Bell pattern

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A bell pattern is a rhythmic pattern of striking a hand-held bell or other instrument of the idiophone family, to make it emit a sound at desired intervals. Bell pattern_sentence_0

It is often a key pattern (also known as a guide pattern, phrasing referent, timeline, or asymmetrical timeline), in most cases it is a metal bell, such as an agogô, gankoqui, or cowbell, or a hollowed piece of wood, or wooden claves. Bell pattern_sentence_1

In band music, bell patterns are also played on the metal shell of the timbales, and drum kit cymbals. Bell pattern_sentence_2

Sub-Saharan African music Bell pattern_section_0

Gerhard Kubik notes that key patterns are not universally found in sub-Saharan Africa: "Their geographical distribution mainly covers those parts of Africa where I.A.4 (Kwa languages) and the 'western stream' of the I.A.5 (Benue–Congo languages), or 'Bantu' languages are spoken, with offshoots into the Lower Zambezi valley and the Nyasa/Ruvuma area in southeast Africa" [within the larger Niger–Congo-B group]. Bell pattern_sentence_3

Use of the patterns has since spread throughout the greater Niger–Congo language family. Bell pattern_sentence_4

The use of iron bells (gongs) in sub-Saharan African music is linked to the early iron-making technology spread by the great Bantu migrations. Bell pattern_sentence_5

The spread of the African bell patterns is probably similarly linked. Bell pattern_sentence_6

Kubik observes that "at the broadest level," the various key patterns "are all interrelated." Bell pattern_sentence_7

Key patterns exist in their own right, as well as in relation to the three inner reference levels of elementary pulsation, main reference beat, and primary cycle. Bell pattern_sentence_8

Kubik further states that key patterns represent the structural core of a musical piece, something like a condensed and extremely concentrated expression of the motional possibilities open to the participants (musicians and dancers). Bell pattern_sentence_9

Key patterns are generated through cross-rhythm. Bell pattern_sentence_10

They typically consist of 12 or 16 pulses, and have a bipartite structure, which evenly divides the pattern into two rhythmically opposed cells of 6 or 8 pulses each. Bell pattern_sentence_11

The key pattern defines the musical period; the first cell is antecedent, and the second is consequent. Bell pattern_sentence_12

The asymmetrical array of attack-points contradicts the metrical symmetry of the two cells. Bell pattern_sentence_13

Standard pattern Bell pattern_section_1

The most commonly used key pattern in sub-Saharan Africa is the seven-stroke figure known in ethnomusicology as the standard pattern, or bembé. Bell pattern_sentence_14

The standard pattern is expressed in both a triple-pulse ( 8 or 8) and a duple-pulse ( 4 or 2) structure. Bell pattern_sentence_15

Many North American percussionists refer to the triple-pulse form as the 8 bell. Bell pattern_sentence_16

The standard pattern has strokes on: 1, 1a, 2& 2a, 3&, 4, 4a. Bell pattern_sentence_17

In 8: Bell pattern_sentence_18

In 4: Bell pattern_sentence_19

The axatse (Ghanaian beaded gourd instrument) part which typically accompanies the 12-pulse standard pattern in Ewe music is verbalized as: "pa ti pa pa ti pa ti pa ti pa pa". Bell pattern_sentence_20

The "pa"s sound the standard pattern by striking the gourd against the knee. Bell pattern_sentence_21

The "ti"s sound pulses in between the bell strokes, by raising the gourd in an upward motion and striking it with the free hand. Bell pattern_sentence_22

As is common with many African rhythms, the axatse part begins (first "pa") on the second stroke of the bell (1a), and the last "pa" coincides with 1. Bell pattern_sentence_23

By ending at the beginning of the cycle, the axatse part contributes to the cyclic nature of the overall rhythm. Bell pattern_sentence_24

128 bell patterns Bell pattern_section_2

There are many different triple-pulse bell patterns found in sub-Saharan Africa. Bell pattern_sentence_25

These are but a small sample. Bell pattern_sentence_26

Bell patterns 1 and 2 are considered by A. Bell pattern_sentence_27 M. Jones to be the two simplified forms of the standard pattern. Bell pattern_sentence_28

Pattern 2 was the first African bell pattern to be transcribed. Bell pattern_sentence_29

Pattern 2 contains exactly the same pattern of attack-points as Pattern 1, but begins on a different stroke, has a different relationship to the main beats, and therefore, is a related, but different key pattern. Bell pattern_sentence_30

Pattern 3 is another variant of the standard pattern, one which contains exactly the same pattern of attack-points as the standard pattern, but in a different relationship to the main beats. Bell pattern_sentence_31

The geographical border of Pattern 3 seems to be the Niger River. Bell pattern_sentence_32

Kubik states that east of the Niger, Pattern 3 is used "among the Igbo, and the large group of Benue-Congo speakers from eastern Nigeria through western Cameroon, down to southern Democratic Republic of the Congo, eastern Angola and northern Zambia." Bell pattern_sentence_33

The pattern is also used in Cuba and Haiti. Bell pattern_sentence_34

Pattern 4 is a bell pattern used by the Hausa people of Nigeria. Bell pattern_sentence_35

It is also used in the Cuban-Congolese rhythm palo. Bell pattern_sentence_36

The figure is sometimes referred to as a horizontal hemiola. Bell pattern_sentence_37

Three-beat cycle bell patterns Bell pattern_sentence_38

There is a category of 8 bell patterns based on "slow" cycles of three cross-beats across four or eight main beats. Bell pattern_sentence_39

Three-over-eight (3:8) is one of the most metrically contradictive, and extraordinarily dynamic cross-rhythms found in African music. Bell pattern_sentence_40

Within the context of a single four-beat cycle (single measure or musical period), the cross-rhythmic ratio is 1.5:4. Bell pattern_sentence_41

The three cross-beats, spanning 24 pulses, are represented as whole-notes below for visual emphasis. Bell pattern_sentence_42

The following 24-pulse bell pattern is used in the Ewe rhythm kadodo. Bell pattern_sentence_43

The three single strokes are muted. Bell pattern_sentence_44

The kadodo bell pattern is an embellishment of three "slow" cross-beats spanning two measures, or three-over-eight (3:8). Bell pattern_sentence_45

44 bell patterns Bell pattern_section_3

Pattern 1 ( 4 standard pattern) is played on the head of a small Yoruba bata drum in Benin. Bell pattern_sentence_46

Pattern 2 is used by the Yoruba and Igbo people of Nigeria. Bell pattern_sentence_47

Pattern 3 is the bell part in fufume (Ghana). Bell pattern_sentence_48

Pattern 4 is used by the Ga people (Ghana) for the rhythm gahu. Bell pattern_sentence_49

Patterns 3 and 5 are used in the Ghanaian rhythm kpanlogo. Bell pattern_sentence_50

Patterns 2 and 3 are known in Cuba as rumba clave and son clave respectively. Bell pattern_sentence_51

Single-celled bell patterns Bell pattern_section_4

Some bell patterns are single-celled and therefore, not key patterns. Bell pattern_sentence_52

A single-celled pattern cycles over two main beats, while a two-celled key pattern cycles over four main beats. Bell pattern_sentence_53

The most basic single-celled pattern in duple-pulse structure consists of three strokes, known in Cuban music as tresillo. Bell pattern_sentence_54

Metric structure Bell pattern_section_5

Divisive rhythm versus additive rhythm Bell pattern_section_6

Sub-Saharan African rhythm is divisive rhythm. Bell pattern_sentence_55

However, perhaps because of their seemingly asymmetric structure, bell patterns are sometimes perceived in an additive rhythmic form. Bell pattern_sentence_56

For example, Justin London describes the five-stroke version of the standard pattern as "2-2-3-2-3", while Godfried Toussaint describes the seven-stroke form as "2-2-1-2-2-2-1." Bell pattern_sentence_57

The following example of the five-stroke standard pattern is represented within an additive structure: 2+2+3+2+3. Bell pattern_sentence_58

The bell pattern, and every aspect of the overall rhythm, is considered divisive within both cultural understanding, and by most contemporary music theoreticians. Bell pattern_sentence_59

Novotney states: "The African rhythmic structure which generates the standard pattern is a divisive structure and not an additive one . Bell pattern_sentence_60

. Bell pattern_sentence_61

. Bell pattern_sentence_62

the standard pattern represents a series of attack points, . Bell pattern_sentence_63

. Bell pattern_sentence_64

. Bell pattern_sentence_65

not a series of durational values." Bell pattern_sentence_66

Kubik concurs: "Although on the level of structural analysis it cannot be denied that different 'distances' of strokes, combining two or three elementary pulses, are 'added up' within the cycle, performers do not think of time-line patterns as 'additive rhythms,' . Bell pattern_sentence_67

. Bell pattern_sentence_68

. Bell pattern_sentence_69

'Additive rhythms' are the analytic construction of the musicologist." Bell pattern_sentence_70

Agawu states: "Additive rhythm . Bell pattern_sentence_71

. Bell pattern_sentence_72

. Bell pattern_sentence_73

is a highly problematic concept for African music . Bell pattern_sentence_74

. Bell pattern_sentence_75

. Bell pattern_sentence_76

it is not in sync with indigenous conceptions of musical structure. Bell pattern_sentence_77

It arises as a kind of default grouping mechanism for those transcribers who either disregard the choreography or fail to accord it foundational status." Bell pattern_sentence_78

Tresillo is often interpreted as an additive rhythm because of the irregular grouping of its strokes: 3+3+2. Bell pattern_sentence_79

However, tresillo is generated through cross-rhythm: 8 pulses ÷ 3 = 2 cross-beats (consisting of three pulses each), with a remainder of a partial cross-beat (spanning two pulses). Bell pattern_sentence_80

In other words, 8 ÷ 3 = 2, r2. Bell pattern_sentence_81

Tresillo is a cross-rhythmic fragment. Bell pattern_sentence_82

It contains the first three cross-beats of the four-over-three cross-rhythm. Bell pattern_sentence_83

In divisive form, the strokes of tresillo contradict the beats. Bell pattern_sentence_84

In additive form, the strokes of tresillo are the beats. Bell pattern_sentence_85

Counter-meter versus polymeter Bell pattern_section_7

A.M. Bell pattern_sentence_86 Jones correctly identified the importance of this key pattern, but he mistook its accents as indicators of meter rather than the counter-metric (cross-rhythmic) phenomena they actually are. Bell pattern_sentence_87

Similarly, while Anthony King identified this five-stroke figure as the ‘standard pattern’ in its simplest and most basic form, he did not correctly identify its metric structure. Bell pattern_sentence_88

King represented the pattern in a polymetric 8 +  8 time signature. Bell pattern_sentence_89

Because this triple-pulse pattern is generated from cross-rhythm, it is possible to count or feel it in several different ways, and divide by several different beat schemes. Bell pattern_sentence_90

In the diagram below the five-stroke bell pattern is shown on top and a beat cycle is shown below it. Bell pattern_sentence_91

Any or all of these structures may be the emphasis at a given point in a piece of music using the bell pattern. Bell pattern_sentence_92

The example on the left ( 8) represents the correct count and ground of the bell pattern. Bell pattern_sentence_93

The four dotted quarter-notes across the two bottom measures are the main beats. Bell pattern_sentence_94

All key patterns are built upon four main beats. Bell pattern_sentence_95

The bottom measures on the other two examples ( 2 and 4) show cross-beats. Bell pattern_sentence_96

Observing the dancer's steps almost always reveals the main beats of the music. Bell pattern_sentence_97

Because the main beats are usually emphasized in the steps and not the music, it is often difficult for an "outsider" to feel the proper metric structure without seeing the dance component. Bell pattern_sentence_98

Kubik states: "In order to understand the motional structure of any music in Africa, one has to look at the dancers as well and see how they relate to the instrumental background" (2010: 78). Bell pattern_sentence_99

Afro-Cuban music Bell pattern_section_8

Standard pattern Bell pattern_section_9

The method of constructing iron bells in Cuba is identical to how it is done in Africa. Bell pattern_sentence_100

Not surprising, many African bell patterns are played in Cuba as well. Bell pattern_sentence_101

The standard pattern is the most widely used bell pattern in Cuba. Bell pattern_sentence_102

Some of the Afro-Cuban rhythms that use the standard pattern are: Congolese (Bantu): palo, triallo; Lucumí (Yoruba): iyesá ( 8 form), bembé, agbe; Arará (Fon): sabalú, egbado; "Haitiano" (Fon, Yoruba): vodú-radá, yanvalú, nagó; the rumba form columbia. Bell pattern_sentence_103

In the Yoruba-based, Afro-Cuban rhythms agbe (toque güiro) and bembé, standard pattern variations are used spontaneously. Bell pattern_sentence_104

The following 24-pulse bell pattern is used in the arará rhythm afrekete. Bell pattern_sentence_105

The first measure simply sounds the four main beats. Bell pattern_sentence_106

Notice that the first five strokes of the second measure are identical to the first five strokes of the standard pattern. Bell pattern_sentence_107

Three-beat cycle bell patterns Bell pattern_section_10

There are several 8 bell patterns based on "slow" cycles of three beats across four or eight main beats. Bell pattern_sentence_108

The three-beat cycle is represented as half-notes in the following example for visual emphasis. Bell pattern_sentence_109

This bell pattern, an embellishment of the three-beat cycle, is used in the Afro-Cuban rhythm abakuá. Bell pattern_sentence_110

It consists of three sets of three strokes each. Bell pattern_sentence_111

The bell pattern is also played in a displaced position, beginning on 4a, the pulse immediately preceding beat 1. Bell pattern_sentence_112

The following 24-pulse bell pattern is used in the arará rhythm afrekete. Bell pattern_sentence_113

The Arará are Cuban descendants of the Fon/Ewe ethnic group, so it's perhaps not surprising that it is the same pattern as the bell part used in the Ewe rhythm kadodo, shown earlier in this article. Bell pattern_sentence_114

However, as used in afrekete, the part begins in the second measure of 8. Bell pattern_sentence_115

Notice that the first five strokes are identical to the first five strokes of the standard pattern. Bell pattern_sentence_116

Like the kadodo bell, this pattern is an embellishment of the 3:8, or ​1 ⁄2:4 cross-rhythm. Bell pattern_sentence_117

44 Cuban bell patterns Bell pattern_section_11

A variety of Cuban 4 bell patterns have spread worldwide due to the global success of Cuban-based popular music. Bell pattern_sentence_118

Pattern 1 is son clave, usually played on wooden claves. Bell pattern_sentence_119

Pattern 2 is the baqueteo, the key pattern used in danzón and the first expression of clave in written music. Bell pattern_sentence_120

The baqueteo consists of the son clave strokes, plus four additional strokes. Bell pattern_sentence_121

Not technically a bell pattern, the baqueteo is played on the güiro and on the heads of the timbales. Bell pattern_sentence_122

The slashed noteheads are muted tones and the regular noteheads are open tones. Bell pattern_sentence_123

In the 1940s the cowbell was added to the timbales in the first danzón-mambos of the charanga orchestras. Bell pattern_sentence_124

Arcaño y sus Maravillas introduced this development. Bell pattern_sentence_125

Later, multiple cowbells, a cymbal and the occasional woodblock were added to the timbale setup. Bell pattern_sentence_126

Patterns 3 and 4 are guaguancó cáscara patterns adopted as mambo bell parts. Bell pattern_sentence_127

During the mambo era of the 1940s, bongo players began regularly using a large hand-held cowbell during the montuno section in son groups. Bell pattern_sentence_128

This bongo bell role was introduced in the son conjunto of Arsenio Rodríguez. Bell pattern_sentence_129

Pattern 5 is the basic bongo bell pattern. Bell pattern_sentence_130

The rhythmic basis for one of the most enduring Latin jazz tunes comes from a cáscara variant adopted as a mambo bell pattern. Bell pattern_sentence_131

"Manteca," co-written by Dizzy Gillespie and Chano Pozo in 1947, is the first jazz standards to be rhythmically based on clave. Bell pattern_sentence_132

The rhythm of the melody in the A section is identical to a common mambo bell pattern. Bell pattern_sentence_133

Timbale bell and bongo bell interplay Bell pattern_section_12

Patterns 3 and 4 are timbale bell parts that were introduced in mambo big bands. Bell pattern_sentence_134

During the early 1940s Machito and his Afro-Cubans was the first band to employ the triumvirate of congas, bongos and timbales, the standard battery of percussion used in contemporary salsa. Bell pattern_sentence_135

In the montuno section the bongo bell and the timbale bell parts are sounded simultaneously in a contrapuntal interplay. Bell pattern_sentence_136

In the 1970s José Luis Quintana "Changuito" developed the technique of simultaneously playing timbale and bongo bell parts when he held the timbales chair in the songo band Los Van Van. Bell pattern_sentence_137

The example below shows the combined bell patterns (written in a 2-3 clave sequence). Bell pattern_sentence_138

Afro-Brazilian music Bell pattern_section_13

Afro-Brazilian music uses a variety of bell patterns, many of which are different than the patterns used in Cuba. Bell pattern_sentence_139

Bell pattern 1 is used in maculelê and some Candomblé and Macumba rhythms. Bell pattern_sentence_140

Pattern 1 is known in Cuba as son clave. Bell pattern_sentence_141

Bell 2 is used in afoxê and can be thought of as pattern 1 embellished with four additional strokes. Bell pattern_sentence_142

Bell 3 is used in batucada. Bell pattern_sentence_143

Pattern 4 is the maracatu bell and can be thought of as pattern 1 embellished with four additional strokes. Bell pattern_sentence_144

See also Bell pattern_section_14

Bell pattern_unordered_list_0

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: pattern.