Batá drum

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Batá drum_table_infobox_0

Batá drumBatá drum_table_caption_0
Percussion instrumentBatá drum_header_cell_0_0_0
ClassificationBatá drum_header_cell_0_1_0 PercussionBatá drum_cell_0_1_1
Hornbostel–Sachs classificationBatá drum_header_cell_0_2_0 211.242.12

(Individual double-skin hourglass-shaped drums, both heads played)Batá drum_cell_0_2_1

MusiciansBatá drum_header_cell_0_3_0

A Batá drum is a double-headed drum shaped like an hourglass with one end larger than the other. Batá drum_sentence_0

The percussion instrument is used primarily for the use of religious or semi-religious purposes for and originates from the native culture land of the Yoruba and the Igbo, located in Nigeria, as well as, but not of origin, by worshippers of Santería in Cuba, Puerto Rico, and in the United States. Batá drum_sentence_1

The Batá drum's popular functions are entertainment and to convey messages. Batá drum_sentence_2

Its early function was as a drum of different gods, drum of royalty, drum of ancestors and drum of politicians. Batá drum_sentence_3

Batá drum impacted on all spheres of life in Yoruba land. Batá drum_sentence_4

History Batá drum_section_0

Several different types of drums have existed throughout the world. Batá drum_sentence_5

Occasionally, natives from cultures which the drums originate, as in the case of the Yorùbá, used the drums for religious ceremonies and, since their introduction in Cuba in the 1820s, have come to be an understood and important part of the perceived culture of the southwestern Nigerian people. Batá drum_sentence_6

The drum dates back roughly 500 years, and is believed to have been introduced by a Yoruba king named Shangó el rey del tambor. Batá drum_sentence_7

Despite the previous long history, awareness of the instrument didn't spread until the 1800s slave-trade in which close to 300,000 Africans were brought to Cuba. Batá drum_sentence_8

The religion and beliefs the Yorùbá brought with them eventually became the basis for what is known as Lukumí (or Santería in Cuba). Batá drum_sentence_9

This religion spawned the creation of the first "sacred" Batá in Cuba around 1830 by a Yorùbá named Añabi. Batá drum_sentence_10

The Batá slowly became inducted into the Cuban culture after a time, and began to take on more secular uses: they were first publicly performed in 1935 in a broadcast over Cuban radio for purposes of folklore music. Batá drum_sentence_11

Uses such as this have grown as knowledge of the instrument has spread; more and more musicians not currently practising Lukumí have used versions of the drums in recordings or performances. Batá drum_sentence_12

These "non-sacred" Batá drums are called aberínkula—profane Batá (see Sacred-profane dichotomy). Batá drum_sentence_13

Batá drums and rhythms have started to be used in other genres, most notably in Cuban timba, jazz and hip hop. Batá drum_sentence_14

In the 1970s, for instance, a mixture of Batá drums and Big Band called Son-Batá or Batá Rock became popular, a genre highly influenced by Irakere. Batá drum_sentence_15

Skilled secular musicians made appearances in the United States throughout the twentieth century; the likes of Julito Collazo and helped the spreading of such mainstream uses in the context of Latin music. Batá drum_sentence_16

The Lukumí and the Batá Batá drum_section_1

The Lukumí (or commonly called santería) religion and Batá drums are closely associated. Batá drum_sentence_17

The drums are played simultaneously (often with a rattle or "atchere") to create polyrhythmic compositions, or "toques" during santería ceremonies. Batá drum_sentence_18

A ceremony with batá drums is generally known as a "toque," "tambor de santo," or "bembé," but ceremonies can also be accompanied by shaken gourd-rattle "chékere" (in English "shekere") ensembles (usually with tumbadora, also called conga drums). Batá drum_sentence_19

There are estimated to be at least 140 different toques for the spirits (saints, or santos) and their different manifestations. Batá drum_sentence_20

There are two important "rhythm suites" that use the sacred batá drums. Batá drum_sentence_21

The first is called "Oru del Igbodu" (a liturgical set of rhythms), alternatively called "Oru Seco" (literally "Dry Oru", or a sequence of rhythms without vocals), which is usually played at the beginning of a "tambor de santo" that includes 23 standard rhythms for all the orishas. Batá drum_sentence_22

The selections of the second suite include within them the vocal part to be performed by a vocalist/chanter (akpwon) who engages those attending the ceremony in a call-and-response (African) style musical experience in which a ritual is acted out wherein an "initiate" (one who through the great spirit Añá is granted the ability to perfectly play the Batá drums) plays the new Batá set, and thereafter is introduced to the old Batá set. Batá drum_sentence_23

This is said to "transfer" (through the initiate) the spirit or Añá of the drums from the old set into the new set. Batá drum_sentence_24

Certain long-standing rules and rituals govern the construction, handling, playing, and care of the sacred batá: traditionally only non-castrated male deer or goat hide was used—female goats along with bulls, cows, and sheep were considered unsuitable; also only an initiate was considered worthy to touch or play the batá as only they have undergone the full ritual of "receiving Añá" granting them the forces deemed necessary to play the drums. Batá drum_sentence_25

Also, before a ceremony, the drummers would wash themselves in omiero, a cleansing water, pray, and for some time abstain from sex. Batá drum_sentence_26

Also traditionally in Cuba, in Havana the batá are rarely played after sundown, while in Matanzas toque ceremonies often begin at night. Batá drum_sentence_27

This apparent contradiction is not the only one reaching both adherents of Lukumí and others interested in African music, religion and culture. Batá drum_sentence_28

The Cuban style of playing the drums is similar, but in some musical contexts different rhythms may be used. Batá drum_sentence_29

In the last few decades, the popularity of the batá drums has increased worldwide so significantly that they have begun to be produced in greater numbers both by large western drum companies and individual artisans in Africa using a variety of "non-traditional" materials even including fiberglass drums, some instrument builders preferring cow skins or even synthetic membranes, while some traditionalists may express disdain for this trend and insist upon strict orthodoxy (as others and newcomers embrace the unique tonal ranges of the drums purely for their abstract musical possibilities without observance of traditional rules and rituals). Batá drum_sentence_30

These seemingly conflicting points of view remain paradoxical within the musical "landscape", as has been the global evolution of the Indian Tabla, both families of percussion instruments finding application in often surprisingly diverse musical settings far from their roots, although batá perhaps having a closer religious affinity with Lukumí than tabla with Hinduism. Batá drum_sentence_31

Those who practise Lukumí believe that certain sacred rhythms performed on the batá contain the levels of spiritual forces required to allow such impassioned ritual music to summon Orishas, who in turn inhabit or possess (more in the sense of angelic rather than demonic possession) one or more of the followers gathered for worship and/or participating in the ritual. Batá drum_sentence_32

Followers of Lukumí believe that Orishas are responsible for control of all natural and life-related forces, however the most-frequently stated primary purpose of the batá is simply for glorification of the deified Changó, also known as "The Great Spirit" or less ceremoniously as thunder and lightning. Batá drum_sentence_33

Hence such ceremonies and rituals are often performed for blessing important life transitions and events like weddings, relocations, passage to the afterlife, or other events and festivities. Batá drum_sentence_34

Parts of the Batá Batá drum_section_2

In Cuba, the batá consists of a set of three tapered cylinders of various sizes. Batá drum_sentence_35

Iyá, the largest, is referred to as "mother drum". Batá drum_sentence_36

Itótele, the middle one, and Okónkolo, the smallest, are called "father" and "baby", respectively. Batá drum_sentence_37

In Nigeria, there are five sizes of batá, which can be played either by hand, or using a leather play strap. Batá drum_sentence_38

In Matanzas, the older Batá lineages play with one hand and the sole of a shoe or other improvised strap. Batá drum_sentence_39

In Cuba, it is common to see the drums decorated with small bells and chimes, which are called Saworoide or "Saworo" in Yorubaland and Chaworoide or "Chaworo" in Cuba; such bells are attached to one or two "igbaju" leather straps for mounting on the Iya. Batá drum_sentence_40

The larger drum head is called the "enu", while the smaller is the "chacha". Batá drum_sentence_41

In Yoruba land, Bata drum has different parts which are: 1) Igi Ilu: This is the wooden frame work of the drum. Batá drum_sentence_42

2) Leather: This is the part of the drum that bring out the tone of the drum. Batá drum_sentence_43

There are two piles of leathers in a Bata drum. Batá drum_sentence_44

One is to bring out the tone of the drum, while the other is to cover the one that brings out the tone of the drum. Batá drum_sentence_45

3) Egi Ilu: This helps to hold the leather firm to the wooden frame. Batá drum_sentence_46

it is usually constructed with the use of small bunch of thick brooms also known as Igbale gbaro. Batá drum_sentence_47

The brooms are curved to take the proper shape and size of the top and bottom of the wooden frame of the drum. Batá drum_sentence_48

After the sizes have been obtained, strong threads are used to tighten the buch of thick brooms. Batá drum_sentence_49

After that, pieces of cloths are used to cover the tighten brooms to beautify it. Batá drum_sentence_50

4) Osan: This is made from thick leathers. Batá drum_sentence_51

This serves as the wire work of the drum. Batá drum_sentence_52

It helps in holding both the leather and Egi Ilu in place. Batá drum_sentence_53

5) Iro: This is the black substance that is found on the surface of the leather of Bata drum. Batá drum_sentence_54

It primary purpose is to vary the tones from different faces of the drum. Batá drum_sentence_55

It is usually obtained from a tree. Batá drum_sentence_56

all the faces of bata have this substance apart from the face that is called Ako- this face gives the highest tone in the drum. Batá drum_sentence_57

6) Bulala: This is also made of thick leather. Batá drum_sentence_58

it is used to play the drum. Batá drum_sentence_59

Nowadays, flexible plastics are being cut to look like leather bulala. Batá drum_sentence_60

This flexible plastics can also be used to play the drum. Batá drum_sentence_61

7) Cowry: This is always inserted into Bata drums. Batá drum_sentence_62

People call it AYAN Batá drum_sentence_63

See also Batá drum_section_3

Batá drum_unordered_list_0

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page:á drum.