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This article is about the People's Republic of Bangladesh. Bangladesh_sentence_0

For other uses, see Bangladesh (disambiguation). Bangladesh_sentence_1


People's Republic of BangladeshBangladesh_header_cell_0_0_0

and largest cityBangladesh_header_cell_0_1_0

Official language
and national languageBangladesh_header_cell_0_2_0
Regional languagesBangladesh_header_cell_0_3_0 Bangladesh_cell_0_3_1
Ethnic groups (2011)Bangladesh_header_cell_0_4_0 Bangladesh_cell_0_4_1
Religion (2011)Bangladesh_header_cell_0_5_0 Bangladesh_cell_0_5_1
Demonym(s)Bangladesh_header_cell_0_6_0 BangladeshiBangladesh_cell_0_6_1
GovernmentBangladesh_header_cell_0_7_0 Unitary

dominant-party parliamentary constitutional republicBangladesh_cell_0_7_1

PresidentBangladesh_header_cell_0_8_0 Abdul HamidBangladesh_cell_0_8_1
Prime MinisterBangladesh_header_cell_0_9_0 Sheikh HasinaBangladesh_cell_0_9_1
House SpeakerBangladesh_header_cell_0_10_0 Shirin ChaudhuryBangladesh_cell_0_10_1
Chief JusticeBangladesh_header_cell_0_11_0 Syed Mahmud HossainBangladesh_cell_0_11_1
LegislatureBangladesh_header_cell_0_12_0 Jatiya SangsadBangladesh_cell_0_12_1
Independence from PakistanBangladesh_header_cell_0_13_0
DeclaredBangladesh_header_cell_0_14_0 26 March 1971Bangladesh_cell_0_14_1
V-DayBangladesh_header_cell_0_15_0 16 December 1971Bangladesh_cell_0_15_1
Current constitutionBangladesh_header_cell_0_16_0 16 December 1972Bangladesh_cell_0_16_1
Area Bangladesh_header_cell_0_17_0
TotalBangladesh_header_cell_0_18_0 148,460 km (57,320 sq mi) (92nd)Bangladesh_cell_0_18_1
Water (%)Bangladesh_header_cell_0_19_0 6.4Bangladesh_cell_0_19_1
2018 estimateBangladesh_header_cell_0_21_0 161,376,708 (8th)Bangladesh_cell_0_21_1
2011 censusBangladesh_header_cell_0_22_0 149,772,364 (8th)Bangladesh_cell_0_22_1
DensityBangladesh_header_cell_0_23_0 1,106/km (2,864.5/sq mi) (7th)Bangladesh_cell_0_23_1
GDP (PPP)Bangladesh_header_cell_0_24_0 2020 estimateBangladesh_cell_0_24_1
TotalBangladesh_header_cell_0_25_0 $864.883 billion (30th)Bangladesh_cell_0_25_1
Per capitaBangladesh_header_cell_0_26_0 $5,138 (135th)Bangladesh_cell_0_26_1
GDP (nominal)Bangladesh_header_cell_0_27_0 2020 estimateBangladesh_cell_0_27_1
TotalBangladesh_header_cell_0_28_0 $317.768 billion (35th)Bangladesh_cell_0_28_1
Per capitaBangladesh_header_cell_0_29_0 $1,887 (140th)Bangladesh_cell_0_29_1
Gini (2016)Bangladesh_header_cell_0_30_0 32.4


HDI (2018)Bangladesh_header_cell_0_31_0 0.614

medium · 135thBangladesh_cell_0_31_1

CurrencyBangladesh_header_cell_0_32_0 Bangladeshi taka (৳) (BDT)Bangladesh_cell_0_32_1
Time zoneBangladesh_header_cell_0_33_0 UTC+6 (BST)Bangladesh_cell_0_33_1
Date formatBangladesh_header_cell_0_34_0 dd-mm-yyyy ADBangladesh_cell_0_34_1
Driving sideBangladesh_header_cell_0_35_0 leftBangladesh_cell_0_35_1
Calling codeBangladesh_header_cell_0_36_0 +880Bangladesh_cell_0_36_1
ISO 3166 codeBangladesh_header_cell_0_37_0 BDBangladesh_cell_0_37_1
Internet TLDBangladesh_header_cell_0_38_0 .bd


Bangladesh (/ˌbæŋləˈdɛʃ/, Bengali: , pronounced [ˈbaŋlaˌdeʃ (listen)), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh, is a country in South Asia. Bangladesh_sentence_2

It is the eighth-most populous country in the world, with a population exceeding 162 million people. Bangladesh_sentence_3

In terms of landmass, Bangladesh ranks 92nd, spanning 148,460 square kilometres (57,320 sq mi), making it one of the most densely populated countries in the world. Bangladesh_sentence_4

Bangladesh shares land borders with India to the west, north, and east, Myanmar to the southeast, and the Bay of Bengal to the south. Bangladesh_sentence_5

It is narrowly separated from Nepal and Bhutan by the Siliguri Corridor, and from China by Sikkim, in the north, respectively. Bangladesh_sentence_6

Dhaka, the capital and largest city, is the nation's economic, political, and cultural hub. Bangladesh_sentence_7

Chittagong, the largest seaport, is the second-largest city. Bangladesh_sentence_8

Bangladesh forms the larger and eastern part of the Bengal region. Bangladesh_sentence_9

According to the ancient Indian texts, Rāmāyana and Mahābhārata, the Vanga Kingdom, one of the namesakes of the Bengal region, was a strong naval ally of the legendary Ayodhya. Bangladesh_sentence_10

In the ancient and classical periods of the Indian subcontinent, the territory was home to many principalities, including the Pundra, Gangaridai, Gauda, Samatata, and Harikela. Bangladesh_sentence_11

It was also a Mauryan province under the reign of Ashoka. Bangladesh_sentence_12

The principalities were notable for their overseas trade, contacts with the Roman world, the export of fine muslin and silk to the Middle East, and spreading of philosophy and art to Southeast Asia. Bangladesh_sentence_13

The Pala Empire, the Chandra dynasty, and the Sena dynasty were the last pre-Islamic Bengali middle kingdoms. Bangladesh_sentence_14

Islam was introduced during the Pala Empire, through trade with the Abbāsid Caliphate, but following the early conquest of Bakhtiyar Khalji and the subsequent establishment of the Delhi Sultanate and preaching of Shah Jalāl in East Bengal, the faithfully spread across the region. Bangladesh_sentence_15

In 1576, the wealthy Bengal Sultanate was absorbed into the Mughal Empire, but its rule was briefly interrupted by the Suri Empire. Bangladesh_sentence_16

Following the death of Emperor Aurangzeb in the early 1700s, proto-industrialized Mughal Bengal became a semi-independent state under the Nawabs of Bengal. Bangladesh_sentence_17

The region was later conquered by the British East India Company at the Battle of Plassey in 1757. Bangladesh_sentence_18

The borders of modern Bangladesh were established with the partition of Bengal in August 1947 at the time of partition of India, when the region became East Pakistan as a part of the newly formed Dominion of Pakistan. Bangladesh_sentence_19

Later the rise of a pro-democracy movement thrived on Bengali nationalism and self-determination, leading to the Liberation War and eventually resulted in the emergence of Bangladesh as a sovereign and independent nation in 1971. Bangladesh_sentence_20

Bangladesh is the only country in the world that was created on the basis of language and ethnicity. Bangladesh_sentence_21

The Bengalis make up 98% of the total population of Bangladesh, making it one of the most ethnically homogeneous states in the world. Bangladesh_sentence_22

The large Muslim population of Bangladesh makes it the third-largest Muslim-majority country. Bangladesh_sentence_23

The constitution declares Bangladesh a secular state, while establishing Islam as a state religion. Bangladesh_sentence_24

As a middle power in world politics, Bangladesh is a unitary parliamentary democracy and constitutional republic following the Westminster system of governance. Bangladesh_sentence_25

The country is divided into eight administrative divisions and sixty-four districts. Bangladesh_sentence_26

Although the country continues to face the challenges of the Rohingya refugee crisis, corruption, and the adverse effects of climate change, Bangladesh is one of the emerging and growth-leading economies of the world, and is also one of the Next Eleven countries, with one of the fastest real GDP growth rates. Bangladesh_sentence_27

The Bangladeshi economy is the 39th-largest in the world by nominal GDP, and the 29th-largest by PPP. Bangladesh_sentence_28

Etymology Bangladesh_section_0

Main article: Names of Bengal Bangladesh_sentence_29

The exact origin of the word Bangla is unknown, though it is believed to come from "Vanga", an ancient kingdom and geopolitical division on the Ganges delta in the Indian subcontinent. Bangladesh_sentence_30

It was located in southern Bengal, with the core region including present-day southern West Bengal (India) and southwestern Bangladesh. Bangladesh_sentence_31

In Islamic tradition, it is said to come from "Bung/Bang", a son of Hind (the son of Hām, who was a son of Noah) who colonised the area for the first time. Bangladesh_sentence_32

The suffix "al" came to be added to it from the fact that the ancient rajas of this land raised mounds of earth 10 feet high and 20 in breadth in lowlands at the foot of the hills which were called "al". Bangladesh_sentence_33

From this suffix added to the Bung, the name Bengal arose and gained currency". Bangladesh_sentence_34

Support for this view is found in Ghulam Husain Salim's Riyaz-us-Salatin. Bangladesh_sentence_35

Other theories point to a Bronze Age proto-Dravidian tribe, the Austric word "Bonga" (Sun god), and the Iron Age Vanga Kingdom. Bangladesh_sentence_36

The Indo-Aryan suffix Desh is derived from the Sanskrit word deśha, which means "land" or "country". Bangladesh_sentence_37

Hence, the name Bangladesh means "Land of Bengal" or "Country of Bengal". Bangladesh_sentence_38

The term Bangla denotes both the Bengal region and the Bengali language. Bangladesh_sentence_39

The earliest known usage of the term is the Nesari plate in 805 AD. Bangladesh_sentence_40

The term Vangaladesa is found in 11th-century South Indian records. Bangladesh_sentence_41

The term gained official status during the Sultanate of Bengal in the 14th century. Bangladesh_sentence_42

Shamsuddin Ilyas Shah proclaimed himself as the first "Shah of Bangala" in 1342. Bangladesh_sentence_43

The word Bangla became the most common name for the region during the Islamic period. Bangladesh_sentence_44

The Portuguese referred to the region as Bengala in the 16th century. Bangladesh_sentence_45

The term Bangladesh was often written as two words, Bangla Desh, in the past. Bangladesh_sentence_46

Starting in the 1950s, Bengali nationalists used the term in political rallies in East Pakistan. Bangladesh_sentence_47

History Bangladesh_section_1

Main articles: History of Bengal and History of Bangladesh Bangladesh_sentence_48

Early and medieval periods Bangladesh_section_2

Stone Age tools found in Bangladesh indicate human habitation for over 20,000 years, and remnants of Copper Age settlements date back 4,000 years. Bangladesh_sentence_49

Ancient Bengal was settled by Austroasiatics, Tibeto-Burmans, Dravidians and Indo-Aryans in consecutive waves of migration. Bangladesh_sentence_50

Archaeological evidence confirms that by the second millennium BCE, rice-cultivating communities inhabited the region. Bangladesh_sentence_51

By the 11th century people lived in systemically-aligned housing, buried their dead, and manufactured copper ornaments and black and red pottery. Bangladesh_sentence_52

The Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna rivers were natural arteries for communication and transportation, and estuaries on the Bay of Bengal permitted maritime trade. Bangladesh_sentence_53

The early Iron Age saw the development of metal weaponry, coinage, agriculture and irrigation. Bangladesh_sentence_54

Major urban settlements formed during the late Iron Age, in the mid-first millennium BCE, when the Northern Black Polished Ware culture developed. Bangladesh_sentence_55

In 1879, Alexander Cunningham identified Mahasthangarh as the capital of the Pundra Kingdom mentioned in the Rigveda. Bangladesh_sentence_56

The oldest inscription in Bangladesh was found in Mahasthangarh and dates from the 3rd century BCE. Bangladesh_sentence_57

It is written in the Brahmi script. Bangladesh_sentence_58

Greek and Roman records of the ancient Gangaridai Kingdom, which (according to legend) deterred the invasion of Alexander the Great, are linked to the fort city in Wari-Bateshwar. Bangladesh_sentence_59

The site is also identified with the prosperous trading center of Souanagoura listed on Ptolemy's world map. Bangladesh_sentence_60

Roman geographers noted a large seaport in southeastern Bengal, corresponding to the present-day Chittagong region. Bangladesh_sentence_61

Ancient Buddhist and Hindu states which ruled Bangladesh included the Vanga, Samatata and Pundra kingdoms, the Mauryan and Gupta Empires, the Varman dynasty, Shashanka's kingdom, the Khadga and Candra dynasties, the Pala Empire, the Sena dynasty, the Harikela kingdom and the Deva dynasty. Bangladesh_sentence_62

These states had well-developed currencies, banking, shipping, architecture and art, and the ancient universities of Bikrampur and Mainamati hosted scholars and students from other parts of Asia. Bangladesh_sentence_63

Xuanzang of China was a noted scholar who resided at the Somapura Mahavihara (the largest monastery in ancient India), and Atisa travelled from Bengal to Tibet to preach Buddhism. Bangladesh_sentence_64

The earliest form of the Bengali language began to the emerge during the eighth century.Early Muslim explorers and missionaries arrived in Bengal late in the first millennium CE. Bangladesh_sentence_65

The Islamic conquest of Bengal began with the 1204 invasion by Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khalji; after annexing Bengal to the Delhi Sultanate, Khilji waged a military campaign in Tibet. Bangladesh_sentence_66

Bengal was ruled by the Delhi Sultanate for a century by governors from the Mamluk, Balban and Tughluq dynasties. Bangladesh_sentence_67

Subsequently, the independent Bengal Sultanate was established by the rebel governors in 1352. Bangladesh_sentence_68

During their rule Bengal was transformed into a cosmopolitan Islamic superpower and became a major trading nation in the world, often referred by the Europeans as the richest country to trade with. Bangladesh_sentence_69

The sultanate's ruling houses included the Ilyas Shahi, Ganesha, Hussain Shahi, Suri and Karrani dynasties, and the era saw the introduction of a distinct mosque architecture and the tangka currency. Bangladesh_sentence_70

The Arakan region was brought under Bengali hegemony. Bangladesh_sentence_71

The Bengal Sultanate was visited by explorers Ibn Battuta, Admiral Zheng He and Niccolo De Conti. Bangladesh_sentence_72

The Khorasanis referred to the land as an "inferno full of gifts", due to its unbearable climate but abundance of wealth. Bangladesh_sentence_73

During the late 16th century, the Baro-Bhuyan (a confederation of Muslim and Hindu aristocrats) ruled eastern Bengal; its leader was the Mansad-e-Ala, a title held by Isa Khan and his son Musa Khan. Bangladesh_sentence_74

The Khan dynasty are considered local heroes for resisting North Indian invasions with their river navies. Bangladesh_sentence_75

The Mughal Empire controlled Bengal by the 17th century. Bangladesh_sentence_76

During the reign of Emperor Akbar, the Bengali agrarian calendar was reformed to facilitate tax collection. Bangladesh_sentence_77

The Mughals established Dhaka as a fort city and commercial metropolis, and it was the capital of Bengal Subah for 75 years. Bangladesh_sentence_78

In 1666, the Mughals expelled the Arakanese from Chittagong. Bangladesh_sentence_79

Mughal Bengal attracted foreign traders for its muslin and silk goods, and the Armenians were a notable merchant community. Bangladesh_sentence_80

A Portuguese settlement in Chittagong flourished in the southeast, and a Dutch settlement in Rajshahi existed in the north. Bangladesh_sentence_81

Bengal accounted for 40% of overall Dutch imports from Asia; including more than 50% of textiles and around 80% of silks. Bangladesh_sentence_82

The Bengal Subah, described as the Paradise of the Nations, was the empire's wealthiest province, and a major global exporter, a notable center of worldwide industries such as muslin, cotton textiles, silk, and shipbuilding. Bangladesh_sentence_83

Its citizens also enjoyed one of the world's most superior living standards. Bangladesh_sentence_84

During the 18th century, the Nawabs of Bengal became the region's de facto rulers. Bangladesh_sentence_85

The title of the ruler is popularly known as the Nawab of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa, given that the Bengali Nawab's realm encompassed much of the eastern subcontinent. Bangladesh_sentence_86

The Nawabs forged alliances with European colonial companies, which made the region relatively prosperous early in the century. Bangladesh_sentence_87

Bengal accounted for 50% of the gross domestic product of the empire. Bangladesh_sentence_88

The Bengali economy relied on textile manufacturing, shipbuilding, saltpetre production, craftsmanship and agricultural produce. Bangladesh_sentence_89

Bengal was a major hub for international trade – silk and cotton textiles from Bengal were worn in Europe, Japan, Indonesia and Central Asia. Bangladesh_sentence_90

Annual Bengali shipbuilding output was 223,250 tons, compared to an output of 23,061 tons in the nineteen colonies of North America. Bangladesh_sentence_91

Bengali shipbuilding proved to be more advanced than European shipbuilding prior to the Industrial Revolution. Bangladesh_sentence_92

The flush deck of Bengali rice ships was later replicated in European shipbuilding to replace the stepped deck design for ship hulls. Bangladesh_sentence_93

The Bengali Muslim population was a product of conversion and religious evolution, and their pre-Islamic beliefs included elements of Buddhism and Hinduism. Bangladesh_sentence_94

The construction of mosques, Islamic academies (madrasas) and Sufi monasteries (khanqahs) facilitated conversion, and Islamic cosmology played a significant role in developing Bengali Muslim society. Bangladesh_sentence_95

Scholars have theorised that Bengalis were attracted to Islam by its egalitarian social order, which contrasted with the Hindu caste system. Bangladesh_sentence_96

One of the notable Muslim preachers was Shah Jalal who arrived in the region of Sylhet in 1303 with many other disciples to preach the religion to the people. Bangladesh_sentence_97

By the 15th century, Muslim poets were writing in the Bengali language. Bangladesh_sentence_98

Notable medieval Bengali Muslim poets included Daulat Qazi, Abdul Hakim and Alaol. Bangladesh_sentence_99

Syncretic cults, such as the Baul movement, emerged on the fringes of Bengali Muslim society. Bangladesh_sentence_100

The Persianate culture was significant in Bengal, where cities like Sonargaon became the easternmost centers of Persian influence. Bangladesh_sentence_101

The Mughals had aided France during the Seven Years' War to avoid losing the Bengal region to the British. Bangladesh_sentence_102

However, in the Battle of Plassey the British East India Company registered a decisive victory over the Nawab of Bengal and his French allies on 22 June 1757, under the leadership of Robert Clive. Bangladesh_sentence_103

The battle followed the order of Siraj-ud-Daulah, the last independent Nawab of Bengal, to the English to stop the extension of their fortification. Bangladesh_sentence_104

Robert Clive bribed Mir Jafar, the commander-in-chief of the Nawab's army, and also promised him to make him Nawab of Bengal which helped him to defeat Siraj-ud-Daulah and capture Calcutta. Bangladesh_sentence_105

The battle consolidated the company's presence in Bengal, which later expanded to cover much of India over the next hundred years. Bangladesh_sentence_106

Although they had lost control of Bengal Subah, Shah Alam II was involved in the Bengal War which ended once more in their defeat at the Battle of Buxar. Bangladesh_sentence_107

Colonial period Bangladesh_section_3

Main articles: Bengal Presidency and Eastern Bengal and Assam Bangladesh_sentence_108

Two decades after Vasco Da Gama's landing in Calicut, the Bengal Sultanate gave permission for the Portuguese settlement in Chittagong to be established in 1528. Bangladesh_sentence_109

It became the first European colonial enclave in Bengal. Bangladesh_sentence_110

The Bengal Sultanate lost control of Chittagong in 1531 after Arakan declared independence and the established Kingdom of Mrauk U. Bangladesh_sentence_111

Portuguese ships from Goa and Malacca began frequenting the port city in the 16th century. Bangladesh_sentence_112

The cartaz system was introduced and required all ships in the area to purchase naval trading licenses from the Portuguese settlement. Bangladesh_sentence_113

Slave trade and piracy flourished. Bangladesh_sentence_114

The nearby island of Sandwip was conquered in 1602. Bangladesh_sentence_115

In 1615, the Portuguese Navy defeated a joint Dutch East India Company and Arakanese fleet near the coast of Chittagong. Bangladesh_sentence_116

The Bengal Sultan after 1534 allowed the Portuguese to create several settlements at Chitagoong, Satgaon, Hughli, Bandel, and Dhaka. Bangladesh_sentence_117

In 1535 the Portuguese allied with the Bengal sultan and held the Teliagarhi pass 280 km from Patna helping to avoid the invasion by the Mughals. Bangladesh_sentence_118

By then several of the products came from Patna and the Portuguese send in traders, establishing a factory there since 1580. Bangladesh_sentence_119

By the time the Portuguese assured military help against Sher Shah, the Mughals already had started to conquer the Sultanate of Ghiyasuddin Mahmud. Bangladesh_sentence_120

In 1666, the Mughal government of Bengal led by viceroy Shaista Khan moved to retake Chittagong from Portuguese and Arakanese control. Bangladesh_sentence_121

After the 1757 Battle of Plassey, Bengal was the first region of the Indian subcontinent conquered by the British East India Company. Bangladesh_sentence_122

The company formed the Presidency of Fort William, which administered the region until 1858. Bangladesh_sentence_123

A notable aspect of company rule was the Permanent Settlement, which established the feudal zamindari system. Bangladesh_sentence_124

The plunder of Bengal directly contributed to the Industrial Revolution in Britain, with the capital amassed from Bengal used to invest in British industries such as textile and greatly increase British wealth, while at the same time leading to deindustrialisation of Bengal's traditional textile industry. Bangladesh_sentence_125

The economic mismanagement directly led to the Great Bengal famine of 1770, which is estimated to have caused the deaths of about 10 million people, as a third of the population in the affected region starved to death. Bangladesh_sentence_126

Several rebellions broke out during the early 19th century (including one led by Titumir), but British rule displaced the Muslim ruling class. Bangladesh_sentence_127

A conservative Islamic cleric, Haji Shariatullah, sought to overthrow the British by propagating Islamic revivalism. Bangladesh_sentence_128

Several towns in Bangladesh participated in the Indian Rebellion of 1857 and pledged allegiance to the last Mughal emperor, Bahadur Shah Zafar, who was later exiled to neighbouring Burma. Bangladesh_sentence_129

The challenge posed to company rule by the failed Indian Mutiny led to the creation of the British Indian Empire as a crown colony. Bangladesh_sentence_130

The British established several schools, colleges and a university in what is now Bangladesh. Bangladesh_sentence_131

Syed Ahmed Khan and Ram Mohan Roy promoted modern and liberal education in the subcontinent, inspiring the Aligarh movement and the Bengal Renaissance. Bangladesh_sentence_132

During the late 19th century, novelists, social reformers and feminists emerged from Muslim Bengali society. Bangladesh_sentence_133

Electricity and municipal water systems were introduced in the 1890s; cinemas opened in many towns during the early 20th century. Bangladesh_sentence_134

East Bengal's plantation economy was important to the British Empire, particularly its jute and tea. Bangladesh_sentence_135

The British established tax-free river ports, such as the Port of Narayanganj, and large seaports like the Port of Chittagong. Bangladesh_sentence_136

Bengal had the highest gross domestic product in British India. Bangladesh_sentence_137

Bengal was one of the first regions in Asia to have a railway. Bangladesh_sentence_138

The first railway in what is now Bangladesh began operating in 1862. Bangladesh_sentence_139

In comparison, Japan saw its first railway in 1872. Bangladesh_sentence_140

The main railway companies in the region were the Eastern Bengal Railway and Assam Bengal Railway. Bangladesh_sentence_141

Railways competed with waterborne transport to become one of the main mediums of transport. Bangladesh_sentence_142

Supported by the Muslim aristocracy, the British government created the province of Eastern Bengal and Assam in 1905; the new province received increased investment in education, transport and industry. Bangladesh_sentence_143

However, the first partition of Bengal created an uproar in Calcutta and the Indian National Congress. Bangladesh_sentence_144

In response to growing Hindu nationalism, the All India Muslim League was formed in Dhaka during the 1906 All India Muhammadan Educational Conference. Bangladesh_sentence_145

The British government reorganised the provinces in 1912, reuniting East and West Bengal and making Assam a second province. Bangladesh_sentence_146

The Raj was slow to allow self-rule in the colonial subcontinent. Bangladesh_sentence_147

It established the Bengal Legislative Council in 1862, and the council's native Bengali representation increased during the early 20th century. Bangladesh_sentence_148

The Bengal Provincial Muslim League was formed in 1913 to advocate civil rights for Bengali Muslims within a constitutional framework. Bangladesh_sentence_149

During the 1920s, the league was divided into factions supporting the Khilafat movement and favouring co-operation with the British to achieve self-rule. Bangladesh_sentence_150

Segments of the Bengali elite supported Mustafa Kemal Atatürk's secularist forces. Bangladesh_sentence_151

In 1929, the All Bengal Tenants Association was formed in the Bengal Legislative Council to counter the influence of the Hindu landed gentry, and the Indian Independence and Pakistan Movements strengthened during the early 20th century. Bangladesh_sentence_152

After the Morley-Minto Reforms and the diarchy era in the legislatures of British India, the British government promised limited provincial autonomy in 1935. Bangladesh_sentence_153

The Bengal Legislative Assembly, British India's largest legislature, was established in 1937. Bangladesh_sentence_154

Although it won a majority of seats in 1937, the Bengal Congress boycotted the legislature. Bangladesh_sentence_155

A. Bangladesh_sentence_156

K. Fazlul Huq of the Krishak Praja Party was elected as the first Prime Minister of Bengal. Bangladesh_sentence_157

In 1940 Huq supported the Lahore Resolution, which envisaged independent states in the northwestern and eastern Muslim-majority regions of the subcontinent. Bangladesh_sentence_158

The first Huq ministry, a coalition with the Bengal Provincial Muslim League, lasted until 1941; it was followed by a Huq coalition with the Hindu Mahasabha which lasted until 1943. Bangladesh_sentence_159

Huq was succeeded by Khawaja Nazimuddin, who grappled with the effects of the Burma Campaign, the Bengal famine of 1943, which killed up to 3 million people, and the Quit India movement. Bangladesh_sentence_160

In 1946, the Bengal Provincial Muslim League won the provincial election, taking 113 of the 250-seat assembly (the largest Muslim League mandate in British India). Bangladesh_sentence_161

H. Bangladesh_sentence_162

S. Suhrawardy, who made a final futile effort for a United Bengal in 1946, was the last premier of Bengal. Bangladesh_sentence_163

Partition of Bengal (1947) Bangladesh_section_4

Main article: Partition of Bengal (1947) Bangladesh_sentence_164

On 3 June 1947, the Mountbatten Plan outlined the partition of British India. Bangladesh_sentence_165

On 20 June, the Bengal Legislative Assembly met to decide on the partition of Bengal. Bangladesh_sentence_166

At the preliminary joint meeting, it was decided (120 votes to 90) that if the province remained united it should join the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan. Bangladesh_sentence_167

At a separate meeting of legislators from West Bengal, it was decided (58 votes to 21) that the province should be partitioned and West Bengal should join the Constituent Assembly of India. Bangladesh_sentence_168

At another meeting of legislators from East Bengal, it was decided (106 votes to 35) that the province should not be partitioned and (107 votes to 34) that East Bengal should join the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan if Bengal was partitioned. Bangladesh_sentence_169

On 6 July, the Sylhet region of Assam voted in a referendum to join East Bengal. Bangladesh_sentence_170

Cyril Radcliffe was tasked with drawing the borders of Pakistan and India, and the Radcliffe Line established the borders of present-day Bangladesh. Bangladesh_sentence_171

Union with Pakistan Bangladesh_section_5

Main articles: East Bengal and East Pakistan Bangladesh_sentence_172

The Dominion of Pakistan was created on 14 August 1947. Bangladesh_sentence_173

East Bengal, with Dhaka as its capital, was the most populous province of the 1947 Pakistani federation (led by Governor General Muhammad Ali Jinnah, who promised freedom of religion and secular democracy in the new state). Bangladesh_sentence_174

East Bengal was also Pakistan's most cosmopolitan province, home to peoples of different faiths, cultures and ethnic groups. Bangladesh_sentence_175

Partition gave increased economic opportunity to East Bengalis, producing an urban population during the 1950s. Bangladesh_sentence_176

Khawaja Nazimuddin was East Bengal's first chief minister with Frederick Chalmers Bourne its governor. Bangladesh_sentence_177

The All Pakistan Awami Muslim League was formed in 1949. Bangladesh_sentence_178

In 1950, the East Bengal Legislative Assembly enacted land reform, abolishing the Permanent Settlement and the zamindari system. Bangladesh_sentence_179

The 1952 Bengali Language Movement was the first sign of friction between the country's geographically-separated wings. Bangladesh_sentence_180

The Awami Muslim League was renamed the more-secular Awami League in 1953. Bangladesh_sentence_181

The first constituent assembly was dissolved in 1954; this was challenged by its East Bengali speaker, Maulvi Tamizuddin Khan. Bangladesh_sentence_182

The United Front coalition swept aside the Muslim League in a landslide victory in the 1954 East Bengali legislative election. Bangladesh_sentence_183

The following year, East Bengal was renamed East Pakistan as part of the One Unit program and the province became a vital part of the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization. Bangladesh_sentence_184

Pakistan adopted its first constitution in 1956. Bangladesh_sentence_185

Three Bengalis were its Prime Minister until 1957: Nazimuddin, Mohammad Ali of Bogra and Suhrawardy. Bangladesh_sentence_186

None of the three completed their terms, and resigned from office. Bangladesh_sentence_187

The Pakistan Army imposed military rule in 1958, and Ayub Khan was the country's strongman for 11 years. Bangladesh_sentence_188

Political repression increased after the coup. Bangladesh_sentence_189

Khan introduced a new constitution in 1962, replacing Pakistan's parliamentary system with a presidential and gubernatorial system (based on electoral college selection) known as Basic Democracy. Bangladesh_sentence_190

In 1962 Dhaka became the seat of the National Assembly of Pakistan, a move seen as appeasing increased Bengali nationalism. Bangladesh_sentence_191

The Pakistani government built the controversial Kaptai Dam, displacing the Chakma people from their indigenous homeland in the Chittagong Hill Tracts. Bangladesh_sentence_192

During the 1965 presidential election, Fatima Jinnah lost to Ayub Khan despite support from the Combined Opposition alliance (which included the Awami League). Bangladesh_sentence_193

The Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 blocked cross-border transport links with neighbouring India in what is described as a second partition. Bangladesh_sentence_194

In 1966, Awami League leader Sheikh Mujibur Rahman announced a six-point movement for a federal parliamentary democracy. Bangladesh_sentence_195

According to senior World Bank officials, Pakistan practised extensive economic discrimination against East Pakistan: greater government spending on West Pakistan, financial transfers from East to West Pakistan, the use of East Pakistan's foreign-exchange surpluses to finance West Pakistani imports, and refusal by the central government to release funds allocated to East Pakistan because the previous spending had been under budget; though East Pakistan generated 70 percent of Pakistan's export revenue with its jute and tea. Bangladesh_sentence_196

Sheikh Mujibur Rahman was arrested for treason in the Agartala Conspiracy Case and was released during the 1969 uprising in East Pakistan which resulted in Ayub Khan's resignation. Bangladesh_sentence_197

General Yahya Khan assumed power, reintroducing martial law. Bangladesh_sentence_198

Ethnic and linguistic discrimination was common in Pakistan's civil and military services, in which Bengalis were under-represented. Bangladesh_sentence_199

Fifteen percent of Pakistani central-government offices were occupied by East Pakistanis, who formed 10 percent of the military. Bangladesh_sentence_200

Cultural discrimination also prevailed, making East Pakistan forge a distinct political identity. Bangladesh_sentence_201

Pakistan banned Bengali literature and music in state media, including the works of Nobel laureate Rabindranath Tagore. Bangladesh_sentence_202

A cyclone devastated the coast of East Pakistan in 1970, killing an estimated 500,000 people, and the central government was criticised for its poor response. Bangladesh_sentence_203

After the December 1970 elections, calls for the independence of East Bengal became louder; the Bengali-nationalist Awami League won 167 of 169 East Pakistani seats in the National Assembly. Bangladesh_sentence_204

The League claimed the right to form a government and develop a new constitution but was strongly opposed by the Pakistani military and the Pakistan Peoples Party (led by Zulfikar Ali Bhutto). Bangladesh_sentence_205

War of Independence Bangladesh_section_6

Main article: Bangladesh Liberation War Bangladesh_sentence_206

The Bengali population was angered when Prime Minister-elect Sheikh Mujibur Rahman was prevented from taking the office. Bangladesh_sentence_207

Civil disobedience erupted across East Pakistan, with calls for independence. Bangladesh_sentence_208

Mujib addressed a pro-independence rally of nearly 2 million people in Dacca (as Dhaka used to be spelled in English) on 7 March 1971, where he said, "This time the struggle is for our freedom. Bangladesh_sentence_209

This time the struggle is for our independence." Bangladesh_sentence_210

The flag of Bangladesh was raised for the first time on 23 March, Pakistan's Republic Day. Bangladesh_sentence_211

Later, on 25 March late evening, the Pakistani military junta led by Yahya Khan launched a sustained military assault on East Pakistan under the code name of Operation Searchlight. Bangladesh_sentence_212

The Pakistan Army arrested Sheikh Mujibur Rahman and flew him away to Karachi. Bangladesh_sentence_213

However, before his arrest Mujib proclaimed the Independence of Bangladesh at midnight on 26 March which led the Bangladesh Liberation War to break out within hours. Bangladesh_sentence_214

The Pakistan Army continued to massacre Bengali students, intellectuals, politicians, civil servants and military defectors in the 1971 Bangladesh genocide, while the Mukti Bahini and other Bengali guerrilla forces created strong resistance throughout the country. Bangladesh_sentence_215

During the war, an estimated 0.3 to 3 million people were killed and several million people took shelter in neighbouring India. Bangladesh_sentence_216

Global public opinion turned against Pakistan as news of the atrocities spread; the Bangladesh movement was supported by prominent political and cultural figures in the West, including Ted Kennedy, George Harrison, Bob Dylan, Joan Baez, Victoria Ocampo and André Malraux. Bangladesh_sentence_217

The Concert for Bangladesh was held at Madison Square Garden in New York City to raise funds for Bangladeshi refugees. Bangladesh_sentence_218

The first major benefit concert in history, it was organised by Harrison and Indian Bengali sitarist Ravi Shankar. Bangladesh_sentence_219

During the Bangladesh Liberation War, Bengali nationalists declared independence and formed the Mukti Bahini (the Bangladeshi National Liberation Army). Bangladesh_sentence_220

The Provisional Government of Bangladesh was established on 17 April 1971, converting the 469 elected members of the Pakistani national assembly and East Pakistani provincial assembly into the Constituent Assembly of Bangladesh. Bangladesh_sentence_221

The provisional government issued a proclamation that became the country's interim constitution and declared "equality, human dignity and social justice" as its fundamental principles. Bangladesh_sentence_222

Due to Mujib's detention, Syed Nazrul Islam took over the role of Acting President, while Tajuddin Ahmad was named Bangladesh's first Prime Minister. Bangladesh_sentence_223

The Mukti Bahini and other Bengali guerrilla forces formed the Bangladesh Forces which became the military wing of the provisional government. Bangladesh_sentence_224

Led by General M. Bangladesh_sentence_225

A. G. Osmani and eleven sector commanders, the forces held the countryside during the war and conducted wide-ranging guerrilla operations against Pakistani forces. Bangladesh_sentence_226

As a result, almost the entire country except the capital Dacca was liberated by Bangladesh Forces by late November. Bangladesh_sentence_227

This led the Pakistan Army to attack neighbouring India's western front on 2 December 1971. Bangladesh_sentence_228

India retaliated in both the western and eastern fronts. Bangladesh_sentence_229

With a joint ground advance by Bangladeshi and Indian forces, coupled with air strikes by both India and the small Bangladeshi air contingent, the capital Dacca was liberated from Pakistani occupation in mid-December. Bangladesh_sentence_230

During the last phase of the war, both the Soviet Union and the United States dispatched naval forces to the Bay of Bengal in a Cold War standoff. Bangladesh_sentence_231

The nine-months long war ended with the surrender of Pakistani armed forces to the Bangladesh-India Allied Forces on 16 December 1971. Bangladesh_sentence_232

Under international pressure, Pakistan released Rahman from imprisonment on 8 January 1972 and he was flown by the British Royal Air Force to a million-strong homecoming in Dacca. Bangladesh_sentence_233

Remaining Indian troops were withdrawn by 12 March 1972, three months after the war ended. Bangladesh_sentence_234

The cause of Bangladeshi self-determination was recognised around the world. Bangladesh_sentence_235

By August 1972, the new state was recognised by 86 countries. Bangladesh_sentence_236

Pakistan recognised Bangladesh in 1974 after pressure from most of the Muslim countries. Bangladesh_sentence_237

People's Republic of Bangladesh Bangladesh_section_7

First parliamentary era Bangladesh_section_8

The constituent assembly adopted the constitution of Bangladesh on 4 November 1972, establishing a secular, multiparty parliamentary democracy. Bangladesh_sentence_238

The new constitution included references to socialism, and Prime Minister Sheikh Mujibur Rahman nationalised major industries in 1972. Bangladesh_sentence_239

A major reconstruction and rehabilitation program was launched. Bangladesh_sentence_240

The Awami League won the country's first general election in 1973, securing a large majority in the "Jatiyo Sangshad", the national parliament. Bangladesh_sentence_241

Bangladesh joined the Commonwealth of Nations, the UN, the OIC and the Non-Aligned Movement, and Rahman strengthened ties with India. Bangladesh_sentence_242

Amid growing agitation by the opposition National Awami Party and Jashod, he became increasingly authoritarian. Bangladesh_sentence_243

Rahman amended the constitution, giving himself more emergency powers (including the suspension of fundamental rights). Bangladesh_sentence_244

The Bangladesh famine of 1974 also worsened the political situation. Bangladesh_sentence_245

Presidential era and coups (1975–1991) Bangladesh_section_9

See also: Military coups in Bangladesh Bangladesh_sentence_246

In January 1975, Sheikh Mujibur Rahman introduced one-party socialist rule under BAKSAL. Bangladesh_sentence_247

Rahman banned all newspapers except four state-owned publications, and amended the constitution to increase his power. Bangladesh_sentence_248

He was assassinated during a coup on 15 August 1975. Bangladesh_sentence_249

Martial law was declared, and the presidency passed to the usurper Khondaker Mostaq Ahmad for four months. Bangladesh_sentence_250

Ahmad is widely regarded as a traitor by Bangladeshis. Bangladesh_sentence_251

Tajuddin Ahmad, the nation's first prime minister, and four other independence leaders were assassinated on 4 November 1975. Bangladesh_sentence_252

Chief Justice Abu Sadat Mohammad Sayem was installed as president by the military on 6 November 1975. Bangladesh_sentence_253

Bangladesh was governed by a military junta led by the Chief Martial Law Administrator for three years. Bangladesh_sentence_254

In 1977, the army chief Ziaur Rahman became president. Bangladesh_sentence_255

Rahman reinstated multiparty politics, privatised industries and newspapers, established BEPZA and held the country's second general election in 1979. Bangladesh_sentence_256

A semi-presidential system evolved, with the Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP) governing until 1982. Bangladesh_sentence_257

Rahman was assassinated in 1981, and was succeeded by Vice-President Abdus Sattar. Bangladesh_sentence_258

Sattar received 65.5 percent of the vote in the 1981 presidential election. Bangladesh_sentence_259

After a year in office, Sattar was overthrown in the 1982 Bangladesh coup d'état. Bangladesh_sentence_260

Chief Justice A. Bangladesh_sentence_261

F. M. Ahsanuddin Chowdhury was installed as president, but army chief Hussain Muhammad Ershad became the country's de facto leader and assumed the presidency in 1983. Bangladesh_sentence_262

Ershad lifted martial law in 1986. Bangladesh_sentence_263

He governed with four successive prime ministers (Ataur Rahman Khan, Mizanur Rahman Chowdhury, Moudud Ahmed and Kazi Zafar Ahmed) and a parliament dominated by his Jatiyo Party. Bangladesh_sentence_264

General elections were held in 1986 and 1988, although the latter was boycotted by the opposition BNP and Awami League. Bangladesh_sentence_265

Ershad pursued administrative decentralisation, dividing the country into 64 districts, and pushed Parliament to make Islam the state religion in 1988. Bangladesh_sentence_266

A 1990 mass uprising forced him to resign, and Chief Justice Shahabuddin Ahmed led the country's first caretaker government as part of the transition to parliamentary rule. Bangladesh_sentence_267

Current parliamentary era (1991–present) Bangladesh_section_10

See also: 2006-2008 Bangladeshi political crisis Bangladesh_sentence_268

After the 1991 general election, the twelfth amendment to the constitution restored the parliamentary republic and Begum Khaleda Zia became Bangladesh's first female prime minister. Bangladesh_sentence_269

Zia, a former first lady, led a BNP government from 1990 to 1996. Bangladesh_sentence_270

In 1991 her finance minister, Saifur Rahman, began a major program to liberalise the Bangladeshi economy. Bangladesh_sentence_271

In February 1996, a general election was held which was boycotted by all opposition parties giving a 300 (of 300) seat victory for BNP. Bangladesh_sentence_272

This election was deemed illegitimate, so a system of a caretaker government was introduced to oversee the transfer of power and a new election was held in June 1996, overseen by Justice Muhammad Habibur Rahman, the first Chief Adviser of Bangladesh. Bangladesh_sentence_273

The Awami League won the seventh general election, marking its leader Sheikh Hasina's first term as Prime Minister. Bangladesh_sentence_274

Hasina's first term was highlighted by the Chittagong Hill Tracts Peace Accord and a Ganges water-sharing treaty with India. Bangladesh_sentence_275

The second caretaker government, led by Chief Adviser Justice Latifur Rahman, oversaw the 2001 Bangladeshi general election which returned Begum Zia and the BNP to power. Bangladesh_sentence_276

The second Zia administration saw improved economic growth, but political turmoil gripped the country between 2004 and 2006. Bangladesh_sentence_277

A radical Islamist militant group, the JMB, carried out a series of terror attacks. Bangladesh_sentence_278

The evidence of staging these attacks by these extremist groups have been found in the investigation, and hundreds of suspected members were detained in numerous security operations in 2006, including the two chiefs of the JMB, Shaykh Abdur Rahman and Bangla Bhai, who were executed with other top leaders in March 2007, bringing the militant group to an end. Bangladesh_sentence_279

In 2006, at the end of the term of the BNP administration, there was widespread political unrest related to the handover of power to a caretaker government. Bangladesh_sentence_280

As such, the Bangladeshi military urged President Iajuddin Ahmed to impose a state of emergency and a caretaker government, led by technocrat Fakhruddin Ahmed, was installed. Bangladesh_sentence_281

Emergency rule lasted for two years, during which time investigations into members of both Awami League and BNP were conducted, including their leaders Sheikh Hasina and Khaleda Zia. Bangladesh_sentence_282

In 2008 the ninth general election saw a return to power for Sheikh Hasina and the Awami League led Grand Alliance in a landslide victory. Bangladesh_sentence_283

In 2010, the Supreme Court ruled martial law illegal and affirmed secular principles in the constitution. Bangladesh_sentence_284

The following year, the Awami League abolished the caretaker-government system. Bangladesh_sentence_285

Citing the lack of caretaker government the 2014 general election was boycotted by the BNP and other opposition parties, giving the Awami League a decisive victory. Bangladesh_sentence_286

The election was controversial with reports of violence and an alleged crackdown on the opposition in the run-up to the election and 153 seats (of 300) went uncontested in the election. Bangladesh_sentence_287

Despite the controversy Hasina went on to form a government which saw her return for a third term as Prime Minister. Bangladesh_sentence_288

Due to strong domestic demand, Bangladesh emerged as one of the fastest-growing economies in the world. Bangladesh_sentence_289

However, human rights abuses increased under the Hasina administration, particularly enforced disappearances. Bangladesh_sentence_290

Between 2016 and 2017, an estimated 1 million Rohingya refugees took shelter in southeastern Bangladesh amid a military crackdown in neighbouring Rakhine State, Myanmar. Bangladesh_sentence_291

In 2018, the country saw major movements for government quota reforms and road-safety. Bangladesh_sentence_292

The 2018 Bangladeshi general election was marred by allegations of widespread vote rigging. Bangladesh_sentence_293

The Awami League won 259 out of 300 seats and the main opposition alliance Jatiya Oikya Front secured only 8 seats, with Sheikh Hasina becoming the longest-serving prime minister in Bangladeshi history. Bangladesh_sentence_294

Pro-democracy leader Dr. Kamal Hossain called for an annulment of the election result and for a new election to be held in a free and fair manner. Bangladesh_sentence_295

The election was also observed by European Union observers. Bangladesh_sentence_296

Geography Bangladesh_section_11

Main article: Geography of Bangladesh Bangladesh_sentence_297

The geography of Bangladesh is divided between three regions. Bangladesh_sentence_298

Most of the country is dominated by the fertile Ganges-Brahmaputra delta, which is the largest river delta in the world. Bangladesh_sentence_299

The northwest and central parts of the country are formed by the Madhupur and the Barind plateaus. Bangladesh_sentence_300

The northeast and southeast are home to evergreen hill ranges. Bangladesh_sentence_301

The Ganges delta is formed by the confluence of the Ganges (local name Padma or Pôdda), Brahmaputra (Jamuna or Jomuna), and Meghna rivers and their respective tributaries. Bangladesh_sentence_302

The Ganges unites with the Jamuna (main channel of the Brahmaputra) and later joins the Meghna, finally flowing into the Bay of Bengal. Bangladesh_sentence_303

Bangladesh has 57 trans-boundary rivers, making the resolution of water issues politically complicated, in most cases, as the country is a lower riparian state to India. Bangladesh_sentence_304

Bangladesh is predominantly rich fertile flat land. Bangladesh_sentence_305

Most of it is less than 12 m (39 ft) above sea level, and it is estimated that about 10% of its land would be flooded if the sea level were to rise by 1 m (3.3 ft). Bangladesh_sentence_306

17% of the country is covered by forests and 12% is covered by hill systems. Bangladesh_sentence_307

The country's haor wetlands are of significance to global environmental science. Bangladesh_sentence_308

In southeastern Bangladesh, experiments have been done since the 1960s to 'build with nature'. Bangladesh_sentence_309

Construction of cross dams has induced a natural accretion of silt, creating new land. Bangladesh_sentence_310

With Dutch funding, the Bangladeshi government began promoting the development of this new land in the late 1970s. Bangladesh_sentence_311

The effort has become a multi-agency endeavour, building roads, culverts, embankments, cyclone shelters, toilets and ponds, as well as distributing land to settlers. Bangladesh_sentence_312

Years of collaboration with donors and global experts in water resources management has enabled Bangladesh to formulate strategies to combat the impacts of climate change. Bangladesh_sentence_313

In Sep 2018, Bangladesh Government approved Bangladesh Delta Plan 2100, a combination of long-term strategies and subsequent interventions for ensuring long term water and food security, economic growth and environmental sustainability. Bangladesh_sentence_314

The formulation of the plan was led by the General Economics Division of the Ministry of Planning, and supported by the Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, bringing together cross-sectoral expertise from the Netherlands and Bangladesh. Bangladesh_sentence_315

With an elevation of 1,064 m (3,491 ft), Saka Haphong (also known as Mowdok Mual) near the border with Myanmar, is claimed to be the highest peak of Bangladesh. Bangladesh_sentence_316

However, it is not yet widely recognized as the highest point of the country, and most sources give the honor to Keokradong. Bangladesh_sentence_317

There is evidence that earthquakes pose a threat to the country and that plate tectonics have caused rivers to shift course suddenly and dramatically. Bangladesh_sentence_318

It has been shown that rainy-season flooding in Bangladesh, on the world's largest river delta, can push the underlying crust down by as much as 6 centimetres, and possibly perturb faults. Bangladesh_sentence_319

Bangladeshi water is frequently contaminated with arsenic because of the high arsenic content of the soil—up to 77 million people are exposed to toxic arsenic from drinking water. Bangladesh_sentence_320

Administrative geography Bangladesh_section_12

Main article: Administrative geography of Bangladesh Bangladesh_sentence_321

Further information: Divisions of Bangladesh, Districts of Bangladesh, and Upazilas of Bangladesh Bangladesh_sentence_322

Bangladesh is divided into eight administrative divisions, each named after their respective divisional headquarters: Barisal (officially Barishal), Chittagong (officially Chattogram), Dhaka, Khulna, Mymensingh, Rajshahi, Rangpur, and Sylhet. Bangladesh_sentence_323

Divisions are subdivided into districts (zila). Bangladesh_sentence_324

There are 64 districts in Bangladesh, each further subdivided into upazila (subdistricts) or thana. Bangladesh_sentence_325

The area within each police station, except for those in metropolitan areas, is divided into several unions, with each union consisting of multiple villages. Bangladesh_sentence_326

In the metropolitan areas, police stations are divided into wards, which are further divided into mahallas. Bangladesh_sentence_327

There are no elected officials at the divisional or district levels, and the administration is composed only of government officials. Bangladesh_sentence_328

Direct elections are held in each union (or ward) for a chairperson and a number of members. Bangladesh_sentence_329

In 1997, a parliamentary act was passed to reserve three seats (out of 12) in every union for female candidates. Bangladesh_sentence_330


Administrative Divisions of BangladeshBangladesh_table_caption_1
DivisionBangladesh_header_cell_1_0_0 CapitalBangladesh_header_cell_1_0_1 EstablishedBangladesh_header_cell_1_0_2 Area (km)Bangladesh_header_cell_1_0_3 2016 PopulationBangladesh_header_cell_1_0_4 DensityBangladesh_header_cell_1_0_5
Barisal DivisionBangladesh_cell_1_1_0 BarisalBangladesh_cell_1_1_1 1 January 1993Bangladesh_cell_1_1_2 13,225Bangladesh_cell_1_1_3 9,145,000Bangladesh_cell_1_1_4 691Bangladesh_cell_1_1_5
Chittagong DivisionBangladesh_cell_1_2_0 ChittagongBangladesh_cell_1_2_1 1 January 1829Bangladesh_cell_1_2_2 33,909Bangladesh_cell_1_2_3 31,980,000Bangladesh_cell_1_2_4 943Bangladesh_cell_1_2_5
Dhaka DivisionBangladesh_cell_1_3_0 DhakaBangladesh_cell_1_3_1 1 January 1829Bangladesh_cell_1_3_2 20,594Bangladesh_cell_1_3_3 40,171,000Bangladesh_cell_1_3_4 1,951Bangladesh_cell_1_3_5
Khulna DivisionBangladesh_cell_1_4_0 KhulnaBangladesh_cell_1_4_1 1 October 1960Bangladesh_cell_1_4_2 22,284Bangladesh_cell_1_4_3 17,252,000Bangladesh_cell_1_4_4 774Bangladesh_cell_1_4_5
Mymensingh DivisionBangladesh_cell_1_5_0 MymensinghBangladesh_cell_1_5_1 14 September 2015Bangladesh_cell_1_5_2 10,584Bangladesh_cell_1_5_3 12,368,000Bangladesh_cell_1_5_4 1,169Bangladesh_cell_1_5_5
Rajshahi DivisionBangladesh_cell_1_6_0 RajshahiBangladesh_cell_1_6_1 1 January 1829Bangladesh_cell_1_6_2 18,153Bangladesh_cell_1_6_3 20,412,000Bangladesh_cell_1_6_4 1,124Bangladesh_cell_1_6_5
Rangpur DivisionBangladesh_cell_1_7_0 RangpurBangladesh_cell_1_7_1 25 January 2010Bangladesh_cell_1_7_2 16,185Bangladesh_cell_1_7_3 17,602,000Bangladesh_cell_1_7_4 1,088Bangladesh_cell_1_7_5
Sylhet DivisionBangladesh_cell_1_8_0 SylhetBangladesh_cell_1_8_1 1 August 1995Bangladesh_cell_1_8_2 12,635Bangladesh_cell_1_8_3 11,291,000Bangladesh_cell_1_8_4 894Bangladesh_cell_1_8_5

Climate Bangladesh_section_13

Main article: Climate of Bangladesh Bangladesh_sentence_331

Straddling the Tropic of Cancer, Bangladesh's climate is tropical with a mild winter from October to March, and a hot, humid summer from March to June. Bangladesh_sentence_332

The country has never recorded an air temperature below 0 °C (32 °F), with a record low of 1.1 °C (34.0 °F) in the north west city of Dinajpur on 3 February 1905. Bangladesh_sentence_333

A warm and humid monsoon season lasts from June to October and supplies most of the country's rainfall. Bangladesh_sentence_334

Natural calamities, such as floods, tropical cyclones, tornadoes, and tidal bores occur almost every year, combined with the effects of deforestation, soil degradation and erosion. Bangladesh_sentence_335

The cyclones of 1970 and 1991 were particularly devastating, the latter killing some 140,000 people. Bangladesh_sentence_336

In September 1998, Bangladesh saw the most severe flooding in modern world history. Bangladesh_sentence_337

As the Brahmaputra, the Ganges and Meghna spilt over and swallowed 300,000 houses, 9,700 km (6,000 mi) of road and 2,700 km (1,700 mi) of embankment, 1,000 people were killed and 30 million more were made homeless; 135,000 cattle were killed; 50 km (19 sq mi) of land were destroyed; and 11,000 km (6,800 mi) of roads were damaged or destroyed. Bangladesh_sentence_338

Effectively, two-thirds of the country was underwater. Bangladesh_sentence_339

The severity of the flooding was attributed to unusually high monsoon rains, the shedding of equally unusually large amounts of melt water from the Himalayas, and the widespread cutting down of trees (that would have intercepted rain water) for firewood or animal husbandry. Bangladesh_sentence_340

As a result of various international and national level initiatives in disaster risk reduction, human toll and economic damage from floods and cyclones have come down over the years. Bangladesh_sentence_341

A similar country wide flood in 2007, which left five million people displaced, had a death toll around 500. Bangladesh_sentence_342

Bangladesh is recognised to be one of the countries most vulnerable to climate change. Bangladesh_sentence_343

Over the course of a century, 508 cyclones have affected the Bay of Bengal region, 17 percent of which are believed to have caused landfall in Bangladesh. Bangladesh_sentence_344

Natural hazards that come from increased rainfall, rising sea levels, and tropical cyclones are expected to increase as the climate changes, each seriously affecting agriculture, water and food security, human health, and shelter. Bangladesh_sentence_345

It is estimated that by 2050, a 3 feet rise in sea levels will inundate some 20 percent of the land and displace more than 30 million people. Bangladesh_sentence_346

To address the sea level rise threat in Bangladesh, the Bangladesh Delta Plan 2100 has been launched. Bangladesh_sentence_347

Biodiversity Bangladesh_section_14

Main articles: Wildlife of Bangladesh and Fauna of Bangladesh Bangladesh_sentence_348

Bangladesh ratified the Rio Convention on Biological Diversity on 3 May 1994. Bangladesh_sentence_349

As of 2014, the country was set to revise its National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan. Bangladesh_sentence_350

Bangladesh is located in the Indomalayan realm. Bangladesh_sentence_351

Its ecology includes a long sea coastline, numerous rivers and tributaries, lakes, wetlands, evergreen forests, semi evergreen forests, hill forests, moist deciduous forests, freshwater swamp forests and flat land with tall grass. Bangladesh_sentence_352

The Bangladesh Plain is famous for its fertile alluvial soil which supports extensive cultivation. Bangladesh_sentence_353

The country is dominated by lush vegetation, with villages often buried in groves of mango, jackfruit, bamboo, betel nut, coconut and date palm. Bangladesh_sentence_354

The country has up to 6000 species of plant life, including 5000 flowering plants. Bangladesh_sentence_355

Water bodies and wetland systems provide a habitat for many aquatic plants. Bangladesh_sentence_356

Water lilies and lotuses grow vividly during the monsoon season. Bangladesh_sentence_357

The country has 50 wildlife sanctuaries. Bangladesh_sentence_358

Bangladesh is home to much of the Sundarbans, the world's largest mangrove forest, covering an area of 6,000 km in the southwest littoral region. Bangladesh_sentence_359

It is divided into three protected sanctuaries–the South, East and West zones. Bangladesh_sentence_360

The forest is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Bangladesh_sentence_361

The northeastern Sylhet region is home to haor wetlands, which is a unique ecosystem. Bangladesh_sentence_362

It also includes tropical and subtropical coniferous forests, a freshwater swamp forest and mixed deciduous forests. Bangladesh_sentence_363

The southeastern Chittagong region covers evergreen and semi evergreen hilly jungles. Bangladesh_sentence_364

Central Bangladesh includes the plainland Sal forest running along the districts of Gazipur, Tangail and Mymensingh. Bangladesh_sentence_365

St. Bangladesh_sentence_366

Martin's Island is the only coral reef in the country. Bangladesh_sentence_367

Bangladesh has an abundance of wildlife in its forests, marshes, woodlands and hills. Bangladesh_sentence_368

The vast majority of animals dwell within a habitat of 150,000 km. Bangladesh_sentence_369

The Bengal tiger, clouded leopard, saltwater crocodile, black panther and fishing cat are among the chief predators in the Sundarbans. Bangladesh_sentence_370

Northern and eastern Bangladesh is home to the Asian elephant, hoolock gibbon, Asian black bear and oriental pied hornbill. Bangladesh_sentence_371

The Chital deer are widely seen in southwestern woodlands. Bangladesh_sentence_372

Other animals include the black giant squirrel, capped langur, Bengal fox, sambar deer, jungle cat, king cobra, wild boar, mongooses, pangolins, pythons and water monitors. Bangladesh_sentence_373

Bangladesh has one of the largest population of Irrawaddy dolphins and Ganges dolphins. Bangladesh_sentence_374

A 2009 census found 6,000 Irrawaddy dolphins inhabiting the littoral rivers of Bangladesh. Bangladesh_sentence_375

The country has numerous species of amphibians (53), reptiles (139), marine reptiles (19) and marine mammals (5). Bangladesh_sentence_376

It also has 628 species of birds. Bangladesh_sentence_377

Several animals became extinct in Bangladesh during the last century, including the one horned and two horned rhinoceros and common peafowl. Bangladesh_sentence_378

The human population is concentrated in urban areas, hence limiting deforestation to a certain extent. Bangladesh_sentence_379

Rapid urban growth has threatened natural habitats. Bangladesh_sentence_380

Although many areas are protected under law, a large portion of Bangladeshi wildlife is threatened by this growth. Bangladesh_sentence_381

Furthermore, access to biocapacity in Bangladesh is low. Bangladesh_sentence_382

In 2016, Bangladesh had 0.4 global hectares of biocapacity per person within its territory, or about one fourth of the world average. Bangladesh_sentence_383

In contrast, in 2016, they used 0.84 global hectares of biocapacity – their ecological footprint of consumption. Bangladesh_sentence_384

As a result, Bangladesh is running a biocapacity deficit. Bangladesh_sentence_385

The Bangladesh Environment Conservation Act was enacted in 1995. Bangladesh_sentence_386

The government has designated several regions as Ecologically Critical Areas, including wetlands, forests and rivers. Bangladesh_sentence_387

The Sundarbans tiger project and the Bangladesh Bear Project are among the key initiatives to strengthen conservation. Bangladesh_sentence_388

Politics and government Bangladesh_section_15

Main article: Politics of Bangladesh Bangladesh_sentence_389

Bangladesh is a de jure representative democracy under its constitution, with a Westminster-style unitary parliamentary republic that has universal suffrage. Bangladesh_sentence_390

The head of government is the Prime Minister, who is invited to form a government every five years by the President. Bangladesh_sentence_391

The President invites the leader of the largest party in parliament to become Prime Minister of the world's fifth largest democracy. Bangladesh_sentence_392

Bangladesh experienced a two party system between 1990 and 2014, when the Awami League and the Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP) alternated in power. Bangladesh_sentence_393

During this period, elections were managed by a neutral caretaker government. Bangladesh_sentence_394

But the caretaker government was abolished by the Awami League government in 2011. Bangladesh_sentence_395

The BNP boycotted the next election in 2014, arguing that it would not be fair without a caretaker government. Bangladesh_sentence_396

The BNP-led Jatiya Oikya Front participated in the 2018 election and lost. Bangladesh_sentence_397

The election saw many allegations of irregularities. Bangladesh_sentence_398

Bangladesh has a prominent civil society since the colonial period. Bangladesh_sentence_399

There are various special interest groups, including non-governmental organisations, human rights organisations, professional associations, chambers of commerce, employers' associations and trade unions. Bangladesh_sentence_400

One of the key aspects of Bangladeshi politics is the "spirit of the liberation war" which refers to the ideals of the liberation movement during the Bangladesh Liberation War. Bangladesh_sentence_401

The Proclamation of Independence enunciated the values of "equality, human dignity and social justice". Bangladesh_sentence_402

In 1972, the constitution included a bill of rights and declared "nationalism, socialism, democracy and secularity" as the principles of government policy. Bangladesh_sentence_403

Socialism was later de-emphasised and neglected by successive governments. Bangladesh_sentence_404

Bangladesh has a market-based economy. Bangladesh_sentence_405

To many Bangladeshis, especially in the younger generation, the spirit of the liberation war is a vision for a society based on civil liberties, human rights, the rule of law and good governance. Bangladesh_sentence_406

Executive branch Bangladesh_section_16

The Government of Bangladesh is overseen by a cabinet headed by the Prime Minister of Bangladesh. Bangladesh_sentence_407

The tenure of a parliamentary government is five years. Bangladesh_sentence_408

The Bangladesh Civil Service assists the cabinet in running the government. Bangladesh_sentence_409

Recruitment for the civil service is based on a public examination. Bangladesh_sentence_410

In theory, the civil service should be a meritocracy. Bangladesh_sentence_411

But a disputed quota system coupled with politicisation and preference for seniority have allegedly affected the civil service's meritocracy. Bangladesh_sentence_412

The President of Bangladesh is the ceremonial head of state whose powers include signing bills passed by parliament into law. Bangladesh_sentence_413

The President is elected by the parliament and has a five-year term. Bangladesh_sentence_414

Under the constitution, the president acts on the advice of the prime minister. Bangladesh_sentence_415

The President is the Supreme Commander of the Bangladesh Armed Forces and the chancellor of all universities. Bangladesh_sentence_416

Legislative branch Bangladesh_section_17

The Jatiya Sangshad (National Assembly) is the unicameral parliament. Bangladesh_sentence_417

It has 350 Members of Parliament (MPs), including 300 MPs elected on the first past the post system and 50 MPs appointed to reserved seats for women's empowerment. Bangladesh_sentence_418

Article 70 of the Constitution of Bangladesh forbids MPs from voting against their party. Bangladesh_sentence_419

However, several laws proposed independently by MPs have been transformed into legislation, including the anti-torture law. Bangladesh_sentence_420

The parliament is presided over by the Speaker of the Jatiya Sangsad, who is second in line to the president as per the constitution. Bangladesh_sentence_421

There is also a Deputy Speaker. Bangladesh_sentence_422

When a president is incapable of performing duties (i.e. due to illness), the Speaker steps in as Acting President and the Deputy Speaker becomes Acting Speaker. Bangladesh_sentence_423

A recurring proposal suggests that the Deputy Speaker should be a member of the opposition. Bangladesh_sentence_424

Legal system Bangladesh_section_18

Main article: Laws in Bangladesh Bangladesh_sentence_425

The Supreme Court of Bangladesh is the highest court of the land followed by the High Court and Appellate Divisions. Bangladesh_sentence_426

The head of the judiciary is the Chief Justice of Bangladesh, who sits on the Supreme Court. Bangladesh_sentence_427

The courts have wide latitude in judicial review and judicial precedent is supported by the Article 111 of the constitution. Bangladesh_sentence_428

The judiciary includes district and metropolitan courts, which are divided into civil and criminal courts. Bangladesh_sentence_429

Due to a shortage of judges, the judiciary has a large backlog. Bangladesh_sentence_430

The Bangladesh Judicial Service Commission is an independent body responsible for judicial appointments, salaries and discipline. Bangladesh_sentence_431

Bangladesh's legal system is based on common law and its principal source of laws are acts of Parliament. Bangladesh_sentence_432

The Bangladesh Code includes a list of all laws in force in the country. Bangladesh_sentence_433

The code begins in 1836 and most of its listed laws were crafted under the British Raj by the Bengal Legislative Council, the Bengal Legislative Assembly, the Eastern Bengal and Assam Legislative Council, the Imperial Legislative Council and the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Bangladesh_sentence_434

One example is the 1860 Penal Code. Bangladesh_sentence_435

From 1947 to 1971, laws were enacted by Pakistan's national assembly and the East Pakistani legislature. Bangladesh_sentence_436

The Constituent Assembly of Bangladesh was the country's provisional parliament until 1973, when the first elected Jatiyo Sangshad (National Parliament) was sworn in. Bangladesh_sentence_437

Although most of Bangladesh's laws were compiled in English, after a 1987 government directive laws are now primarily written in Bengali. Bangladesh_sentence_438

While most of Bangladeshi law is secular; marriage, divorce and inheritance are governed by Islamic, Hindu and Christian family law. Bangladesh_sentence_439

The judiciary is often influenced by legal developments in the Commonwealth of Nations, such as the doctrine of legitimate expectation. Bangladesh_sentence_440

Military Bangladesh_section_19

Main article: Bangladesh Armed Forces Bangladesh_sentence_441

The Bangladesh Armed Forces have inherited the institutional framework of the British military and the British Indian Army. Bangladesh_sentence_442

It was formed in 1971 from the military regiments of East Pakistan. Bangladesh_sentence_443

In 2018 the active personnel strength of the Bangladesh Army was around 157,500, excluding the Air Force and the Navy (24,000). Bangladesh_sentence_444

In addition to traditional defence roles, the military has supported civil authorities in disaster relief and provided internal security during periods of political unrest. Bangladesh_sentence_445

For many years, Bangladesh has been the world's largest contributor to UN peacekeeping forces. Bangladesh_sentence_446

In February 2015, the country made major deployments to Côte d'Ivoire, Cyprus, Darfur, the Democratic Republic of Congo, the Golan Heights, Haiti, Lebanon, Liberia and South Sudan. Bangladesh_sentence_447

The Bangladesh Navy has the third-largest fleet of countries dependent on the Bay of Bengal, including guided-missile frigates, submarines, cutters and aircraft. Bangladesh_sentence_448

The Bangladesh Air Force is equipped with several Russian multi-role fighter jets. Bangladesh_sentence_449

Bangladesh cooperates defensively with the United States Armed Forces, participating in the Cooperation Afloat Readiness and Training (CARAT) exercises. Bangladesh_sentence_450

Ties between the Bangladeshi and the Indian military exist with high-level visits by the military chiefs of both countries. Bangladesh_sentence_451

Most of Bangladesh's military equipment comes from China. Bangladesh_sentence_452

In 2019, Bangladesh ratified the UN Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons. Bangladesh_sentence_453

Foreign relations Bangladesh_section_20

Main article: Foreign relations of Bangladesh Bangladesh_sentence_454

The first major intergovernmental organisation joined by Bangladesh was the Commonwealth of Nations in 1972. Bangladesh_sentence_455

The country joined the United Nations in 1974, and has been elected twice to the UN Security Council. Bangladesh_sentence_456

Ambassador Humayun Rashid Choudhury was elected president of the UN General Assembly in 1986. Bangladesh_sentence_457

Bangladesh relies on multilateral diplomacy in the World Trade Organization. Bangladesh_sentence_458

It is a major contributor to UN peacekeeping, providing 113,000 personnel to 54 UN missions in the Middle East, the Balkans, Africa and the Caribbean in 2014. Bangladesh_sentence_459

In addition to membership in the Commonwealth of Nations and the United Nations, Bangladesh pioneered regional co-operation in South Asia. Bangladesh_sentence_460

Bangladesh is a founding member of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC), an organisation designed to strengthen relations and promote economic and cultural growth among its members. Bangladesh_sentence_461

It has hosted several summits and two Bangladeshi diplomats were the organisation's secretary-general. Bangladesh_sentence_462

Bangladesh joined the Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) in 1973. Bangladesh_sentence_463

It has hosted the summit of OIC foreign ministers, which addresses issues, conflicts and disputes affecting Muslim-majority countries. Bangladesh_sentence_464

Bangladesh is a founding member of the Developing 8 Countries, which is a bloc of eight Muslim-majority republics. Bangladesh_sentence_465

The neighbouring country of Myanmar (Burma) was one of the first countries to recognise Bangladesh. Bangladesh_sentence_466

Despite common regional interests, Bangladesh-Myanmar relations have been strained by the Rohingya refugee crisis and the isolationist policies of the Myanmar military. Bangladesh_sentence_467

In 2012, both countries came to terms at the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea over maritime boundaries in the Bay of Bengal. Bangladesh_sentence_468

In 2016 and 2017, relations with Myanmar were strained once again as over 700,000 Rohingya refugees illegally entered Bangladesh fleeing persecution, ethnic cleansing, genocide and other atrocities in Myanmar. Bangladesh_sentence_469

The parliament, government and civil society of Bangladesh have been at the forefront of international criticism against Myanmar for military operations against the Rohingya, which the United Nations has described as ethnic cleansing. Bangladesh_sentence_470

Bangladesh's most politically important bilateral relationship is with neighbouring India. Bangladesh_sentence_471

In 2015, major Indian newspapers called Bangladesh a "trusted friend". Bangladesh_sentence_472

Bangladesh and India are South Asia's largest trading partners. Bangladesh_sentence_473

The countries are collaborating in regional economic and infrastructure projects, such as a regional motor-vehicle agreement in eastern South Asia and a coastal shipping agreement in the Bay of Bengal. Bangladesh_sentence_474

Indo-Bangladesh relations often emphasise a shared cultural heritage, democratic values and a history of support for Bangladeshi independence. Bangladesh_sentence_475

Despite political goodwill, border killings of Bangladeshi civilians and the lack of a comprehensive water-sharing agreement for 54 trans-boundary rivers are major issues. Bangladesh_sentence_476

In 2017, India joined Russia and China in refusing to condemn Myanmar's atrocities against the Rohingya, which contradicted with Bangladesh's demand for recognising Rohingya human rights. Bangladesh_sentence_477

However, the Indian air force delivered aid shipments for Rohingya refugees in Bangladesh. Bangladesh_sentence_478

The crackdown against cattle smuggling in India has also affected Bangladesh. Bangladesh_sentence_479

The Bangladeshi beef and leather industries have seen increased prices due to the Indian BJP government's Hindu nationalist campaign against the export of beef and cattle skin. Bangladesh_sentence_480

Pakistan and Bangladesh have a US$550 million trade relationship, particularly in Pakistani cotton imports for the Bangladeshi textile industry. Bangladesh_sentence_481

Although Bangladeshi and Pakistani businesses have invested in each other, diplomatic relations are strained because of Pakistani denial of the 1971 Bangladesh genocide. Bangladesh_sentence_482

The execution of a Jamaat-e-Islami leader in 2013 on committing of war crimes during the liberation war was opposed in Pakistan and led to further strained ties. Bangladesh_sentence_483

Sino-Bangladesh relations date to the 1950s and are relatively warm, despite the Chinese leadership siding with Pakistan during Bangladesh's war of independence. Bangladesh_sentence_484

China and Bangladesh established bilateral relations in 1976 which have significantly strengthened and the country is considered a cost-effective source of arms for the Bangladeshi military. Bangladesh_sentence_485

Since the 1980s 80 percent of Bangladesh's military equipment has been supplied by China (often with generous credit terms), and China is Bangladesh's largest trading partner. Bangladesh_sentence_486

Both countries are part of the BCIM Forum. Bangladesh_sentence_487

Japan is Bangladesh's largest economic-aid provider in the form of loans and the countries have common political goals. Bangladesh_sentence_488

The United Kingdom has longstanding economic, cultural and military links with Bangladesh. Bangladesh_sentence_489

The United States is a major economic and security partner, its largest export market and foreign investor. Bangladesh_sentence_490

Seventy-six percent of Bangladeshis viewed the United States favourably in 2014, one of the highest ratings among Asian countries. Bangladesh_sentence_491

The United States views Bangladesh as a key partner in the Indo-Pacific. Bangladesh_sentence_492

The European Union is Bangladesh's largest regional market, conducting public diplomacy and providing development assistance. Bangladesh_sentence_493

Relations with other countries are generally positive. Bangladesh_sentence_494

Shared democratic values ease relations with Western countries and similar economic concerns forge ties to other developing countries. Bangladesh_sentence_495

Despite poor working conditions and war affecting overseas Bangladeshi workers, relations with Middle Eastern countries are friendly and bounded by religion and culture. Bangladesh_sentence_496

More than a million Bangladeshis are employed in the region. Bangladesh_sentence_497

In 2016, the king of Saudi Arabia called Bangladesh "one of the most important Muslim countries". Bangladesh_sentence_498

However, Bangladesh has not established diplomatic relationship with Israel in support of a sovereign Palestinian state and "an end to Israel's illegal occupation of Palestine". Bangladesh_sentence_499

Bangladeshi aid agencies work in many developing countries. Bangladesh_sentence_500

An example is BRAC in Afghanistan, which benefits 12 million people in that country. Bangladesh_sentence_501

Bangladesh has a record of nuclear nonproliferation as a party to the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) and the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), and is also a member of Non-Aligned Movement since 1973. Bangladesh_sentence_502

It is a state party to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Bangladesh_sentence_503

Bangladeshi foreign policy is influenced by the principle of "friendship to all and malice to none", first articulated by Bengali statesman H. Bangladesh_sentence_504

S. Suhrawardy in 1957. Bangladesh_sentence_505

Suhrawardy led East and West Pakistan to join the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization, CENTO and the Regional Cooperation for Development. Bangladesh_sentence_506

Human rights Bangladesh_section_21

Template:Unduesection Bangladesh_sentence_507

Main article: Human rights in Bangladesh Bangladesh_sentence_508

A list of fundamental rights is enshrined in the country's constitution. Bangladesh_sentence_509

The drafter of the constitution in 1972, Dr. Kamal Hossain, was influenced by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Bangladesh_sentence_510

Bangladesh also recognises the third gender. Bangladesh_sentence_511

However, Homosexuality is outlawed by section 377 of the criminal code (a legacy of the colonial period), and is punishable by a maximum of life imprisonment. Bangladesh_sentence_512

Judicial activism has often upheld human rights. Bangladesh_sentence_513

In the 1970s, judges invalidated detentions under the Special Powers Act, 1974 through cases such as Aruna Sen v. Government of Bangladesh and Abdul Latif Mirza v. Government of Bangladesh. Bangladesh_sentence_514

In 2008, the Supreme Court paved the way for citizenship for the Stranded Pakistanis, who were an estimated 300,000 stateless people. Bangladesh_sentence_515

Despite being a non-signatory of the UN Refugee Convention, Bangladesh has taken in Rohingya refugees since 1978 and the country is now home to a million refugees. Bangladesh_sentence_516

Bangladesh is an active member of the International Labour Organization (ILO) since 1972. Bangladesh_sentence_517

It has ratified 33 ILO conventions, including the seven fundamental ILO conventions. Bangladesh_sentence_518

Bangladesh has ratified the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. Bangladesh_sentence_519

In 2018, Bangladesh came under heavy criticism for its repressive Digital Security Act which threatened freedom of speech. Bangladesh_sentence_520

The photojournalist Shahidul Alam was jailed and tortured for criticising the government. Bangladesh_sentence_521

Alam was featured in the 2018 Time Person of the Year issue. Bangladesh_sentence_522

The National Human Rights Commission of Bangladesh was set up in 2007. Notable human rights organisations and initiatives include the Centre for Law and Mediation, Odhikar, the Alliance for Bangladesh Worker Safety, the Bangladesh Environmental Lawyers Association, the Bangladesh Hindu Buddhist Christian Unity Council and the War Crimes Fact Finding Committee. Bangladesh_sentence_523

Successive governments and their security forces have flouted constitutional principles and have been accused of human rights abuses. Bangladesh_sentence_524

Bangladesh is ranked "partly free" in Freedom House's Freedom in the World report, but its press is ranked "not free". Bangladesh_sentence_525

According to the British Economist Intelligence Unit, the country has a hybrid regime: the third of four rankings in its Democracy Index. Bangladesh_sentence_526

Bangladesh was the third-most-peaceful South Asian country in the 2015 Global Peace Index. Bangladesh_sentence_527

Civil society and media in Bangladesh have been attacked by the ruling Awami League government and Islamic extremists. Bangladesh_sentence_528

According to National Human Rights Commission, 70% of alleged human-rights violations are committed by law-enforcement agencies. Bangladesh_sentence_529

Targets have included Nobel Peace Prize winner Muhammad Yunus and the Grameen Bank, secularist bloggers and independent and pro-opposition newspapers and television networks. Bangladesh_sentence_530

The United Nations is concerned about government "measures that restrict freedom of expression and democratic space". Bangladesh_sentence_531

Bangladeshi security forces, particularly the Rapid Action Battalion (RAB), have received international condemnation for human-rights abuses (including enforced disappearances, torture and extrajudicial killings). Bangladesh_sentence_532

Over 1,000 people have been said to have been victims of extrajudicial killings by RAB since its inception under the last Bangladesh Nationalist Party government. Bangladesh_sentence_533

The RAB has been called a "death squad" by Human Rights Watch and Amnesty International, which have called for the force to be disbanded. Bangladesh_sentence_534

The British and American governments have been criticised for funding and engaging the force in counter-terrorism operations. Bangladesh_sentence_535

The Bangladeshi government has not fully implemented the Chittagong Hill Tracts Peace Accord. Bangladesh_sentence_536

The Hill Tracts region remains heavily militarized, despite a peace treaty with indigenous people forged by the United People's Party of the Chittagong Hill Tracts. Bangladesh_sentence_537

Secularism is protected by the constitution of Bangladesh and religious parties are barred from contesting elections; however, the government is accused of courting religious extremist groups. Bangladesh_sentence_538

Islam's ambiguous position as the de facto state religion has been criticised by the United Nations. Bangladesh_sentence_539

Despite relative harmony, religious minorities have faced occasional persecution. Bangladesh_sentence_540

The Hindu and Buddhist communities have experienced religious violence from Islamic groups – notably the Bangladesh Jamaat-e-Islami and its student wing (Shibir). Bangladesh_sentence_541

However, Islamic groups are losing popular support - Islamic far-right candidates peaked at 12 percent of the vote in 2001, falling to four percent in 2008. Bangladesh_sentence_542

According to the 2016 Global Slavery Index, an estimated 1,531,300 people are enslaved in modern-day Bangladesh, or 0.95% of the population. Bangladesh_sentence_543

A number of slaves in Bangladesh are forced to work in the fish and shrimp industries. Bangladesh_sentence_544

Corruption Bangladesh_section_22

Main article: Corruption in Bangladesh Bangladesh_sentence_545

Like for many developing countries, institutional corruption is a serious concern for Bangladesh. Bangladesh_sentence_546

Bangladesh was ranked 146th among 180 countries on Transparency International's 2018 Corruption Perceptions Index. Bangladesh_sentence_547

According to survey conducted by the Bangladesh chapter of TI, in 2015 bribes made up 3.7 percent of the national budget. Bangladesh_sentence_548

Land administration was the sector with the most bribery in 2015, followed by education, police and water supply. Bangladesh_sentence_549

The Anti Corruption Commission was formed in 2004, and it was active during the 2006–08 Bangladeshi political crisis, indicting many leading politicians, bureaucrats and businessmen for graft. Bangladesh_sentence_550

Economy Bangladesh_section_23

Main articles: Economy of Bangladesh and List of companies of Bangladesh Bangladesh_sentence_551

Bangladesh has the world's 39th largest economy in terms of market exchange rates and 29th largest in terms of purchasing power parity, which ranks second in South Asia after India. Bangladesh_sentence_552

Bangladesh is also one of the world's fastest-growing economies and one of the fastest growing middle-income countries. Bangladesh_sentence_553

The country has a market-based mixed economy. Bangladesh_sentence_554

A developing nation, Bangladesh is one of the Next Eleven emerging markets. Bangladesh_sentence_555

According to the IMF, its per-capita income was US$1,906 in 2019, with a GDP of $317 billion. Bangladesh_sentence_556

Bangladesh has the second-highest foreign-exchange reserves in South Asia (after India). Bangladesh_sentence_557

The Bangladeshi diaspora contributed $15.31 billion in remittances in 2015. Bangladesh_sentence_558

Bangladesh's largest trading partners are the European Union, the United States, Japan, India, Australia, China and ASEAN. Bangladesh_sentence_559

Expat workers in the Middle East and Southeast Asia send back a large chunk of remittances. Bangladesh_sentence_560

The economy is driven by strong domestic demand. Bangladesh_sentence_561

During its first five years of independence Bangladesh adopted socialist policies. Bangladesh_sentence_562

The subsequent military regime and BNP and Jatiya Party governments restored free markets and promoted the country's private sector. Bangladesh_sentence_563

In 1991, finance minister Saifur Rahman introduced a programme of economic liberalisation. Bangladesh_sentence_564

The Bangladeshi private sector has rapidly expanded, with a number of conglomerates driving the economy. Bangladesh_sentence_565

Major industries include textiles, pharmaceuticals, shipbuilding, steel, electronics, energy, construction materials, chemicals, ceramics, food processing and leather goods. Bangladesh_sentence_566

Export-oriented industrialisation has increased with fiscal year 2018–19 exports increasing by 10.1% over the previous year to $40 billion. Bangladesh_sentence_567

Most export earnings are from the garment-manufacturing industry. Bangladesh_sentence_568


Share of world GDP (PPP)Bangladesh_header_cell_2_0_0
YearBangladesh_header_cell_2_1_0 ShareBangladesh_header_cell_2_1_1
1980Bangladesh_cell_2_2_0 0.31%Bangladesh_cell_2_2_1
1990Bangladesh_cell_2_3_0 0.33%Bangladesh_cell_2_3_1
2000Bangladesh_cell_2_4_0 0.36%Bangladesh_cell_2_4_1
2010Bangladesh_cell_2_5_0 0.44%Bangladesh_cell_2_5_1
2019Bangladesh_cell_2_6_0 0.58%Bangladesh_cell_2_6_1

However, an insufficient power supply is a significant obstacle to Bangladesh's economic development. Bangladesh_sentence_569

According to the World Bank, poor governance, corruption and weak public institutions are also major challenges. Bangladesh_sentence_570

In April 2010, Standard & Poor's gave Bangladesh a BB- long-term credit rating, below India's but above those of Pakistan and Sri Lanka. Bangladesh_sentence_571

Agriculture is the largest sector of the economy, making up 14.2 percent of Bangladesh's GDP in 2017 and employing about 42.7 percent of the workforce. Bangladesh_sentence_572

The agricultural sector impacts employment generation, poverty alleviation, human resources development and food security. Bangladesh_sentence_573

More Bangladeshis earn their living from agriculture than from any other sector. Bangladesh_sentence_574

The country is among the top producers of rice (fourth), potatoes (seventh), tropical fruits (sixth), jute (second), and farmed fish (fifth). Bangladesh_sentence_575

Bangladesh is the seventh-largest natural gas producer in Asia, ahead of neighbouring Myanmar, and 56 percent of the country's electricity is generated by natural gas. Bangladesh_sentence_576

Major gas fields are located in the northeastern (particularly Sylhet) and southern (including Barisal and Chittagong) regions. Bangladesh_sentence_577

Petrobangla is the national energy company. Bangladesh_sentence_578

The American multinational corporation Chevron produces 50 percent of Bangladesh's natural gas. Bangladesh_sentence_579

According to geologists, the Bay of Bengal contains large, untapped gas reserves in Bangladesh's exclusive economic zone. Bangladesh_sentence_580

Bangladesh has substantial coal reserves, with several coal mines operating in the northwest. Bangladesh_sentence_581

Jute exports remain significant, although the global jute trade has shrunk considerably since its World War II peak. Bangladesh_sentence_582

Bangladesh has one of the world's oldest tea industries, and is a major exporter of fish and seafood. Bangladesh_sentence_583

Bangladesh's textile and ready-made garment industries are the country's largest manufacturing sector, with 2017 exports of $34.1 billion. Bangladesh_sentence_584

Leather-goods manufacturing, particularly footwear, is the second-largest export sector. Bangladesh_sentence_585

The pharmaceutical industry meets 97 percent of domestic demand, and exports to many countries. Bangladesh_sentence_586

Shipbuilding has grown rapidly, with exports to Europe. Bangladesh_sentence_587

Steel is concentrated in the port city of Chittagong, and the ceramics industry is prominent in international trade. Bangladesh_sentence_588

In 2005 Bangladesh was the world's 20th-largest cement producer, an industry dependent on limestone imports from northeast India. Bangladesh_sentence_589

Food processing is a major sector, with local brands such as PRAN increasing their international presence. Bangladesh_sentence_590

The electronics industry is growing rapidly with contributions from companies like the Walton Group. Bangladesh_sentence_591

Bangladesh's defense industry includes the Bangladesh Ordnance Factories and the Khulna Shipyard. Bangladesh_sentence_592

The service sector accounts for 51 percent of the country's GDP. Bangladesh_sentence_593

Bangladesh ranks with Pakistan as South Asia's second-largest banking sector. Bangladesh_sentence_594

The Dhaka and Chittagong Stock Exchanges are the country's twin financial markets. Bangladesh_sentence_595

Bangladesh's telecommunications industry is one of the world's fastest-growing, with 114 million cellphone subscribers in December 2013, and Grameenphone, Banglalink, Robi and BTTB are major companies. Bangladesh_sentence_596

Tourism is developing, with the beach resort of Cox's Bazar at the center of the industry. Bangladesh_sentence_597

The Sylhet region, home to Bangladesh's tea gardens, also hosts a large number of visitors. Bangladesh_sentence_598

The country has three UNESCO World Heritage Sites (the Mosque City, the Buddhist Vihara and the Sundarbans) and five tentative-list sites. Bangladesh_sentence_599

Following the pioneering work of Akhter Hameed Khan on rural development at Bangladesh Academy for Rural Development, several NGOs in Bangladesh including BRAC (the world's largest NGO), and Grameen Bank, focused on rural development and poverty alleviation in the country. Bangladesh_sentence_600

Muhammad Yunus successfully pioneered microfinance as a sustainable tool for poverty alleviation and others followed suit. Bangladesh_sentence_601

As of 2015, the country had over 35 million microcredit borrowers. Bangladesh_sentence_602

In recognition of their tangible contribution to poverty alleviation, Muhammad Yunus and Grameen Bank were jointly awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 2006. Bangladesh_sentence_603

Transport Bangladesh_section_24

Main article: Transport in Bangladesh Bangladesh_sentence_604

Transport is a major sector of the economy. Bangladesh_sentence_605

Aviation has grown rapidly, and is dominated by the flag carrier Biman Bangladesh Airlines and other privately owned airlines. Bangladesh_sentence_606

Bangladesh has a number of airports including three international and several domestic STOL (short takeoff and landing) airports. Bangladesh_sentence_607

The busiest, Shahjalal International Airport connects Dhaka with major destinations. Bangladesh_sentence_608

Bangladesh has a 2,706-kilometre (1,681-mile) long rail network operated by the state-owned Bangladesh Railway. Bangladesh_sentence_609

The total length of the country's road and highway network is nearly 21,000 kilometers (13,000 miles). Bangladesh_sentence_610

With 8,046 kilometres (5,000 miles) of navigable waters, Bangladesh has one of the largest inland waterway networks in the world. Bangladesh_sentence_611

The southeastern port of Chittagong is its busiest seaport, handling over $60 billion in annual trade (more than 80 percent of the country's export-import commerce). Bangladesh_sentence_612

The second-busiest seaport is Mongla. Bangladesh_sentence_613

Bangladesh has three seaports and 22 river ports. Bangladesh_sentence_614

Energy and infrastructure Bangladesh_section_25

Main articles: Energy in Bangladesh, Natural gas and petroleum in Bangladesh, Telecommunications in Bangladesh, and Water supply and sanitation in Bangladesh Bangladesh_sentence_615

Bangladesh had an installed electrical capacity of 20,000 megawatts in 2018, reaching 23,548 MW in 2020. Bangladesh_sentence_616

About 56 percent of the country's commercial energy is generated by natural gas, followed by oil, hydropower and coal. Bangladesh_sentence_617

Bangladesh has planned to import hydropower from Bhutan and Nepal. Bangladesh_sentence_618

A nuclear power plant is under construction with Russian support in the Ruppur Nuclear Power Plant project which will add 2160 MW when fully operational. Bangladesh_sentence_619

The country ranks fifth worldwide in the number of renewable energy green jobs, and solar panels are increasingly used to power urban and off-grid rural areas. Bangladesh_sentence_620

An estimated 98 percent of the country's population had access to improved water sources by 2004 (a high percentage for a low-income country), achieved largely through the construction of hand pumps with support from external donors. Bangladesh_sentence_621

However, in 1993 it was discovered that much of Bangladesh's groundwater (the source of drinking water for 97 percent of the rural population and a significant share of the urban population) is naturally contaminated with arsenic. Bangladesh_sentence_622

Another challenge is low cost recovery due to low tariffs and poor economic efficiency, especially in urban areas (where water revenue does not cover operating costs). Bangladesh_sentence_623

An estimated 56 percent of the population had access to adequate sanitation facilities in 2010. Bangladesh_sentence_624

Community-led total sanitation, addressing the problem of open defecation in rural areas, is credited with improving public health since its introduction in 2000. Bangladesh_sentence_625

Science and technology Bangladesh_section_26

Main article: Science and technology in Bangladesh Bangladesh_sentence_626

See also: Information technology in Bangladesh and Biotechnology and genetic engineering in Bangladesh Bangladesh_sentence_627

The Bangladesh Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, founded in 1973, traces its roots to the East Pakistan Regional Laboratories established in Dhaka (1955), Rajshahi (1965) and Chittagong (1967). Bangladesh_sentence_628

Bangladesh's space agency, SPARRSO, was founded in 1983 with assistance from the United States. Bangladesh_sentence_629

The country's first communications satellite, Bangabandhu-1, was launched from the United States in 2018. Bangladesh_sentence_630

The Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission operates a TRIGA research reactor at its atomic-energy facility in Savar. Bangladesh_sentence_631

In 2015, Bangladesh was ranked the 26th global IT outsourcing destination. Bangladesh_sentence_632

Tourism Bangladesh_section_27

Main article: Tourism in Bangladesh Bangladesh_sentence_633

Bangladesh's tourist attractions include historical sites and monuments, resorts, beaches, picnic spots, forests and wildlife of various species. Bangladesh_sentence_634

Activities for tourists include angling, water skiing, river cruising, hiking, rowing, yachting, and sea bathing. Bangladesh_sentence_635

The World Travel and Tourism Council (WTTC) reported in 2019 that the travel and tourism industry in Bangladesh directly generated 1,180,500 jobs in 2018 or 1.9 percent of the country's total employment. Bangladesh_sentence_636

According to the same report, Bangladesh experiences around 125,000 international tourist arrival per year. Bangladesh_sentence_637

Domestic spending generated 97.7 percent of direct travel and tourism gross domestic product (GDP) in 2012. Bangladesh_sentence_638

Bangladesh's world ranking in 2012 for travel and tourism's direct contribution to GDP, as a percentage of GDP, was 120 out of 140. Bangladesh_sentence_639

Demographics Bangladesh_section_28

Main articles: Demographics of Bangladesh and Bengalis Bangladesh_sentence_640

Estimates of the Bangladeshi population vary, but UN data suggests 161,376,708 (162.9 million) in 2017. Bangladesh_sentence_641

The 2011 census estimated 142.3 million, much less than 2007–2010 estimates of Bangladesh's population (150–170 million). Bangladesh_sentence_642

Bangladesh is the world's eighth-most-populous nation and the most densely-populated large country in the world, ranking 7th in population density even when small countries and city-states are included. Bangladesh_sentence_643

The country's population-growth rate was among the highest in the world in the 1960s and 1970s, when its population grew from 65 to 110 million. Bangladesh_sentence_644

With the promotion of birth control in the 1980s, Bangladesh's growth rate began to slow. Bangladesh_sentence_645

Its total fertility rate is now 2.05, lower than India's (2.58) and Pakistan's (3.07). Bangladesh_sentence_646

The population is relatively young, with 34 percent aged 15 or younger and five percent 65 or older. Bangladesh_sentence_647

Life expectancy at birth was estimated at 72.49 years in 2016. Bangladesh_sentence_648

According to the World Bank, as of 2016 14.8% of the country lives below the international poverty line on less than $1.90 per day. Bangladesh_sentence_649

Bengalis are 98 percent of the population. Bangladesh_sentence_650

Of Bengalis, Muslims are the majority, followed by Hindus, Christians and Buddhists. Bangladesh_sentence_651

The Adivasi population includes the Chakma, Marma, Tanchangya, Tripuri, Kuki, Khiang, Khumi, Murang, Mru, Chak, Lushei, Bawm, Bishnupriya Manipuri, Khasi, Jaintia, Garo, Santal, Munda and Oraon tribes. Bangladesh_sentence_652

The Chittagong Hill Tracts region experienced unrest and an insurgency from 1975 to 1997 in an autonomy movement by its indigenous people. Bangladesh_sentence_653

Although a peace accord was signed in 1997, the region remains militarised. Bangladesh_sentence_654

Bangladesh is home to a significant Ismaili community. Bangladesh_sentence_655

It hosts many Urdu-speaking immigrants, who migrated there after the partition of India. Bangladesh_sentence_656

Stranded Pakistanis were given citizenship by the Supreme Court in 2008. Bangladesh_sentence_657

Rohingya refugees in Bangladesh number at around 1 million, making Bangladesh one of the countries with the largest refugee populations in the world. Bangladesh_sentence_658

Urban centres Bangladesh_section_29

Further information: List of cities and towns in Bangladesh Bangladesh_sentence_659

Dhaka is Bangladesh's capital and largest city and is overseen by two city corporations who manage between them the northern and southern part of the city. Bangladesh_sentence_660

There are 12 city corporations which hold mayoral elections: Dhaka South, Dhaka North, Chittagong, Comilla, Khulna, Mymensingh, Sylhet, Rajshahi, Barisal, Rangpur, Gazipur and Narayanganj. Bangladesh_sentence_661

Mayors are elected for five-year terms. Bangladesh_sentence_662

Altogether there are 506 urban centres in Bangladesh among which 43 cities have a population of more than 100,000. Bangladesh_sentence_663

Language Bangladesh_section_30

Main article: Languages of Bangladesh Bangladesh_sentence_664

The predominant language of Bangladesh is Bengali (also known as Bangla). Bangladesh_sentence_665

Bengali is the one of the easternmost branches of the Indo-European language family. Bangladesh_sentence_666

It is a part of the Eastern Indo-Aryan languages in South Asia, which developed between the 10th and 13th centuries. Bangladesh_sentence_667

Bengali is written using the Bengali script. Bangladesh_sentence_668

In ancient Bengal, Sanskrit was the language of written communication, especially by priests. Bangladesh_sentence_669

During the Islamic period, Sanskrit was replaced by Bengali as the vernacular language. Bangladesh_sentence_670

The Sultans of Bengal promoted the production of Bengali literature instead of Sanskrit. Bangladesh_sentence_671

Bengali also received Persian and Arabic loanwords during the Sultanate of Bengal. Bangladesh_sentence_672

Under British rule, Bengali was significantly modernised by Europeans. Bangladesh_sentence_673

Modern Standard Bengali emerged as the lingua franca of the region. Bangladesh_sentence_674

A heavily Sanskritized version of Bengali was employed by Hindu scholars during the Bengali Renaissance. Bangladesh_sentence_675

Muslim writers such as Kazi Nazrul Islam gave attention to the Persian and Arabic vocabulary of the language. Bangladesh_sentence_676

Today, the Bengali language standard is prescribed by the Bangla Academy in Bangladesh. Bangladesh_sentence_677

More than 98 percent of people in Bangladesh speak Bengali as their native language. Bangladesh_sentence_678

Bengali is described as a dialect continuum where there are various dialects spoken throughout the country. Bangladesh_sentence_679

Currently there is a diglossia in which much of the population are able to understand or speak Standard Colloquial Bengali and in their regional dialect, these include the most distinct dialects (some consider as separate languages) such as Chittagonian or Sylheti. Bangladesh_sentence_680

The Bengali Language Implementation Act, 1987 made it mandatory to use Bengali in all government affairs in Bangladesh. Bangladesh_sentence_681

Although laws were historically written in English, they were not translated into Bengali until the Bengali Language Implementation Act of 1987. Bangladesh_sentence_682

All subsequent acts, ordinances and laws have been promulgated in Bengali since 1987. Bangladesh_sentence_683

English is often used in the verdicts delivered by the Supreme Court of Bangladesh, and is also used in higher education. Bangladesh_sentence_684

The Chakma language is another native Eastern Indo-Aryan language of Bangladesh. Bangladesh_sentence_685

It is written using the Chakma script. Bangladesh_sentence_686

The unique aspect of the language is that it is used by the Chakma people, who are a population with similarities to the people of East Asia, rather than the Indian subcontinent. Bangladesh_sentence_687

The Chakma language is endangered due to its decreasing use in schools and institutions. Bangladesh_sentence_688

Other tribal languages include Garo, Meitei, Kokborok and Rakhine. Bangladesh_sentence_689

Among the Austroasiatic languages, the Santali language is spoken by the Santali tribe. Bangladesh_sentence_690

Many of these languages are written in the Bengali script; while there is also some usage of the Latin script. Bangladesh_sentence_691

Urdu has a significant heritage in Bangladesh, in particular Old Dhaka. Bangladesh_sentence_692

The language was introduced to Bengal in the 17th-century. Bangladesh_sentence_693

Traders and migrants from North India often spoke the language in Bengal, as did sections of the Bengali upper class. Bangladesh_sentence_694

Urdu poets lived in many parts of Bangladesh. Bangladesh_sentence_695

The use of Urdu became controversial during the Bengali Language Movement, when the people of East Bengal resisted attempts to impose Urdu as the main official language. Bangladesh_sentence_696

In modern Bangladesh, the Urdu-speaking community is restricted to the country's Bihari community (formerly Stranded Pakistanis); and some sections of the Old Dhakaiya population. Bangladesh_sentence_697

Religion Bangladesh_section_31

Main article: Religion in Bangladesh Bangladesh_sentence_698

The constitution grants freedom of religion and officially makes Bangladesh a secular state, while establishing Islam as the "religion of the Republic". Bangladesh_sentence_699

Islam is followed by 90 percent of the population. Bangladesh_sentence_700

Most Bangladeshis are Bengali Muslims, who form the largest Muslim ethnoreligious group in South Asia and the second largest in the world after the Arabs. Bangladesh_sentence_701

There is also a minority of non-Bengali Muslims. Bangladesh_sentence_702

The vast majority of Bangladeshi Muslims are Sunni, followed by minorities of Shia and Ahmadiya. Bangladesh_sentence_703

About four percent are non-denominational Muslims. Bangladesh_sentence_704

Bangladesh has the fourth-largest Muslim population in the world, and is the third-largest Muslim-majority country (after Indonesia and Pakistan). Bangladesh_sentence_705

Sufism has an extensive heritage in the region. Bangladesh_sentence_706

Liberal Bengali Islam sometimes clashes with orthodox movements. Bangladesh_sentence_707

The largest gathering of Muslims in Bangladesh is the apolitical Bishwa Ijtema, held annually by the orthodox Tablighi Jamaat. Bangladesh_sentence_708

The Ijtema is the second-largest Muslim congregation in the world, after the Hajj. Bangladesh_sentence_709

The Islamic Foundation is an autonomous government agency responsible for some religious matters under state guidance, including monitoring of sighting of the moon in accordance with the lunar Islamic calendar in order to set festival dates; as well as the charitable tradition of zakat. Bangladesh_sentence_710

Public holidays include the Islamic observances of Eid-ul-Fitr, Eid-al-Adha, the Prophet's Birthday, Ashura and Shab-e-Barat. Bangladesh_sentence_711

Hinduism is followed by 8.5 percent of the population; most are Bengali Hindus, and some are members of ethnic minority groups. Bangladesh_sentence_712

Bangladeshi Hindus are the country's second-largest religious group and the third-largest Hindu community in the world, after those in India and Nepal. Bangladesh_sentence_713

Hindus in Bangladesh are evenly distributed, with concentrations in Gopalganj, Dinajpur, Sylhet, Sunamganj, Mymensingh, Khulna, Jessore, Chittagong and parts of the Chittagong Hill Tracts. Bangladesh_sentence_714

The festivals of Durga's Return and Krishna's Birthday are public holidays. Bangladesh_sentence_715

Buddhism is the third-largest religion, at 0.6 percent. Bangladesh_sentence_716

Bangladeshi Buddhists are concentrated among ethnic groups in the Chittagong Hill Tracts (particularly the Chakma, Marma and Tanchangya peoples), while coastal Chittagong is home to a large number of Bengali Buddhists. Bangladesh_sentence_717

Although the Mahayana school of Buddhism was historically prevalent in the region, Bangladeshi Buddhists today adhere to the Theravada school. Bangladesh_sentence_718

Buddha's Birthday is a public holiday. Bangladesh_sentence_719

The chief Buddhist priests are based at a monastery in Chittagong. Bangladesh_sentence_720

Christianity is the fourth-largest religion, at 0.4 percent. Bangladesh_sentence_721

Roman Catholicism is the largest denomination among Bangladeshi Christians. Bangladesh_sentence_722

Bengali Christians are spread across the country; while there are many Christians among minority ethnic groups in the Chittagong Hill Tracts (southeastern Bangladesh) and within the Garo tribe of Mymensingh (north-central Bangladesh). Bangladesh_sentence_723

The country also has Protestant, Baptist and Oriental Orthodox churches. Bangladesh_sentence_724

Christmas is a public holiday. Bangladesh_sentence_725

The Constitution of Bangladesh declares Islam the state religion, but bans religion-based politics. Bangladesh_sentence_726

It proclaims equal recognition of Hindus, Buddhists, Christians and people of all faiths. Bangladesh_sentence_727

In 1972, Bangladesh was South Asia's first constitutionally-secular country. Bangladesh_sentence_728

Article 12 of the constitution continues to call for secularism, the elimination of interfaith tensions and prohibits the abuse of religion for political purposes and any discrimination against, or persecution of, persons practising a particular religion. Bangladesh_sentence_729

Article 41 of the constitution subjects religious freedom to public order, law and morality; it gives every citizen the right to profess, practice or propagate any religion; every religious community or denomination the right to establish, maintain and manage its religious institutions; and states that no person attending any educational institution shall be required to receive religious instruction, or to take part in or to attend any religious ceremony or worship, if that instruction, ceremony or worship relates to a religion other than his own. Bangladesh_sentence_730

Education Bangladesh_section_32

Main article: Education in Bangladesh Bangladesh_sentence_731

Bangladesh has a literacy rate of 72.9 percent as of 2018: 75.7% for males and 70.09% for females. Bangladesh_sentence_732

The country's educational system is three-tiered and heavily subsidised, with the government operating many schools at the primary, secondary and higher-secondary levels and subsidising many private schools. Bangladesh_sentence_733

In the tertiary-education sector, the Bangladeshi government funds over 45 state universities through the University Grants Commission. Bangladesh_sentence_734

The education system is divided into five levels: primary (first to fifth grade), junior secondary (sixth to eighth grade), secondary (ninth and tenth grade), higher secondary (11th and 12th grade) and tertiary. Bangladesh_sentence_735

Five years of secondary education (including junior secondary) ends with a Secondary School Certificate (SSC) examination. Bangladesh_sentence_736

Since 2009, the Primary Education Closing (PEC) examination has also been introduced. Bangladesh_sentence_737

Students who pass the PEC examination proceed to secondary or matriculation training, culminating in the SSC examination. Bangladesh_sentence_738

Students who pass the PEC examination proceed to three years of junior-secondary education, culminating in the Junior School Certificate (JSC) examination. Bangladesh_sentence_739

Students who pass this examination proceed to two years of secondary education, culminating in the SSC examination. Bangladesh_sentence_740

Students who pass this examination proceed to two years of higher-secondary education, culminating in the Higher Secondary School Certificate (HSC) examination. Bangladesh_sentence_741

Education is primarily in Bengali, but English is commonly taught and used. Bangladesh_sentence_742

Many Muslim families send their children to part-time courses or full-time religious education in Bengali and Arabic in madrasas. Bangladesh_sentence_743

Bangladesh conforms with UNESCO's Education For All (EFA) objectives, the UN Millennium Development Goals (MDG) and other international declarations. Bangladesh_sentence_744

Article 17 of the Bangladesh Constitution provides that all children between the ages of six and ten years receive a basic education free of charge. Bangladesh_sentence_745

Universities in Bangladesh are of three general types: public (government-owned and subsidized), private (privately owned universities) and international (operated and funded by international organisations). Bangladesh_sentence_746

They are accredited by and affiliated with the University Grants Commission (UGC), created by Presidential Order 10 in 1973. Bangladesh_sentence_747

The country has 47 public, 105 private and two international universities; Bangladesh National University has the largest enrollment, and the University of Dhaka (established in 1921) is the oldest. Bangladesh_sentence_748

University of Chittagong (established in 1966) is the largest University (Campus: Rural, 2,100 acres (8.5 km2)). Bangladesh_sentence_749

Islamic University of Technology, commonly known as IUT, is a subsidiary of the Organisation of the Islamic Cooperation (OIC, representing 57 countries in Asia, Africa, Europe and South America). Bangladesh_sentence_750

Asian University for Women in Chittagong is the preeminent South Asian liberal-arts university for women, representing 14 Asian countries; its faculty hails from notable academic institutions in North America, Europe, Asia, Australia and the Middle East. Bangladesh_sentence_751

As in Bangladesh, the agriculture sector is the largest contributor (more than 20%) to GDP and agricultural sciences are well developed. Bangladesh_sentence_752

It has 6 public research based agricultural university, and they are: Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Sylhet Agricultural University, Khulna Agricultural University, Chittagong Veterinary and Animal Sciences University. Bangladesh_sentence_753

BUET, CUET, KUET and RUET are Bangladesh's four public engineering universities. Bangladesh_sentence_754

BUTEX and DUET are two specialised engineering universities; BUTEX specialises in textile engineering, and DUET offers higher education to diploma engineers. Bangladesh_sentence_755

The NITER is a specialised public-private partnership institute which provides higher education in textile engineering. Bangladesh_sentence_756

Science and technology universities include Hajee Mohammad Danesh Science & Technology University, Mawlana Bhashani Science and Technology University, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Science and Technology University, SUST, JUST, PUST, NSTU and PSTU. Bangladesh_sentence_757

The country's first higher education institution on aerospace engineering, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Aviation and Aerospace University, has been established in 2019 and is expected to launch its on-campus academic activities from the start of 2021. Bangladesh_sentence_758

Medical education is provided by 29 government and private medical colleges. Bangladesh_sentence_759

All medical colleges are affiliated with the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. Bangladesh_sentence_760

Bangladesh's 2015 literacy rate rose to 71 percent due to education modernisation and improved funding, with 16,087 schools and 2,363 colleges receiving Monthly Pay Order (MPO) facilities. Bangladesh_sentence_761

According to then education minister Nurul Islam Nahid, 27,558 madrasas and technical and vocational institutions were enlisted for the facility. Bangladesh_sentence_762

6,036 educational institutions were outside MPO coverage, and the government enlisted 1,624 private schools for MPO in 2010. Bangladesh_sentence_763

Health Bangladesh_section_33

Main article: Health in Bangladesh Bangladesh_sentence_764

Healthcare facilities in Bangladesh are considered less than adequate, although they have improved as poverty levels have decreased significantly. Bangladesh_sentence_765

Findings from a recent study in Chakaria (a rural Upazila under Cox's Bazar District) revealed that the "village doctors", practicing allopathic medicine without formal training, were reported to have provided 65% of the healthcare sought for illness episodes occurring within 14 days prior to the survey. Bangladesh_sentence_766

Formally-trained providers made up only four percent of the total health workforce. Bangladesh_sentence_767

The Future Health Systems survey indicated significant deficiencies in the treatment practices of village doctors, with widespread harmful and inappropriate drug prescribing. Bangladesh_sentence_768

Receiving health care from informal providers is encouraged. Bangladesh_sentence_769

A 2007 study of 1,000 households in rural Bangladesh found that direct payments to formal and informal healthcare providers and indirect costs (loss of earnings because of illness) associated with illness were deterrents to accessing healthcare from qualified providers. Bangladesh_sentence_770

A community survey of 6,183 individuals in rural Bangladesh found a gender difference in treatment-seeking behaviour, with women less likely to seek treatment than to men. Bangladesh_sentence_771

The use of skilled birth attendant (SBA) services, however, rose from 2005 to 2007 among women from all socioeconomic quintiles except the highest. Bangladesh_sentence_772

A health watch, a pilot community-empowerment tool, was successfully developed and implemented in south-eastern Bangladesh to improve the uptake and monitoring of public-health services. Bangladesh_sentence_773

Bangladesh's poor health conditions are attributed to the lack of healthcare provision by the government. Bangladesh_sentence_774

According to a 2010 World Bank report, 2009 healthcare spending was 3.35 percent of the country's GDP. Bangladesh_sentence_775

Government spending on healthcare that year was 7.9 percent of the total budget; out-of-pocket expenditures totalled 96.5 percent. Bangladesh_sentence_776

According to the government sources, the number of hospital beds is 8 per 10,000 population (as of 2015). Bangladesh_sentence_777

Malnutrition has been a persistent problem in Bangladesh, with the World Bank ranking the country first in the number of malnourished children worldwide. Bangladesh_sentence_778

More than 54% of preschool-age children are stunted, 56% are underweight and more than 17% are wasted. Bangladesh_sentence_779

More than 45 percent of rural families and 76 percent of urban families were below the acceptable caloric-intake level. Bangladesh_sentence_780

Culture Bangladesh_section_34

Main articles: Culture of Bangladesh, Culture of Bengal, and Bengali Renaissance Bangladesh_sentence_781

Visual arts Bangladesh_section_35

Main article: Bangladeshi art Bangladesh_sentence_782

The recorded history of art in Bangladesh can be traced to the 3rd century BCE, when terracotta sculptures were made in the region. Bangladesh_sentence_783

In classical antiquity, a notable school of sculptural Hindu, Jain and Buddhist art developed in the Pala Empire and the Sena dynasty. Bangladesh_sentence_784

Islamic art evolved since the 14th century. Bangladesh_sentence_785

The architecture of the Bengal Sultanate saw a distinct style of domed mosques with complex niche pillars that had no minarets. Bangladesh_sentence_786

Mughal Bengal's most celebrated artistic tradition was the weaving of Jamdani motifs on fine muslin, which is now classified by UNESCO as an intangible cultural heritage. Bangladesh_sentence_787

Jamdani motifs were similar to Iranian textile art (buta motifs) and Western textile art (paisley). Bangladesh_sentence_788

The Jamdani weavers in Dhaka received imperial patronage. Bangladesh_sentence_789

Ivory and brass were also widely used in Mughal art. Bangladesh_sentence_790

Pottery is widely used in Bengali culture. Bangladesh_sentence_791

The modern art movement in Bangladesh took shape during the 1950s, particularly with the pioneering works of Zainul Abedin. Bangladesh_sentence_792

East Bengal developed its own modernist painting and sculpture traditions, which were distinct from the art movements in West Bengal. Bangladesh_sentence_793

The Art Institute Dhaka has been an important center for visual art in the region. Bangladesh_sentence_794

Its annual Bengali New Year parade was enlisted as an intangible cultural heritage by UNESCO in 2016. Bangladesh_sentence_795

Modern Bangladesh has produced many of South Asia's leading painters, including SM Sultan, Mohammad Kibria, Shahabuddin Ahmed, Kanak Chanpa Chakma, Kafil Ahmed, Saifuddin Ahmed, Qayyum Chowdhury, Rashid Choudhury, Quamrul Hassan, Rafiqun Nabi and Syed Jahangir, among others. Bangladesh_sentence_796

Novera Ahmed and Nitun Kundu were the country's pioneers of modernist sculpture. Bangladesh_sentence_797

In recent times, photography as a medium of art has become popular. Bangladesh_sentence_798

Biennial Chobi Mela is considered the largest photography festival in Asia. Bangladesh_sentence_799

Literature Bangladesh_section_36

See also: Bangladeshi literature Bangladesh_sentence_800

The oldest evidence of writing in Bangladesh is the Mahasthan Brahmi Inscription, which dates back to the 3rd century BCE. Bangladesh_sentence_801

In the Gupta Empire, Sanskrit literature thrived in the region. Bangladesh_sentence_802

Bengali developed from Sanskrit and Magadhi Prakrit in the 8th to 10th century. Bangladesh_sentence_803

Bengali literature is a millennium-old tradition; the Charyapadas are the earliest examples of Bengali poetry. Bangladesh_sentence_804

Sufi spiritualism inspired many Bengali Muslim writers. Bangladesh_sentence_805

During the Bengal Sultanate, medieval Bengali writers were influenced by Arabic and Persian works. Bangladesh_sentence_806

The Chandidas are the notable lyric poets from the early Medieval Age. Bangladesh_sentence_807

Syed Alaol was a noted secular poet and translator from the Arakan region. Bangladesh_sentence_808

The Bengal Renaissance shaped the emergence of modern Bengali literature, including novels, short stories and science fiction. Bangladesh_sentence_809

Rabindranath Tagore was the first non-European laureate of the Nobel Prize in Literature and is described as the Bengali Shakespeare. Bangladesh_sentence_810

Kazi Nazrul Islam was a revolutionary poet who espoused political rebellion against colonialism and fascism. Bangladesh_sentence_811

Begum Rokeya is regarded as the pioneer feminist writer of Bangladesh. Bangladesh_sentence_812

Other renaissance icons included Michael Madhusudan Dutt and Sarat Chandra Chattopadhyay. Bangladesh_sentence_813

The writer Syed Mujtaba Ali is noted for his cosmopolitan Bengali worldview. Bangladesh_sentence_814

Jasimuddin was a renowned pastoral poet. Bangladesh_sentence_815

Shamsur Rahman and Al Mahmud are considered two of the greatest Bengali poets to have emerged in the 20th century. Bangladesh_sentence_816

Farrukh Ahmad, Sufia Kamal, Syed Ali Ahsan, Ahsan Habib, Abul Hussain, Shahid Qadri, Fazal Shahbuddin, Abu Jafar Obaidullah, Omar Ali, Al Mujahidy, Syed Shamsul Huq, Nirmalendu Goon, Abid Azad, Sanaul Haque Khan, Hasan Hafiz, Abdul Hye Sikder, Sayeed Abubakar, Jafar Ahmad Rashed are important figures of modern Bangladeshi poetry. Bangladesh_sentence_817

Ahmed Sofa is regarded as the most important Bangladeshi intellectual in the post-independence era. Bangladesh_sentence_818

Humayun Ahmed was a popular writer of modern Bangladeshi magical realism and science fiction. Bangladesh_sentence_819

Notable writers of Bangladeshi fictions include Mir Mosharraf Hossain, Akhteruzzaman Elias, Alauddin Al Azad, Shahidul Zahir, Rashid Karim, Mahmudul Haque, Syed Waliullah, Shahidullah Kaiser, Shawkat Osman, Selina Hossain, Shahed Ali, Abul Khayer Muslehuddin, Razia Khan, Anisul Hoque, and Abdul Mannan Syed. Bangladesh_sentence_820

The annual Ekushey Book Fair and Dhaka Literature Festival, organised by the Bangla Academy, are among the largest literary festivals in South Asia. Bangladesh_sentence_821

Women in Bangladesh Bangladesh_section_37

Main article: Women in Bangladesh Bangladesh_sentence_822

Although, as of 2015, several women occupied major political office in Bangladesh, its women continue to live under a patriarchal social regime where violence is common. Bangladesh_sentence_823

Whereas in India and Pakistan women participate less in the workforce as their education increases, the reverse is the case in Bangladesh. Bangladesh_sentence_824

Bengal has a long history of feminist activism dating back to the 19th century. Bangladesh_sentence_825

Begum Rokeya and Faizunnessa Chowdhurani played an important role in emancipating Bengali Muslim women from purdah, prior to the country's division, as well as promoting girls' education. Bangladesh_sentence_826

Several women were elected to the Bengal Legislative Assembly in the British Raj. Bangladesh_sentence_827

The first women's magazine, Begum, was published in 1948. Bangladesh_sentence_828

In 2008, Bangladeshi female workforce participation stood at 26%. Bangladesh_sentence_829

Women dominate blue collar jobs in the Bangladeshi garment industry. Bangladesh_sentence_830

Agriculture, social services, healthcare and education are also major occupations for Bangladeshi women, while their employment in white collar positions has steadily increased. Bangladesh_sentence_831

Architecture Bangladesh_section_38

Main article: Architecture of Bangladesh Bangladesh_sentence_832

The architectural traditions of Bangladesh have a 2,500-year-old heritage. Bangladesh_sentence_833

Terracotta architecture is a distinct feature of Bengal. Bangladesh_sentence_834

Pre-Islamic Bengali architecture reached its pinnacle in the Pala Empire, when the Pala School of Sculptural Art established grand structures such as the Somapura Mahavihara. Bangladesh_sentence_835

Islamic architecture began developing under the Bengal Sultanate, when local terracotta styles influenced medieval mosque construction. Bangladesh_sentence_836

The Adina Mosque of United Bengal was the largest mosque built on the Indian subcontinent. Bangladesh_sentence_837

The Sixty Dome Mosque was the largest medieval mosque built in Bangladesh, and is a fine example of Turkic-Bengali architecture. Bangladesh_sentence_838

The Mughal style replaced indigenous architecture when Bengal became a province of the Mughal Empire and influenced the development of urban housing. Bangladesh_sentence_839

The Kantajew Temple and Dhakeshwari Temple are excellent examples of late medieval Hindu temple architecture. Bangladesh_sentence_840

Indo-Saracenic Revival architecture, based on Indo-Islamic styles, flourished during the British period. Bangladesh_sentence_841

The zamindar gentry in Bangladesh built numerous Indo-Saracenic palaces and country mansions, such as the Ahsan Manzil, Tajhat Palace, Dighapatia Palace, Puthia Rajbari and Natore Rajbari. Bangladesh_sentence_842

Bengali vernacular architecture is noted for pioneering the bungalow. Bangladesh_sentence_843

Bangladeshi villages consist of thatched roofed houses made of natural materials like mud, straw, wood and bamboo. Bangladesh_sentence_844

In modern times, village bungalows are increasingly made of tin. Bangladesh_sentence_845

Muzharul Islam was the pioneer of Bangladeshi modern architecture. Bangladesh_sentence_846

His varied works set the course of modern architectural practice in the country. Bangladesh_sentence_847

Islam brought leading global architects, including Louis Kahn, Richard Neutra, Stanley Tigerman, Paul Rudolph, Robert Boughey and Konstantinos Doxiadis, to work in erstwhile East Pakistan. Bangladesh_sentence_848

Louis Kahn was chosen to design the National Parliament Complex in Sher-e-Bangla Nagar. Bangladesh_sentence_849

Kahn's monumental designs, combining regional red brick aesthetics, his own concrete and marble brutalism and the use of lakes to represent Bengali geography, are regarded as one of the masterpieces of the 20th century. Bangladesh_sentence_850

In more recent times, award-winning architects like Rafiq Azam have set the course of contemporary architecture by adopting influences from the works of Islam and Kahn. Bangladesh_sentence_851

Performing arts Bangladesh_section_39

Theatre in Bangladesh includes various forms with a history dating back to the 4th century CE. Bangladesh_sentence_852

It includes narrative forms, song and dance forms, supra-personae forms, performances with scroll paintings, puppet theatre and processional forms. Bangladesh_sentence_853

The Jatra is the most popular form of Bengali folk theatre. Bangladesh_sentence_854

The dance traditions of Bangladesh include indigenous tribal and Bengali dance forms, as well as classical Indian dances, including the Kathak, Odissi and Manipuri dances. Bangladesh_sentence_855

The music of Bangladesh features the Baul mystical tradition, listed by UNESCO as a Masterpiece of Intangible Cultural Heritage. Bangladesh_sentence_856

Fakir Lalon Shah popularized Baul music in the country in the 18th century and it has been one of the most popular music genera in the country since then. Bangladesh_sentence_857

Most modern Bauls are devoted to Lalon Shah. Bangladesh_sentence_858

Numerous lyric-based musical traditions, varying from one region to the next, exist, including Gombhira, Bhatiali and Bhawaiya. Bangladesh_sentence_859

Folk music is accompanied by a one-stringed instrument known as the ektara. Bangladesh_sentence_860

Other instruments include the dotara, dhol, flute, and tabla. Bangladesh_sentence_861

Bengali classical music includes Tagore songs and Nazrul Sangeet. Bangladesh_sentence_862

Bangladesh has a rich tradition of Indian classical music, which uses instruments like the sitar, tabla, sarod and santoor. Bangladesh_sentence_863

Sabina Yasmin and Runa Laila are considered the leading playback singers in the modern time, while musician Ayub Bachchu is credited with popularising Bengali rock music in Bangladesh. Bangladesh_sentence_864

Textiles Bangladesh_section_40

See also: Textile arts of Bangladesh and Muslin trade in Bengal Bangladesh_sentence_865

The Nakshi Kantha is a centuries-old embroidery tradition for quilts, said to be indigenous to eastern Bengal (i.e. Bangladesh). Bangladesh_sentence_866

The sari is the national dress for Bangladeshi women. Bangladesh_sentence_867

Mughal Dhaka was renowned for producing the finest Muslin saris, as well as the famed Dhakai and Jamdani, the weaving of which is listed by UNESCO as one of the masterpieces of humanity's intangible cultural heritage. Bangladesh_sentence_868

Bangladesh also produces the Rajshahi silk. Bangladesh_sentence_869

The shalwar kameez is also widely worn by Bangladeshi women. Bangladesh_sentence_870

In urban areas some women can be seen in western clothing. Bangladesh_sentence_871

The kurta and sherwani are the national dress of Bangladeshi men; the lungi and dhoti are worn by them in informal settings. Bangladesh_sentence_872

Aside from ethnic wear, domestically tailored suits and neckties are customarily worn by the country's men in offices, in schools and at social events. Bangladesh_sentence_873

The handloom industry supplies 60–65% of the country's clothing demand. Bangladesh_sentence_874

The Bengali ethnic fashion industry has flourished in the changing environment of the fashion world. Bangladesh_sentence_875

The retailer Aarong is one of the most successful ethnic wear brands in South Asia. Bangladesh_sentence_876

The development of the Bangladesh textile industry, which supplies leading international brands, has promoted the production and retail of modern Western attire locally, with the country now having a number of expanding local brands like Westecs and Yellow. Bangladesh_sentence_877

Bangladesh is the world's second largest garments exporter. Bangladesh_sentence_878

Among Bangladesh's fashion designers, Bibi Russell has received international acclaim for her "Fashion for Development" shows. Bangladesh_sentence_879

Cuisine Bangladesh_section_41

Main articles: Bengali cuisine and Bangladeshi cuisine Bangladesh_sentence_880

White rice is the staple of Bangladeshi cuisine, along with many vegetables and lentils. Bangladesh_sentence_881

Rice preparations also include Bengali biryanis, pulaos, and khichuris. Bangladesh_sentence_882

Mustard sauce, ghee, sunflower oil and fruit chutneys are widely used in Bangladeshi cooking. Bangladesh_sentence_883

Fish is the main source of protein in Bengali cuisine. Bangladesh_sentence_884

The Hilsa is the national fish and immensely popular across Bangladesh. Bangladesh_sentence_885

Other kinds of fish eaten include rohu, butterfish, catfish, tilapia and barramundi. Bangladesh_sentence_886

Fish eggs are a gourmet delicacy. Bangladesh_sentence_887

Seafood holds an important place in Bengali cuisine, especially lobsters, shrimps and dried fish. Bangladesh_sentence_888

Meat consumption includes chicken, beef, mutton, venison, duck and squab. Bangladesh_sentence_889

In Chittagong, Mezban feasts are a popular tradition featuring the serving of hot beef curry. Bangladesh_sentence_890

In Sylhet, the shatkora lemons are used to marinate dishes. Bangladesh_sentence_891

In the tribal Hill Tracts, bamboo shoot cooking is prevalent. Bangladesh_sentence_892

Bangladesh has a vast spread of desserts, including distinctive sweets like Rôshogolla, Rôshomalai, Chomchom, Mishti Doi and Kalojaam. Bangladesh_sentence_893

Pithas are traditional boiled desserts made with rice or fruits. Bangladesh_sentence_894

Halwa is served during religious festivities. Bangladesh_sentence_895

Naan, paratha, luchi and bakarkhani are the main local breads. Bangladesh_sentence_896

Milk tea is offered to guests as a gesture of welcome and is the most common hot beverage in the country. Bangladesh_sentence_897

Kebabs are widely popular across Bangladesh, particularly seekh kebabs, chicken tikka and shashliks. Bangladesh_sentence_898

Bangladesh shares its culinary heritage with the neighbouring Indian state of West Bengal. Bangladesh_sentence_899

The two regions have several differences, however. Bangladesh_sentence_900

In Muslim-majority Bangladesh, meat consumption is greater; whereas in Hindu-majority West Bengal, vegetarianism is more prevalent. Bangladesh_sentence_901

The Bangladeshi diaspora dominates the South Asian restaurant industry in many Western countries, particularly in the United Kingdom. Bangladesh_sentence_902

Festivals Bangladesh_section_42

Main articles: Public holidays in Bangladesh and List of festivals in Bangladesh Bangladesh_sentence_903

Pahela Baishakh, the Bengali new year, is the major festival of Bengali culture and sees widespread festivities. Bangladesh_sentence_904

Of the major holidays celebrated in Bangladesh, only Pahela Baishakh comes without any pre-existing expectations (specific religious identity, culture of gift-giving, etc.) and has become an occasion for celebrating the simpler, rural roots of the Bengal. Bangladesh_sentence_905

Other cultural festivals include Nabonno, and Poush Parbon both of which are Bengali harvest festivals. Bangladesh_sentence_906

The Muslim festivals of Eid al-Fitr, Eid al-Adha, Milad un Nabi, Muharram, Chand Raat, Shab-e-Barat; the Hindu festivals of Durga Puja, Janmashtami and Rath Yatra; the Buddhist festival of Buddha Purnima, which marks the birth of Gautama Buddha, and Christian festival of Christmas are national holidays in Bangladesh and see the most widespread celebrations in the country. Bangladesh_sentence_907

The two Eids are celebrated with long streak of public holidays and give the city-dwellers opportunity to celebrate the festivals with their families outside city. Bangladesh_sentence_908

Alongside are national days like the remembrance of 21 February 1952 Language Movement Day (declared as International Mother Language Day by UNESCO in 1999), Independence Day and Victory Day. Bangladesh_sentence_909

On Language Movement Day, people congregate at the Shaheed Minar in Dhaka to remember the national heroes of the Bengali Language Movement. Bangladesh_sentence_910

Similar gatherings are observed at the National Martyrs’ Memorial on Independence Day and Victory Day to remember the national heroes of the Bangladesh Liberation War. Bangladesh_sentence_911

These occasions are celebrated with public ceremonies, parades, rallies by citizens, political speeches, fairs, concerts, and various other public and private events, celebrating the history and traditions of Bangladesh. Bangladesh_sentence_912

TV and radio stations broadcast special programs and patriotic songs, and many schools and colleges organise fairs, festivals, and concerts that draw the participation of citizens from all levels of Bangladeshi society. Bangladesh_sentence_913

Sports Bangladesh_section_43

Main article: Sports in Bangladesh Bangladesh_sentence_914

In rural Bangladesh, several traditional indigenous sports such as Kabaddi, Boli Khela, Lathi Khela and Nouka Baich remain fairly popular. Bangladesh_sentence_915

While Kabaddi is the national sport cricket is the most popular sport in the country followed by football. Bangladesh_sentence_916

The national cricket team participated in their first Cricket World Cup in 1999 and the following year was granted Test cricket status. Bangladesh_sentence_917

Bangladesh reached the quarter-final of the 2015 Cricket World Cup, the semi-final of the 2017 ICC Champions Trophy and they reached the final of the Asia Cup 3 times – in 2012, 2016 and 2018. Bangladesh_sentence_918

In February 2020, the Bangladesh youth national cricket team won the men's Under-19 Cricket World Cup, held in South Africa. Bangladesh_sentence_919

This was Bangladesh's first World Cup victory. Bangladesh_sentence_920

Women's sports saw significant progress in the 2010s decade in Bangladesh. Bangladesh_sentence_921

In 2018 the Bangladesh women's national cricket team won the 2018 Women's Twenty20 Asia Cup defeating India women's national cricket team in the final. Bangladesh_sentence_922

Bangladesh women's national football team has also registered some success at regional level, especially the Under-15 and Under-18 teams. Bangladesh_sentence_923

Football is the another popular sport in Bangladesh alongside cricket and is governed by the Bangladesh Football Federation (BFF). Bangladesh_sentence_924

Football tournaments are regularly organised in and outside Dhaka and football fever grips the nation during every FIFA World Cup. Bangladesh_sentence_925

On 4 November 2018, Bangladesh national under-15 football team won the 2018 SAFF U-15 Championship, defeating Pakistan national under-15 football team in the final. Bangladesh_sentence_926

Bangladesh archers Ety Khatun and Roman Sana won several gold medals winning all the 10 archery events (both individual, and team events) in the 2019 South Asian Games. Bangladesh_sentence_927

The National Sports Council regulates 42 sporting federations. Bangladesh_sentence_928

Athletics, swimming, archery, boxing, volleyball, weight-lifting and wrestling and different forms of martial arts remain popular. Bangladesh_sentence_929

Chess is very popular in Bangladesh. Bangladesh_sentence_930

Bangladesh has five grandmasters in chess. Bangladesh_sentence_931

Among them, Niaz Murshed was the first grandmaster in South Asia. Bangladesh_sentence_932

In 2010, mountain climber Musa Ibrahim became the first Bangladeshi climber to conquer Mount Everest. Bangladesh_sentence_933

He climbed the top of the summit of Mount Everest. Bangladesh_sentence_934

Wasfia Nazreen is the first Bangladeshi climber to climb the Seven Summits, which are the highest mountains of each of the seven continents of the world. Bangladesh_sentence_935

Bangladesh hosts a number of international tournaments. Bangladesh_sentence_936

Bangabandhu Cup is an international football tournament hosted in the country. Bangladesh_sentence_937

Bangladesh hosted the South Asian Games several times. Bangladesh_sentence_938

In 2011, Bangladesh co-hosted the ICC Cricket World Cup 2011 with India and Sri Lanka. Bangladesh_sentence_939

The 2014 ICC World Twenty20 championship was solely hosted by Bangladesh. Bangladesh_sentence_940

Bangladesh hosted the Asia Cup Cricket Tournament in 2000, 2012, 2014 and 2016. Bangladesh_sentence_941

Media and cinema Bangladesh_section_44

Main articles: Media of Bangladesh and Cinema of Bangladesh Bangladesh_sentence_942

The Bangladeshi press is diverse, outspoken and privately owned. Bangladesh_sentence_943

Over 200 newspapers are published in the country. Bangladesh_sentence_944

Bangladesh Betar is the state-run radio service. Bangladesh_sentence_945

The British Broadcasting Corporation operates the popular BBC Bangla news and current affairs service. Bangladesh_sentence_946

Bengali broadcasts from Voice of America are also very popular. Bangladesh_sentence_947

Bangladesh Television (BTV) is the state-owned television network. Bangladesh_sentence_948

There more than 20 privately owned television networks, including several news channels. Bangladesh_sentence_949

Freedom of the media remains a major concern, due to government attempts at censorship and the harassment of journalists. Bangladesh_sentence_950

The cinema of Bangladesh dates back to 1898, when films began screening at the Crown Theatre in Dhaka. Bangladesh_sentence_951

The first bioscope on the subcontinent was established in Dhaka that year. Bangladesh_sentence_952

The Dhaka Nawab Family patronised the production of several silent films in the 1920s and 30s. Bangladesh_sentence_953

In 1931, the East Bengal Cinematograph Society released the first full-length feature film in Bangladesh, titled the Last Kiss. Bangladesh_sentence_954

The first feature film in East Pakistan, Mukh O Mukhosh, was released in 1956. Bangladesh_sentence_955

During the 1960s, 25–30 films were produced annually in Dhaka. Bangladesh_sentence_956

By the 2000s, Bangladesh produced 80–100 films a year. Bangladesh_sentence_957

While the Bangladeshi film industry has achieved limited commercial success, the country has produced notable independent filmmakers. Bangladesh_sentence_958

Zahir Raihan was a prominent documentary-maker who was assassinated in 1971. Bangladesh_sentence_959

The late Tareque Masud is regarded as one of Bangladesh's outstanding directors for his critically acclaimed films on social issues. Bangladesh_sentence_960

Masud was honoured by FIPRESCI at the 2002 Cannes Film Festival for his film The Clay Bird. Bangladesh_sentence_961

Tanvir Mokammel, Mostofa Sarwar Farooki, Humayun Ahmed, Alamgir Kabir, and Chashi Nazrul Islam are some of the prominent directors of Bangladeshi cinema. Bangladesh_sentence_962

Bangladesh have very active film society culture. Bangladesh_sentence_963

its started in 1963 at Dhaka. Bangladesh_sentence_964

Now around 40 Film Society active in all over Bangladesh. Bangladesh_sentence_965

Federation of Film Societies of Bangladesh is the parent organisation of the film society movement of Bangladesh. Bangladesh_sentence_966

Active film societies include the Rainbow Film Society, Children's Film Society, Moviyana Film Society and Dhaka University Film Society. Bangladesh_sentence_967

Museums and libraries Bangladesh_section_45

Main articles: Museums in Bangladesh and List of libraries in Bangladesh Bangladesh_sentence_968

The Varendra Research Museum is the oldest museum in Bangladesh. Bangladesh_sentence_969

It houses important collections from both the pre-Islamic and Islamic periods, including the sculptures of the Pala-Sena School of Art and the Indus Valley Civilization; as well as Sanskrit, Arabic and Persian manuscripts and inscriptions. Bangladesh_sentence_970

The Ahsan Manzil, the former residence of the Nawab of Dhaka, is a national museum housing collections from the British Raj. Bangladesh_sentence_971

It was the site of the founding conference of the All India Muslim League and hosted many British Viceroys in Dhaka. Bangladesh_sentence_972

The Tajhat Palace Museum preserves artefacts of the rich cultural heritage of North Bengal, including Hindu-Buddhist sculptures and Islamic manuscripts. Bangladesh_sentence_973

The Mymensingh Museum houses the personal antique collections of Bengali aristocrats in central Bengal. Bangladesh_sentence_974

The Ethnological Museum of Chittagong showcases the lifestyle of various tribes in Bangladesh. Bangladesh_sentence_975

The Bangladesh National Museum is located in Ramna, Dhaka and has a rich collection of antiquities. Bangladesh_sentence_976

The Liberation War Museum documents the Bangladeshi struggle for independence and the 1971 genocide. Bangladesh_sentence_977

In ancient times, manuscripts were written on palm leaves, tree barks, parchment vellum and terracotta plates and preserved at monasteries known as viharas. Bangladesh_sentence_978

The Hussain Shahi dynasty established royal libraries during the Bengal Sultanate. Bangladesh_sentence_979

Libraries were established in each district of Bengal by the zamindar gentry during the Bengal Renaissance in the 19th century. Bangladesh_sentence_980

The trend of establishing libraries continued until the beginning of World War II. Bangladesh_sentence_981

In 1854, four major public libraries were opened, including the Bogra Woodburn Library, the Rangpur Public Library, the Jessore Institute Public Library and the Barisal Public Library. Bangladesh_sentence_982

The Northbrook Hall Public Library was established in Dhaka in 1882 in honour of Lord Northbrook, the Governor-General. Bangladesh_sentence_983

Other libraries established in the British period included the Victoria Public Library, Natore (1901), the Sirajganj Public Library (1882), the Rajshahi Public Library (1884), the Comilla Birchandra Library (1885), the Shah Makhdum Institute Public Library, Rajshahi (1891), the Noakhali Town Hall Public Library (1896), the Prize Memorial Library, Sylhet (1897), the Chittagong Municipality Public Library (1904) and the Varendra Research Library (1910). Bangladesh_sentence_984

The Great Bengal Library Association was formed in 1925. Bangladesh_sentence_985

The Central Public Library of Dhaka was established in 1959. Bangladesh_sentence_986

The National Library of Bangladesh was established in 1972. Bangladesh_sentence_987

The World Literature Center, founded by Ramon Magsaysay Award winner Abdullah Abu Sayeed, is noted for operating numerous mobile libraries across Bangladesh and was awarded the UNESCO Jon Amos Comenius Medal. Bangladesh_sentence_988

See also Bangladesh_section_46


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