Bauhaus

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For other uses, see Bauhaus (disambiguation). Bauhaus_sentence_0

Bauhaus_table_infobox_0

Bauhaus and its sites in Weimar, Dessau and BernauBauhaus_table_caption_0
UNESCO World Heritage SiteBauhaus_header_cell_0_0_0
LocationBauhaus_header_cell_0_1_0 GermanyBauhaus_cell_0_1_1
CriteriaBauhaus_header_cell_0_2_0 Cultural: ii, iv, viBauhaus_cell_0_2_1
ReferenceBauhaus_header_cell_0_3_0 Bauhaus_cell_0_3_1
InscriptionBauhaus_header_cell_0_4_0 1996 (20th session)Bauhaus_cell_0_4_1
AreaBauhaus_header_cell_0_5_0 8.1614 haBauhaus_cell_0_5_1
Buffer zoneBauhaus_header_cell_0_6_0 59.26 haBauhaus_cell_0_6_1

The Staatliches Bauhaus (German: [ˈʃtaːtlɪçəs ˈbaʊˌhaʊs (listen)), commonly known as the Bauhaus (German: "building house"), was a German art school operational from 1919 to 1933 that combined crafts and the fine arts. Bauhaus_sentence_1

The school became famous for its approach to design, which attempted to unify the principles of mass production with individual artistic vision and strove to combine aesthetics with everyday function. Bauhaus_sentence_2

The Bauhaus was founded by architect Walter Gropius in Weimar. Bauhaus_sentence_3

It was grounded in the idea of creating a Gesamtkunstwerk ("comprehensive artwork") in which all the arts would eventually be brought together. Bauhaus_sentence_4

The Bauhaus style later became one of the most influential currents in modern design, modernist architecture and art, design, and architectural education. Bauhaus_sentence_5

The Bauhaus movement had a profound influence upon subsequent developments in art, architecture, graphic design, interior design, industrial design, and typography. Bauhaus_sentence_6

Staff at the Bauhaus included prominent artists such as Paul Klee, Wassily Kandinsky, and László Moholy-Nagy at various points. Bauhaus_sentence_7

The school existed in three German cities—Weimar, from 1919 to 1925; Dessau, from 1925 to 1932; and Berlin, from 1932 to 1933—under three different architect-directors: Walter Gropius from 1919 to 1928; Hannes Meyer from 1928 to 1930; and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe from 1930 until 1933, when the school was closed by its own leadership under pressure from the Nazi regime, having been painted as a centre of communist intellectualism. Bauhaus_sentence_8

Although the school was closed, the staff continued to spread its idealistic precepts as they left Germany and emigrated all over the world. Bauhaus_sentence_9

The changes of venue and leadership resulted in a constant shifting of focus, technique, instructors, and politics. Bauhaus_sentence_10

For example, the pottery shop was discontinued when the school moved from Weimar to Dessau, even though it had been an important revenue source; when Mies van der Rohe took over the school in 1930, he transformed it into a private school and would not allow any supporters of Hannes Meyer to attend it. Bauhaus_sentence_11

Bauhaus and German modernism Bauhaus_section_0

After Germany's defeat in World War I and the establishment of the Weimar Republic, a renewed liberal spirit allowed an upsurge of radical experimentation in all the arts, which had been suppressed by the old regime. Bauhaus_sentence_12

Many Germans of left-wing views were influenced by the cultural experimentation that followed the Russian Revolution, such as constructivism. Bauhaus_sentence_13

Such influences can be overstated: Gropius did not share these radical views, and said that Bauhaus was entirely apolitical. Bauhaus_sentence_14

Just as important was the influence of the 19th-century English designer William Morris (1834–1896), who had argued that art should meet the needs of society and that there should be no distinction between form and function. Bauhaus_sentence_15

Thus, the Bauhaus style, also known as the International Style, was marked by the absence of ornamentation and by harmony between the function of an object or a building and its design. Bauhaus_sentence_16

However, the most important influence on Bauhaus was modernism, a cultural movement whose origins lay as early as the 1880s, and which had already made its presence felt in Germany before the World War, despite the prevailing conservatism. Bauhaus_sentence_17

The design innovations commonly associated with Gropius and the Bauhaus—the radically simplified forms, the rationality and functionality, and the idea that mass production was reconcilable with the individual artistic spirit—were already partly developed in Germany before the Bauhaus was founded. Bauhaus_sentence_18

The German national designers' organization Deutscher Werkbund was formed in 1907 by Hermann Muthesius to harness the new potentials of mass production, with a mind towards preserving Germany's economic competitiveness with England. Bauhaus_sentence_19

In its first seven years, the Werkbund came to be regarded as the authoritative body on questions of design in Germany, and was copied in other countries. Bauhaus_sentence_20

Many fundamental questions of craftsmanship versus mass production, the relationship of usefulness and beauty, the practical purpose of formal beauty in a commonplace object, and whether or not a single proper form could exist, were argued out among its 1,870 members (by 1914). Bauhaus_sentence_21

German architectural modernism was known as Neues Bauen. Bauhaus_sentence_22

Beginning in June 1907, Peter Behrens' pioneering industrial design work for the German electrical company AEG successfully integrated art and mass production on a large scale. Bauhaus_sentence_23

He designed consumer products, standardized parts, created clean-lined designs for the company's graphics, developed a consistent corporate identity, built the modernist landmark AEG Turbine Factory, and made full use of newly developed materials such as poured concrete and exposed steel. Bauhaus_sentence_24

Behrens was a founding member of the Werkbund, and both Walter Gropius and Adolf Meyer worked for him in this period. Bauhaus_sentence_25

The Bauhaus was founded at a time when the German zeitgeist had turned from emotional Expressionism to the matter-of-fact New Objectivity. Bauhaus_sentence_26

An entire group of working architects, including Erich Mendelsohn, Bruno Taut and Hans Poelzig, turned away from fanciful experimentation, and turned toward rational, functional, sometimes standardized building. Bauhaus_sentence_27

Beyond the Bauhaus, many other significant German-speaking architects in the 1920s responded to the same aesthetic issues and material possibilities as the school. Bauhaus_sentence_28

They also responded to the promise of a "minimal dwelling" written into the new Weimar Constitution. Bauhaus_sentence_29

Ernst May, Bruno Taut and Martin Wagner, among others, built large housing blocks in Frankfurt and Berlin. Bauhaus_sentence_30

The acceptance of modernist design into everyday life was the subject of publicity campaigns, well-attended public exhibitions like the Weissenhof Estate, films, and sometimes fierce public debate. Bauhaus_sentence_31

Bauhaus and Vkhutemas Bauhaus_section_1

Main article: Vkhutemas Bauhaus_sentence_32

The Vkhutemas, the Russian state art and technical school founded in 1920 in Moscow, has been compared to Bauhaus. Bauhaus_sentence_33

Founded a year after the Bauhaus school, Vkhutemas has close parallels to the German Bauhaus in its intent, organization and scope. Bauhaus_sentence_34

The two schools were the first to train artist-designers in a modern manner. Bauhaus_sentence_35

Both schools were state-sponsored initiatives to merge traditional craft with modern technology, with a basic course in aesthetic principles, courses in color theory, industrial design, and architecture. Bauhaus_sentence_36

Vkhutemas was a larger school than the Bauhaus, but it was less publicised outside the Soviet Union and consequently, is less familiar in the West. Bauhaus_sentence_37

With the internationalism of modern architecture and design, there were many exchanges between the Vkhutemas and the Bauhaus. Bauhaus_sentence_38

The second Bauhaus director Hannes Meyer attempted to organise an exchange between the two schools, while Hinnerk Scheper of the Bauhaus collaborated with various Vkhutein members on the use of colour in architecture. Bauhaus_sentence_39

In addition, El Lissitzky's book Russia: an Architecture for World Revolution published in German in 1930 featured several illustrations of Vkhutemas/Vkhutein projects there. Bauhaus_sentence_40

History of the Bauhaus Bauhaus_section_2

Weimar Bauhaus_section_3

The school was founded by Walter Gropius in Weimar on 1 April 1919, as a merger of the Grand-Ducal Saxon Academy of Fine Art and the Grand Ducal Saxon School of Arts and Crafts for a newly affiliated architecture department. Bauhaus_sentence_41

Its roots lay in the arts and crafts school founded by the Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach in 1906, and directed by Belgian Art Nouveau architect Henry van de Velde. Bauhaus_sentence_42

When van de Velde was forced to resign in 1915 because he was Belgian, he suggested Gropius, Hermann Obrist, and August Endell as possible successors. Bauhaus_sentence_43

In 1919, after delays caused by World War I and a lengthy debate over who should head the institution and the socio-economic meanings of a reconciliation of the fine arts and the applied arts (an issue which remained a defining one throughout the school's existence), Gropius was made the director of a new institution integrating the two called the Bauhaus. Bauhaus_sentence_44

In the pamphlet for an April 1919 exhibition entitled Exhibition of Unknown Architects, Gropius proclaimed his goal as being "to create a new guild of craftsmen, without the class distinctions which raise an arrogant barrier between craftsman and artist." Bauhaus_sentence_45

Gropius's neologism Bauhaus references both building and the Bauhütte, a premodern guild of stonemasons. Bauhaus_sentence_46

The early intention was for the Bauhaus to be a combined architecture school, crafts school, and academy of the arts. Bauhaus_sentence_47

Swiss painter Johannes Itten, German-American painter Lyonel Feininger, and German sculptor Gerhard Marcks, along with Gropius, comprised the faculty of the Bauhaus in 1919. Bauhaus_sentence_48

By the following year their ranks had grown to include German painter, sculptor, and designer Oskar Schlemmer who headed the theatre workshop, and Swiss painter Paul Klee, joined in 1922 by Russian painter Wassily Kandinsky. Bauhaus_sentence_49

A tumultuous year at the Bauhaus, 1922 also saw the move of Dutch painter Theo van Doesburg to Weimar to promote De Stijl ("The Style"), and a visit to the Bauhaus by Russian Constructivist artist and architect El Lissitzky. Bauhaus_sentence_50

From 1919 to 1922 the school was shaped by the pedagogical and aesthetic ideas of Johannes Itten, who taught the Vorkurs or "preliminary course" that was the introduction to the ideas of the Bauhaus. Bauhaus_sentence_51

Itten was heavily influenced in his teaching by the ideas of Franz Cižek and Friedrich Wilhelm August Fröbel. Bauhaus_sentence_52

He was also influenced in respect to aesthetics by the work of the Der Blaue Reiter group in Munich, as well as the work of Austrian Expressionist Oskar Kokoschka. Bauhaus_sentence_53

The influence of German Expressionism favoured by Itten was analogous in some ways to the fine arts side of the ongoing debate. Bauhaus_sentence_54

This influence culminated with the addition of Der Blaue Reiter founding member Wassily Kandinsky to the faculty and ended when Itten resigned in late 1923. Bauhaus_sentence_55

Itten was replaced by the Hungarian designer László Moholy-Nagy, who rewrote the Vorkurs with a leaning towards the New Objectivity favoured by Gropius, which was analogous in some ways to the applied arts side of the debate. Bauhaus_sentence_56

Although this shift was an important one, it did not represent a radical break from the past so much as a small step in a broader, more gradual socio-economic movement that had been going on at least since 1907, when van de Velde had argued for a craft basis for design while Hermann Muthesius had begun implementing industrial prototypes. Bauhaus_sentence_57

Gropius was not necessarily against Expressionism, and in fact, himself in the same 1919 pamphlet proclaiming this "new guild of craftsmen, without the class snobbery", described "painting and sculpture rising to heaven out of the hands of a million craftsmen, the crystal symbol of the new faith of the future." Bauhaus_sentence_58

By 1923, however, Gropius was no longer evoking images of soaring Romanesque cathedrals and the craft-driven aesthetic of the "Völkisch movement", instead declaring "we want an architecture adapted to our world of machines, radios and fast cars." Bauhaus_sentence_59

Gropius argued that a new period of history had begun with the end of the war. Bauhaus_sentence_60

He wanted to create a new architectural style to reflect this new era. Bauhaus_sentence_61

His style in architecture and consumer goods was to be functional, cheap and consistent with mass production. Bauhaus_sentence_62

To these ends, Gropius wanted to reunite art and craft to arrive at high-end functional products with artistic merit. Bauhaus_sentence_63

The Bauhaus issued a magazine called Bauhaus and a series of books called "Bauhausbücher". Bauhaus_sentence_64

Since the Weimar Republic lacked the number of raw materials available to the United States and Great Britain, it had to rely on the proficiency of a skilled labour force and an ability to export innovative and high-quality goods. Bauhaus_sentence_65

Therefore, designers were needed and so was a new type of art education. Bauhaus_sentence_66

The school's philosophy stated that the artist should be trained to work with the industry. Bauhaus_sentence_67

Weimar was in the German state of Thuringia, and the Bauhaus school received state support from the Social Democrat-controlled Thuringian state government. Bauhaus_sentence_68

The school in Weimar experienced political pressure from conservative circles in Thuringian politics, increasingly so after 1923 as political tension rose. Bauhaus_sentence_69

One condition placed on the Bauhaus in this new political environment was the exhibition of work undertaken at the school. Bauhaus_sentence_70

This condition was met in 1923 with the Bauhaus' exhibition of the experimental Haus am Horn. Bauhaus_sentence_71

The Ministry of Education placed the staff on six-month contracts and cut the school's funding in half. Bauhaus_sentence_72

The Bauhaus issued a press release on 26 December 1924, setting the closure of the school for the end of March 1925. Bauhaus_sentence_73

At this point it had already been looking for alternative sources of funding. Bauhaus_sentence_74

After the Bauhaus moved to Dessau, a school of industrial design with teachers and staff less antagonistic to the conservative political regime remained in Weimar. Bauhaus_sentence_75

This school was eventually known as the Technical University of Architecture and Civil Engineering, and in 1996 changed its name to Bauhaus-University Weimar. Bauhaus_sentence_76

Dessau Bauhaus_section_4

The Bauhaus moved to Dessau in 1925 and new facilities there were inaugurated in late 1926. Bauhaus_sentence_77

Gropius's design for the Dessau facilities was a return to the futuristic Gropius of 1914 that had more in common with the International style lines of the Fagus Factory than the stripped down Neo-classical of the Werkbund pavilion or the Völkisch Sommerfeld House. Bauhaus_sentence_78

During the Dessau years, there was a remarkable change in direction for the school. Bauhaus_sentence_79

According to Elaine Hoffman, Gropius had approached the Dutch architect Mart Stam to run the newly founded architecture program, and when Stam declined the position, Gropius turned to Stam's friend and colleague in the ABC group, Hannes Meyer. Bauhaus_sentence_80

Meyer became director when Gropius resigned in February 1928, and brought the Bauhaus its two most significant building commissions, both of which still exist: five apartment buildings in the city of Dessau, and the Bundesschule des Allgemeinen Deutschen Gewerkschaftsbundes (ADGB Trade Union School) in Bernau bei Berlin. Bauhaus_sentence_81

Meyer favoured measurements and calculations in his presentations to clients, along with the use of off-the-shelf architectural components to reduce costs. Bauhaus_sentence_82

This approach proved attractive to potential clients. Bauhaus_sentence_83

The school turned its first profit under his leadership in 1929. Bauhaus_sentence_84

But Meyer also generated a great deal of conflict. Bauhaus_sentence_85

As a radical functionalist, he had no patience with the aesthetic program and forced the resignations of Herbert Bayer, Marcel Breuer, and other long-time instructors. Bauhaus_sentence_86

Even though Meyer shifted the orientation of the school further to the left than it had been under Gropius, he didn't want the school to become a tool of left-wing party politics. Bauhaus_sentence_87

He prevented the formation of a student communist cell, and in the increasingly dangerous political atmosphere, this became a threat to the existence of the Dessau school. Bauhaus_sentence_88

Dessau mayor Fritz Hesse fired him in the summer of 1930. Bauhaus_sentence_89

The Dessau city council attempted to convince Gropius to return as head of the school, but Gropius instead suggested Ludwig Mies van der Rohe. Bauhaus_sentence_90

Mies was appointed in 1930 and immediately interviewed each student, dismissing those that he deemed uncommitted. Bauhaus_sentence_91

He halted the school's manufacture of goods so that the school could focus on teaching, and appointed no new faculty other than his close confidant Lilly Reich. Bauhaus_sentence_92

By 1931, the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nazi Party) was becoming more influential in German politics. Bauhaus_sentence_93

When it gained control of the Dessau city council, it moved to close the school. Bauhaus_sentence_94

Berlin Bauhaus_section_5

In late 1932, Mies rented a derelict factory in Berlin (Birkbusch Street 49) to use as the new Bauhaus with his own money. Bauhaus_sentence_95

The students and faculty rehabilitated the building, painting the interior white. Bauhaus_sentence_96

The school operated for ten months without further interference from the Nazi Party. Bauhaus_sentence_97

In 1933, the Gestapo closed down the Berlin school. Bauhaus_sentence_98

Mies protested the decision, eventually speaking to the head of the Gestapo, who agreed to allow the school to re-open. Bauhaus_sentence_99

However, shortly after receiving a letter permitting the opening of the Bauhaus, Mies and the other faculty agreed to voluntarily shut down the school. Bauhaus_sentence_100

Although neither the Nazi Party nor Adolf Hitler had a cohesive architectural policy before they came to power in 1933, Nazi writers like Wilhelm Frick and Alfred Rosenberg had already labelled the Bauhaus "un-German" and criticized its modernist styles, deliberately generating public controversy over issues like flat roofs. Bauhaus_sentence_101

Increasingly through the early 1930s, they characterized the Bauhaus as a front for communists and social liberals. Bauhaus_sentence_102

Indeed, a number of communist students loyal to Meyer moved to the Soviet Union when he was fired in 1930. Bauhaus_sentence_103

Even before the Nazis came to power, political pressure on Bauhaus had increased. Bauhaus_sentence_104

The Nazi movement, from nearly the start, denounced the Bauhaus for its "degenerate art", and the Nazi regime was determined to crack down on what it saw as the foreign, probably Jewish influences of "cosmopolitan modernism". Bauhaus_sentence_105

Despite Gropius's protestations that as a war veteran and a patriot his work had no subversive political intent, the Berlin Bauhaus was pressured to close in April 1933. Bauhaus_sentence_106

Emigrants did succeed, however, in spreading the concepts of the Bauhaus to other countries, including the "New Bauhaus" of Chicago: Mies decided to emigrate to the United States for the directorship of the School of Architecture at the Armour Institute (now Illinois Institute of Technology) in Chicago and to seek building commissions. Bauhaus_sentence_107

The simple engineering-oriented functionalism of stripped-down modernism, however, did lead to some Bauhaus influences living on in Nazi Germany. Bauhaus_sentence_108

When Hitler's chief engineer, Fritz Todt, began opening the new autobahn (highways) in 1935, many of the bridges and service stations were "bold examples of modernism"—among those submitting designs was Mies van der Rohe. Bauhaus_sentence_109

Architectural output Bauhaus_section_6

The paradox of the early Bauhaus was that, although its manifesto proclaimed that the aim of all creative activity was building, the school did not offer classes in architecture until 1927. Bauhaus_sentence_110

During the years under Gropius (1919–1927), he and his partner Adolf Meyer observed no real distinction between the output of his architectural office and the school. Bauhaus_sentence_111

So the built output of Bauhaus architecture in these years is the output of Gropius: the Sommerfeld house in Berlin, the Otte house in Berlin, the Auerbach house in Jena, and the competition design for the Chicago Tribune Tower, which brought the school much attention. Bauhaus_sentence_112

The definitive 1926 Bauhaus building in Dessau is also attributed to Gropius. Bauhaus_sentence_113

Apart from contributions to the 1923 Haus am Horn, student architectural work amounted to un-built projects, interior finishes, and craft work like cabinets, chairs and pottery. Bauhaus_sentence_114

In the next two years under Meyer, the architectural focus shifted away from aesthetics and towards functionality. Bauhaus_sentence_115

There were major commissions: one from the city of Dessau for five tightly designed "Laubenganghäuser" (apartment buildings with balcony access), which are still in use today, and another for the Bundesschule des Allgemeinen Deutschen Gewerkschaftsbundes (ADGB Trade Union School) in Bernau bei Berlin. Bauhaus_sentence_116

Meyer's approach was to research users' needs and scientifically develop the design solution. Bauhaus_sentence_117

Mies van der Rohe repudiated Meyer's politics, his supporters, and his architectural approach. Bauhaus_sentence_118

As opposed to Gropius's "study of essentials", and Meyer's research into user requirements, Mies advocated a "spatial implementation of intellectual decisions", which effectively meant an adoption of his own aesthetics. Bauhaus_sentence_119

Neither Mies van der Rohe nor his Bauhaus students saw any projects built during the 1930s. Bauhaus_sentence_120

The popular conception of the Bauhaus as the source of extensive Weimar-era working housing is not accurate. Bauhaus_sentence_121

Two projects, the apartment building project in Dessau and the Törten row housing also in Dessau, fall in that category, but developing worker housing was not the first priority of Gropius nor Mies. Bauhaus_sentence_122

It was the Bauhaus contemporaries Bruno Taut, Hans Poelzig and particularly Ernst May, as the city architects of Berlin, Dresden and Frankfurt respectively, who are rightfully credited with the thousands of socially progressive housing units built in Weimar Germany. Bauhaus_sentence_123

The housing Taut built in south-west Berlin during the 1920s, close to the U-Bahn stop Onkel Toms Hütte, is still occupied. Bauhaus_sentence_124

Impact Bauhaus_section_7

The Bauhaus had a major impact on art and architecture trends in Western Europe, Canada, the United States and Israel in the decades following its demise, as many of the artists involved fled, or were exiled by the Nazi regime. Bauhaus_sentence_125

Tel Aviv in 2004 was named to the list of world heritage sites by the UN due to its abundance of Bauhaus architecture; it had some 4,000 Bauhaus buildings erected from 1933 onwards. Bauhaus_sentence_126

In 1928, the Hungarian painter Alexander Bortnyik founded a school of design in Budapest called Miihely (also "Muhely" or "Mugely"), which means "the studio". Bauhaus_sentence_127

Located on the seventh floor of a house on Nagymezo Street, it was meant to be the Hungarian equivalent to the Bauhaus. Bauhaus_sentence_128

The literature sometimes refers to it—in an oversimplified manner—as "the Budapest Bauhaus". Bauhaus_sentence_129

Bortnyik was a great admirer of László Moholy-Nagy and had met Walter Gropius in Weimar between 1923 and 1925. Bauhaus_sentence_130

Moholy-Nagy himself taught at the Miihely. Bauhaus_sentence_131

Victor Vasarely, a pioneer of Op Art, studied at this school before establishing in Paris in 1930. Bauhaus_sentence_132

Further information: New Objectivity (architecture) Bauhaus_sentence_133

Walter Gropius, Marcel Breuer, and Moholy-Nagy re-assembled in Britain during the mid 1930s to live and work in the Isokon project before the war caught up with them. Bauhaus_sentence_134

Gropius and Breuer went to teach at the Harvard Graduate School of Design and worked together before their professional split. Bauhaus_sentence_135

Their collaboration produced the Aluminum City Terrace in New Kensington, Pennsylvania and the Alan I W Frank House in Pittsburgh, among other projects. Bauhaus_sentence_136

The Harvard School was enormously influential in America in the late 1920s and early 1930s, producing such students as Philip Johnson, I. Bauhaus_sentence_137 M. Pei, Lawrence Halprin and Paul Rudolph, among many others. Bauhaus_sentence_138

In the late 1930s, Mies van der Rohe re-settled in Chicago, enjoyed the sponsorship of the influential Philip Johnson, and became one of the pre-eminent architects in the world. Bauhaus_sentence_139

Moholy-Nagy also went to Chicago and founded the New Bauhaus school under the sponsorship of industrialist and philanthropist Walter Paepcke. Bauhaus_sentence_140

This school became the Institute of Design, part of the Illinois Institute of Technology. Bauhaus_sentence_141

Printmaker and painter Werner Drewes was also largely responsible for bringing the Bauhaus aesthetic to America and taught at both Columbia University and Washington University in St. Louis. Bauhaus_sentence_142

Herbert Bayer, sponsored by Paepcke, moved to Aspen, Colorado in support of Paepcke's Aspen projects at the Aspen Institute. Bauhaus_sentence_143

In 1953, Max Bill, together with Inge Aicher-Scholl and Otl Aicher, founded the Ulm School of Design (German: Hochschule für Gestaltung – HfG Ulm) in Ulm, Germany, a design school in the tradition of the Bauhaus. Bauhaus_sentence_144

The school is notable for its inclusion of semiotics as a field of study. Bauhaus_sentence_145

The school closed in 1968, but the "Ulm Model" concept continues to influence international design education. Bauhaus_sentence_146

The influence of the Bauhaus on design education was significant. Bauhaus_sentence_147

One of the main objectives of the Bauhaus was to unify art, craft, and technology, and this approach was incorporated into the curriculum of the Bauhaus. Bauhaus_sentence_148

The structure of the Bauhaus Vorkurs (preliminary course) reflected a pragmatic approach to integrating theory and application. Bauhaus_sentence_149

In their first year, students learnt the basic elements and principles of design and colour theory, and experimented with a range of materials and processes. Bauhaus_sentence_150

This approach to design education became a common feature of architectural and design school in many countries. Bauhaus_sentence_151

For example, the Shillito Design School in Sydney stands as a unique link between Australia and the Bauhaus. Bauhaus_sentence_152

The colour and design syllabus of the Shillito Design School was firmly underpinned by the theories and ideologies of the Bauhaus. Bauhaus_sentence_153

Its first year foundational course mimicked the Vorkurs and focused on the elements and principles of design plus colour theory and application. Bauhaus_sentence_154

The founder of the school, Phyllis Shillito, which opened in 1962 and closed in 1980, firmly believed that "A student who has mastered the basic principles of design, can design anything from a dress to a kitchen stove". Bauhaus_sentence_155

One of the most important contributions of the Bauhaus is in the field of modern furniture design. Bauhaus_sentence_156

The characteristic Cantilever chair and Wassily Chair designed by Marcel Breuer are two examples. Bauhaus_sentence_157

(Breuer eventually lost a legal battle in Germany with Dutch architect/designer Mart Stam over patent rights to the cantilever chair design. Bauhaus_sentence_158

Although Stam had worked on the design of the Bauhaus's 1923 exhibit in Weimar, and guest-lectured at the Bauhaus later in the 1920s, he was not formally associated with the school, and he and Breuer had worked independently on the cantilever concept, leading to the patent dispute.) Bauhaus_sentence_159

The most profitable product of the Bauhaus was its wallpaper. Bauhaus_sentence_160

The physical plant at Dessau survived World War II and was operated as a design school with some architectural facilities by the German Democratic Republic. Bauhaus_sentence_161

This included live stage productions in the Bauhaus theater under the name of Bauhausbühne ("Bauhaus Stage"). Bauhaus_sentence_162

After German reunification, a reorganized school continued in the same building, with no essential continuity with the Bauhaus under Gropius in the early 1920s. Bauhaus_sentence_163

In 1979 Bauhaus-Dessau College started to organize postgraduate programs with participants from all over the world. Bauhaus_sentence_164

This effort has been supported by the Bauhaus-Dessau Foundation which was founded in 1974 as a public institution. Bauhaus_sentence_165

Later evaluation of the Bauhaus design credo was critical of its flawed recognition of the human element, an acknowledgment of "the dated, unattractive aspects of the Bauhaus as a projection of utopia marked by mechanistic views of human nature…Home hygiene without home atmosphere." Bauhaus_sentence_166

Subsequent examples which have continued the philosophy of the Bauhaus include Black Mountain College, Hochschule für Gestaltung in Ulm and Domaine de Boisbuchet. Bauhaus_sentence_167

The White City Bauhaus_section_8

Further information: White City (Tel Aviv) Bauhaus_sentence_168

The White City (Hebrew: העיר הלבנה‎, Ha-Ir ha-Levana) refers to a collection of over 4,000 buildings built in the Bauhaus or International Style in Tel Aviv from the 1930s by German Jewish architects who emigrated to the British Mandate of Palestine after the rise of the Nazis. Bauhaus_sentence_169

Tel Aviv has the largest number of buildings in the Bauhaus/International Style of any city in the world. Bauhaus_sentence_170

Preservation, documentation, and exhibitions have brought attention to Tel Aviv's collection of 1930s architecture. Bauhaus_sentence_171

In 2003, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) proclaimed Tel Aviv's White City a World Cultural Heritage site, as "an outstanding example of new town planning and architecture in the early 20th century." Bauhaus_sentence_172

The citation recognized the unique adaptation of modern international architectural trends to the cultural, climatic, and local traditions of the city. Bauhaus_sentence_173

Bauhaus Center Tel Aviv organizes regular architectural tours of the city. Bauhaus_sentence_174

Centenary year, 2019 Bauhaus_section_9

As the centenary of the founding of Bauhaus, several events, festivals, and exhibitions are planned around the world in 2019. Bauhaus_sentence_175

The international opening festival at the Berlin Academy of the Arts from 16 to 24 January concentrated on "the presentation and production of pieces by contemporary artists, in which the aesthetic issues and experimental configurations of the Bauhaus artists continue to be inspiringly contagious". Bauhaus_sentence_176

Original Bauhaus, The Centenary Exhibition at the Berlinische Galerie (6 September 2019 to 27 January 2020) presents 1,000 original artefacts from the Bauhaus-Archiv's collection and recounts the history behind the objects. Bauhaus_sentence_177

Bauhaus staff and students Bauhaus_section_10

People who were educated, or who taught or worked in other capacities, at the Bauhaus. Bauhaus_sentence_178

Further information: :Category:Bauhaus teachers Bauhaus_sentence_179

Further information: :Category:Bauhaus alumni Bauhaus_sentence_180

Further information: Women of the Bauhaus Bauhaus_sentence_181


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bauhaus.