Baritone

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This article is about the male voice type. Baritone_sentence_0

For other uses, see Baritone (disambiguation). Baritone_sentence_1

A baritone is a type of classical male singing voice whose vocal range lies between the bass and the tenor voice-types. Baritone_sentence_2

The term originates from the Greek βαρύτονος (barýtonos), meaning "heavy sounding". Baritone_sentence_3

Composers typically write music for this voice in the range from the second F below middle C to the F above middle C (i.e. F2–F4) in choral music, and from the second G below middle C to the G above middle C (G2 to G4) in operatic music, but the range can extend at either end. Baritone_sentence_4

Subtypes of baritone include the baryton-Martin baritone (light baritone), lyric baritone, Kavalierbariton, Verdi baritone, dramatic baritone, baryton-noble baritone, and the bass-baritone. Baritone_sentence_5

History Baritone_section_0

The first use of the term "baritone" emerged as baritonans, late in the 15th century, usually in French sacred polyphonic music. Baritone_sentence_6

At this early stage it was frequently used as the lowest of the voices (including the bass), but in 17th-century Italy the term was all-encompassing and used to describe the average male choral voice. Baritone_sentence_7

Baritones took roughly the range as it is known today at the beginning of the 18th century, but they were still lumped in with their bass colleagues until well into the 19th century. Baritone_sentence_8

Many operatic works of the 18th century have roles marked as bass that in reality are low baritone roles (or bass-baritone parts in modern parlance). Baritone_sentence_9

Examples of this are to be found, for instance, in the operas and oratorios of George Frideric Handel. Baritone_sentence_10

The greatest and most enduring parts for baritones in 18th-century operatic music were composed by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. Baritone_sentence_11

They include Count Almaviva in The Marriage of Figaro, Guglielmo in Così fan tutte, Papageno in The Magic Flute and the lead in Don Giovanni. Baritone_sentence_12

19th century Baritone_section_1

In theatrical documents, cast lists, and journalistic dispatches that from the beginning of the 19th century till the mid 1820s, the terms primo basso, basse chantante, and basse-taille were often used for men who would later be called baritones. Baritone_sentence_13

These included the likes of Filippo Galli, Giovanni Inchindi, and Henri-Bernard Dabadie. Baritone_sentence_14

The basse-taille and the proper bass were commonly confused because their roles were sometimes sung by singers of either actual voice part. Baritone_sentence_15

The bel canto style of vocalism which arose in Italy in the early 19th century supplanted the castrato-dominated opera seria of the previous century. Baritone_sentence_16

It led to the baritone being viewed as a separate voice category from the bass. Baritone_sentence_17

Traditionally, basses in operas had been cast as authority figures such as a king or high priest; but with the advent of the more fluid baritone voice, the roles allotted by composers to lower male voices expanded in the direction of trusted companions or even romantic leads—normally the province of tenors. Baritone_sentence_18

More often than not, however, baritones found themselves portraying villains. Baritone_sentence_19

The principal composers of bel canto opera are considered to be: Baritone_sentence_20

Baritone_unordered_list_0

The prolific operas of these composers, plus the works of Verdi's maturity, such as Un ballo in maschera, La forza del destino, Don Carlos/Don Carlo, the revised Simon Boccanegra, Aida, Otello and Falstaff, blazed many new and rewarding performance pathways for baritones. Baritone_sentence_21

Figaro in Il barbiere is often called the first true baritone role. Baritone_sentence_22

However, Donizetti and Verdi in their vocal writing went on to emphasize the top fifth of the baritone voice, rather than its lower notes—thus generating a more brilliant sound. Baritone_sentence_23

Further pathways opened up when the musically complex and physically demanding operas of Richard Wagner began to enter the mainstream repertory of the world's opera houses during the second half of the 19th century. Baritone_sentence_24

The major international baritone of the first half of the 19th century was the Italian Antonio Tamburini (1800–1876). Baritone_sentence_25

He was a famous Don Giovanni in Mozart's eponymous opera as well as being a Bellini and Donizetti specialist. Baritone_sentence_26

Commentators praised his voice for its beauty, flexibility and smooth tonal emission, which are the hallmarks of a bel canto singer. Baritone_sentence_27

Tamburini's range, however, was probably closer to that of a bass-baritone than to that of a modern "Verdi baritone". Baritone_sentence_28

His French equivalent was Henri-Bernard Dabadie, who was a mainstay of the Paris Opera between 1819 and 1836 and the creator of several major Rossinian baritone roles, including Guillaume Tell. Baritone_sentence_29

Dabadie sang in Italy, too, where he originated the role of Belcore in L'elisir d'amore in 1832. Baritone_sentence_30

The most important of Tamburini's Italianate successors were all Verdians. Baritone_sentence_31

They included: Baritone_sentence_32

Baritone_unordered_list_1

Among the non-Italian born baritones that were active in the third quarter of the 19th century, Tamburini's mantle as an outstanding exponent of Mozart and Donizetti's music was probably taken up most faithfully by a Belgian, Camille Everardi, who later settled in Russia and taught voice. Baritone_sentence_33

In France, Paul Barroilhet succeeded Dabadie as the Paris opera's best known baritone. Baritone_sentence_34

Like Dabadie, he also sang in Italy and created an important Donizetti role: in his case, Alphonse in La favorite (in 1840). Baritone_sentence_35

Luckily, the gramophone was invented early enough to capture on disc the voices of the top Italian Verdi and Donizetti baritones of the last two decades of the 19th century, whose operatic performances were characterized by considerable re-creative freedom and a high degree of technical finish. Baritone_sentence_36

They included Mattia Battistini (known as the "King of Baritones"), Giuseppe Kaschmann (born Josip Kašman) who, atypically, sang Wagner's Telramund and Amfortas not in Italian but in German, at the Bayreuth Festival in the 1890s; Giuseppe Campanari; Antonio Magini-Coletti; Mario Ancona (chosen to be the first Silvio in Pagliacci); and Antonio Scotti, who came to the Met from Europe in 1899 and remained on the roster of singers until 1933. Baritone_sentence_37

Antonio Pini-Corsi was the standout Italian baritone in the period between about 1880 and World War I, reveling in comic opera roles by Rossini, Donizetti and Paer, among others. Baritone_sentence_38

In 1893, he created the part of Ford in Verdi's last opera, Falstaff. Baritone_sentence_39

Notable among their contemporaries were the cultured and technically adroit French baritones Jean Lassalle (hailed as the most accomplished baritone of his generation), Victor Maurel (the creator of Verdi's Iago, Falstaff and Tonio in Leoncavallo's Pagliacci), Paul Lhérie (the first Posa in the revised, Italian-language version of Don Carlos), and Maurice Renaud (a singing actor of the first magnitude). Baritone_sentence_40

Lassalle, Maurel and Renaud enjoyed superlative careers on either side of the Atlantic and left a valuable legacy of recordings. Baritone_sentence_41

Five other significant Francophone baritones who recorded, too, during the early days of the gramophone/phonograph were Léon Melchissédec and Jean Noté of the Paris Opera and Gabriel Soulacroix, Henry Albers and Charles Gilibert of the Opéra-Comique. Baritone_sentence_42

The Quaker baritone David Bispham, who sang in London and New York between 1891 and 1903, was the leading American male singer of this generation. Baritone_sentence_43

He also recorded for the gramophone. Baritone_sentence_44

The oldest-born star baritone known for sure to have made solo gramophone discs was the Englishman Sir Charles Santley (1834–1922). Baritone_sentence_45

Santley made his operatic debut in Italy in 1858 and became one of Covent Garden's leading singers. Baritone_sentence_46

He was still giving critically acclaimed concerts in London in the 1890s. Baritone_sentence_47

The composer of Faust, Charles Gounod, wrote Valentine's aria "Even bravest heart" for him at his request for the London production in 1864 so that the leading baritone would have an aria. Baritone_sentence_48

A couple of primitive cylinder recordings dating from about 1900 have been attributed by collectors to the dominant French baritone of the 1860s and 1870s, Jean-Baptiste Faure (1830–1914), the creator of Posa in Verdi's original French-language version of Don Carlos. Baritone_sentence_49

It is doubtful, however, that Faure (who retired in 1886) made the cylinders. Baritone_sentence_50

However, a contemporary of Faure's, Antonio Cotogni, (1831–1918)—probably the foremost Italian baritone of his generation—can be heard, briefly and dimly, at the age of 77, on a duet recording with the tenor Francesco Marconi. Baritone_sentence_51

(Cotogni and Marconi had sung together in the first London performance of Amilcare Ponchielli's La Gioconda in 1883, performing the roles of Barnaba and Enzo respectively.) Baritone_sentence_52

Subtypes Baritone_section_2

Above reference has been made to bass-baritone, modern "Verdi baritone," Donizetti, and Francophone (though it is uncertain if the editor meant that as merely a nationality or as a subtype). Baritone_sentence_53

There are 19th-century references in the musical literature to certain baritone subtypes. Baritone_sentence_54

These include the light and tenorish baryton-Martin, named after French singer Jean-Blaise Martin (1768/69–1837), and the deeper, more powerful Heldenbariton (today's bass-baritone) of Wagnerian opera. Baritone_sentence_55

Perhaps the most accomplished Heldenbaritons of Wagner's day were August Kindermann, Franz Betz and Theodor Reichmann. Baritone_sentence_56

Betz created Hans Sachs in Die Meistersinger and undertook Wotan in the first Der Ring des Nibelungen cycle at Bayreuth, while Reichmann created Amfortas in Parsifal, also at Bayreuth. Baritone_sentence_57

Lyric German baritones sang lighter Wagnerian roles such as Wolfram in Tannhäuser, Kurwenal in Tristan und Isolde or Telramund in Lohengrin. Baritone_sentence_58

They made large strides, too, in the performance of art song and oratorio, with Franz Schubert favouring several baritones for his vocal music, in particular Johann Michael Vogl. Baritone_sentence_59

Nineteenth-century operettas became the preserve of lightweight baritone voices. Baritone_sentence_60

They were given comic parts in the tradition of the previous century's comic bass by Gilbert and Sullivan in many of their productions. Baritone_sentence_61

This did not prevent the French master of operetta, Jacques Offenbach, from assigning the villain's role in The Tales of Hoffmann to a big-voiced baritone for the sake of dramatic effect. Baritone_sentence_62

Other 19th-century French composers like Meyerbeer, Hector Berlioz, Camille Saint-Saëns, Georges Bizet and Jules Massenet wrote attractive parts for baritones, too. Baritone_sentence_63

These included Nelusko in L'Africaine (Meyerbeer's last opera), Mephistopheles in La damnation de Faust (a role also sung by basses), the Priest of Dagon in Samson and Delilah, Escamillo in Carmen, Zurga in Les pêcheurs de perles, Lescaut in Manon, Athanael in Thaïs and Herod in Hérodiade. Baritone_sentence_64

Russian composers included substantial baritone parts in their operas. Baritone_sentence_65

Witness the title roles in Peter Tchaikovsky's Eugene Onegin (which received its first production in 1879) and Alexander Borodin's Prince Igor (1890). Baritone_sentence_66

Mozart continued to be sung throughout the 19th century although, generally speaking, his operas were not revered to the same extent that they are today by music critics and audiences. Baritone_sentence_67

Back then, baritones rather than high basses normally sang Don Giovanni – arguably Mozart's greatest male operatic creation. Baritone_sentence_68

Famous Dons of the late 19th and early 20th centuries included Scotti and Maurel, as well as Portugal's Francisco De Andrade and Sweden's John Forsell. Baritone_sentence_69

The verismo baritone, Verdi baritone, and other subtypes are mentioned below, though not necessarily in 19th-century context. Baritone_sentence_70

20th century Baritone_section_3

The dawn of the 20th century opened up more opportunities for baritones than ever before as a taste for strenuously exciting vocalism and lurid, "slice-of-life" operatic plots took hold in Italy and spread elsewhere. Baritone_sentence_71

The most prominent verismo baritones included such major singers in Europe and America as the polished Giuseppe De Luca (the first Sharpless in Madama Butterfly), Mario Sammarco (the first Gerard in Andrea Chénier), Eugenio Giraldoni (the first Scarpia in Tosca), Pasquale Amato (the first Rance in La fanciulla del West), Riccardo Stracciari (noted for his richly attractive timbre) and Domenico Viglione Borghese, whose voice was exceeded in size only by that of the lion-voiced Titta Ruffo. Baritone_sentence_72

Ruffo was the most commanding Italian baritone of his era or, arguably, any other era. Baritone_sentence_73

He was at his prime from the early 1900s to the early 1920s and enjoyed success in Italy, England and America (in Chicago and later at the Met). Baritone_sentence_74

The chief verismo composers were Giacomo Puccini, Ruggero Leoncavallo, Pietro Mascagni, Alberto Franchetti, Umberto Giordano and Francesco Cilea. Baritone_sentence_75

Verdi's works continued to remain popular, however, with audiences in Italy, the Spanish-speaking countries, the United States and the United Kingdom, and in Germany, where there was a major Verdi revival in Berlin between the wars. Baritone_sentence_76

Outside the field of Italian opera, an important addition to the Austro-German repertory occurred in 1905. Baritone_sentence_77

This was the premiere of Richard Strauss's Salome, with the pivotal part of John the Baptist assigned to a baritone. Baritone_sentence_78

(The enormous-voiced Dutch baritone Anton van Rooy, a Wagner specialist, sang John when the opera reached the Met in 1907). Baritone_sentence_79

Then, in 1925, Germany's Leo Schützendorf created the title baritone role in Alban Berg's harrowing Wozzeck. Baritone_sentence_80

In a separate development, the French composer Claude Debussy's post-Wagnerian masterpiece Pelléas et Mélisande featured not one but two lead baritones at its 1902 premiere. Baritone_sentence_81

These two baritones, Jean Périer and Hector Dufranne, possessed contrasting voices. Baritone_sentence_82

(Dufranne – sometimes classed as a bass-baritone – had a darker, more powerful instrument than did Périer, who was a true baryton-Martin.) Baritone_sentence_83

Characteristic of the Wagnerian baritones of the 20th century was a general progression of individual singers from higher-lying baritone parts to lower-pitched ones. Baritone_sentence_84

This was the case with Germany's Hans Hotter. Baritone_sentence_85

Hotter made his debut in 1929. Baritone_sentence_86

As a young singer he appeared in Verdi and created the Commandant in Richard Strauss's Friedenstag and Olivier in Capriccio. Baritone_sentence_87

By the 1950s, however, he was being hailed as the top Wagnerian bass-baritone in the world. Baritone_sentence_88

His Wotan was especially praised by critics for its musicianship. Baritone_sentence_89

Other major Wagnerian baritones have included Hotter's predecessors Leopold Demuth, Anton van Rooy, Hermann Weil, Clarence Whitehill, Friedrich Schorr, Rudolf Bockelmann and Hans-Hermann Nissen. Baritone_sentence_90

Demuth, van Rooy, Weil and Whitehill were at their peak in the late 19th and early 20th centuries while Schorr, Bockelmann and Nissen were stars of the 1920s and 1930s. Baritone_sentence_91

In addition to their heavyweight Wagnerian cousins, there was a plethora of baritones with more lyrical voices active in Germany and Austria during the period between the outbreak of WW1 in 1914 and the end of WW2 in 1945. Baritone_sentence_92

Among them were Joseph Schwarz [], Heinrich Schlusnus, Herbert Janssen, Willi Domgraf-Fassbaender, Karl Schmitt-Walter and Gerhard Hüsch. Baritone_sentence_93

Their abundant inter-war Italian counterparts included, among others, Carlo Galeffi, Giuseppe Danise, Enrico Molinari, Umberto Urbano, Cesare Formichi, Luigi Montesanto, Apollo Granforte, Benvenuto Franci, Renato Zanelli (who switched to tenor roles in 1924), Mario Basiola, Giovanni Inghilleri, Carlo Morelli (the Chilean-born younger brother of Renato Zanelli) and Carlo Tagliabue, who retired as late as 1958. Baritone_sentence_94

One of the best known Italian Verdi baritones of the 1920s and 1930s, Mariano Stabile, sang Iago and Rigoletto and Falstaff (at La Scala) under the baton of Arturo Toscanini. Baritone_sentence_95

Stabile also appeared in London, Chicago and Salzburg. Baritone_sentence_96

He was noted more for his histrionic skills than for his voice, however. Baritone_sentence_97

Stabile was followed by Tito Gobbi, a versatile singing actor capable of vivid comic and tragic performances during the years of his prime in the 1940s, 1950s and early 1960s. Baritone_sentence_98

He learned more than 100 roles in his lifetime and was mostly known for his roles in Verdi and Puccini operas, including appearances as Scarpia opposite soprano Maria Callas as Tosca at Covent Garden. Baritone_sentence_99

Gobbi's competitors included Gino Bechi, Giuseppe Valdengo, Paolo Silveri, Giuseppe Taddei, Ettore Bastianini, Cesare Bardelli and Giangiacomo Guelfi. Baritone_sentence_100

Another of Gobbi's contemporaries was the Welshman Geraint Evans, who famously sang Falstaff at Glyndebourne and created the roles of Mr. Flint and Mountjoy in works by Benjamin Britten. Baritone_sentence_101

Some considered his best role to have been Wozzeck. Baritone_sentence_102

The next significant Welsh baritone was Bryn Terfel. Baritone_sentence_103

He made his premiere at Glyndebourne in 1990 and went on to build an international career as Falstaff and, more generally, in the operas of Mozart and Wagner. Baritone_sentence_104

Perhaps the first famous American baritone appeared in the 1900s. Baritone_sentence_105

It was the American-born but Paris-based Charles W. Clark who sang Italian, French and German composers. Baritone_sentence_106

An outstanding group of virile-voiced American baritones appeared then in the 1920s. Baritone_sentence_107

The younger members of this group were still active as recently as the late 1970s. Baritone_sentence_108

Outstanding among its members were the Met-based Verdians Lawrence Tibbett (a compelling, rich-voiced singing actor), Richard Bonelli, John Charles Thomas, Robert Weede, Leonard Warren and Robert Merrill. Baritone_sentence_109

They sang French opera, too, as did the American-born but also Paris-based baritone of the 1920s, and 1930s Arthur Endreze. Baritone_sentence_110

Also to be found singing Verdi roles at the Met, Covent Garden and the Vienna Opera during the late 1930s and the 1940s was the big-voiced Hungarian baritone, Sandor (Alexander) Sved. Baritone_sentence_111

The leading Verdi baritones of the 1970s and 1980s were probably Italy's Renato Bruson and Piero Cappuccilli, America's Sherrill Milnes, Sweden's Ingvar Wixell and the Romanian baritone Nicolae Herlea. Baritone_sentence_112

At the same time, Britain's Sir Thomas Allen was considered to be the most versatile baritone of his generation in regards to repertoire, which ranged from Mozart to Verdi and lighter Wagner roles, through French and Russian opera, to modern English music. Baritone_sentence_113

Another British baritone, Norman Bailey, established himself internationally as a memorable Wotan and Hans Sachs. Baritone_sentence_114

However, he had a distinguished, brighter-voiced Wagnerian rival during the 1960s, 70s, and 80s in the person of Thomas Stewart of America. Baritone_sentence_115

Other notable post-War Wagnerian baritones have been Canada's George London, Germany's Hermann Uhde and, more recently, America's James Morris. Baritone_sentence_116

Among the late-20th-century baritones noted throughout the opera world for their Verdi performances was Vladimir Chernov, who emerged from the former USSR to sing at the Met. Baritone_sentence_117

Chernov followed in the footsteps of such richly endowed East European baritones as Ippolit Pryanishnikov (a favorite of Tchaikovski's), Joachim Tartakov (an Everardi pupil), Oskar Kamionsky (an exceptional bel canto singer nicknamed the "Russian Battistini"), Waclaw Brzezinski (known as the "Polish Battistini"), Georges Baklanoff (a powerful singing actor), and, during a career lasting from 1935 to 1966, the Bolshoi's Pavel Lisitsian. Baritone_sentence_118

Dmitri Hvorostovsky and Sergei Leiferkus are two Russian baritones of the modern era who appear regularly in the West. Baritone_sentence_119

Like Lisitsian, they sing Verdi and the works of their native composers, including Tchaikovsky's Eugene Onegin and The Queen of Spades. Baritone_sentence_120

In the realm of French song, the bass-baritone José van Dam and the lighter-voiced Gérard Souzay have been notable. Baritone_sentence_121

Souzay's repertoire extended from the Baroque works of Jean-Baptiste Lully to 20th-century composers such as Francis Poulenc. Baritone_sentence_122

Pierre Bernac, Souzay's teacher, was an interpreter of Poulenc's songs in the previous generation. Baritone_sentence_123

Older baritones identified with this style include France's Dinh Gilly and Charles Panzéra and Australia's John Brownlee. Baritone_sentence_124

Another Australian, Peter Dawson, made a small but precious legacy of benchmark Handel recordings during the 1920s and 1930s. Baritone_sentence_125

(Dawson, incidentally, acquired his outstanding Handelian technique from Sir Charles Santley.) Baritone_sentence_126

Yet another Australian baritone of distinction between the wars was Harold Williams, who was based in the United Kingdom. Baritone_sentence_127

Important British-born baritones of the 1930s and 1940s were Dennis Noble, who sang Italian and English operatic roles, and the Mozartian Roy Henderson. Baritone_sentence_128

Both appeared often at Covent Garden. Baritone_sentence_129

Prior to World War II, Germany's Heinrich Schlusnus, Gerhard Hüsch and Herbert Janssen were celebrated for their beautifully sung lieder recitals as well as for their mellifluous operatic performances in Verdi, Mozart, and Wagner respectively. Baritone_sentence_130

After the war's conclusion, Hermann Prey and Dietrich Fischer-Dieskau appeared on the scene to take their place. Baritone_sentence_131

In addition to his interpretations of lieder and the works of Mozart, Prey sang in Strauss operas and tackled lighter Wagner roles such as Wolfram or Beckmesser. Baritone_sentence_132

Fischer-Dieskau sang parts in 'fringe' operas by the likes of Ferruccio Busoni and Paul Hindemith as well as appearing in standard works by Verdi and Wagner. Baritone_sentence_133

He earned his principal renown, however, as a lieder singer. Baritone_sentence_134

Talented German and Austrian lieder singers of a younger generation include Olaf Bär, Matthias Goerne, Wolfgang Holzmair (who also performs regularly in opera), Thomas Quasthoff, Stephan Genz [] and Christian Gerhaher. Baritone_sentence_135

Well-known non-Germanic baritones of recent times have included the Italians Giorgio Zancanaro and Leo Nucci, the Frenchman François le Roux, the Canadians Gerald Finley and James Westman and the versatile American Thomas Hampson, his compatriot Nathan Gunn and the Englishman Simon Keenlyside. Baritone_sentence_136

Vocal range Baritone_section_4

The vocal range of the baritone lies between the bass and the tenor voice types. Baritone_sentence_137

The baritone vocal range is usually between the second G below middle C (G2) and the G above middle C (G4). Baritone_sentence_138

Subtypes and roles in opera Baritone_section_5

Within the baritone voice type category are seven generally recognized subcategories: baryton-Martin baritone (light baritone), lyric baritone, Kavalierbariton, Verdi baritone, dramatic baritone, baryton-noble baritone, and the bass-baritone. Baritone_sentence_139

Baryton-Martin Baritone_section_6

The baryton-Martin baritone (sometimes referred to as light baritone) lacks the lower G2–B2 range a heavier baritone is capable of, and has a lighter, almost tenor-like quality. Baritone_sentence_140

Its common range is from C3 to the B above middle C (C3 to B4). Baritone_sentence_141

Generally seen only in French repertoire, this Fach was named after the French singer Jean-Blaise Martin. Baritone_sentence_142

Associated with the rise of the baritone in the 19th century, Martin was well known for his fondness for falsetto singing, and the designation 'baryton Martin' has been used (Faure, 1886) to separate his voice from the 'Verdi Baritone', which carried the chest register further into the upper range. Baritone_sentence_143

It is important to note that this voice type shares the primo passaggio and secondo passaggio with the Dramatic Tenor and Heldentenor (C4 and F4 respectively), and hence could be trained as a tenor. Baritone_sentence_144

Baryton-Martin roles in opera: Baritone_sentence_145

Baritone_unordered_list_2

Lyric Baritone_section_7

The lyric baritone is a sweeter, milder sounding baritone voice, lacking in harshness; lighter and perhaps mellower than the dramatic baritone with a higher tessitura. Baritone_sentence_146

Its common range is from the A below C3 to the G above middle C (A2 to G4). Baritone_sentence_147

It is typically assigned to comic roles. Baritone_sentence_148

Lyric baritone roles in opera: Baritone_sentence_149

Kavalierbariton Baritone_section_8

The Kavalierbariton baritone is a metallic voice that can sing both lyric and dramatic phrases, a manly, noble baritonal color. Baritone_sentence_150

Its common range is from the A below low C to the G above middle C (A2 to G4). Baritone_sentence_151

Not quite as powerful as the Verdi baritone who is expected to have a powerful appearance on stage, perhaps muscular or physically large. Baritone_sentence_152

Kavalierbariton roles in opera: Baritone_sentence_153

Baritone_unordered_list_3

Verdi Baritone_section_9

The Verdi baritone is a more specialized voice category and a subset of the Dramatic Baritone. Baritone_sentence_154

Its common range is from the G below low C to the A♭ above middle C (G2 to A♭4). Baritone_sentence_155

A Verdi baritone refers to a voice capable of singing consistently and with ease in the highest part of the baritone range. Baritone_sentence_156

It will generally have a lot of squillo. Baritone_sentence_157

Verdi baritone roles in opera: Baritone_sentence_158

Dramatic Baritone_section_10

The dramatic baritone is a voice that is richer, fuller, and sometimes harsher than a lyric baritone and with a darker quality. Baritone_sentence_159

Its common range is from the G half an octave below low C to the G above middle C (G2 to G4). Baritone_sentence_160

The dramatic baritone category corresponds roughly to the Heldenbariton in the German Fach system except that some Verdi baritone roles are not included. Baritone_sentence_161

The primo passaggio and secondo passaggio of both the Verdi and dramatic baritone are at B♭ and E♭ respectively, hence the differentiation is based more heavily on timbre and tessitura. Baritone_sentence_162

Accordingly, roles that fall into this category tend to have a slightly lower tessitura than typical Verdi baritone roles, only rising above an F at the moments of greatest intensity. Baritone_sentence_163

Many of the Puccini roles fall into this category. Baritone_sentence_164

However, it is important to note, that for all intents and purposes, a Verdi Baritone is simply a Dramatic Baritone with greater ease in the upper tessitura (Verdi Baritone roles center approximately a minor third higher). Baritone_sentence_165

Because the Verdi Baritone is sometimes seen as subset of the Dramatic Baritone, some singers perform roles from both sets of repertoire. Baritone_sentence_166

Similarly, the lower tessitura of these roles allow them frequently to be sung by bass-baritones. Baritone_sentence_167

Dramatic baritone roles in opera: Baritone_sentence_168

Baritone_unordered_list_4

  • Jack Rance, La fanciulla del West (Giacomo Puccini)Baritone_item_4_26
  • Scarpia, Tosca (Giacomo Puccini)Baritone_item_4_27
  • Iago, Otello (Giuseppe Verdi)Baritone_item_4_28
  • Escamillo, Carmen (Georges Bizet)Baritone_item_4_29

Baryton-noble Baritone_section_11

The baryton-noble baritone is French for "noble baritone" and describes a part that requires a noble bearing, smooth vocalisation and forceful declamation, all in perfect balance. Baritone_sentence_169

This category originated in the Paris Opera, but it greatly influenced Verdi (Don Carlo in Ernani and La forza del destino; Count Luna in Il trovatore; Simon Boccanegra) and Wagner as well (Wotan; Amfortas). Baritone_sentence_170

Similar to the Kavalierbariton. Baritone_sentence_171

Baryton-noble roles in opera are: Baritone_sentence_172

Bass-baritone Baritone_section_12

Main article: Bass-baritone Baritone_sentence_173

The bass-baritone range extends from the E below low C to the F or F♯ above middle C (E2 to F4 or F♯4). Baritone_sentence_174

Bass-baritones are typically divided into two separate categories: lyric bass-baritone and dramatic bass-baritone. Baritone_sentence_175

Lyric bass-baritone roles in opera include: Baritone_sentence_176

Baritone_unordered_list_5

Dramatic bass-baritone roles in opera include: Baritone_sentence_177

Baritone_unordered_list_6

Gilbert and Sullivan Baritone_section_13

All of Gilbert and Sullivan's Savoy operas have at least one lead baritone character (frequently the comic principal). Baritone_sentence_178

Notable operetta roles are: Baritone_sentence_179

Baritone in popular music Baritone_section_14

Main article: List of baritones in non-classical music Baritone_sentence_180

In barbershop music, the baritone part sings in a similar range to the Lead (singing the melody) however usually singing lower than the lead. Baritone_sentence_181

A barbershop baritone has a specific and specialized role in the formation of the four-part harmony that characterizes the style. Baritone_sentence_182

The baritone singer is often the one required to support or "fill" the bass sound (typically by singing the fifth above the bass root) and to complete a chord. Baritone_sentence_183

On the other hand, the baritone will occasionally find himself harmonizing above the melody, which calls for a tenor-like quality. Baritone_sentence_184

Because the baritone fills the chord, the part is often not very melodic. Baritone_sentence_185

In bluegrass music, the melody line is called the lead. Baritone_sentence_186

Tenor is sung an interval of a third above the lead. Baritone_sentence_187

Baritone is the fifth of the scale that has the lead as a tonic, and may be sung below the lead, or even above the lead (and the tenor), in which case it is called "high baritone". Baritone_sentence_188

Conversely, the more "soul" baritones have the more traditional timbre, but sing in a vocal range that is closer to the tenor vocal range. Baritone_sentence_189

Some of these singers include David Ruffin, Wilson Pickett, Otis Redding, Tom Jones, Michael McDonald, and Levi Stubbs of the Four Tops. Baritone_sentence_190

See also Baritone_section_15

Baritone_unordered_list_7


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baritone.