Basque language

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Basque (/bæsk, bɑːsk/; Basque: Euskara, [eus̺ˈkaɾa) is a language spoken by Basques and others of the Basque Country, a region that straddles the westernmost Pyrenees in adjacent parts of Northern Spain and Southwestern France. Basque language_sentence_0

Linguistically, Basque is unrelated to the other languages of Europe and is a language isolate in relation to any other known living language. Basque language_sentence_1

The Basques are indigenous to, and primarily inhabit, the Basque Country. Basque language_sentence_2

The Basque language is spoken by 28.4% (751,500) of Basques in all territories. Basque language_sentence_3

Of these, 93.2% (700,300) are in the Spanish area of the Basque Country and the remaining 6.8% (51,200) are in the French portion. Basque language_sentence_4

Native speakers live in a contiguous area that includes parts of four Spanish provinces and the three "ancient provinces" in France. Basque language_sentence_5

Gipuzkoa, most of Biscay, a few municipalities of Álava and the northern area of Navarre formed the core of the remaining Basque-speaking area before measures were introduced in the 1980s to strengthen the language. Basque language_sentence_6

By contrast, most of Álava, the western part of Biscay, and the central and southern areas of Navarre are predominantly populated by native speakers of Spanish, either because Basque was replaced by Spanish over the centuries (as in most of Álava and central Navarre), or because it may never have been spoken there (as in parts of the Enkarterri and southeastern Navarre). Basque language_sentence_7

In Francoist Spain, Basque language use was affected by the government’s repressive policies. Basque language_sentence_8

In the Basque Country, "Francoist repression was not only political, but also linguistic and cultural." Basque language_sentence_9

The regime placed legal restrictions on the use of language, which was suppressed from official discourse, education, and publishing, making it illegal to register new-born babies under Basque names, and even requiring tombstone engravings in Basque to be removed. Basque language_sentence_10

In some provinces, the public use of the language was suppressed, with people fined for speaking Basque. Basque language_sentence_11

Public use of Basque was frowned upon by supporters of the regime, often regarded as a sign of anti-Francoism or separatism. Basque language_sentence_12

Overall, in the 1960s and later, the trend reversed and education and publishing in Basque began to flourish. Basque language_sentence_13

As a part of this process, a standardised form of the Basque language, called Euskara Batua, was developed by the Euskaltzaindia in the late 1960s. Basque language_sentence_14

Besides its standardised version, the five historic Basque dialects are Biscayan, Gipuzkoan and Upper Navarrese in Spain and Navarrese–Lapurdian and Souletin in France. Basque language_sentence_15

They take their names from the historic Basque provinces, but the dialect boundaries are not congruent with province boundaries. Basque language_sentence_16

Euskara Batua was created so that the Basque language could be used—and easily understood by all Basque speakers—in formal situations (education, mass media, literature), and this is its main use today. Basque language_sentence_17

In both Spain and France, the use of Basque for education varies from region to region and from school to school. Basque language_sentence_18

A language isolate, Basque is believed to be one of the few surviving pre-Indo-European languages in Europe and is the only one in Western Europe. Basque language_sentence_19

The origin of the Basques and of their languages is not conclusively known, though the most accepted current theory is that early forms of Basque developed before the arrival of Indo-European languages in the area, including the Romance languages that geographically surround the Basque-speaking region. Basque language_sentence_20

Basque has adopted about 40 percent of its vocabulary from the Romance languages, and Basque speakers have in turn lent their own words to Romance speakers. Basque language_sentence_21

The Basque alphabet uses the Latin script. Basque language_sentence_22

It is an agglutinative language. Basque language_sentence_23

Names of the language Basque language_section_0

See also: Basques § Etymology of the word Basque Basque language_sentence_24

In Basque, the name of the language is officially Euskara (alongside various dialect forms). Basque language_sentence_25

In French, the language is normally called basque, though euskara has become common in recent times. Basque language_sentence_26

Spanish has a greater variety of names for the language. Basque language_sentence_27

Today, it is most commonly referred to as el vasco, la lengua vasca, or el euskera. Basque language_sentence_28

Both terms, vasco and basque, are inherited from the Latin ethnonym Vascones, which in turn goes back to the Greek term οὐασκώνους (ouaskōnous), an ethnonym used by Strabo in his Geographica (23 CE, Book III). Basque language_sentence_29

The Spanish term Vascuence, derived from Latin vasconĭce, has acquired negative connotations over the centuries and is not well-liked amongst Basque speakers generally. Basque language_sentence_30

Its use is documented at least as far back as the 14th century when a law passed in Huesca in 1349 stated that Item nuyl corridor nonsia usado que faga mercadería ninguna que compre nin venda entre ningunas personas, faulando en algaravia nin en abraych nin en basquenç: et qui lo fara pague por coto XXX sol—essentially penalising the use of Arabic, Hebrew, or Basque in marketplaces with a fine of 30 sols (the equivalent of 30 sheep). Basque language_sentence_31

History and classification Basque language_section_1

Main article: History of the Basque language Basque language_sentence_32

Basque is geographically surrounded by Romance languages but is a language isolate unrelated to them, and indeed, to any other language in the world. Basque language_sentence_33

It is the last remaining descendant of one of the pre-Indo-European languages of Western Europe, the others being extinct outright. Basque language_sentence_34

Consequently, its prehistory may not be reconstructible by means of the traditional comparative method except by applying it to differences between dialects within the language. Basque language_sentence_35

Little is known of its origins, but it is likely that an early form of the Basque language was present in Western Europe before the arrival of the Indo-European languages in the area. Basque language_sentence_36

Authors such as Miguel de Unamuno and Louis Lucien Bonaparte have noted that the words for "knife" (aizto), "axe" (aizkora), and "hoe" (aitzur) derive from the word for "stone" (haitz), and have therefore concluded that the language dates to prehistoric Europe when those tools were made of stone. Basque language_sentence_37

Others find this unlikely: see the aizkora controversy. Basque language_sentence_38

Latin inscriptions in Gallia Aquitania preserve a number of words with cognates in the reconstructed proto-Basque language, for instance, the personal names Nescato and Cison (neskato and gizon mean 'young girl' and 'man', respectively in modern Basque). Basque language_sentence_39

This language is generally referred to as Aquitanian and is assumed to have been spoken in the area before the Roman Republic's conquests in the western Pyrenees. Basque language_sentence_40

Some authors even argue for late Basquisation, that the language moved westward during Late Antiquity after the fall of the Western Roman Empire into the northern part of Hispania into what is now Basque Country. Basque language_sentence_41

Roman neglect of this area allowed Aquitanian to survive while the Iberian and Tartessian languages became extinct. Basque language_sentence_42

Through the long contact with Romance languages, Basque adopted a sizeable number of Romance words. Basque language_sentence_43

Initially the source was Latin, later Gascon (a branch of Occitan) in the northeast, Navarro-Aragonese in the southeast and Spanish in the southwest. Basque language_sentence_44

Hypotheses concerning Basque's connections to other languages Basque language_section_2

Once accepted as a non-Indo-European language, many attempts have been made to link the Basque language with more geographically distant languages. Basque language_sentence_45

Apart from pseudoscientific comparisons, the appearance of long-range linguistics gave rise to several attempts to connect Basque with geographically very distant language families. Basque language_sentence_46

Historical work on Basque is challenging since written material and documentation only is available for some few hundred years. Basque language_sentence_47

Almost all hypotheses concerning the origin of Basque are controversial, and the suggested evidence is not generally accepted by mainstream linguists. Basque language_sentence_48

Some of these hypothetical connections are: Basque language_sentence_49

Basque language_unordered_list_0

  • Ligurian substrate: This hypothesis, proposed in the 19th century by d'Arbois de Jubainville, J. Pokorny, P. Kretschmer and several other linguists, encompasses the Basco-Iberian hypothesis.Basque language_item_0_0
  • Iberian: another ancient language once spoken in the Iberian Peninsula, shows several similarities with Aquitanian and Basque. However, not enough evidence exists to distinguish geographical connections from linguistic ones. Iberian itself remains unclassified. Eduardo Orduña Aznar claims to have established correspondences between Basque and Iberian numerals and noun case markers.Basque language_item_0_1
  • Vasconic substratum theory: This proposal, made by the German linguist Theo Vennemann, claims that enough toponymical evidence exists to conclude that Basque is the only survivor of a larger family that once extended throughout most of Western Europe, and has also left its mark in modern Indo-European languages spoken in Europe.Basque language_item_0_2
  • Georgian: Linking Basque to the Kartvelian languages is now widely discredited. The hypothesis was inspired by the existence of the ancient Kingdom of Iberia in the Caucasus and some similarities in societal practices and agriculture between the two populations. Historical comparisons are difficult due to the dearth of historical material for Basque and several of the Kartvelian languages. Typological similarities have been proposed for some of the phonological characteristics and most importantly for some of the details of the ergative constructions, but these alone cannot prove historical relatedness between languages since such characteristics are found in other languages across the world, even if not in Indo-European. According to J. P. Mallory, the hypothesis was also inspired by a Basque place-name ending in -dze which is common in Kartvelian. The theory suggested that Basque and Georgian were remnants of a pre-Indo-European group.Basque language_item_0_3
  • Northeast Caucasian languages, such as Chechen, are seen by some linguists as more likely candidates for a very distant connection.Basque language_item_0_4
  • Dené–Caucasian: Based on the possible Caucasian link, some linguists, for example John Bengtson and Merritt Ruhlen, have proposed including Basque in the Dené–Caucasian superfamily of languages, but this proposed superfamily includes languages from North America and Eurasia, and its existence is highly controversial.Basque language_item_0_5
  • Indo-European: A genetic link between Basque and the Indo-European languages has been proposed by Forni (2013). This proposal is rejected by most reviewers, both including scholars adhering to the mainstream view of Basque as a language isolate (Gorrochategui, Lakarra), as well as proponents of wide-range genetic relations (Bengtson).Basque language_item_0_6

Geographic distribution Basque language_section_3

The region where Basque is spoken has become smaller over centuries, especially at the northern, southern, and eastern borders. Basque language_sentence_50

Nothing is known about the limits of this region in ancient times, but on the basis of toponyms and epigraphs, it seems that in the beginning of the Common Era it stretched to the river Garonne in the north (including the southwestern part of present-day France); at least to the Val d'Aran in the east (now a Gascon-speaking part of Catalonia), including lands on both sides of the Pyrenees; the southern and western boundaries are not clear at all. Basque language_sentence_51

The Reconquista temporarily counteracted this contracting tendency when the Christian lords called on Northern Iberian peoples—Basques, Asturians, and "Franks"—to colonise the new conquests. Basque language_sentence_52

The Basque language became the main everyday language, while other languages like Spanish, Gascon, French, or Latin were preferred for the administration and high education. Basque language_sentence_53

By the 16th century, the Basque-speaking area was reduced basically to the present-day seven provinces of the Basque Country, excluding the southern part of Navarre, the southwestern part of Álava, and the western part of Biscay, and including some parts of Béarn. Basque language_sentence_54

In 1807, Basque was still spoken in the northern half of Álava—including its capital city Vitoria-Gasteiz—and a vast area in central Navarre, but in these two provinces, Basque experienced a rapid decline that pushed its border northwards. Basque language_sentence_55

In the French Basque Country, Basque was still spoken in all the territory except in Bayonne and some villages around, and including some bordering towns in Béarn. Basque language_sentence_56

In the 20th century, however, the rise of Basque nationalism spurred increased interest in the language as a sign of ethnic identity, and with the establishment of autonomous governments in the Southern Basque Country, it has recently made a modest comeback. Basque language_sentence_57

In the Spanish part, Basque-language schools for children and Basque-teaching centres for adults have brought the language to areas such as western Enkarterri and the Ribera del Ebro in southern Navarre, where it is not known to ever have been widely spoken; and in the French Basque Country, these schools and centres have almost stopped the decline of the language. Basque language_sentence_58

Official status Basque language_section_4

Historically, Latin or Romance languages have been the official languages in this region. Basque language_sentence_59

However, Basque was explicitly recognised in some areas. Basque language_sentence_60

For instance, the fuero or charter of the Basque-colonised Ojacastro (now in La Rioja) allowed the inhabitants to use Basque in legal processes in the 13th and 14th centuries. Basque language_sentence_61

The Spanish Constitution of 1978 states in Article 3 that the Spanish language is the official language of the nation, but allows autonomous communities to provide a co-official language status for the other languages of Spain. Basque language_sentence_62

Consequently, the Statute of Autonomy of the Basque Autonomous Community establishes Basque as the co-official language of the autonomous community. Basque language_sentence_63

The Statute of Navarre establishes Spanish as the official language of Navarre, but grants co-official status to the Basque language in the Basque-speaking areas of northern Navarre. Basque language_sentence_64

Basque has no official status in the French Basque Country and French citizens are barred from officially using Basque in a French court of law. Basque language_sentence_65

However, the use of Basque by Spanish nationals in French courts is permitted (with translation), as Basque is officially recognised on the other side of the border. Basque language_sentence_66

The positions of the various existing governments differ with regard to the promotion of Basque in areas where Basque is commonly spoken. Basque language_sentence_67

The language has official status in those territories that are within the Basque Autonomous Community, where it is spoken and promoted heavily, but only partially in Navarre. Basque language_sentence_68

The Ley del Vascuence ("Law of Basque"), seen as contentious by many Basques, but considered fitting Navarra's linguistic and cultural diversity by some of the main political parties of Navarre, divides Navarre into three language areas: Basque-speaking, non-Basque-speaking, and mixed. Basque language_sentence_69

Support for the language and the linguistic rights of citizens vary, depending on the area. Basque language_sentence_70

Others consider it unfair, since the rights of Basque speakers differ greatly depending on the place they live. Basque language_sentence_71

Demographics Basque language_section_5

The 2006 sociolinguistic survey of all Basque-speaking territories showed that in 2006, of all people aged 16 and above: Basque language_sentence_72

Basque language_unordered_list_1

  • In the Basque Autonomous Community, 30.1% were fluent Basque speakers, 18.3% passive speakers and 51.5% did not speak Basque. The percentage was highest in Gipuzkoa (49.1% speakers) and lowest in Álava (14.2%). These results represent an increase from previous years (29.5% in 2001, 27.7% in 1996 and 24.1% in 1991). The highest percentage of speakers can now be found in the 16–24 age range (57.5%) vs. 25.0% in the 65+ age range. The percentage of fluent speakers is even higher if counting those under 16, given that the proportion of bilinguals is particularly high in this age group (76.7% of those aged between 10 and 14 and 72.4% of those aged 5–9): 37.5% of the population aged 6 and above in the whole Basque Autonomous Community, 25.0% in Álava, 31.3% in Biscay and 53.3% in Gipuzkoa.Basque language_item_1_7
  • In French Basque Country, 22.5% were fluent Basque speakers, 8.6% passive speakers, and 68.9% did not speak Basque. The percentage was highest in Labourd and Soule (55.5% speakers) and lowest in the Bayonne-Anglet-Biarritz conurbation (8.8%). These results represent another decrease from previous years (24.8% in 2001 and 26.4 in 1996). The highest percentage of speakers is in the 65+ age range (32.4%). The lowest percentage is found in the 25–34 age range (11.6%), but there is a slight increase in the 16–24 age range (16.1%)Basque language_item_1_8
  • In Navarre, 11.1% were fluent Basque speakers, 7.6% passive speakers, and 81.3% did not speak Basque. The percentage was highest in the Basque-speaking zone in the north (60.1% speakers) and lowest in the non-Basque-speaking zone in the south (1.9%). These results represent a slight increase from previous years (10.3% in 2001, 9.6% in 1996 and 9.5% in 1991). The highest percentage of speakers can now be found in the 16–24 age range (19.1%) vs. 9.1% in the 65+ age range.Basque language_item_1_9

Taken together, in 2006, of a total population of 2,589,600 (1,850,500 in the Autonomous Community, 230,200 in the Northern Provinces and 508,900 in Navarre), 665,800 spoke Basque (aged 16 and above). Basque language_sentence_73

This amounts to 25.7% Basque bilinguals overall, 15.4% passive speakers, and 58.9% non-speakers. Basque language_sentence_74

Compared to the 1991 figures, this represents an overall increase of 137,000, from 528,500 (from a population of 2,371,100) 15 years previously. Basque language_sentence_75

The 2011 figures show an increase of some 64,000 speakers compared to the 2006 figures to 714,136, with significant increases in the Autonomous Community, but a slight drop in the Northern Basque Country to 51,100, overall amounting to an increase to 27% of all inhabitants of Basque provinces (2,648,998 in total). Basque language_sentence_76

Basque language_table_general_0

Basque speakers (as a % of each region's population), gains/losses compared to previous surveyBasque language_table_caption_0
Basque language_header_cell_0_0_0 Across allBasque language_header_cell_0_0_1 BACBasque language_header_cell_0_0_2 NavarreBasque language_header_cell_0_0_3 FBCBasque language_header_cell_0_0_4
2016Basque language_cell_0_1_0 28.4% (+1.4%)Basque language_cell_0_1_1 33.9% (+1.9%)Basque language_cell_0_1_2 12.9% (+1.2%)Basque language_cell_0_1_3 20.5% (-0.9%)Basque language_cell_0_1_4
2011Basque language_cell_0_2_0 27.0% (+1.3%)Basque language_cell_0_2_1 32.0% (+1.9%)Basque language_cell_0_2_2 11.7% (+0.6%)Basque language_cell_0_2_3 21.4% (-1.1%)Basque language_cell_0_2_4
2006Basque language_cell_0_3_0 25.7% (+0.3%)Basque language_cell_0_3_1 30.1% (+0.7%)Basque language_cell_0_3_2 11.1% (+0.8%)Basque language_cell_0_3_3 22.5% (-2.3%)Basque language_cell_0_3_4
2001Basque language_cell_0_4_0 25.4% (+1%)Basque language_cell_0_4_1 29.4% (+1.7%)Basque language_cell_0_4_2 10.3% (+0.7%)Basque language_cell_0_4_3 24.8% (-1.6%)Basque language_cell_0_4_4
1996Basque language_cell_0_5_0 24.4% (+2.1%)Basque language_cell_0_5_1 27.7% (+3.6%)Basque language_cell_0_5_2 9.6% (+0.1%)Basque language_cell_0_5_3 26.4%Basque language_cell_0_5_4
1991Basque language_cell_0_6_0 22.3%Basque language_cell_0_6_1 24.1%Basque language_cell_0_6_2 9.5%Basque language_cell_0_6_3 -Basque language_cell_0_6_4

Basque is used as a language of commerce both in the Basque Country and in locations around the world where Basques immigrated throughout history. Basque language_sentence_77

Dialects Basque language_section_6

Main article: Basque dialects Basque language_sentence_78

The modern Basque dialects show a high degree of dialectal divergence, sometimes making cross-dialect communication difficult. Basque language_sentence_79

This is especially true in the case of Biscayan and Souletin, which are regarded as the most divergent Basque dialects. Basque language_sentence_80

Modern Basque dialectology distinguishes five dialects: Basque language_sentence_81

Basque language_unordered_list_2

These dialects are divided in 11 subdialects, and 24 minor varieties among them. Basque language_sentence_82

According to Koldo Zuazo, the Biscayan dialect or "Western" is the most widespread dialect, with around 300,000 speakers out of a total of around 660,000 speakers. Basque language_sentence_83

This dialect is divided in two minor subdialects: the Western Biscayan and Eastern Biscayan, plus transitional dialects. Basque language_sentence_84

Influence on other languages Basque language_section_7

See also: List of Spanish words of Basque origin Basque language_sentence_85

Although the influence of the neighbouring Romance languages on the Basque language (especially the lexicon, but also to some degree Basque phonology and grammar) has been much more extensive, it is usually assumed that there has been some feedback from Basque into these languages as well. Basque language_sentence_86

In particular Gascon and Aragonese, and to a lesser degree Spanish are thought to have received this influence in the past. Basque language_sentence_87

In the case of Aragonese and Gascon, this would have been through substrate interference following language shift from Aquitanian or Basque to a Romance language, affecting all levels of the language, including place names around the Pyrenees. Basque language_sentence_88

Although a number of words of alleged Basque origin in the Spanish language are circulated (e.g. 'anchovies', 'dashing, gallant, spirited', 'puppy', etc.), most of these have more easily explicable Romance etymologies or not particularly convincing derivations from Basque. Basque language_sentence_89

Ignoring cultural terms, there is one strong loanword candidate, , long considered the source of the Pyrennean and Iberian Romance words for "left (side)" (, , ). Basque language_sentence_90

The lack of initial /r/ in Gascon could arguably be due to a Basque influence but this issue is under-researched. Basque language_sentence_91

The other most commonly claimed substrate influences: Basque language_sentence_92

Basque language_unordered_list_3

The first two features are common, widespread developments in many Romance (and non-Romance) languages. Basque language_sentence_93

The change of /f/ to /h/ occurred historically only in a limited area (Gascony and Old Castile) that corresponds almost exactly to areas where heavy Basque bilingualism is assumed, and as a result has been widely postulated (and equally strongly disputed). Basque language_sentence_94

Substrate theories are often difficult to prove (especially in the case of phonetically plausible changes like /f/ to /h/). Basque language_sentence_95

As a result, although many arguments have been made on both sides, the debate largely comes down to the a priori tendency on the part of particular linguists to accept or reject substrate arguments. Basque language_sentence_96

Examples of arguments against the substrate theory, and possible responses: Basque language_sentence_97

Basque language_ordered_list_4

  1. Spanish did not fully shift /f/ to /h/, instead, it has preserved /f/ before consonants such as /w/ and /ɾ/ (cf fuerte, frente). (On the other hand, the occurrence of [f] in these words might be a secondary development from an earlier sound such as [h] or [ɸ] and learned words (or words influenced by written Latin form). Gascon does have /h/ in these words, which might reflect the original situation.)Basque language_item_4_19
  2. Evidence of Arabic loanwords in Spanish points to /f/ continuing to exist long after a Basque substrate might have had any effect on Spanish. (On the other hand, the occurrence of /f/ in these words might be a late development. Many languages have come to accept new phonemes from other languages after a period of significant influence. For example, French lost /h/ but later regained it as a result of Germanic influence, and has recently gained /ŋ/ as a result of English influence.)Basque language_item_4_20
  3. Basque regularly developed Latin /f/ into /b/.Basque language_item_4_21
  4. The same change also occurs in parts of Sardinia, Italy and the Romance languages of the Balkans where no Basque substrate can be reasonably argued for. (On the other hand, the fact that the same change might have occurred elsewhere independently does not disprove substrate influence. Furthermore, parts of Sardinia also have prothetic /a/ or /e/ before initial /r/, just as in Basque and Gascon, which may actually argue for some type of influence between both areas.)Basque language_item_4_22

Beyond these arguments, a number of nomadic groups of Castile are also said to use or have used Basque words in their jargon, such as the gacería in Segovia, the mingaña, the Galician fala dos arxinas and the Asturian Xíriga. Basque language_sentence_98

Part of the Romani community in the Basque Country speaks Erromintxela, which is a rare mixed language, with a Kalderash Romani vocabulary and Basque grammar. Basque language_sentence_99

Basque pidgins Basque language_section_8

A number of Basque-based or Basque-influenced pidgins have existed. Basque language_sentence_100

In the 16th century, Basque sailors used a Basque–Icelandic pidgin in their contacts with Iceland. Basque language_sentence_101

The Algonquian–Basque pidgin arose from contact between Basque whalers and the Algonquian peoples in the Gulf of Saint Lawrence and Strait of Belle Isle. Basque language_sentence_102

Grammar Basque language_section_9

Main article: Basque grammar Basque language_sentence_103

Basque is an ergative–absolutive language. Basque language_sentence_104

The subject of an intransitive verb is in the absolutive case (which is unmarked), and the same case is used for the direct object of a transitive verb. Basque language_sentence_105

The subject of the transitive verb is marked differently, with the ergative case (shown by the suffix -k). Basque language_sentence_106

This also triggers main and auxiliary verbal agreement. Basque language_sentence_107

The auxiliary verb, which accompanies most main verbs, agrees not only with the subject, but with any direct object and the indirect object present. Basque language_sentence_108

Among European languages, this polypersonal agreement is found only in Basque, some languages of the Caucasus, Mordvinic languages, Hungarian, and Maltese (all non-Indo-European). Basque language_sentence_109

The ergative–absolutive alignment is also rare among European languages—occurring only in some languages of the Caucasus—but not infrequent worldwide. Basque language_sentence_110

Consider the phrase: Basque language_sentence_111

Basque language_description_list_5

Martin-ek is the agent (transitive subject), so it is marked with the ergative case ending -k (with an epenthetic -e-). Basque language_sentence_112

Egunkariak has an -ak ending, which marks plural object (plural absolutive, direct object case). Basque language_sentence_113

The verb is erosten dizkit, in which erosten is a kind of gerund ("buying") and the auxiliary dizkit means "he/she (does) them for me". Basque language_sentence_114

This dizkit can be split like this: Basque language_sentence_115

Basque language_unordered_list_6

  • di- is used in the present tense when the verb has a subject (ergative), a direct object (absolutive), and an indirect object, and the object is him/her/it/them.Basque language_item_6_25
  • -zki- means the absolutive (in this case the newspapers) is plural; if it were singular there would be no infix; andBasque language_item_6_26
  • -t or -da- means "to me/for me" (indirect object).Basque language_item_6_27
  • in this instance there is no suffix after -t. A zero suffix in this position indicates that the ergative (the subject) is third person singular (he/she/it).Basque language_item_6_28

The phrase "you buy the newspapers for me" is translated as: Basque language_sentence_116

Basque language_description_list_7

The auxiliary verb is composed as di-zki-da-zue and means 'you pl. (do) them for me' Basque language_sentence_117

Basque language_unordered_list_8

  • di- indicates that the main verb is transitive and in the present tenseBasque language_item_8_31
  • -zki- indicates that the direct object is pluralBasque language_item_8_32
  • -da- indicates that the indirect object is me (to me/for me; -t becomes -da- when not final)Basque language_item_8_33
  • -zue indicates that the subject is you (plural)Basque language_item_8_34

The pronoun zuek 'you (plural)' has the same form both in the nominative or absolutive case (the subject of an intransitive sentence or direct object of a transitive sentence) and in the ergative case (the subject of a transitive sentence). Basque language_sentence_118

In spoken Basque, the auxiliary verb is never dropped even if it is redundant, e.g. dizkidazue in zuek niri egunkariak erosten dizkidazue 'you (pl.) are buying the newspapers for me'. Basque language_sentence_119

However, the pronouns are almost always dropped, e.g. zuek in egunkariak erosten dizkidazue 'you (pl.) are buying the newspapers for me'. Basque language_sentence_120

The pronouns are used only to show emphasis: egunkariak zuek erosten dizkidazue 'it is you (pl.) who buys the newspapers for me', or egunkariak niri erosten dizkidazue 'it is me for whom you buy the newspapers'. Basque language_sentence_121

Modern Basque dialects allow for the conjugation of about fifteen verbs, called synthetic verbs, some only in literary contexts. Basque language_sentence_122

These can be put in the present and past tenses in the indicative and subjunctive moods, in three tenses in the conditional and potential moods, and in one tense in the imperative. Basque language_sentence_123

Each verb that can be taken intransitively has a nor (absolutive) paradigm and possibly a nor-nori (absolutive–dative) paradigm, as in the sentence Aititeri txapela erori zaio ("The hat fell from grandfather['s head]"). Basque language_sentence_124

Each verb that can be taken transitively uses those two paradigms for antipassive-voice contexts in which no agent is mentioned (Basque lacks a passive voice, and displays instead an antipassive voice paradigm), and also has a nor-nork (absolutive–ergative) paradigm and possibly a nor-nori-nork (absolutive–dative–ergative) paradigm. Basque language_sentence_125

The last would entail the dizkidazue example above. Basque language_sentence_126

In each paradigm, each constituent noun can take on any of eight persons, five singular and three plural, with the exception of nor-nori-nork in which the absolutive can only be third person singular or plural. Basque language_sentence_127

The most ubiquitous auxiliary, izan, can be used in any of these paradigms, depending on the nature of the main verb. Basque language_sentence_128

There are more persons in the singular (5) than in the plural (3) for synthetic (or filamentous) verbs because of the two familiar persons—informal masculine and feminine second person singular. Basque language_sentence_129

The pronoun hi is used for both of them, but where the masculine form of the verb uses a -k, the feminine uses an -n. This is a property rarely found in Indo-European languages. Basque language_sentence_130

The entire paradigm of the verb is further augmented by inflecting for "listener" (the allocutive) even if the verb contains no second person constituent. Basque language_sentence_131

If the situation calls for the familiar masculine, the form is augmented and modified accordingly. Basque language_sentence_132

Likewise for the familiar feminine. Basque language_sentence_133

(Gizon bat etorri da, "a man has come"; gizon bat etorri duk, "a man has come [you are a male close friend]", gizon bat etorri dun, "a man has come [you are a female close friend]", gizon bat etorri duzu, "a man has come [I talk to you (Sir / Madam)]") This multiplies the number of possible forms by nearly three. Basque language_sentence_134

Still, the restriction on contexts in which these forms may be used is strong, since all participants in the conversation must be friends of the same sex, and not too far apart in age. Basque language_sentence_135

Some dialects dispense with the familiar forms entirely. Basque language_sentence_136

Note, however, that the formal second person singular conjugates in parallel to the other plural forms, perhaps indicating that it was originally the second person plural, later came to be used as a formal singular, and then later still the modern second person plural was formulated as an innovation. Basque language_sentence_137

All the other verbs in Basque are called periphrastic, behaving much like a participle would in English. Basque language_sentence_138

These have only three forms in total, called aspects: perfect (various suffixes), habitual (suffix -t[z]en), and future/potential (suffix. Basque language_sentence_139

-ko/-go). Basque language_sentence_140

Verbs of Latinate origin in Basque, as well as many other verbs, have a suffix -tu in the perfect, adapted from the Latin perfect passive -tus suffix. Basque language_sentence_141

The synthetic verbs also have periphrastic forms, for use in perfects and in simple tenses in which they are deponent. Basque language_sentence_142

Within a verb phrase, the periphrastic verb comes first, followed by the auxiliary. Basque language_sentence_143

A Basque noun-phrase is inflected in 17 different ways for case, multiplied by four ways for its definiteness and number (indefinite, definite singular, definite plural, and definite close plural: euskaldun [Basque speaker], euskalduna [the Basque speaker, a Basque speaker], euskaldunak [Basque speakers, the Basque speakers], and euskaldunok [we Basque speakers, those Basque speakers]). Basque language_sentence_144

These first 68 forms are further modified based on other parts of the sentence, which in turn are inflected for the noun again. Basque language_sentence_145

It has been estimated that, with two levels of recursion, a Basque noun may have 458,683 inflected forms. Basque language_sentence_146

Basque language_table_general_1

WordBasque language_header_cell_1_0_0 CaseBasque language_header_cell_1_0_1 ResultBasque language_header_cell_1_0_2 meaningBasque language_header_cell_1_0_3
etxeBasque language_cell_1_1_0 Basque language_cell_1_1_1 etxeBasque language_cell_1_1_2 houseBasque language_cell_1_1_3
etxeBasque language_cell_1_2_0 aBasque language_cell_1_2_1 etxeaBasque language_cell_1_2_2 the houseBasque language_cell_1_2_3
etxeBasque language_cell_1_3_0 akBasque language_cell_1_3_1 etxeakBasque language_cell_1_3_2 the housesBasque language_cell_1_3_3
etxeBasque language_cell_1_4_0 a + raBasque language_cell_1_4_1 etxeraBasque language_cell_1_4_2 to the houseBasque language_cell_1_4_3
etxeBasque language_cell_1_5_0 ak + raBasque language_cell_1_5_1 etxeetaraBasque language_cell_1_5_2 to the housesBasque language_cell_1_5_3
etxeBasque language_cell_1_6_0 a + tikBasque language_cell_1_6_1 etxetikBasque language_cell_1_6_2 from the houseBasque language_cell_1_6_3
etxeBasque language_cell_1_7_0 ak + tikBasque language_cell_1_7_1 etxeetatikBasque language_cell_1_7_2 from the housesBasque language_cell_1_7_3
etxeBasque language_cell_1_8_0 a + (r)ainoBasque language_cell_1_8_1 etxerainoBasque language_cell_1_8_2 until the houseBasque language_cell_1_8_3
etxeBasque language_cell_1_9_0 ak + (r)ainoBasque language_cell_1_9_1 etxeetarainoBasque language_cell_1_9_2 until the housesBasque language_cell_1_9_3
etxeBasque language_cell_1_10_0 a + nBasque language_cell_1_10_1 etxeanBasque language_cell_1_10_2 in the houseBasque language_cell_1_10_3
etxeBasque language_cell_1_11_0 ak + nBasque language_cell_1_11_1 etxeetanBasque language_cell_1_11_2 in the housesBasque language_cell_1_11_3
etxeBasque language_cell_1_12_0 a + koBasque language_cell_1_12_1 etxekoBasque language_cell_1_12_2 of the house (belonging to)Basque language_cell_1_12_3
etxeBasque language_cell_1_13_0 ak + koBasque language_cell_1_13_1 etxeetakoBasque language_cell_1_13_2 of the houses (belonging to)Basque language_cell_1_13_3

The proper name "Mikel" (Michael) is declined as follows: Basque language_sentence_147

Basque language_table_general_2

WordBasque language_header_cell_2_0_0 CaseBasque language_header_cell_2_0_1 ResultBasque language_header_cell_2_0_2 meaningBasque language_header_cell_2_0_3
MikelBasque language_cell_2_1_0 (r)enBasque language_cell_2_1_1 MikelenBasque language_cell_2_1_2 of MikelBasque language_cell_2_1_3
MikelBasque language_cell_2_2_0 (r)enganaBasque language_cell_2_2_1 MikelenganaBasque language_cell_2_2_2 to MikelBasque language_cell_2_2_3
MikelBasque language_cell_2_3_0 (r)ekinBasque language_cell_2_3_1 MikelekinBasque language_cell_2_3_2 with MikelBasque language_cell_2_3_3

Within a noun phrase, modifying adjectives follow the noun. Basque language_sentence_148

As an example of a Basque noun phrase, etxe zaharrean "in the old house" is morphologically analysed as follows by Agirre et al. Basque language_sentence_149

Basque language_table_general_3

WordBasque language_header_cell_3_0_0 FormBasque language_header_cell_3_0_1 MeaningBasque language_header_cell_3_0_2
etxeBasque language_cell_3_1_0 nounBasque language_cell_3_1_1 houseBasque language_cell_3_1_2
zahar-Basque language_cell_3_2_0 adjectiveBasque language_cell_3_2_1 oldBasque language_cell_3_2_2
-r-e-Basque language_cell_3_3_0 epenthetical elementsBasque language_cell_3_3_1 n/aBasque language_cell_3_3_2
-a-Basque language_cell_3_4_0 determinate, singularBasque language_cell_3_4_1 theBasque language_cell_3_4_2
-nBasque language_cell_3_5_0 inessive caseBasque language_cell_3_5_1 inBasque language_cell_3_5_2

Basic syntactic construction is subject–object–verb (unlike Spanish, French or English where a subject–verb–object construction is more common). Basque language_sentence_150

The order of the phrases within a sentence can be changed with thematic purposes, whereas the order of the words within a phrase is usually rigid. Basque language_sentence_151

As a matter of fact, Basque phrase order is topic–focus, meaning that in neutral sentences (such as sentences to inform someone of a fact or event) the topic is stated first, then the focus. Basque language_sentence_152

In such sentences, the verb phrase comes at the end. Basque language_sentence_153

In brief, the focus directly precedes the verb phrase. Basque language_sentence_154

This rule is also applied in questions, for instance, What is this? Basque language_sentence_155

can be translated as Zer da hau? Basque language_sentence_156

or Hau zer da?, but in both cases the question tag zer immediately precedes the verb da. Basque language_sentence_157

This rule is so important in Basque that, even in grammatical descriptions of Basque in other languages, the Basque word galdegai (focus) is used. Basque language_sentence_158

In negative sentences, the order changes. Basque language_sentence_159

Since the negative particle ez must always directly precede the auxiliary, the topic most often comes beforehand, and the rest of the sentence follows. Basque language_sentence_160

This includes the periphrastic, if there is one: Aitak frantsesa irakasten du, "Father teaches French," in the negative becomes Aitak ez du frantsesa irakasten, in which irakasten ("teaching") is separated from its auxiliary and placed at the end. Basque language_sentence_161

Phonology Basque language_section_10

Vowels Basque language_section_11

Basque language_table_general_4

Basque language_header_cell_4_0_0 FrontBasque language_header_cell_4_0_1 CentralBasque language_header_cell_4_0_2 BackBasque language_header_cell_4_0_3
CloseBasque language_header_cell_4_1_0 i

/i/Basque language_cell_4_1_1

Basque language_cell_4_1_2 u

/u/Basque language_cell_4_1_3

MidBasque language_header_cell_4_2_0 e

/e/Basque language_cell_4_2_1

Basque language_cell_4_2_2 o

/o/Basque language_cell_4_2_3

OpenBasque language_header_cell_4_3_0 Basque language_cell_4_3_1 a

/a/Basque language_cell_4_3_2

Basque language_cell_4_3_3

The Basque language features five vowels: /a/, /e/, /i/, /o/ and /u/ (the same that are found in Spanish, Asturian and Aragonese). Basque language_sentence_162

In the Zuberoan dialect, extra phonemes are featured: Basque language_sentence_163

Basque language_unordered_list_9

Consonants Basque language_section_12

Basque language_table_general_5

Table of consonant phonemes of Standard BasqueBasque language_table_caption_5
Basque language_header_cell_5_0_0 LabialBasque language_header_cell_5_0_2 Lamino-

dentalBasque language_header_cell_5_0_3


alveolarBasque language_header_cell_5_0_4

Palatal or

postalveolarBasque language_header_cell_5_0_5

VelarBasque language_header_cell_5_0_6 GlottalBasque language_header_cell_5_0_7
NasalBasque language_header_cell_5_1_0 m

/m/Basque language_cell_5_1_2

Basque language_cell_5_1_3 n

/n/Basque language_cell_5_1_4

ñ, -in-

/ɲ/Basque language_cell_5_1_5

Basque language_cell_5_1_6 Basque language_cell_5_1_7
PlosiveBasque language_header_cell_5_2_0 voicelessBasque language_header_cell_5_2_1 p

/p/Basque language_cell_5_2_2


/t/Basque language_cell_5_2_3

Basque language_cell_5_2_4 tt, -it-

/c/Basque language_cell_5_2_5


/k/Basque language_cell_5_2_6

Basque language_cell_5_2_7
voicedBasque language_header_cell_5_3_0 b

/b/Basque language_cell_5_3_1


/d/Basque language_cell_5_3_2

Basque language_cell_5_3_3 dd, -id-

/ɟ/Basque language_cell_5_3_4


/ɡ/Basque language_cell_5_3_5

Basque language_cell_5_3_6
AffricateBasque language_header_cell_5_4_0 voicelessBasque language_header_cell_5_4_1 Basque language_cell_5_4_2 tz

/t̪s̻/Basque language_cell_5_4_3


/t̺s̺/Basque language_cell_5_4_4


//Basque language_cell_5_4_5

Basque language_cell_5_4_6 Basque language_cell_5_4_7
FricativeBasque language_header_cell_5_5_0 voicelessBasque language_header_cell_5_5_1 f

/f/Basque language_cell_5_5_2


//Basque language_cell_5_5_3


//Basque language_cell_5_5_4


/ʃ/Basque language_cell_5_5_5

Basque language_cell_5_5_6 h

/∅/, /h/Basque language_cell_5_5_7

(mostly) voicedBasque language_header_cell_5_6_0 Basque language_cell_5_6_1 Basque language_cell_5_6_2 Basque language_cell_5_6_3 j

/j/~/x/Basque language_cell_5_6_4

Basque language_cell_5_6_6
LateralBasque language_header_cell_5_7_0 Basque language_cell_5_7_2 Basque language_cell_5_7_3 l

/l/Basque language_cell_5_7_4

ll, -il-

/ʎ/Basque language_cell_5_7_5

Basque language_cell_5_7_6 Basque language_cell_5_7_7
RhoticBasque language_header_cell_5_8_0 TrillBasque language_header_cell_5_8_1 Basque language_cell_5_8_2 Basque language_cell_5_8_3 r-, -rr-, -r

/r/Basque language_cell_5_8_4

Basque language_cell_5_8_5 Basque language_cell_5_8_6 Basque language_cell_5_8_7
TapBasque language_header_cell_5_9_0 Basque language_cell_5_9_1 Basque language_cell_5_9_2 -r-

/ɾ/Basque language_cell_5_9_3

Basque language_cell_5_9_4 Basque language_cell_5_9_5 Basque language_cell_5_9_6

Basque has a distinction between laminal and apical articulation for the alveolar fricatives and affricates. Basque language_sentence_164

With the laminal alveolar fricative [s̻, the friction occurs across the blade of the tongue, the tongue tip pointing toward the lower teeth. Basque language_sentence_165

This is the usual /s/ in most European languages. Basque language_sentence_166

It is written with an orthographic ⟨z⟩. Basque language_sentence_167

By contrast, the voiceless apicoalveolar fricative [s̺ is written ⟨s⟩; the tip of the tongue points toward the upper teeth and friction occurs at the tip (apex). Basque language_sentence_168

For example, zu "you" (singular, respectful) is distinguished from su "fire". Basque language_sentence_169

The affricate counterparts are written ⟨tz⟩ and ⟨ts⟩. Basque language_sentence_170

So, etzi "the day after tomorrow" is distinguished from etsi "to give up"; atzo "yesterday" is distinguished from atso "old woman". Basque language_sentence_171

In the westernmost parts of the Basque country, only the apical ⟨s⟩ and the alveolar affricate ⟨tz⟩ are used. Basque language_sentence_172

Basque also features postalveolar sibilants (/ʃ/, written ⟨x⟩, and /tʃ/, written ⟨tx⟩), sounding like English sh and ch. Basque language_sentence_173

There are two palatal stops, voiced and unvoiced, as well as a palatal nasal and a palatal lateral (the palatal stops are not present in all dialects). Basque language_sentence_174

These and the postalveolar sounds are typical of diminutives, which are used frequently in child language and motherese (mainly to show affection rather than size). Basque language_sentence_175

For example, tanta "drop" vs. ttantta /canca/ "droplet". Basque language_sentence_176

A few common words, such as txakur /tʃakur/ "dog", use palatal sounds even though in current usage they have lost the diminutive sense, the corresponding non-palatal forms now acquiring an augmentative or pejorative sense: zakur—"big dog". Basque language_sentence_177

Many Basque dialects exhibit a derived palatalisation effect, in which coronal onset consonants change into the palatal counterpart after the high front vowel /i/. Basque language_sentence_178

For example, the /n/ in egin "to act" becomes palatal in southern and western dialects when a suffix beginning with a vowel is added: /eɡina/ = [eɡiɲa] "the action", /eɡines̻/ = [eɡiɲes̻] "doing". Basque language_sentence_179

The letter ⟨j⟩ has a variety of realisations according to the regional dialect: [j, dʒ, x, ʃ, ɟ, ʝ], as pronounced from west to east in south Bizkaia and coastal Lapurdi, central Bizkaia, east Bizkaia and Gipuzkoa, south Navarre, inland Lapurdi and Low Navarre, and Zuberoa, respectively. Basque language_sentence_180

The letter ⟨h⟩ is silent in the Southern dialects, but pronounced (although vanishing) in the Northern ones. Basque language_sentence_181

Unified Basque spells it except when it is predictable, in a position following a consonant. Basque language_sentence_182

Unless they are recent loanwords (e.g. Ruanda "Rwanda", radar, robot ... ), words may not have initial ⟨r⟩. Basque language_sentence_183

In older loans, initial r- took a prosthetic vowel, resulting in err- (Erroma "Rome", Errusia "Russia"), more rarely irr- (for example irratia "radio", irrisa "rice") and arr- (for example arrazional "rational"). Basque language_sentence_184

Stress and pitch Basque language_section_13

Main article: Pitch-accent language § Basque Basque language_sentence_185

Basque features great dialectal variation in accentuation, from a weak pitch accent in the western dialects to a marked stress in central and eastern dialects, with varying patterns of stress placement. Basque language_sentence_186

Stress is in general not distinctive (and for historical comparisons not very useful); there are, however, a few instances where stress is phonemic, serving to distinguish between a few pairs of stress-marked words and between some grammatical forms (mainly plurals from other forms), e.g. basóà ("the forest", absolutive case) vs. básoà ("the glass", absolutive case; an adoption from Spanish vaso); basóàk ("the forest", ergative case) vs. básoàk ("the glass", ergative case) vs. básoak ("the forests" or "the glasses", absolutive case). Basque language_sentence_187

Given its great deal of variation among dialects, stress is not marked in the standard orthography and Euskaltzaindia (the Academy of the Basque Language) provides only general recommendations for a standard placement of stress, basically to place a high-pitched weak stress (weaker than that of Spanish, let alone that of English) on the second syllable of a syntagma, and a low-pitched even-weaker stress on its last syllable, except in plural forms where stress is moved to the first syllable. Basque language_sentence_188

This scheme provides Basque with a distinct musicality that differentiates its sound from the prosodical patterns of Spanish (which tends to stress the second-to-last syllable). Basque language_sentence_189

Some Euskaldun berriak ("new Basque-speakers", i.e. second-language Basque-speakers) with Spanish as their first language tend to carry the prosodical patterns of Spanish into their pronunciation of Basque, e.g. pronouncing nire ama ("my mum") as nire áma (– – ´ –), instead of as niré amà (– ´ – `). Basque language_sentence_190

Morphophonology Basque language_section_14

The combining forms of nominals in final /-u/ vary across the regions of the Basque Country. Basque language_sentence_191

The /u/ can stay unchanged, be lowered to an /a/, or it can be lost. Basque language_sentence_192

Loss is most common in the east, while lowering is most common in the west. Basque language_sentence_193

For instance, buru, "head", has the combining forms buru- and bur-, as in buruko, "cap", and burko, "pillow", whereas katu, "cat", has the combining form kata-, as in katakume, "kitten". Basque language_sentence_194

Michelena suggests that the lowering to /a/ is generalised from cases of Romance borrowings in Basque that retained Romance stem alternations, such as kantu, "song" with combining form kanta-, borrowed from Romance canto, canta-. Basque language_sentence_195

Vocabulary Basque language_section_15

Through contact with neighbouring peoples, Basque has adopted many words from Latin, Spanish, and Gascon, among other languages. Basque language_sentence_196

There are a considerable number of Latin loans (sometimes obscured by being subject to Basque phonology and grammar for centuries), for example: lore ("flower", from florem), errota ("mill", from rotam, "[mill] wheel"), gela ("room", from cellam), gauza ("thing", from causa). Basque language_sentence_197

Writing system Basque language_section_16

Main article: Basque alphabet Basque language_sentence_198

Basque is written using the Latin script including ñ and sometimes ç and ü. Basque language_sentence_199

Basque does not use Cc, Qq, Vv, Ww, Yy for words that have some tradition in this language; nevertheless, the Basque alphabet (established by Euskaltzaindia) does include them for loanwords: Basque language_sentence_200

Basque language_description_list_10

  • Aa Bb Cc (and, as a variant, Çç) Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Ññ Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy ZzBasque language_item_10_37

The phonetically meaningful digraphs dd, ll, rr, ts, tt, tx, tz are treated as pairs of letters. Basque language_sentence_201

All letters and digraphs represent unique phonemes. Basque language_sentence_202

The main exception is when l and n are preceded by i, that in most dialects palatalises their sound into /ʎ/ and /ɲ/, even if these are not written. Basque language_sentence_203

Hence, Ikurriña can also be written Ikurrina without changing the sound, whereas the proper name Ainhoa requires the mute h to break the palatalisation of the n. Basque language_sentence_204

H is mute in most regions, but it is pronounced in many places in the northeast, the main reason for its existence in the Basque alphabet. Basque language_sentence_205

Its acceptance was a matter of contention during the standardisation process because the speakers of the most extended dialects had to learn where to place these h's, silent for them. Basque language_sentence_206

In Sabino Arana's (1865–1903) alphabet, digraphs ⟨ll⟩ and ⟨rr⟩ were replaced with ĺ and ŕ, respectively. Basque language_sentence_207

A typically Basque style of lettering is sometimes used for inscriptions. Basque language_sentence_208

It derives from the work of stone and wood carvers and is characterised by thick serifs. Basque language_sentence_209

Number system used by millers Basque language_section_17

Basque millers traditionally employed a separate number system of unknown origin. Basque language_sentence_210

In this system the symbols are arranged either along a vertical line or horizontally. Basque language_sentence_211

On the vertical line the single digits and fractions are usually off to one side, usually at the top. Basque language_sentence_212

When used horizontally, the smallest units are usually on the right and the largest on the left. Basque language_sentence_213

The system is, as is the Basque system of counting in general, vigesimal (base 20). Basque language_sentence_214

Although the system is in theory capable of indicating numbers above 100, most recorded examples do not go above 100 in general. Basque language_sentence_215

Fractions are relatively common, especially ​⁄2. Basque language_sentence_216

The exact systems used vary from area to area but generally follow the same principle with 5 usually being a diagonal line or a curve off the vertical line (a V shape is used when writing a 5 horizontally). Basque language_sentence_217

Units of ten are usually a horizontal line through the vertical. Basque language_sentence_218

The twenties are based on a circle with intersecting lines. Basque language_sentence_219

This system is no longer in general use but is occasionally employed for decorative purposes. Basque language_sentence_220

Examples Basque language_section_18

Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights Basque language_section_19

Esklabu erremintaria Basque language_section_20

Language Video Gallery Basque language_section_21

Basque language_unordered_list_11

  • Basque language_item_11_38
  • Basque language_item_11_39
  • Basque language_item_11_40

See also Basque language_section_22

Basque language_unordered_list_12

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: language.