This article is about the male voice type.
For other uses, see Baritone (disambiguation).
The term originates from the Greek βαρύτονος (barýtonos), meaning "heavy sounding".
Composers typically write music for this voice in the range from the second F below middle C to the F above middle C (i.e. F2–F4) in choral music, and from the second G below middle C to the G above middle C (G2 to G4) in operatic music, but the range can extend at either end.
Subtypes of baritone include the baryton-Martin baritone (light baritone), lyric baritone, Kavalierbariton, Verdi baritone, dramatic baritone, baryton-noble baritone, and the bass-baritone.
At this early stage it was frequently used as the lowest of the voices (including the bass), but in 17th-century Italy the term was all-encompassing and used to describe the average male choral voice.
Baritones took roughly the range as it is known today at the beginning of the 18th century, but they were still lumped in with their bass colleagues until well into the 19th century.
Many operatic works of the 18th century have roles marked as bass that in reality are low baritone roles (or bass-baritone parts in modern parlance).
Examples of this are to be found, for instance, in the operas and oratorios of George Frideric Handel.
The greatest and most enduring parts for baritones in 18th-century operatic music were composed by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart.
In theatrical documents, cast lists, and journalistic dispatches that from the beginning of the 19th century till the mid 1820s, the terms primo basso, basse chantante, and basse-taille were often used for men who would later be called baritones.
The basse-taille and the proper bass were commonly confused because their roles were sometimes sung by singers of either actual voice part.
It led to the baritone being viewed as a separate voice category from the bass.
Traditionally, basses in operas had been cast as authority figures such as a king or high priest; but with the advent of the more fluid baritone voice, the roles allotted by composers to lower male voices expanded in the direction of trusted companions or even romantic leads—normally the province of tenors.
More often than not, however, baritones found themselves portraying villains.
The principal composers of bel canto opera are considered to be:
- Gioachino Rossini (The Barber of Seville, William Tell);
- Gaetano Donizetti (Don Pasquale, L'elisir d'amore, Lucia di Lammermoor, Lucrezia Borgia, La favorite);
- Vincenzo Bellini (I puritani, Norma);
- Giacomo Meyerbeer (Les Huguenots); and
- the young Giuseppe Verdi (Nabucco, Ernani, Macbeth, Rigoletto, La traviata, Il trovatore).
The prolific operas of these composers, plus the works of Verdi's maturity, such as Un ballo in maschera, La forza del destino, Don Carlos/Don Carlo, the revised Simon Boccanegra, Aida, Otello and Falstaff, blazed many new and rewarding performance pathways for baritones.
Figaro in Il barbiere is often called the first true baritone role.
However, Donizetti and Verdi in their vocal writing went on to emphasize the top fifth of the baritone voice, rather than its lower notes—thus generating a more brilliant sound.
Further pathways opened up when the musically complex and physically demanding operas of Richard Wagner began to enter the mainstream repertory of the world's opera houses during the second half of the 19th century.
The major international baritone of the first half of the 19th century was the Italian Antonio Tamburini (1800–1876).
He was a famous Don Giovanni in Mozart's eponymous opera as well as being a Bellini and Donizetti specialist.
Commentators praised his voice for its beauty, flexibility and smooth tonal emission, which are the hallmarks of a bel canto singer.
Tamburini's range, however, was probably closer to that of a bass-baritone than to that of a modern "Verdi baritone".
Dabadie sang in Italy, too, where he originated the role of Belcore in L'elisir d'amore in 1832.
The most important of Tamburini's Italianate successors were all Verdians.
- Giorgio Ronconi, who created the title role in Verdi's Nabucco
- Felice Varesi, who created the title roles in Macbeth and Rigoletto as well as Germont in La traviata
- Antonio Superchi, the originator of Don Carlo in Ernani
- Francesco Graziani, who was the original Don Carlo di Vargas in La forza del destino
- Leone Giraldoni, the creator of Renato in Un ballo in maschera and the first Simon Boccanegra
- Enrico Delle Sedie, who was London's first Renato
- Adriano Pantaleoni, renowned for his performances as Amonasro in Aida as well as other Verdi roles at La Scala, Milan
- Francesco Pandolfini , whose singing at La Scala during the 1870s was praised by Verdi
- Antonio Cotogni, a much lauded singer in Milan, London and Saint Petersburg, the first Italian Posa in Don Carlos and later a great vocal pedagogue, too
- Filippo Coletti, creator of Verdi's Gusmano in Alzira, Francesco in I masnadieri, Germont in the second version of La traviata and for whom Verdi considered writing the (unrealized) opera 'Lear';
- Giuseppe Del Puente, who sang Verdi to acclaim in the United States
Among the non-Italian born baritones that were active in the third quarter of the 19th century, Tamburini's mantle as an outstanding exponent of Mozart and Donizetti's music was probably taken up most faithfully by a Belgian, Camille Everardi, who later settled in Russia and taught voice.
In France, Paul Barroilhet succeeded Dabadie as the Paris opera's best known baritone.
Like Dabadie, he also sang in Italy and created an important Donizetti role: in his case, Alphonse in La favorite (in 1840).
Luckily, the gramophone was invented early enough to capture on disc the voices of the top Italian Verdi and Donizetti baritones of the last two decades of the 19th century, whose operatic performances were characterized by considerable re-creative freedom and a high degree of technical finish.
They included Mattia Battistini (known as the "King of Baritones"), Giuseppe Kaschmann (born Josip Kašman) who, atypically, sang Wagner's Telramund and Amfortas not in Italian but in German, at the Bayreuth Festival in the 1890s; Giuseppe Campanari; Antonio Magini-Coletti; Mario Ancona (chosen to be the first Silvio in Pagliacci); and Antonio Scotti, who came to the Met from Europe in 1899 and remained on the roster of singers until 1933.
In 1893, he created the part of Ford in Verdi's last opera, Falstaff.
Notable among their contemporaries were the cultured and technically adroit French baritones Jean Lassalle (hailed as the most accomplished baritone of his generation), Victor Maurel (the creator of Verdi's Iago, Falstaff and Tonio in Leoncavallo's Pagliacci), Paul Lhérie (the first Posa in the revised, Italian-language version of Don Carlos), and Maurice Renaud (a singing actor of the first magnitude).
Lassalle, Maurel and Renaud enjoyed superlative careers on either side of the Atlantic and left a valuable legacy of recordings.
Five other significant Francophone baritones who recorded, too, during the early days of the gramophone/phonograph were Léon Melchissédec and Jean Noté of the Paris Opera and Gabriel Soulacroix, Henry Albers and Charles Gilibert of the Opéra-Comique.
The Quaker baritone David Bispham, who sang in London and New York between 1891 and 1903, was the leading American male singer of this generation.
He also recorded for the gramophone.
The oldest-born star baritone known for sure to have made solo gramophone discs was the Englishman Sir Charles Santley (1834–1922).
Santley made his operatic debut in Italy in 1858 and became one of Covent Garden's leading singers.
He was still giving critically acclaimed concerts in London in the 1890s.
A couple of primitive cylinder recordings dating from about 1900 have been attributed by collectors to the dominant French baritone of the 1860s and 1870s, Jean-Baptiste Faure (1830–1914), the creator of Posa in Verdi's original French-language version of Don Carlos.
It is doubtful, however, that Faure (who retired in 1886) made the cylinders.
However, a contemporary of Faure's, Antonio Cotogni, (1831–1918)—probably the foremost Italian baritone of his generation—can be heard, briefly and dimly, at the age of 77, on a duet recording with the tenor Francesco Marconi.
Above reference has been made to bass-baritone, modern "Verdi baritone," Donizetti, and Francophone (though it is uncertain if the editor meant that as merely a nationality or as a subtype).
There are 19th-century references in the musical literature to certain baritone subtypes.
These include the light and tenorish baryton-Martin, named after French singer Jean-Blaise Martin (1768/69–1837), and the deeper, more powerful Heldenbariton (today's bass-baritone) of Wagnerian opera.
Nineteenth-century operettas became the preserve of lightweight baritone voices.
They were given comic parts in the tradition of the previous century's comic bass by Gilbert and Sullivan in many of their productions.
These included Nelusko in L'Africaine (Meyerbeer's last opera), Mephistopheles in La damnation de Faust (a role also sung by basses), the Priest of Dagon in Samson and Delilah, Escamillo in Carmen, Zurga in Les pêcheurs de perles, Lescaut in Manon, Athanael in Thaïs and Herod in Hérodiade.
Russian composers included substantial baritone parts in their operas.
Mozart continued to be sung throughout the 19th century although, generally speaking, his operas were not revered to the same extent that they are today by music critics and audiences.
Back then, baritones rather than high basses normally sang Don Giovanni – arguably Mozart's greatest male operatic creation.
The verismo baritone, Verdi baritone, and other subtypes are mentioned below, though not necessarily in 19th-century context.
The dawn of the 20th century opened up more opportunities for baritones than ever before as a taste for strenuously exciting vocalism and lurid, "slice-of-life" operatic plots took hold in Italy and spread elsewhere.
The most prominent verismo baritones included such major singers in Europe and America as the polished Giuseppe De Luca (the first Sharpless in Madama Butterfly), Mario Sammarco (the first Gerard in Andrea Chénier), Eugenio Giraldoni (the first Scarpia in Tosca), Pasquale Amato (the first Rance in La fanciulla del West), Riccardo Stracciari (noted for his richly attractive timbre) and Domenico Viglione Borghese, whose voice was exceeded in size only by that of the lion-voiced Titta Ruffo.
Ruffo was the most commanding Italian baritone of his era or, arguably, any other era.
He was at his prime from the early 1900s to the early 1920s and enjoyed success in Italy, England and America (in Chicago and later at the Met).
Verdi's works continued to remain popular, however, with audiences in Italy, the Spanish-speaking countries, the United States and the United Kingdom, and in Germany, where there was a major Verdi revival in Berlin between the wars.
Outside the field of Italian opera, an important addition to the Austro-German repertory occurred in 1905.
(The enormous-voiced Dutch baritone Anton van Rooy, a Wagner specialist, sang John when the opera reached the Met in 1907).
(Dufranne – sometimes classed as a bass-baritone – had a darker, more powerful instrument than did Périer, who was a true baryton-Martin.)
Characteristic of the Wagnerian baritones of the 20th century was a general progression of individual singers from higher-lying baritone parts to lower-pitched ones.
This was the case with Germany's Hans Hotter.
Hotter made his debut in 1929.
By the 1950s, however, he was being hailed as the top Wagnerian bass-baritone in the world.
His Wotan was especially praised by critics for its musicianship.
Demuth, van Rooy, Weil and Whitehill were at their peak in the late 19th and early 20th centuries while Schorr, Bockelmann and Nissen were stars of the 1920s and 1930s.
In addition to their heavyweight Wagnerian cousins, there was a plethora of baritones with more lyrical voices active in Germany and Austria during the period between the outbreak of WW1 in 1914 and the end of WW2 in 1945.
Their abundant inter-war Italian counterparts included, among others, Carlo Galeffi, Giuseppe Danise, Enrico Molinari, Umberto Urbano, Cesare Formichi, Luigi Montesanto, Apollo Granforte, Benvenuto Franci, Renato Zanelli (who switched to tenor roles in 1924), Mario Basiola, Giovanni Inghilleri, Carlo Morelli (the Chilean-born younger brother of Renato Zanelli) and Carlo Tagliabue, who retired as late as 1958.
Stabile also appeared in London, Chicago and Salzburg.
He was noted more for his histrionic skills than for his voice, however.
Stabile was followed by Tito Gobbi, a versatile singing actor capable of vivid comic and tragic performances during the years of his prime in the 1940s, 1950s and early 1960s.
He learned more than 100 roles in his lifetime and was mostly known for his roles in Verdi and Puccini operas, including appearances as Scarpia opposite soprano Maria Callas as Tosca at Covent Garden.
Some considered his best role to have been Wozzeck.
The next significant Welsh baritone was Bryn Terfel.
He made his premiere at Glyndebourne in 1990 and went on to build an international career as Falstaff and, more generally, in the operas of Mozart and Wagner.
Perhaps the first famous American baritone appeared in the 1900s.
It was the American-born but Paris-based Charles W. Clark who sang Italian, French and German composers.
An outstanding group of virile-voiced American baritones appeared then in the 1920s.
The younger members of this group were still active as recently as the late 1970s.
Outstanding among its members were the Met-based Verdians Lawrence Tibbett (a compelling, rich-voiced singing actor), Richard Bonelli, John Charles Thomas, Robert Weede, Leonard Warren and Robert Merrill.
They sang French opera, too, as did the American-born but also Paris-based baritone of the 1920s, and 1930s Arthur Endreze.
Also to be found singing Verdi roles at the Met, Covent Garden and the Vienna Opera during the late 1930s and the 1940s was the big-voiced Hungarian baritone, Sandor (Alexander) Sved.
The leading Verdi baritones of the 1970s and 1980s were probably Italy's Renato Bruson and Piero Cappuccilli, America's Sherrill Milnes, Sweden's Ingvar Wixell and the Romanian baritone Nicolae Herlea.
At the same time, Britain's Sir Thomas Allen was considered to be the most versatile baritone of his generation in regards to repertoire, which ranged from Mozart to Verdi and lighter Wagner roles, through French and Russian opera, to modern English music.
Another British baritone, Norman Bailey, established himself internationally as a memorable Wotan and Hans Sachs.
However, he had a distinguished, brighter-voiced Wagnerian rival during the 1960s, 70s, and 80s in the person of Thomas Stewart of America.
Chernov followed in the footsteps of such richly endowed East European baritones as Ippolit Pryanishnikov (a favorite of Tchaikovski's), Joachim Tartakov (an Everardi pupil), Oskar Kamionsky (an exceptional bel canto singer nicknamed the "Russian Battistini"), Waclaw Brzezinski (known as the "Polish Battistini"), Georges Baklanoff (a powerful singing actor), and, during a career lasting from 1935 to 1966, the Bolshoi's Pavel Lisitsian.
Like Lisitsian, they sing Verdi and the works of their native composers, including Tchaikovsky's Eugene Onegin and The Queen of Spades.
Pierre Bernac, Souzay's teacher, was an interpreter of Poulenc's songs in the previous generation.
Another Australian, Peter Dawson, made a small but precious legacy of benchmark Handel recordings during the 1920s and 1930s.
(Dawson, incidentally, acquired his outstanding Handelian technique from Sir Charles Santley.)
Yet another Australian baritone of distinction between the wars was Harold Williams, who was based in the United Kingdom.
Both appeared often at Covent Garden.
Prior to World War II, Germany's Heinrich Schlusnus, Gerhard Hüsch and Herbert Janssen were celebrated for their beautifully sung lieder recitals as well as for their mellifluous operatic performances in Verdi, Mozart, and Wagner respectively.
In addition to his interpretations of lieder and the works of Mozart, Prey sang in Strauss operas and tackled lighter Wagner roles such as Wolfram or Beckmesser.
He earned his principal renown, however, as a lieder singer.
Talented German and Austrian lieder singers of a younger generation include Olaf Bär, Matthias Goerne, Wolfgang Holzmair (who also performs regularly in opera), Thomas Quasthoff, Stephan Genz  and Christian Gerhaher.
Well-known non-Germanic baritones of recent times have included the Italians Giorgio Zancanaro and Leo Nucci, the Frenchman François le Roux, the Canadians Gerald Finley and James Westman and the versatile American Thomas Hampson, his compatriot Nathan Gunn and the Englishman Simon Keenlyside.
The baritone vocal range is usually between the second G below middle C (G2) and the G above middle C (G4).
Subtypes and roles in opera
Within the baritone voice type category are seven generally recognized subcategories: baryton-Martin baritone (light baritone), lyric baritone, Kavalierbariton, Verdi baritone, dramatic baritone, baryton-noble baritone, and the bass-baritone.
The baryton-Martin baritone (sometimes referred to as light baritone) lacks the lower G2–B2 range a heavier baritone is capable of, and has a lighter, almost tenor-like quality.
Its common range is from C3 to the B above middle C (C3 to B4).
Associated with the rise of the baritone in the 19th century, Martin was well known for his fondness for falsetto singing, and the designation 'baryton Martin' has been used (Faure, 1886) to separate his voice from the 'Verdi Baritone', which carried the chest register further into the upper range.
It is important to note that this voice type shares the primo passaggio and secondo passaggio with the Dramatic Tenor and Heldentenor (C4 and F4 respectively), and hence could be trained as a tenor.
Baryton-Martin roles in opera:
- Aeneas, Dido and Aeneas (Henry Purcell)
- Dancaїre, Carmen (Georg Bizet)
- L'horloge comtoise, L'enfant et les sortilèges (Maurice Ravel)
- Orfeo, L'Orfeo (Claudio Monteverdi)
- Pelléas, Pelléas et Mélisande (Claude Debussy)
- Ramiro, L'heure espagnole (Maurice Ravel)
The lyric baritone is a sweeter, milder sounding baritone voice, lacking in harshness; lighter and perhaps mellower than the dramatic baritone with a higher tessitura.
Its common range is from the A below C3 to the G above middle C (A2 to G4).
It is typically assigned to comic roles.
Lyric baritone roles in opera:
The Kavalierbariton baritone is a metallic voice that can sing both lyric and dramatic phrases, a manly, noble baritonal color.
Its common range is from the A below low C to the G above middle C (A2 to G4).
Not quite as powerful as the Verdi baritone who is expected to have a powerful appearance on stage, perhaps muscular or physically large.
Kavalierbariton roles in opera:
- Don Giovanni, Don Giovanni (Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart)
- Count, Capriccio (Richard Strauss)
- Giorgio Germont, La traviata (Giuseppe Verdi)
- Zurga Les pêcheurs de perles (Georges Bizet)
The Verdi baritone is a more specialized voice category and a subset of the Dramatic Baritone.
Its common range is from the G below low C to the A♭ above middle C (G2 to A♭4).
A Verdi baritone refers to a voice capable of singing consistently and with ease in the highest part of the baritone range.
It will generally have a lot of squillo.
Verdi baritone roles in opera:
The dramatic baritone is a voice that is richer, fuller, and sometimes harsher than a lyric baritone and with a darker quality.
Its common range is from the G half an octave below low C to the G above middle C (G2 to G4).
The dramatic baritone category corresponds roughly to the Heldenbariton in the German Fach system except that some Verdi baritone roles are not included.
The primo passaggio and secondo passaggio of both the Verdi and dramatic baritone are at B♭ and E♭ respectively, hence the differentiation is based more heavily on timbre and tessitura.
Accordingly, roles that fall into this category tend to have a slightly lower tessitura than typical Verdi baritone roles, only rising above an F at the moments of greatest intensity.
Many of the Puccini roles fall into this category.
However, it is important to note, that for all intents and purposes, a Verdi Baritone is simply a Dramatic Baritone with greater ease in the upper tessitura (Verdi Baritone roles center approximately a minor third higher).
Because the Verdi Baritone is sometimes seen as subset of the Dramatic Baritone, some singers perform roles from both sets of repertoire.
Similarly, the lower tessitura of these roles allow them frequently to be sung by bass-baritones.
Dramatic baritone roles in opera:
- Jack Rance, La fanciulla del West (Giacomo Puccini)
- Scarpia, Tosca (Giacomo Puccini)
- Iago, Otello (Giuseppe Verdi)
- Escamillo, Carmen (Georges Bizet)
The baryton-noble baritone is French for "noble baritone" and describes a part that requires a noble bearing, smooth vocalisation and forceful declamation, all in perfect balance.
This category originated in the Paris Opera, but it greatly influenced Verdi (Don Carlo in Ernani and La forza del destino; Count Luna in Il trovatore; Simon Boccanegra) and Wagner as well (Wotan; Amfortas).
Similar to the Kavalierbariton.
Baryton-noble roles in opera are:
Main article: Bass-baritone
The bass-baritone range extends from the E below low C to the F or F♯ above middle C (E2 to F4 or F♯4).
Bass-baritones are typically divided into two separate categories: lyric bass-baritone and dramatic bass-baritone.
Lyric bass-baritone roles in opera include:
- Don Pizarro, Fidelio (Ludwig van Beethoven)
- Golaud, Pelléas et Mélisande (Claude Debussy)
- Méphistophélès, Faust (Charles Gounod)
- Don Alfonso, Così fan tutte (Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart)
- Figaro, The Marriage of Figaro (Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart)
- Leporello, Don Giovanni (Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart)
Dramatic bass-baritone roles in opera include:
- Aleko, Aleko (Sergei Rachmaninoff)
- Igor, Prince Igor (Alexander Borodin)
- Dutchman, The Flying Dutchman (Richard Wagner)
- Hans Sachs, Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg (Richard Wagner)
- Wotan, Der Ring des Nibelungen (Richard Wagner)
- Amfortas, Parsifal (Richard Wagner)
Gilbert and Sullivan
Notable operetta roles are:
Baritone in popular music
Main article: List of baritones in non-classical music
In barbershop music, the baritone part sings in a similar range to the Lead (singing the melody) however usually singing lower than the lead.
A barbershop baritone has a specific and specialized role in the formation of the four-part harmony that characterizes the style.
The baritone singer is often the one required to support or "fill" the bass sound (typically by singing the fifth above the bass root) and to complete a chord.
On the other hand, the baritone will occasionally find himself harmonizing above the melody, which calls for a tenor-like quality.
Because the baritone fills the chord, the part is often not very melodic.
In bluegrass music, the melody line is called the lead.
Tenor is sung an interval of a third above the lead.
Baritone is the fifth of the scale that has the lead as a tonic, and may be sung below the lead, or even above the lead (and the tenor), in which case it is called "high baritone".
Conversely, the more "soul" baritones have the more traditional timbre, but sing in a vocal range that is closer to the tenor vocal range.
- Category of baritones
- Fach, the German system for classifying voices
- Voice classification in non-classical music
- List of baritones in non-classical music
Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baritone.