Banu Hashim

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Banū Hāshim (Arabic: بنو هاشم‎) is the clan of the Quraysh tribe, to which the Islamic prophet Muhammad belonged; his great-grandfather was Hashim ibn Abd Manaf, after whom the clan is named. Banu Hashim_sentence_0

Members of this clan are referred to as Hashemites or Al-hashimi. Banu Hashim_sentence_1

Descendants of Muhammad usually carry the titles Sayyid, Syed, Hashimi, Al-HashmiSayed and Sharif, or the Ashraf clan (synonymous to Ahl al-Bayt). Banu Hashim_sentence_2

History Banu Hashim_section_0

Amongst pre-Islamic Arabs, people classified themselves according to their tribe, their clan, and then their house/family. Banu Hashim_sentence_3

There were two major tribal kinds: the Adnanites (descended from Adnan, traditional ancestor of the Arabs of northern, central and western Arabia) and the Qahtanites (originating from Qahtan, the traditional ancestor of the Arabs of southern and south eastern Arabia). Banu Hashim_sentence_4

Banu Hashim is one of the clans of the Quraysh tribe, and is an Adnanite tribe. Banu Hashim_sentence_5

It derives its name from Hashim ibn Abd Manaf, the great-grandfather of Muhammad, and along with the Banu Abd Shams, Banu Al-Muttalib, and Banu Nawfal clans comprises the Banu Abd al-Manaf section of the Quraysh. Banu Hashim_sentence_6

The House of Abdul-Muttalib of Banu Hashim comprised nobility in pre-Islamic Mecca. Banu Hashim_sentence_7

This was based on their hereditary duty to act as stewards and caretakers of the pilgrims coming to Mecca to worship at the Kaaba, the sacred shrine that in Islamic tradition was built by Ibrahim (Abraham) and his first-born son and heir Ismail (Ishmael) was a Monotheist site of worship. Banu Hashim_sentence_8

With time, the Kaaba had come to be occupied by some hundreds of idols. Banu Hashim_sentence_9

Visiting of these idols by the different tribes caused traffic which added considerably to the wealth of the merchants of Mecca, which also benefited from its position astride the caravan routes from Yemen (Arabia Felix) up to the Mediterranean markets. Banu Hashim_sentence_10

It was into the House 'Abd al-Muttalib of Banu Hashim of Quraysh that Muhammad was born. Banu Hashim_sentence_11

At the age of 40, his establishment of Islam set him at odds with the established powers in Mecca. Banu Hashim_sentence_12

His membership of the 'top house, of the top clan' (in terms of prestige and power) was a factor (according to Islamic tradition) through which God kept him safe from assassination during the early years of his mission, as a number of his uncles would not countenance any such insult to their so-called clan honour. Banu Hashim_sentence_13

After 13 years, the Muslim community of Mecca migrated (made Hijrah) to the city of Yathrib (which subsequently became known as Medina) to avoid their often murderous persecution by the non-believers of Mecca. Banu Hashim_sentence_14

With the conquest of Mecca, the city was captured by the army of Islam. Banu Hashim_sentence_15

The Kaabah was cleansed of idols and became the centre of pilgrimage for Muslims, once again the centre of pure Abrahamic monotheism. Banu Hashim_sentence_16

(It is illegal for non-Muslims to enter an area designated surrounding the city of Mecca). Banu Hashim_sentence_17

The two major lines of descent of Muhammad are those of his two grandsons, Al-Hasan and Al-Husain, born of the union of his daughter Fatimah and his cousin and son-in-law Ali. Banu Hashim_sentence_18

Muhammad besought the love of the Muslims on his grandsons, thus their descendants have become spiritual aristocracy among the Muslims. Banu Hashim_sentence_19

The descendants of the Banu Hashim are known by the titles of Sayed, Sayyid, Syed and Sharif. Banu Hashim_sentence_20

In the 19th Century CE, to try to resolve the confusion surrounding the descendants of Muhammad, the Ottoman Caliphs attempted to replicate the Almanach de Gotha (the tome listing the noble houses of Europe) to show known and verifiable lines of descent. Banu Hashim_sentence_21

Although not 100% complete in its scope the resulting Kitab al-Ashraf (Book of the Sharifs), kept at the Topkapı Palace in Istanbul is one of the best sources of evidence of descent from Muhammad. Banu Hashim_sentence_22

The Alids (the term given to the descendants of Muhammad via his daughter Fatima and Ali) lines of descent produced many once, current (and future) reigning dynasties across the Islamic imperium, amongst these stand: Banu Hashim_sentence_23

Dynasties Banu Hashim_section_1

The following Royal and Imperial dynasties claim descent from Hashim: Banu Hashim_sentence_24

Europe Banu Hashim_sentence_25

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Arabia Banu Hashim_sentence_26

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Africa Banu Hashim_sentence_27

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Indo-Persia: Banu Hashim_sentence_28

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East Asia Banu Hashim_sentence_29

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Family tree Banu Hashim_section_2

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  • Note that direct lineage is marked in bold.Banu Hashim_item_5_24

See also Banu Hashim_section_3

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Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: Hashim.