Bay of Fundy

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Bay of Fundy_table_infobox_0

Bay of FundyBay of Fundy_header_cell_0_0_0
LocationBay of Fundy_header_cell_0_1_0 New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, MaineBay of Fundy_cell_0_1_1
CoordinatesBay of Fundy_header_cell_0_2_0 Bay of Fundy_cell_0_2_1
TypeBay of Fundy_header_cell_0_3_0 EstuaryBay of Fundy_cell_0_3_1
EtymologyBay of Fundy_header_cell_0_4_0 Likely from the French Fendu, meaning "split".Bay of Fundy_cell_0_4_1
River sourcesBay of Fundy_header_cell_0_5_0 Big Salmon, Magaguadavic, Memramcook, Petitcodiac, Quiddy, Saint John, St. Croix, Upper Salmon, Annapolis, Avon, Cornwallis, Farrells, Salmon, Shubenacadie, KennetcookBay of Fundy_cell_0_5_1
Primary outflowsBay of Fundy_header_cell_0_6_0 Gulf of MaineBay of Fundy_cell_0_6_1

The Bay of Fundy (French: Baie de Fundy) is a bay between the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, with a small portion touching the US state of Maine. Bay of Fundy_sentence_0

It has an extremely high tidal range. Bay of Fundy_sentence_1

The name is likely a corruption of the French word Fendu, meaning "split". Bay of Fundy_sentence_2

Hydrology Bay of Fundy_section_0

Tides Bay of Fundy_section_1

The tidal range in the Bay of Fundy is about 16 metres (52 ft). Bay of Fundy_sentence_3

(The average tidal range worldwide is about one metre (3 ft 3 in).) Bay of Fundy_sentence_4

Some tides are higher than others, depending on the position of the moon, the sun, and atmospheric conditions. Bay of Fundy_sentence_5

Tides are semidiurnal, meaning they have two highs and two lows each day with about six hours and 13 minutes between each high and low tide. Bay of Fundy_sentence_6

Because of tidal resonance in the funnel-shaped bay, the tides that flow through the channel are very powerful. Bay of Fundy_sentence_7

In one 12-hour tidal cycle, about 100 billion tonnes (110,000,000,000 short tons) of water flows in and out of the bay, which is twice as much as the combined total flow of all the rivers of the world over the same period. Bay of Fundy_sentence_8

They are as powerful as 8,000 train engines or 25 million horses. Bay of Fundy_sentence_9

The Annapolis Royal Generating Station, a 20 MW tidal power station on the Annapolis River upstream of Annapolis Royal, is one of the few tidal generating stations in the world, and the only one in North America. Bay of Fundy_sentence_10

Most of the rivers have a tidal bore, a wave front of the incoming tide that "bores" its way up a river against its normal flow. Bay of Fundy_sentence_11

Notable ones include those on the Petticodiac, Maccan, St. Croix, and Kennetcook rivers. Bay of Fundy_sentence_12

Before the construction of a causeway in 1968 and subsequent siltation of the river, the Petitcodiac River had one of the world's largest tidal bores, up to 2 metres (6.6 ft) high. Bay of Fundy_sentence_13

Since the opening of the causeway gates in 2010, the bore has been coming back, and in 2013 surfers rode it a record-breaking 29 kilometres (18 mi). Bay of Fundy_sentence_14

Other phenomena include the Reversing Falls near the mouth of the Saint John River, a rip tide at Cape Enrage, and the Old Sow whirlpool at Passamaquoddy Bay. Bay of Fundy_sentence_15

Geology Bay of Fundy_section_2

The story of the Fundy Basin begins about 200 million years ago in the early Jurassic, when all land on earth was part of a supercontinent called Pangaea. Bay of Fundy_sentence_16

At that time what is now The Maritimes was situated near the equator and had a warm tropical climate and lush vegetation. Bay of Fundy_sentence_17

As continental drift reshaped the world, rift valleys formed, including the Cobequid-Chedabucto fault system. Bay of Fundy_sentence_18

During the continental breakup, magma erupted as basaltic lavas and left igneous rock formations such as the columnar jointing which can be seen on Brier and Grand Manan islands, among other places around the bay. Bay of Fundy_sentence_19

These flows often are the sites of rarer mineral deposits including agate, amethyst, and stilbite, the latter being the provincial mineral of Nova Scotia. Bay of Fundy_sentence_20

These rifts filled with sediment which became sedimentary rock. Bay of Fundy_sentence_21

Many fossils have been found along the Fundy shoreline. Bay of Fundy_sentence_22

The oldest dinosaur fossil in Canada was found at Burntcoat Head. Bay of Fundy_sentence_23

Very early reptiles have been discovered in Carboniferous tree trunks at Joggins. Bay of Fundy_sentence_24

Wasson Bluff has a rich trove of Jurassic fossils. Bay of Fundy_sentence_25

The bay is a member of the Global Geoparks Network, a UNESCO initiative to promote and conserve the planet's geological heritage. Bay of Fundy_sentence_26

Flora and fauna Bay of Fundy_section_3

Although some land areas are protected, there is no formal marine protection zone in the bay. Bay of Fundy_sentence_27

The Conservation Council of New Brunswick works to protect the ecosystem of the bay. Bay of Fundy_sentence_28

A result of shipping traffic has been the potential for increased collisions between ships and the critically endangered North Atlantic right whale. Bay of Fundy_sentence_29

In 2003, the Canadian Coast Guard adjusted shipping lanes crossing prime whale feeding areas at the entrance to the Bay of Fundy to lessen the risk of collision. Bay of Fundy_sentence_30

Many other marine mammals are found in the bay including fin whales, humpback whales, minke whales, Atlantic white-sided dolphin and the harbour porpoise. Bay of Fundy_sentence_31

The Bay of Fundy mudflats are a rare and unique intertidal habitat. Bay of Fundy_sentence_32

Major mudflats are found on around the Maringouin Peninsula which lies between Shepody Bay and the Cumberland Basin and at the northern end of Chignecto Bay. Bay of Fundy_sentence_33

On the Nova Scotia side mudflats are found on the southern side of the Minas Basin and in Cobequid Bay. Bay of Fundy_sentence_34

In the Minas Basin, the size of the mudflats from low water to high water marks is as much as 4 km (2.5 mi). Bay of Fundy_sentence_35

Due to tidal turbulence, the water in these area contains very high amounts of fine sediment, source from tidal erosion of Carboniferous and Triassic sedimentary rock. Bay of Fundy_sentence_36

Primary producers include hollow green weed, phytoplankton, algae, and sea lettuce. Bay of Fundy_sentence_37

Protected areas include: Bay of Fundy_sentence_38

Bay of Fundy_unordered_list_0

  • Boot Island National Wildlife Area in the Minas Basin near the mouth of the Gaspereau River.Bay of Fundy_item_0_0
  • Chignecto National Wildlife Area: near Amherst, contains a wide variety of habitats due to its geology.Bay of Fundy_item_0_1
  • Grindstone Island Conservation Easement: managed by the Nature Trust of New Brunswick through a conservation easement on an island at the entrance of Shepody Bay.Bay of Fundy_item_0_2
  • Isle Haute, managed by the Canadian Wildlife Service.Bay of Fundy_item_0_3
  • John Lusby Marsh National Wildlife Area: a large wetland system near Amherst.Bay of Fundy_item_0_4
  • Raven Head Wilderness Area, protects 44 km (27 mi) of undeveloped coast along the bay. It is southwest of Joggins and also a site for fossils. It is also a wildlife habitat for endangered species.Bay of Fundy_item_0_5
  • Shepody National Wildlife Area: a habitat for birds and other wildlife, recognized as an important wetland under the Ramsar Convention, a site of importance by the Western Hemisphere Shorebird Reserve Network, and a bird area by BirdLife International. The dominant bird species is the semipalmated sandpiper.Bay of Fundy_item_0_6
  • South Wolf Island Nature Preserve: in the lower bay, about 12 km (7.5 mi) offshore from Blacks Harbour. It was donated to the Nature Trust of New Brunswick by Clover Leaf Seafoods in 2011. It is ecologically important for birds, some not common on the mainland, as well as some very rare plants.Bay of Fundy_item_0_7
  • Tintamarre National Wildlife AreaBay of Fundy_item_0_8

Human geography and history Bay of Fundy_section_4

History Bay of Fundy_section_5

Main articles: History of Nova Scotia and History of New Brunswick Bay of Fundy_sentence_39

The Mi'kmaq fished in the Bay of Fundy and lived in communities around the bay for centuries before the first Europeans arrived. Bay of Fundy_sentence_40

According to Mi'kmaq legend, the tide was created when Glooscap wanted to take a bath. Bay of Fundy_sentence_41

The first European to visit the bay may have been Portuguese explorer João Álvares Fagundes in about 1520, although the bay does not appear on Portuguese maps until 1558. Bay of Fundy_sentence_42

The first European settlement was French, founded at Saint Croix Island in Maine, and then Port Royal, founded by Pierre Dugua and Samuel de Champlain in 1605. Bay of Fundy_sentence_43

Champlain named it Labaye Francoise (The French Bay). Bay of Fundy_sentence_44

Champlain describes finding an old rotted cross in the bay which may have been left by the Portuguese. Bay of Fundy_sentence_45

The village was the first permanent European settlement north of the Spanish St. Bay of Fundy_sentence_46 Augustine, Florida, and predated by two years the first permanent British settlement in Jamestown, Virginia. Bay of Fundy_sentence_47

About 75 years later, Acadians spread out along the bay, founding Grand-Pré, Beaubassin, Cobequid, and Pisiguit. Bay of Fundy_sentence_48

There was much military action and many attacks on the settlements around the bay, first as the French and British fought for control of the area, leading to the Expulsion of the Acadians, and later by Americans during the American Revolution and the War of 1812. Bay of Fundy_sentence_49

In the 19th century, the bay was the site of much shipping, and shipbuilders flourished, including James Moran of St. Bay of Fundy_sentence_50 Martins, New Brunswick, Joseph Salter, of Moncton, and William D. Lawrence of Maitland, Nova Scotia. Bay of Fundy_sentence_51

Fundy ports produced the fastest ship in the world, Marco Polo; the largest wooden ship ever built in Canada, William D. Lawrence; and the first female sea captain in the western world, Molly Kool. Bay of Fundy_sentence_52

The mystery ship Mary Celeste was also built there. Bay of Fundy_sentence_53

The highest water level ever recorded, 21.6 metres (71 feet), occurred in October 1869. Bay of Fundy_sentence_54

It caused extensive destruction to ports and communities, much of which was attributed to a two-metre storm surge created by the Saxby Gale, a tropical cyclone, which coincided with a perigean spring tide. Bay of Fundy_sentence_55

Waves breached dykes protecting low-lying farmland in the Minas Basin and the Tantramar Marshes, sending ocean waters surging far inland. Bay of Fundy_sentence_56

Settlements Bay of Fundy_section_6

The largest population centre on the bay is Saint John, New Brunswick, a major port and Canada's oldest city. Bay of Fundy_sentence_57

Other settlements include, in New Brunswick, St. Bay of Fundy_sentence_58 Andrews, Blacks Harbour, St. Bay of Fundy_sentence_59 Martins and Sackville, and in Nova Scotia, Amherst, Parrsboro, Truro, Windsor, Wolfville, Annapolis Royal, and Digby. Bay of Fundy_sentence_60

Ports and shipping Bay of Fundy_section_7

The port of Saint John gives access to the pulp and paper industry and the Irving oil refinery. Bay of Fundy_sentence_61

Hantsport, Nova Scotia, also has a pulp and paper mill and ships gypsum to the United States. Bay of Fundy_sentence_62

The bay is also traversed by ferries: Bay of Fundy_sentence_63

Bay of Fundy_unordered_list_1

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: of Fundy.