, and some local residents also lost their lives during Habsburg-Ottoman wars and Prince Eugene of Savoy's conquest. Banat_sentence_107

Much of the area had reverted to nearly uninhabited marsh, heath and forest. Banat_sentence_108

Count Claudius Mercy (1666–1734), who was appointed governor of the Banat of Temeswar in 1720, took numerous measures for the regeneration of the Banat. Banat_sentence_109

He recruited German artisans and especially farmers from Bavaria and other southern areas as colonists, allowing them privileges such as keeping their language and religion in their settlements. Banat_sentence_110

Farmers brought their families and belongings on rafts down the Danube River, and were encouraged to restore farming in the area. Banat_sentence_111

They cleared the marshes near the Danube and Tisa rivers, helped build roads and canals, and re-established agriculture. Banat_sentence_112

Trade was also encouraged. Banat_sentence_113

Maria Theresa also took a direct interest in the Banat; she colonized the region with large numbers of German farmers, who were admired for their agricultural skills. Banat_sentence_114

She encouraged the exploitation of the mineral wealth of the country, and generally developed the measures that were introduced by Count Mercy. Banat_sentence_115

German settlers arrived from Swabia, Alsace and Bavaria, as did German-speaking colonists from Austria. Banat_sentence_116

Many settlements in the eastern Banat were developed by Germans and had ethnic-German majorities. Banat_sentence_117

The ethnic Germans in the Banat region became known as the Danube Swabians, or Donauschwaben. Banat_sentence_118

After years of separation from their original German provinces, their language was markedly different, preserving historic characteristics. Banat_sentence_119

Similarly, a minority coming from French-speaking or linguistically mixed communes in Lorraine maintained the French language for several generations, and developed a specific ethnic identity, later known as Banat French, Français du Banat. Banat_sentence_120

In 1779, the Banat region was incorporated into the Habsburg Kingdom of Hungary, and the three counties of Torontal, Temes and Karasch were created. Banat_sentence_121

In 1848, after the May Assembly, the western Banat became part of the Serbian Vojvodina, a Serbian autonomous region within the Habsburg Monarchy. Banat_sentence_122

During the Revolutions of 1848–1849, the Banat was respectively held by Serbian and Hungarian troops. Banat_sentence_123

After the Revolution of 1848–1849, the Banat (together with Syrmia and Bačka) was designated as a separate Austrian crownland known as the Voivodeship of Serbia and Temes Banat. Banat_sentence_124

In 1860 this province was abolished and most of its territory was incorporated into the Habsburg Kingdom of Hungary. Banat_sentence_125

The Serbian Banat (Western Banat) was part of Serbian Vojvodina (1848–1849) and part of the Voivodeship of Serbia and Temes Banat (1849–1860). Banat_sentence_126

After 1860, later Serbian Banat was part of Torontal and Temes counties of Habsburg Kingdom of Hungary. Banat_sentence_127

The center of Torontal county was Großbetschkerek (Hungarian: Nagybecskerek, Serbian: Veliki Bečkerek), the current Zrenjanin. Banat_sentence_128

Hungarian administration (1867–1918) Banat_section_8

Main articles: Austria-Hungary and Kingdom of Hungary Banat_sentence_129

In 1867, after the Austro-Hungarian compromise the territory returned again to Hungarian administration. Banat_sentence_130

After 1871, the former Military Frontier, located in southern parts of the Banat, came under civil administration and was incorporated into the Banat counties. Banat_sentence_131

Krassó and Szörény were united into Krassó-Szörény in 1881. Banat_sentence_132

Banat_unordered_list_3

  • Banat_item_3_12
  • Banat_item_3_13
  • Banat_item_3_14

The Banat Question at the end of First World War Banat_section_9

Main articles: Banat Republic; Banat, Bačka and Baranja; Greater Romania; and Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes Banat_sentence_133

In 1918, the Banat Republic was proclaimed in Timișoara in October, and the government of Hungary recognized its independence. Banat_sentence_134

However, it was short-lived. Banat_sentence_135

After just two weeks, Serbian troops invaded the region and took control. Banat_sentence_136

From November 1918 to March 1919, western and central parts of Banat were governed by Serbian administration from Novi Sad, as part of the Banat, Bačka and Baranja province of the Kingdom of Serbia and newly formed Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (which was later renamed as Yugoslavia). Banat_sentence_137

In the wake of the Declaration of Union of Transylvania with Romania on December 1, 1918 and the Declaration of Unification of Banat, Bačka and Baranja with Serbia on November 25, 1918, most of the Banat was (in 1919) divided between Romania (Krassó-Szörény completely, two-thirds of Temes, and a small part of Torontál) and the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (most of Torontál, and one-third of Temes). Banat_sentence_138

A small area near Szeged was assigned to the newly independent Hungary. Banat_sentence_139

These borders were confirmed by the 1919 Treaty of Versailles and the 1920 Treaty of Trianon. Banat_sentence_140

At the dissolution of Austria-Hungary, the delegates of the Romanian and some German communities voted for union with Romania; the delegates of the Serbian, Bunjevac and other Slavic and non-Slavic communities (including some Germans) voted for union with Serbia; while the Hungarian minority remained loyal to the government in Budapest. Banat_sentence_141

Besides these declarations, no other plebiscite was held. Banat_sentence_142

Banat_unordered_list_4

  • Banat_item_4_15
  • Banat_item_4_16
  • Banat_item_4_17
  • Banat_item_4_18

Romanian Banat since the First World War Banat_section_10

Main articles: Timiș County and Caraș-Severin County Banat_sentence_143

In 1938, the counties of Timiș-Torontal, Caraș, Severin, Arad and Hunedoara were joined to form ținutul Timiș, which roughly encompassed the area typically called Banat in Romania. Banat_sentence_144

On 6 September 1950, the province was replaced by the Timișoara Region (formed by the present-day counties of Timiș and Caraș-Severin). Banat_sentence_145

In 1956, the southern half of the existing Arad Region was incorporated to the Timișoara Region. Banat_sentence_146

In December 1960, the Timișoara Region was renamed the Banat Region. Banat_sentence_147

On 17 February 1968, a new territorial division was made and today's Timiș, Caraș-Severin and Arad counties were formed. Banat_sentence_148

Since 1998, Romania has been divided into eight development regions, acting as divisions that coordinate and implement regional development. Banat_sentence_149

The Vest development region is composed of four counties: Arad, Timiș, Hunedoara and Caraș-Severin; thus it has almost same borders as the Timiș Province (ținutul Timiș) of 1938. Banat_sentence_150

The Vest development region is also a part of the Danube-Criș-Mureș-Tisa Euroregion. Banat_sentence_151

Ethnic minorities in the region include Hungarians (5.6% of the population), Serbs, Croats (Krashovans), Bulgarians, Ukrainians, and others. Banat_sentence_152

The area has been inhabited by Serbs since medieval times, with the largest numbers of inhabitants in 18th century. Banat_sentence_153

The main areas of Serb settlements were along the Mureş in Sânnicolau Mare, Cena, Sânpetru Mare and Recaş. Banat_sentence_154

Croats are settled in Caraşova and the neighbouring villages of Anina and Reşiţa. Banat_sentence_155

Albanians who arrived in 1740 were assimilated by the majority Caraşoveni. Banat_sentence_156

At the beginning of the 19th century, the villages of Ceneiul Croat and Checea Croată were established which are connected with Croatian presence in that area. Banat_sentence_157

Serbian Banat since the First World War Banat_section_11

Main articles: Belgrade Oblast, Danube Banovina, and Banat (1941–1944) Banat_sentence_158

The region was claimed by the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes between 1918 and 1922 (as the province of Banat, Bačka and Baranja between 1918 and 1919]) and from 1922 to 1929 it was divided between Belgrade oblast and Podunavlje oblast. Banat_sentence_159

In 1929, most of the region was incorporated into the Danube Banovina (Danubian Banat), a province of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, while the city of Pančevo was incorporated into self-governed Belgrade district. Banat_sentence_160

During World War II, the Axis Powers occupied this area and partitioned it. Banat_sentence_161

Nazi Germany had been intent on expanding into eastern Europe to incorporate what it called the Volksdeutsche, people of ethnic German descent. Banat_sentence_162

They established the political entity known as Banat in 1941. Banat_sentence_163

It included only the western part of the historical Banat region, which was formerly part of Yugoslavia. Banat_sentence_164

It was formally under the control of the Serbian puppet Government of National Salvation in Belgrade led by Milan Nedić. Banat_sentence_165

It theoretically had limited jurisdiction over all of the territory under German Military Administration in Serbia, but in practice the local minority of ethnic Germans (Danube Swabians or Shwoveh) held the political power within the Banat. Banat_sentence_166

The regional civilian commissioner was Josef Lapp. Banat_sentence_167

The head of the ethnic German group was Sepp Janko. Banat_sentence_168

Following the ousting of Axis forces in 1944, this German-ruled region was dissolved. Banat_sentence_169

As a consequence, much of the local Germans fled from the region together with defeated German army in 1944. Banat_sentence_170

Most of its territory was included in the Vojvodina, one of the two autonomous provinces of Serbia within the new SFR Yugoslavia. Banat_sentence_171

Following WWII, most ethnic Germans were expelled from the Banat and eastern Europe. Banat_sentence_172

Those Germans who remained in the country were sent to prison camps run by the new communist authorities. Banat_sentence_173

After prison camps were dissolved (in 1948), most of the remaining German population left Serbia because of economic reasons. Banat_sentence_174

Many went to Germany; others emigrated to western Europe and the United States. Banat_sentence_175

Since 1944–1945, the Serbian Banat (together with Bačka and Syrmia), has been part of the Serbian Autonomous Province of Vojvodina, first as part of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and then as part of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and Serbia and Montenegro. Banat_sentence_176

Since 2006, it has been part of an independent Serbia. Banat_sentence_177

The districts of Serbia in Banat are: North Banat okrug (which also includes municipalities of Ada, Senta and Kanjiža, which are situated in the region of Bačka), Central Banat okrug, and South Banat okrug. Banat_sentence_178

Serbian Banat also includes the area known as Pančevački Rit, which belongs to the Belgrade municipality of Palilula. Banat_sentence_179

See also: Geographical regions in Serbia Banat_sentence_180

Hungarian Banat since the First World War Banat_section_12

The Hungarian Banat consists of a small northern part of the region, which is part of the Csongrád-Csanád County of Hungary and is made up of 7 villages and the district of Szeged, Újszeged. Banat_sentence_181

The Hungarian part of Banat used to be the northernmost region of the Torontál County in the Kingdom of Hungary. Banat_sentence_182

In addition to the Hungarian population, there is a small minority of Serbs (e.g. in Deszk, Szőreg). Banat_sentence_183

Demographics Banat_section_13

Main articles: Demographic history of Romania, Demographic history of Serbian Banat, and Demographic history of Vojvodina Banat_sentence_184

The whole Banat Banat_section_14

1660–1666 Banat_section_15

In 1660–1666, Serbs lived in western (flat) part of the Banat, while Romanians lived in the eastern (mountainous) part. Banat_sentence_185

1743–1753 Banat_section_16

In 1743–1753, ethnic composition of Banat looked as follows: Banat_sentence_186

Banat_unordered_list_5

Ethnic Hungarians were almost totally absent from the region in the first half of the 18th century. Banat_sentence_187

They were considered politically unreliable, but in 1730 some Catholic Hungarians were allowed to settle down in the Banat. Banat_sentence_188

1774 Banat_section_17

According to 1774 data, the population of the Banat of Temeswar numbered 375,740 people and was composed of: Banat_sentence_189

Banat_unordered_list_6

1840 Banat_section_18

Banat had in 1840 a population of over a million which included: Banat_sentence_190

Banat_unordered_list_7

  • 570,000 (55.34%) RomaniansBanat_item_7_27
  • 200,000 (19.42%) GermansBanat_item_7_28
  • 200,000 (19.42%) SerbsBanat_item_7_29
  • 60,000 (5.83%) HungariansBanat_item_7_30

1900 Banat_section_19

In 1900, the population of Banat numbered 1,431,329 people, including: Banat_sentence_191

Banat_unordered_list_8

  • 578,789 (40.4%) RomaniansBanat_item_8_31
  • 362,487 (25.3%) GermansBanat_item_8_32
  • 251,938 (17.6%) SerbsBanat_item_8_33
  • 170,124 (11.9%) HungariansBanat_item_8_34

1910 Banat_section_20

According to the 1910 census, the population of the Banat region (counties of Torontál, Temes and Krassó-Szörény) numbered 1,582,133 people, including: (*) Banat_sentence_192

Banat_unordered_list_9

  • 592,049 (37.42%) RomaniansBanat_item_9_35
  • 387,545 (24.50%) GermansBanat_item_9_36
  • 284,329 (17.97%) SerbsBanat_item_9_37
  • 242,152 (15.31%) HungariansBanat_item_9_38
  • smaller numbers of other ethnic groups such as the Czechs, Slovaks, Croats, Rusyns, Ukrainians, Bulgarians, etc.Banat_item_9_39

(*) Note: according to the 1910 census, the population of Romanian Banat included 52.6% Romanians, 25.6% Germans, 12.2% Hungarians, and 4.9% Serbs, while population of Serbian Banat included 40.53% Serbs, 22.14% Germans, 19.18% Hungarians, 12.94% Romanians, and 2.86% Slovaks. Banat_sentence_193

In Serbia the majority of the Banat Swabian or Shwovish population fled from the region together with the defeated German army in the Fall of 1944, as one can see in the population Table below, where the German-speaking Shwovish population dropped from about 120,000 in 1931 to about 17,000 in 1948. Banat_sentence_194

Those who remained in the country were sent to prison camps run by the new communist authorities, where many died from hunger, disease and cold, but many also escaped. Banat_sentence_195

After the prison camps were dissolved (in 1948), most of the remaining German population left Serbia and Yugoslavia because of economic reasons. Banat_sentence_196

Their flight was mainly a consequence of wartime events and Axis occupation of Yugoslavia, but partly also a consequence of the economic situation in the post-war years. Banat_sentence_197

In Romania ethnic Germans mostly emigrated after 1989 for economic reasons. Banat_sentence_198

1930 Banat_section_21

Distribution of ethnicities in Banat from 1930: Banat_sentence_199

Banat_unordered_list_10

  • 511,100 (54,4%) RomaniansBanat_item_10_40
  • 223,200 (23,7%) GermansBanat_item_10_41
  • 97,800 (10,4%) HungariansBanat_item_10_42
  • 40,500 (4,3%) Serbs, Croats and SlovenesBanat_item_10_43

Population table Banat_section_22

The historical population of the Banat region in different time periods: Banat_sentence_200

Banat_table_general_1

YearBanat_header_cell_1_0_0 TotalBanat_header_cell_1_0_1
1717Banat_cell_1_1_0 85,166Banat_cell_1_1_1
1743Banat_cell_1_2_0 125,000Banat_cell_1_2_1
1753Banat_cell_1_3_0 210,992Banat_cell_1_3_1
1774Banat_cell_1_4_0 375,740Banat_cell_1_4_1
1797Banat_cell_1_5_0 667,912Banat_cell_1_5_1
1900Banat_cell_1_6_0 1,431,329Banat_cell_1_6_1
1910Banat_cell_1_7_0 1,582,133Banat_cell_1_7_1

Romanian Banat Banat_section_23

The historical population of the Romanian Banat (the Timiș, and Caraș-Severin, counties) was as following: Banat_sentence_201

Banat_table_general_2

YearBanat_header_cell_2_0_0 TotalBanat_header_cell_2_0_1 RomaniansBanat_header_cell_2_0_2 HungariansBanat_header_cell_2_0_3 GermansBanat_header_cell_2_0_4 SerbsBanat_header_cell_2_0_5 RomaBanat_header_cell_2_0_6
1880Banat_cell_2_1_0 744,367Banat_cell_2_1_1 426,368 (57.3%)Banat_cell_2_1_2 37,586 (5.0%)Banat_cell_2_1_3 202,698 (27.2%)Banat_cell_2_1_4 46,983 (6.3%)Banat_cell_2_1_5 n/aBanat_cell_2_1_6
1890Banat_cell_2_2_0 812,799Banat_cell_2_2_1 446,816 (55.0%)Banat_cell_2_2_2 50,899 (6.3%)Banat_cell_2_2_3 233,006 (29.9%)Banat_cell_2_2_4 41,356 (5.1%)Banat_cell_2_2_5 n/aBanat_cell_2_2_6
1900Banat_cell_2_3_0 871,598Banat_cell_2_3_1 468,508 (53.8%)Banat_cell_2_3_2 78,656 (9.0%)Banat_cell_2_3_3 243,582 (27.9%)Banat_cell_2_3_4 41,960 (4.8%)Banat_cell_2_3_5 n/aBanat_cell_2_3_6
1910Banat_cell_2_4_0 902,210Banat_cell_2_4_1 474,787 (52.6%)Banat_cell_2_4_2 109,873 (12.2%)Banat_cell_2_4_3 231,391 (25.6%)Banat_cell_2_4_4 44,598 (4.9%)Banat_cell_2_4_5 n/aBanat_cell_2_4_6
1920Banat_cell_2_5_0 822,639Banat_cell_2_5_1 450,817 (54.8%)Banat_cell_2_5_2 79,955 (9.7%)Banat_cell_2_5_3 208,774 (25.4%)Banat_cell_2_5_4 n/aBanat_cell_2_5_5 n/aBanat_cell_2_5_6
1930Banat_cell_2_6_0 878,877Banat_cell_2_6_1 473,781 (53.9%)Banat_cell_2_6_2 91,421 (10.4%)Banat_cell_2_6_3 215,031 (24.5%)Banat_cell_2_6_4 37,113 (4.2%)Banat_cell_2_6_5 16,471 (1.9%)Banat_cell_2_6_6
1941Banat_cell_2_7_0 898,262Banat_cell_2_7_1 505,448 (56.3%)Banat_cell_2_7_2 80,575 (9.0%)Banat_cell_2_7_3 213,840 (23.8%)Banat_cell_2_7_4 n/aBanat_cell_2_7_5 n/aBanat_cell_2_7_6
1956Banat_cell_2_8_0 896,668Banat_cell_2_8_1 589,369 (65.7%)Banat_cell_2_8_2 85,790 (9.6%)Banat_cell_2_8_3 137,697 (15.4%)Banat_cell_2_8_4 40,018 (4.5%)Banat_cell_2_8_5 9,309 (1.0%)Banat_cell_2_8_6
1966Banat_cell_2_9_0 966,322Banat_cell_2_9_1 674,062 (69.8%)Banat_cell_2_9_2 85,358 (8.8%)Banat_cell_2_9_3 133,197 (13.8%)Banat_cell_2_9_4 38,535 (4.0%)Banat_cell_2_9_5 6,769 (0.7%)Banat_cell_2_9_6
1977Banat_cell_2_10_0 1,082,461Banat_cell_2_10_1 796,007 (73.5%)Banat_cell_2_10_2 86,763 (8.0%)Banat_cell_2_10_3 119,972 (11.1%)Banat_cell_2_10_4 29,514 (2.7%)Banat_cell_2_10_5 15,755 (1.5%)Banat_cell_2_10_6
1992Banat_cell_2_11_0 1,076,380Banat_cell_2_11_1 886,958 (82.4%)Banat_cell_2_11_2 70,742 (6.6%)Banat_cell_2_11_3 38,658 (3.6%)Banat_cell_2_11_4 25,029 (2.3%)Banat_cell_2_11_5 22,612 (2.1%)Banat_cell_2_11_6
2002Banat_cell_2_12_0 1,011,145Banat_cell_2_12_1 859,690 (85.0%)Banat_cell_2_12_2 56,380 (5.6%)Banat_cell_2_12_3 20,323 (2.0%)Banat_cell_2_12_4 19,355 (1.9%)Banat_cell_2_12_5 23,998 (2.4%)Banat_cell_2_12_6
2011Banat_cell_2_13_0 979,119Banat_cell_2_13_1 794,769 (81.2%)Banat_cell_2_13_2 38,233 (3.9%)Banat_cell_2_13_3 11,401 (1.2%)Banat_cell_2_13_4 20,474 (2.1%)Banat_cell_2_13_5 21,797 (2.2%)Banat_cell_2_13_6

Serbian Banat Banat_section_24

Banat_table_general_3

YearBanat_header_cell_3_0_0 TotalBanat_header_cell_3_0_1 SerbsBanat_header_cell_3_0_2 HungariansBanat_header_cell_3_0_3 GermansBanat_header_cell_3_0_4 RomaniansBanat_header_cell_3_0_5 SlovaksBanat_header_cell_3_0_6
1910Banat_cell_3_1_0 566,400Banat_cell_3_1_1 229,568 (40.5%)Banat_cell_3_1_2 108,622 (19.2%)Banat_cell_3_1_3 125,374 (22.1%)Banat_cell_3_1_4 73,303 (12.9%)Banat_cell_3_1_5 16,223 (2,9%)Banat_cell_3_1_6
1921Banat_cell_3_2_0 559,096Banat_cell_3_2_1 235,148 (42.1%)Banat_cell_3_2_2 98,463 (17.6%)Banat_cell_3_2_3 126,519 (22.6%)Banat_cell_3_2_4 66,433 (11,9%)Banat_cell_3_2_5 17,595 (3,2%)Banat_cell_3_2_6
1931Banat_cell_3_3_0 585,579Banat_cell_3_3_1 261,123 (44,6%)Banat_cell_3_3_2 95,867 (16,4%)Banat_cell_3_3_3 120,541 (20,6%)Banat_cell_3_3_4 62,365 (10,7%)Banat_cell_3_3_5 17,900 (2,1%)Banat_cell_3_3_6
1948Banat_cell_3_4_0 601,626Banat_cell_3_4_1 358,067 (59,6%)Banat_cell_3_4_2 110,446 (18,4%)Banat_cell_3_4_3 17,522 (2,9%)Banat_cell_3_4_4 55,678 (9,3%)Banat_cell_3_4_5 20,685 (2,4%)Banat_cell_3_4_6
1953Banat_cell_3_5_0 617,163Banat_cell_3_5_1 374,258 (60,6%)Banat_cell_3_5_2 112,683 (18,4%)Banat_cell_3_5_3 n/aBanat_cell_3_5_4 55,094 (8,9%)Banat_cell_3_5_5 21,299 (3,4%)Banat_cell_3_5_6
1961Banat_cell_3_6_0 655,868Banat_cell_3_6_1 423,837 (64,6%)Banat_cell_3_6_2 111,944 (17,1%)Banat_cell_3_6_3 n/aBanat_cell_3_6_4 54,447 (8,3%)Banat_cell_3_6_5 22,306 (3,4%)Banat_cell_3_6_6
1971Banat_cell_3_7_0 666,559Banat_cell_3_7_1 434,810 (65,2%)Banat_cell_3_7_2 103,090 (15.5%)Banat_cell_3_7_3 n/aBanat_cell_3_7_4 49,455 (7,4%)Banat_cell_3_7_5 22,173 (3,3%)Banat_cell_3_7_6
1981Banat_cell_3_8_0 672,884Banat_cell_3_8_1 424,765 (65,7%)Banat_cell_3_8_2 90,445 (14,0%)Banat_cell_3_8_3 n/aBanat_cell_3_8_4 43,474 (6,7%)Banat_cell_3_8_5 21,392 (3,3%)Banat_cell_3_8_6
1991Banat_cell_3_9_0 648,390Banat_cell_3_9_1 423,475 (65,1%)Banat_cell_3_9_2 76,153 (11.7%)Banat_cell_3_9_3 n/aBanat_cell_3_9_4 35,935 (5,5%)Banat_cell_3_9_5 19,903 (3.1%)Banat_cell_3_9_6
2002Banat_cell_3_10_0 665,397Banat_cell_3_10_1 477,890 (71.8%)Banat_cell_3_10_2 63,047 (9.5%)Banat_cell_3_10_3 908 (0,1%)Banat_cell_3_10_4 27,661 (4,1%)Banat_cell_3_10_5 17,994 (2,7%)Banat_cell_3_10_6

Symbols Banat_section_25

The traditional heraldic symbol of the Banat is a lion, which is nowadays present in both the coat of arms of Romania and the coat of arms of Vojvodina. Banat_sentence_202

Cities Banat_section_26

The largest cities in the Banat are: Banat_sentence_203

Banat_unordered_list_11

Tourist spots Banat_section_27

Banat_unordered_list_12


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banat.