Berlin

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This article is about the capital of Germany. Berlin_sentence_0

For other uses, see Berlin (disambiguation). Berlin_sentence_1

Berlin_table_infobox_0

BerlinBerlin_header_cell_0_0_0
CountryBerlin_header_cell_0_1_0 GermanyBerlin_cell_0_1_1
StateBerlin_header_cell_0_2_0 BerlinBerlin_cell_0_2_1
GovernmentBerlin_header_cell_0_3_0
BodyBerlin_header_cell_0_4_0 Abgeordnetenhaus of BerlinBerlin_cell_0_4_1
Governing MayorBerlin_header_cell_0_5_0 Michael Müller (SPD)Berlin_cell_0_5_1
AreaBerlin_header_cell_0_6_0
City/StateBerlin_header_cell_0_7_0 891.7 km (344.3 sq mi)Berlin_cell_0_7_1
ElevationBerlin_header_cell_0_8_0 34 m (112 ft)Berlin_cell_0_8_1
Population (31 December 2019)Berlin_header_cell_0_9_0
City/StateBerlin_header_cell_0_10_0 3,669,495Berlin_cell_0_10_1
MetroBerlin_header_cell_0_11_0 6,144,600Berlin_cell_0_11_1
DemonymsBerlin_header_cell_0_12_0 Berliner(s) (English)

Berliner (m), Berlinerin (f) (German)Berlin_cell_0_12_1

Time zoneBerlin_header_cell_0_13_0 UTC+01:00 (CET)Berlin_cell_0_13_1
Summer (DST)Berlin_header_cell_0_14_0 UTC+02:00 (CEST)Berlin_cell_0_14_1
Area code(s)Berlin_header_cell_0_15_0 030Berlin_cell_0_15_1
GeocodeBerlin_header_cell_0_16_0 NUTS Region: DE3Berlin_cell_0_16_1
ISO 3166 codeBerlin_header_cell_0_17_0 DE-BEBerlin_cell_0_17_1
Vehicle registrationBerlin_header_cell_0_18_0 BBerlin_cell_0_18_1
GRP (nominal)Berlin_header_cell_0_19_0 €153 billion (2019)Berlin_cell_0_19_1
GRP per capitaBerlin_header_cell_0_20_0 €42,000 (2019)Berlin_cell_0_20_1
GeoTLDBerlin_header_cell_0_21_0 .berlinBerlin_cell_0_21_1
HDI (2018)Berlin_header_cell_0_22_0 0.950

very high · 4th of 16Berlin_cell_0_22_1

WebsiteBerlin_header_cell_0_23_0 Berlin_cell_0_23_1

Berlin (/bɜːrˈlɪn/; German: [bɛɐ̯li:n (listen)) is the capital and largest city of Germany by both area and population. Berlin_sentence_2

Its 3,769,495 inhabitants as of 31 December 2019 make it the most-populous city of the European Union, according to population within city limits. Berlin_sentence_3

The city is also one of Germany's 16 federal states. Berlin_sentence_4

It is surrounded by the state of Brandenburg, and contiguous with Potsdam, Brandenburg's capital. Berlin_sentence_5

The two cities are at the center of the Berlin-Brandenburg capital region, which is, with about six million inhabitants and an area of more than 30,000 km, Germany's third-largest metropolitan region after the Rhine-Ruhr and Rhine-Main regions. Berlin_sentence_6

Berlin straddles the banks of the River Spree, which flows into the River Havel (a tributary of the River Elbe) in the western borough of Spandau. Berlin_sentence_7

Among the city's main topographical features are the many lakes in the western and southeastern boroughs formed by the Spree, Havel, and Dahme rivers (the largest of which is Lake Müggelsee). Berlin_sentence_8

Due to its location in the European Plain, Berlin is influenced by a temperate seasonal climate. Berlin_sentence_9

About one-third of the city's area is composed of forests, parks, gardens, rivers, canals and lakes. Berlin_sentence_10

The city lies in the Central German dialect area, the Berlin dialect being a variant of the Lusatian-New Marchian dialects. Berlin_sentence_11

First documented in the 13th century and at the crossing of two important historic trade routes, Berlin became the capital of the Margraviate of Brandenburg (1417–1701), the Kingdom of Prussia (1701–1918), the German Empire (1871–1918), the Weimar Republic (1919–1933), and the Third Reich (1933–1945). Berlin_sentence_12

Berlin in the 1920s was the third-largest municipality in the world. Berlin_sentence_13

After World War II and its subsequent occupation by the victorious countries, the city was divided; West Berlin became a de facto West German exclave, surrounded by the Berlin Wall (1961–1989) and East German territory. Berlin_sentence_14

East Berlin was declared capital of East Germany, while Bonn became the West German capital. Berlin_sentence_15

Following German reunification in 1990, Berlin once again became the capital of all of Germany. Berlin_sentence_16

Berlin is a world city of culture, politics, media and science. Berlin_sentence_17

Its economy is based on high-tech firms and the service sector, encompassing a diverse range of creative industries, research facilities, media corporations and convention venues. Berlin_sentence_18

Berlin serves as a continental hub for air and rail traffic and has a highly complex public transportation network. Berlin_sentence_19

The metropolis is a popular tourist destination. Berlin_sentence_20

Significant industries also include IT, pharmaceuticals, biomedical engineering, clean tech, biotechnology, construction and electronics. Berlin_sentence_21

Berlin is home to world-renowned universities such as the Humboldt Universität zu Berlin (HU Berlin), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU Berlin), the Freie Universität Berlin (Free University of Berlin), the Universität der Künste (University of the Arts, UdK), ESMT Berlin and the Berlin School of Economics and Law. Berlin_sentence_22

Its Zoological Garden is the most visited zoo in Europe and one of the most popular worldwide. Berlin_sentence_23

With the world's oldest large-scale movie studio complex, Berlin is an increasingly popular location for international film productions. Berlin_sentence_24

The city is well known for its festivals, diverse architecture, nightlife, contemporary arts and a very high quality of living. Berlin_sentence_25

Since the 2000s Berlin has seen the emergence of a cosmopolitan entrepreneurial scene. Berlin_sentence_26

Berlin contains three World Heritage Sites: Museum Island; the Palaces and Parks of Potsdam and Berlin; and the Berlin Modernism Housing Estates. Berlin_sentence_27

Other landmarks include the Brandenburg Gate, the Reichstag building, Potsdamer Platz, the Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe, the Berlin Wall Memorial, the East Side Gallery, the Berlin Victory Column, Berlin Cathedral and the Berlin Television Tower, the tallest structure in Germany. Berlin_sentence_28

Berlin has numerous museums, galleries, libraries, orchestras and sporting events. Berlin_sentence_29

These include the Old National Gallery, the Bode Museum, the Pergamon Museum, the German Historical Museum, the Jewish Museum Berlin, the Natural History Museum, the Humboldt Forum, which is scheduled to open in late 2020, the Berlin State Library, the Berlin State Opera, the Berlin Philharmonic and the Berlin Marathon. Berlin_sentence_30

History Berlin_section_0

Main article: History of Berlin Berlin_sentence_31

Further information: Timeline of Berlin Berlin_sentence_32

Etymology Berlin_section_1

Berlin lies in northeastern Germany, east of the River Elbe, that once constituted, together with the River (Saxon or Thuringian) Saale (from their confluence at Barby onwards), the eastern border of the Frankish Realm. Berlin_sentence_33

While the Frankish Realm was primarily inhabited by Germanic tribes like the Franks and the Saxons, the regions east of the border rivers were inhabited by Slavic tribes. Berlin_sentence_34

This is why most of the cities and villages in northeastern Germany bear Slavic-derived names (Germania Slavica). Berlin_sentence_35

Typical Germanised place name suffixes of Slavic origin are -ow, -itz, -vitz, -witz, -itzsch and -in, prefixes are Windisch and Wendisch. Berlin_sentence_36

The name Berlin has its roots in the language of West Slavic inhabitants of the area of today's Berlin, and may be related to the Old Polabian stem berl-/birl- ("swamp"). Berlin_sentence_37

Since the Ber- at the beginning sounds like the German word Bär (bear), a bear appears in the coat of arms of the city. Berlin_sentence_38

It is therefore a canting arm. Berlin_sentence_39

Of Berlin's twelve boroughs, five bear a (partly) Slavic-derived name: Pankow (the most populous), Steglitz-Zehlendorf, Marzahn-Hellersdorf, Treptow-Köpenick and Spandau (named Spandow until 1878). Berlin_sentence_40

Of its ninety-six neighborhoods, twenty-two bear a (partly) Slavic-derived name: Altglienicke, Alt-Treptow, Britz, Buch, Buckow, Gatow, Karow, Kladow, Köpenick, Lankwitz, Lübars, Malchow, Marzahn, Pankow, Prenzlauer Berg, Rudow, Schmöckwitz, Spandau, Stadtrandsiedlung Malchow, Steglitz, Tegel and Zehlendorf. Berlin_sentence_41

The neighborhood of Moabit bears a French-derived name, and Französisch Buchholz is named after the Huguenots. Berlin_sentence_42

12th to 16th centuries Berlin_section_2

The earliest evidence of settlements in the area of today's Berlin are remnants of a house foundation dated to 1174, found in excavations in Berlin Mitte, and a wooden beam dated from approximately 1192. Berlin_sentence_43

The first written records of towns in the area of present-day Berlin date from the late 12th century. Berlin_sentence_44

Spandau is first mentioned in 1197 and Köpenick in 1209, although these areas did not join Berlin until 1920. Berlin_sentence_45

The central part of Berlin can be traced back to two towns. Berlin_sentence_46

Cölln on the Fischerinsel is first mentioned in a 1237 document, and Berlin, across the Spree in what is now called the Nikolaiviertel, is referenced in a document from 1244. Berlin_sentence_47

1237 is considered the founding date of the city. Berlin_sentence_48

The two towns over time formed close economic and social ties, and profited from the staple right on the two important trade routes Via Imperii and from Bruges to Novgorod. Berlin_sentence_49

In 1307, they formed an alliance with a common external policy, their internal administrations still being separated. Berlin_sentence_50

In 1415, Frederick I became the elector of the Margraviate of Brandenburg, which he ruled until 1440. Berlin_sentence_51

During the 15th century, his successors established Berlin-Cölln as capital of the margraviate, and subsequent members of the Hohenzollern family ruled in Berlin until 1918, first as electors of Brandenburg, then as kings of Prussia, and eventually as German emperors. Berlin_sentence_52

In 1443, Frederick II Irontooth started the construction of a new royal palace in the twin city Berlin-Cölln. Berlin_sentence_53

The protests of the town citizens against the building culminated in 1448, in the "Berlin Indignation" ("Berliner Unwille"). Berlin_sentence_54

This protest was not successful and the citizenry lost many of its political and economic privileges. Berlin_sentence_55

After the royal palace was finished in 1451, it gradually came into use. Berlin_sentence_56

From 1470, with the new elector Albrecht III Achilles, Berlin-Cölln became the new royal residence. Berlin_sentence_57

Officially, the Berlin-Cölln palace became permanent residence of the Brandenburg electors of the Hohenzollerns from 1486, when John Cicero came to power. Berlin_sentence_58

Berlin-Cölln, however, had to give up its status as a free Hanseatic city. Berlin_sentence_59

In 1539, the electors and the city officially became Lutheran. Berlin_sentence_60

17th to 19th centuries Berlin_section_3

The Thirty Years' War between 1618 and 1648 devastated Berlin. Berlin_sentence_61

One third of its houses were damaged or destroyed, and the city lost half of its population. Berlin_sentence_62

Frederick William, known as the "Great Elector", who had succeeded his father George William as ruler in 1640, initiated a policy of promoting immigration and religious tolerance. Berlin_sentence_63

With the Edict of Potsdam in 1685, Frederick William offered asylum to the French Huguenots. Berlin_sentence_64

By 1700, approximately 30 percent of Berlin's residents were French, because of the Huguenot immigration. Berlin_sentence_65

Many other immigrants came from Bohemia, Poland, and Salzburg. Berlin_sentence_66

Since 1618, the Margraviate of Brandenburg had been in personal union with the Duchy of Prussia. Berlin_sentence_67

In 1701, the dual state formed the Kingdom of Prussia, as Frederick III, Elector of Brandenburg, crowned himself as king Frederick I in Prussia. Berlin_sentence_68

Berlin became the capital of the new Kingdom, replacing Königsberg. Berlin_sentence_69

This was a successful attempt to centralise the capital in the very far-flung state, and it was the first time the city began to grow. Berlin_sentence_70

In 1709, Berlin merged with the four cities of Cölln, Friedrichswerder, Friedrichstadt and Dorotheenstadt under the name Berlin, "Haupt- und Residenzstadt Berlin". Berlin_sentence_71

In 1740, Frederick II, known as Frederick the Great (1740–1786), came to power. Berlin_sentence_72

Under the rule of Frederick II, Berlin became a center of the Enlightenment, but also, was briefly occupied during the Seven Years' War by the Russian army. Berlin_sentence_73

Following France's victory in the War of the Fourth Coalition, Napoleon Bonaparte marched into Berlin in 1806, but granted self-government to the city. Berlin_sentence_74

In 1815, the city became part of the new Province of Brandenburg. Berlin_sentence_75

The Industrial Revolution transformed Berlin during the 19th century; the city's economy and population expanded dramatically, and it became the main railway hub and economic centre of Germany. Berlin_sentence_76

Additional suburbs soon developed and increased the area and population of Berlin. Berlin_sentence_77

In 1861, neighbouring suburbs including Wedding, Moabit and several others were incorporated into Berlin. Berlin_sentence_78

In 1871, Berlin became capital of the newly founded German Empire. Berlin_sentence_79

In 1881, it became a city district separate from Brandenburg. Berlin_sentence_80

20th to 21st centuries Berlin_section_4

Further information: 1920s Berlin, West Berlin, and East Berlin Berlin_sentence_81

In the early 20th century, Berlin had become a fertile ground for the German Expressionist movement. Berlin_sentence_82

In fields such as architecture, painting and cinema new forms of artistic styles were invented. Berlin_sentence_83

At the end of the First World War in 1918, a republic was proclaimed by Philipp Scheidemann at the Reichstag building. Berlin_sentence_84

In 1920, the Greater Berlin Act incorporated dozens of suburban cities, villages and estates around Berlin into an expanded city. Berlin_sentence_85

The act increased the area of Berlin from 66 to 883 km (25 to 341 sq mi). Berlin_sentence_86

The population almost doubled and Berlin had a population of around four million. Berlin_sentence_87

During the Weimar era, Berlin underwent political unrest due to economic uncertainties, but also became a renowned centre of the Roaring Twenties. Berlin_sentence_88

The metropolis experienced its heyday as a major world capital and was known for its leadership roles in science, technology, arts, the humanities, city planning, film, higher education, government and industries. Berlin_sentence_89

Albert Einstein rose to public prominence during his years in Berlin, being awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1921. Berlin_sentence_90

In 1933, Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party came to power. Berlin_sentence_91

NSDAP rule diminished Berlin's Jewish community from 160,000 (one-third of all Jews in the country) to about 80,000 as a result of emigration between 1933 and 1939. Berlin_sentence_92

After Kristallnacht in 1938, thousands of the city's Jews were imprisoned in the nearby Sachsenhausen concentration camp. Berlin_sentence_93

Starting in early 1943, many were shipped to death camps, such as Auschwitz. Berlin_sentence_94

Berlin is the most heavily bombed city in history. Berlin_sentence_95

During World War II, large parts of Berlin were destroyed during 1943–45 Allied air raids and the 1945 Battle of Berlin. Berlin_sentence_96

The Allies dropped 67,607 tons of bombs on the city, destroying 6,427 acres of the built up area. Berlin_sentence_97

Around 125,000 civilians were killed. Berlin_sentence_98

After the end of the war in Europe in May 1945, Berlin received large numbers of refugees from the Eastern provinces. Berlin_sentence_99

The victorious powers divided the city into four sectors, analogous to the occupation zones into which Germany was divided. Berlin_sentence_100

The sectors of the Western Allies (the United States, the United Kingdom and France) formed West Berlin, while the Soviet sector formed East Berlin. Berlin_sentence_101

All four Allies shared administrative responsibilities for Berlin. Berlin_sentence_102

However, in 1948, when the Western Allies extended the currency reform in the Western zones of Germany to the three western sectors of Berlin, the Soviet Union imposed a blockade on the access routes to and from West Berlin, which lay entirely inside Soviet-controlled territory. Berlin_sentence_103

The Berlin airlift, conducted by the three western Allies, overcame this blockade by supplying food and other supplies to the city from June 1948 to May 1949. Berlin_sentence_104

In 1949, the Federal Republic of Germany was founded in West Germany and eventually included all of the American, British and French zones, excluding those three countries' zones in Berlin, while the Marxist-Leninist German Democratic Republic was proclaimed in East Germany. Berlin_sentence_105

West Berlin officially remained an occupied city, but it politically was aligned with the Federal Republic of Germany despite West Berlin's geographic isolation. Berlin_sentence_106

Airline service to West Berlin was granted only to American, British and French airlines. Berlin_sentence_107

The founding of the two German states increased Cold War tensions. Berlin_sentence_108

West Berlin was surrounded by East German territory, and East Germany proclaimed the Eastern part as its capital, a move the western powers did not recognize. Berlin_sentence_109

East Berlin included most of the city's historic centre. Berlin_sentence_110

The West German government established itself in Bonn. Berlin_sentence_111

In 1961, East Germany began to build the Berlin Wall around West Berlin, and events escalated to a tank standoff at Checkpoint Charlie. Berlin_sentence_112

West Berlin was now de facto a part of West Germany with a unique legal status, while East Berlin was de facto a part of East Germany. Berlin_sentence_113

John F. Kennedy gave his "Ich bin ein Berliner" speech in 1963, underlining the US support for the Western part of the city. Berlin_sentence_114

Berlin was completely divided. Berlin_sentence_115

Although it was possible for Westerners to pass to the other side through strictly controlled checkpoints, for most Easterners travel to West Berlin or West Germany was prohibited by the government of East Germany. Berlin_sentence_116

In 1971, a Four-Power agreement guaranteed access to and from West Berlin by car or train through East Germany. Berlin_sentence_117

In 1989, with the end of the Cold War and pressure from the East German population, the Berlin Wall fell on 9 November and was subsequently mostly demolished. Berlin_sentence_118

Today, the East Side Gallery preserves a large portion of the wall. Berlin_sentence_119

On 3 October 1990, the two parts of Germany were reunified as the Federal Republic of Germany and Berlin again became a reunified city. Berlin_sentence_120

Walter Momper, the mayor of West Berlin, became the first mayor of the reunified city in the interim. Berlin_sentence_121

City-wide elections in December 1990 resulted in the first "all Berlin" mayor being elected to take office in January 1991, with the separate offices of mayors in East and West Berlin expiring by that time, and Eberhard Diepgen (a former mayor of West Berlin) became the first elected mayor of a reunited Berlin. Berlin_sentence_122

On 18 June 1994, soldiers from the United States, France and Britain marched in a parade which was part of the ceremonies to mark the withdrawal of allied occupation troops allowing a reunified Berlin (the last Russian troops departed on 31 August, while the final departure of Western Allies forces was on 8 September 1994). Berlin_sentence_123

On 20 June 1991, the Bundestag (German Parliament) voted to move the seat of the German capital from Bonn to Berlin, which was completed in 1999. Berlin_sentence_124

Berlin's 2001 administrative reform merged several boroughs, reducing their number from 23 to 12. Berlin_sentence_125

In 2006, the FIFA World Cup Final was held in Berlin. Berlin_sentence_126

In a 2016 terrorist attack linked to ISIL, a truck was deliberately driven into a Christmas market next to the Kaiser Wilhelm Memorial Church, leaving 12 people dead and 56 others injured. Berlin_sentence_127

Berlin Brandenburg Airport (BER) opened in 2020, nine years later than planned, with Terminal 1 coming into service at the end of October, and flights to and from Tegel Airport ending in November. Berlin_sentence_128

Due to the fall in passenger numbers resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic, plans were announced to temporarily close BER's Terminal 5, the former Schönefeld Airport, beginning in March 2021 for up to one year. Berlin_sentence_129

The connecting link of U-Bahn line U5 from Alexanderplatz to Hauptbahnhof, along with the new stations Rotes Rathaus and Unter den Linden, opened on 4 December 2020, with the Museumsinsel U-Bahn station expected to open around March 2021, which would complete all new works on the U5. Berlin_sentence_130

A partial opening by the end of 2020 of the Humboldt Forum museum, housed in the reconstructed Berlin City Palace, which had been announced in June, was postponed until March 2021. Berlin_sentence_131

Tesla, Inc.'s factory Giga Berlin, which is actually located in Brandenburg, was expected to commence operation at a date still to be announced, in late 2021. Berlin_sentence_132

Geography Berlin_section_5

Main article: Geography of Berlin Berlin_sentence_133

Topography Berlin_section_6

Berlin is in northeastern Germany, in an area of low-lying marshy woodlands with a mainly flat topography, part of the vast Northern European Plain which stretches all the way from northern France to western Russia. Berlin_sentence_134

The Berliner Urstromtal (an ice age glacial valley), between the low Barnim Plateau to the north and the Teltow plateau to the south, was formed by meltwater flowing from ice sheets at the end of the last Weichselian glaciation. Berlin_sentence_135

The Spree follows this valley now. Berlin_sentence_136

In Spandau, a borough in the west of Berlin, the Spree empties into the river Havel, which flows from north to south through western Berlin. Berlin_sentence_137

The course of the Havel is more like a chain of lakes, the largest being the Tegeler See and the Großer Wannsee. Berlin_sentence_138

A series of lakes also feeds into the upper Spree, which flows through the Großer Müggelsee in eastern Berlin. Berlin_sentence_139

Substantial parts of present-day Berlin extend onto the low plateaus on both sides of the Spree Valley. Berlin_sentence_140

Large parts of the boroughs Reinickendorf and Pankow lie on the Barnim Plateau, while most of the boroughs of Charlottenburg-Wilmersdorf, Steglitz-Zehlendorf, Tempelhof-Schöneberg, and Neukölln lie on the Teltow Plateau. Berlin_sentence_141

The borough of Spandau lies partly within the Berlin Glacial Valley and partly on the Nauen Plain, which stretches to the west of Berlin. Berlin_sentence_142

Since 2015, the Arkenberge hills in Pankow at 122 metres (400 feet) elevation, have been the highest point in Berlin. Berlin_sentence_143

Through the disposal of construction debris they surpassed Teufelsberg (120.1 m or 394 ft), which itself was made up of rubble from the ruins of the Second World War. Berlin_sentence_144

The Müggelberge at 114.7 metres (376 feet) elevation is the highest natural point and the lowest is the Spektesee in Spandau, at 28.1 metres (92 feet) elevation. Berlin_sentence_145

Climate Berlin_section_7

Berlin has an oceanic climate (Köppen: Cfb); the eastern part of the city has a slight continental influence (Dfb), especially in the 0 °C isotherm, one of the changes being the annual rainfall according to the air masses and the greater abundance during a period of the year. Berlin_sentence_146

This type of climate features moderate summer temperatures but sometimes hot (for being semicontinental) and cold winters but not rigorous most of the time. Berlin_sentence_147

Due to its transitional climate zones, frosts are common in winter and there are larger temperature differences between seasons than typical for many oceanic climates. Berlin_sentence_148

Furthermore, Berlin is classified as a temperate continental climate (Dc) under the Trewartha climate scheme, as well as the suburbs of New York City, although the Köppen system puts them in different types. Berlin_sentence_149

Summers are warm and sometimes humid with average high temperatures of 22–25 °C (72–77 °F) and lows of 12–14 °C (54–57 °F). Berlin_sentence_150

Winters are cool with average high temperatures of 3 °C (37 °F) and lows of −2 to 0 °C (28 to 32 °F). Berlin_sentence_151

Spring and autumn are generally chilly to mild. Berlin_sentence_152

Berlin's built-up area creates a microclimate, with heat stored by the city's buildings and pavement. Berlin_sentence_153

Temperatures can be 4 °C (7 °F) higher in the city than in the surrounding areas. Berlin_sentence_154

Annual precipitation is 570 millimetres (22 in) with moderate rainfall throughout the year. Berlin_sentence_155

Snowfall mainly occurs from December through March. Berlin_sentence_156

The hottest month in Berlin was July 1834, with a mean temperature of 23.0 °C (73.4 °F) and the coldest was January 1709, with a mean temperature of −13.2 °C (8.2 °F). Berlin_sentence_157

The wettest month on record was July 1907, with 230 millimetres (9.1 in) of rainfall, whereas the driest were October 1866, November 1902, October 1908 and September 1928, all with 1 millimetre (0.039 in) of rainfall. Berlin_sentence_158

Cityscape Berlin_section_8

Berlin's history has left the city with a organization and a highly eclectic array of architecture and buildings. Berlin_sentence_159

The city's appearance today has been predominantly shaped by the key role it played in Germany's history during the 20th century. Berlin_sentence_160

All of the national governments based in Berlin – the Kingdom of Prussia, the 2nd German Empire of 1871, the Weimar Republic, Nazi Germany, East Germany, as well as the reunified Germany – initiated ambitious reconstruction programs, with each adding its own distinctive style to the city's architecture. Berlin_sentence_161

Berlin was devastated by air raids, fires and street battles during the Second World War, and many of the buildings that had survived in both East and West, were demolished during the post-war period. Berlin_sentence_162

Much of this demolition was initiated by municipal architecture programs to build new business or residential districts and the main arteries. Berlin_sentence_163

Much ornamentation on pre-war buildings was destroyed following modernist dogmas, and in both post-war systems, as well as in the reunified Berlin, many important heritage structures have been reconstructed, including the Forum Fridericianum along with, the State Opera (1955), Charlottenburg Palace (1957), the monumental buildings on Gendarmenmarkt (1980s), Kommandantur (2003) and also the project to reconstruct the baroque façades of the City Palace. Berlin_sentence_164

A number of new buildings have been inspired by their historical predecessors or the general classical style of Berlin, such as Hotel Adlon. Berlin_sentence_165

Clusters of towers rise at various locations: Potsdamer Platz, the City West, and Alexanderplatz, the latter two delineating the former centers of East and West Berlin, with the first representing a new Berlin of the 21st century, risen from the wastes of no-man's land of the Berlin Wall. Berlin_sentence_166

Berlin has three of the top 40 tallest buildings in Germany. Berlin_sentence_167

Architecture Berlin_section_9

Main article: Architecture in Berlin Berlin_sentence_168

Further information: List of sights in Berlin and List of tallest buildings in Berlin Berlin_sentence_169

The Fernsehturm (TV tower) at Alexanderplatz in Mitte is among the tallest structures in the European Union at 368 m (1,207 ft). Berlin_sentence_170

Built in 1969, it is visible throughout most of the central districts of Berlin. Berlin_sentence_171

The city can be viewed from its 204-metre-high (669 ft) observation floor. Berlin_sentence_172

Starting here the Karl-Marx-Allee heads east, an avenue lined by monumental residential buildings, designed in the Socialist Classicism style. Berlin_sentence_173

Adjacent to this area is the Rotes Rathaus (City Hall), with its distinctive red-brick architecture. Berlin_sentence_174

In front of it is the Neptunbrunnen, a fountain featuring a mythological group of Tritons, personifications of the four main Prussian rivers and Neptune on top of it. Berlin_sentence_175

The Brandenburg Gate is an iconic landmark of Berlin and Germany; it stands as a symbol of eventful European history and of unity and peace. Berlin_sentence_176

The Reichstag building is the traditional seat of the German Parliament. Berlin_sentence_177

It was remodelled by British architect Norman Foster in the 1990s and features a glass dome over the session area, which allows free public access to the parliamentary proceedings and magnificent views of the city. Berlin_sentence_178

The East Side Gallery is an open-air exhibition of art painted directly on the last existing portions of the Berlin Wall. Berlin_sentence_179

It is the largest remaining evidence of the city's historical division. Berlin_sentence_180

The Gendarmenmarkt is a neoclassical square in Berlin, the name of which derives from the headquarters of the famous Gens d'armes regiment located here in the 18th century. Berlin_sentence_181

It is bordered by two similarly designed cathedrals, the Französischer Dom with its observation platform and the Deutscher Dom. Berlin_sentence_182

The Konzerthaus (Concert Hall), home of the Berlin Symphony Orchestra, stands between the two cathedrals. Berlin_sentence_183

The Museum Island in the River Spree houses five museums built from 1830 to 1930 and is a UNESCO World Heritage site. Berlin_sentence_184

Restoration and construction of a main entrance to all museums, as well as reconstruction of the Stadtschloss continues. Berlin_sentence_185

Also on the island and next to the Lustgarten and palace is Berlin Cathedral, emperor William II's ambitious attempt to create a Protestant counterpart to St. Berlin_sentence_186 Peter's Basilica in Rome. Berlin_sentence_187

A large crypt houses the remains of some of the earlier Prussian royal family. Berlin_sentence_188

St. Berlin_sentence_189 Hedwig's Cathedral is Berlin's Roman Catholic cathedral. Berlin_sentence_190

Unter den Linden is a tree-lined east–west avenue from the Brandenburg Gate to the site of the former Berliner Stadtschloss, and was once Berlin's premier promenade. Berlin_sentence_191

Many Classical buildings line the street and part of Humboldt University is there. Berlin_sentence_192

Friedrichstraße was Berlin's legendary street during the Golden Twenties. Berlin_sentence_193

It combines 20th-century traditions with the modern architecture of today's Berlin. Berlin_sentence_194

Potsdamer Platz is an entire quarter built from scratch after the Wall came down. Berlin_sentence_195

To the west of Potsdamer Platz is the Kulturforum, which houses the Gemäldegalerie, and is flanked by the Neue Nationalgalerie and the Berliner Philharmonie. Berlin_sentence_196

The Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe, a Holocaust memorial, is to the north. Berlin_sentence_197

The area around Hackescher Markt is home to fashionable culture, with countless clothing outlets, clubs, bars, and galleries. Berlin_sentence_198

This includes the Hackesche Höfe, a conglomeration of buildings around several courtyards, reconstructed around 1996. Berlin_sentence_199

The nearby New Synagogue is the center of Jewish culture. Berlin_sentence_200

The Straße des 17. Berlin_sentence_201 Juni, connecting the Brandenburg Gate and Ernst-Reuter-Platz, serves as the central east–west axis. Berlin_sentence_202

Its name commemorates the uprisings in East Berlin of 17 June 1953. Berlin_sentence_203

Approximately halfway from the Brandenburg Gate is the Großer Stern, a circular traffic island on which the Siegessäule (Victory Column) is situated. Berlin_sentence_204

This monument, built to commemorate Prussia's victories, was relocated in 1938–39 from its previous position in front of the Reichstag. Berlin_sentence_205

The Kurfürstendamm is home to some of Berlin's luxurious stores with the Kaiser Wilhelm Memorial Church at its eastern end on Breitscheidplatz. Berlin_sentence_206

The church was destroyed in the Second World War and left in ruins. Berlin_sentence_207

Nearby on Tauentzienstraße is KaDeWe, claimed to be continental Europe's largest department store. Berlin_sentence_208

The Rathaus Schöneberg, where John F. Kennedy made his famous "Ich bin ein Berliner!" Berlin_sentence_209

speech, is in Tempelhof-Schöneberg. Berlin_sentence_210

West of the center, Bellevue Palace is the residence of the German President. Berlin_sentence_211

Charlottenburg Palace, which was burnt out in the Second World War, is the largest historical palace in Berlin. Berlin_sentence_212

The Funkturm Berlin is a 150-metre-tall (490 ft) lattice radio tower in the fairground area, built between 1924 and 1926. Berlin_sentence_213

It is the only observation tower which stands on insulators and has a restaurant 55 m (180 ft) and an observation deck 126 m (413 ft) above ground, which is reachable by a windowed elevator. Berlin_sentence_214

The Oberbaumbrücke over the Spree river is Berlin's most iconic bridge, connecting the now-combined boroughs of Friedrichshain and Kreuzberg. Berlin_sentence_215

It carries vehicles, pedestrians, and the U1 Berlin U-Bahn line. Berlin_sentence_216

The bridge was completed in a brick gothic style in 1896, replacing the former wooden bridge, with an upper deck for the U-Bahn. Berlin_sentence_217

The center portion was demolished in 1945 to stop the Red Army from crossing. Berlin_sentence_218

After the war, the repaired bridge served as a checkpoint and border crossing between the Soviet and American sectors, and later between East and West Berlin. Berlin_sentence_219

In the mid-1950s it was closed to vehicles, and after the construction of the Berlin Wall in 1961, pedestrian traffic was heavily restricted. Berlin_sentence_220

Following German reunification, the center portion was reconstructed with a steel frame, and U-Bahn service resumed in 1995. Berlin_sentence_221

Demographics Berlin_section_10

Main article: Demographics of Berlin Berlin_sentence_222

At the end of 2018, the city-state of Berlin had 3.75 million registered inhabitants in an area of 891.1 km (344.1 sq mi). Berlin_sentence_223

The city's population density was 4,206 inhabitants per km. Berlin_sentence_224

Berlin is the most populous city proper in the EU. Berlin_sentence_225

The urban area of Berlin had about 4.1 million people in 2014 in an area of 1,347 km (520 sq mi), making it the sixth-most-populous urban area in the European Union. Berlin_sentence_226

The urban agglomeration of the metropolis was home to about 4.5 million in an area of 5,370 km (2,070 sq mi). Berlin_sentence_227

As of 2019 the functional urban area was home to about 5.2 million people in an area of approximately 15,000 km (5,792 sq mi). Berlin_sentence_228

The entire Berlin-Brandenburg capital region has a population of more than 6 million in an area of 30,546 km (11,794 sq mi). Berlin_sentence_229

In 2014, the city state Berlin had 37,368 live births (+6.6%), a record number since 1991. Berlin_sentence_230

The number of deaths was 32,314. Berlin_sentence_231

Almost 2.0 million households were counted in the city. Berlin_sentence_232

54 percent of them were single-person households. Berlin_sentence_233

More than 337,000 families with children under the age of 18 lived in Berlin. Berlin_sentence_234

In 2014 the German capital registered a migration surplus of approximately 40,000 people. Berlin_sentence_235

Nationalities Berlin_section_11

Berlin_table_infobox_1

CountryBerlin_header_cell_1_0_0 PopulationBerlin_header_cell_1_0_1
Total registered residentsBerlin_cell_1_1_0 3,769,495Berlin_cell_1_1_1
GermanyBerlin_cell_1_2_0 2,992,150Berlin_cell_1_2_1
TurkeyBerlin_cell_1_3_0 98,940Berlin_cell_1_3_1
PolandBerlin_cell_1_4_0 56,573Berlin_cell_1_4_1
SyriaBerlin_cell_1_5_0 39,813Berlin_cell_1_5_1
ItalyBerlin_cell_1_6_0 31,573Berlin_cell_1_6_1
BulgariaBerlin_cell_1_7_0 30,824Berlin_cell_1_7_1
RussiaBerlin_cell_1_8_0 26,640Berlin_cell_1_8_1
RomaniaBerlin_cell_1_9_0 24,264Berlin_cell_1_9_1
United StatesBerlin_cell_1_10_0 22,694Berlin_cell_1_10_1
SerbiaBerlin_cell_1_11_0 20,109Berlin_cell_1_11_1
FranceBerlin_cell_1_12_0 20,023Berlin_cell_1_12_1
VietnamBerlin_cell_1_13_0 19,072Berlin_cell_1_13_1
United KingdomBerlin_cell_1_14_0 16,251Berlin_cell_1_14_1
SpainBerlin_cell_1_15_0 15,045Berlin_cell_1_15_1
GreeceBerlin_cell_1_16_0 14,625Berlin_cell_1_16_1
CroatiaBerlin_cell_1_17_0 13,930Berlin_cell_1_17_1
UkraineBerlin_cell_1_18_0 13,410Berlin_cell_1_18_1
AfghanistanBerlin_cell_1_19_0 13,301Berlin_cell_1_19_1
ChinaBerlin_cell_1_20_0 13,293Berlin_cell_1_20_1
Bosnia & HerzegovinaBerlin_cell_1_21_0 12,291Berlin_cell_1_21_1
AustriaBerlin_cell_1_22_0 11,886Berlin_cell_1_22_1
Other Middle East and AsiaBerlin_cell_1_23_0 88,241Berlin_cell_1_23_1
Other EuropeBerlin_cell_1_24_0 80,807Berlin_cell_1_24_1
AfricaBerlin_cell_1_25_0 36,414Berlin_cell_1_25_1
Other AmericasBerlin_cell_1_26_0 27,491Berlin_cell_1_26_1
Oceania and AntarcticaBerlin_cell_1_27_0 5,651Berlin_cell_1_27_1
Stateless or UnclearBerlin_cell_1_28_0 24,184Berlin_cell_1_28_1

National and international migration into the city has a long history. Berlin_sentence_236

In 1685, after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes in France, the city responded with the Edict of Potsdam, which guaranteed religious freedom and tax-free status to French Huguenot refugees for ten years. Berlin_sentence_237

The Greater Berlin Act in 1920 incorporated many suburbs and surrounding cities of Berlin. Berlin_sentence_238

It formed most of the territory that comprises modern Berlin and increased the population from 1.9 million to 4 million. Berlin_sentence_239

Active immigration and asylum politics in West Berlin triggered waves of immigration in the 1960s and 1970s. Berlin_sentence_240

Berlin is home to at least 180,000 Turkish and Turkish German residents, making it the largest Turkish community outside of Turkey. Berlin_sentence_241

In the 1990s the Aussiedlergesetze enabled immigration to Germany of some residents from the former Soviet Union. Berlin_sentence_242

Today ethnic Germans from countries of the former Soviet Union make up the largest portion of the Russian-speaking community. Berlin_sentence_243

The last decade experienced an influx from various Western countries and some African regions. Berlin_sentence_244

A portion of the African immigrants have settled in the Afrikanisches Viertel. Berlin_sentence_245

Young Germans, EU-Europeans and Israelis have also settled in the city. Berlin_sentence_246

In December 2019, there were 777,345 registered residents of foreign nationality and another 542,975 German citizens with a "migration background" (Migrationshintergrund, MH), meaning they or one of their parents immigrated to Germany after 1955. Berlin_sentence_247

Foreign residents of Berlin originate from about 190 different countries. Berlin_sentence_248

48 percent of the residents under the age of 15 have migration background. Berlin_sentence_249

Berlin in 2009 was estimated to have 100,000 to 250,000 non-registered inhabitants. Berlin_sentence_250

Boroughs of Berlin with a significant number of migrants or foreign born population are Mitte, Neukölln and Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg. Berlin_sentence_251

There are more than 20 non-indigenous communities with a population of at least 10,000 people, including Turkish, Polish, Russian, Lebanese, Palestinian, Serbian, Italian, Bosnian, Vietnamese, American, Romanian, Bulgarian, Croatian, Chinese, Austrian, Ukrainian, French, British, Spanish, Israeli, Thai, Iranian, Egyptian and Syrian communities. Berlin_sentence_252

Languages Berlin_section_12

Main articles: German language and Berlinerisch dialect Berlin_sentence_253

German is the official and predominant spoken language in Berlin. Berlin_sentence_254

It is a West Germanic language that derives most of its vocabulary from the Germanic branch of the Indo-European language family. Berlin_sentence_255

German is one of 24 languages of the European Union, and one of the three working languages of the European Commission. Berlin_sentence_256

Berlinerisch or Berlinisch is not a dialect linguistically, but has features of Lausitzisch-neumärkisch dialects. Berlin_sentence_257

It is spoken in Berlin and the surrounding metropolitan area. Berlin_sentence_258

It originates from a Mark Brandenburgish variant. Berlin_sentence_259

The dialect is now seen more as a sociolect, largely through increased immigration and trends among the educated population to speak standard German in everyday life. Berlin_sentence_260

The most-commonly-spoken foreign languages in Berlin are Turkish, Polish, English, Arabic, Italian, Bulgarian, Russian, Romanian, Kurdish, Serbo-Croatian, French, Spanish and Vietnamese. Berlin_sentence_261

Turkish, Arabic, Kurdish and Serbo-Croatian are heard more often in the western part, due to the large Middle Eastern and former-Yugoslavian communities. Berlin_sentence_262

Polish, English, Russian, and Vietnamese have more native speakers in East Berlin. Berlin_sentence_263

Religion Berlin_section_13

Main article: Religion in Berlin Berlin_sentence_264

According to the 2011 census, approximately 37 percent of the population reported being members of a legally-recognized church or religious organization. Berlin_sentence_265

The rest either did not belong to such an organization, or there was no information available about them. Berlin_sentence_266

The largest religious denomination recorded in 2010 was the Protestant regional church body—the Evangelical Church of Berlin-Brandenburg-Silesian Upper Lusatia (EKBO)—a United church. Berlin_sentence_267

EKBO is a member of the Evangelical Church in Germany (EKD) and Union Evangelischer Kirchen (UEK). Berlin_sentence_268

According to the EKBO, their membership accounted for 18.7 percent of the local population, while the Roman Catholic Church had 9.1 percent of residents registered as its members. Berlin_sentence_269

About 2.7% of the population identify with other Christian denominations (mostly Eastern Orthodox, but also various Protestants). Berlin_sentence_270

According to the Berlin residents register, in 2018 14.9 percent were members of the Evangelical Church, and 8.5 percent were members of the Catholic Church. Berlin_sentence_271

The government keeps a register of members of these churches for tax purposes, because it collects church tax on behalf of the churches. Berlin_sentence_272

It does not keep records of members of other religious organizations which may collect their own church tax, in this way. Berlin_sentence_273

In 2009, approximately 249,000 Muslims were reported by the Office of Statistics to be members of Mosques and Islamic religious organizations in Berlin, while in 2016, the newspaper Der Tagesspiegel estimated that about 350,000 Muslims observed Ramadan in Berlin. Berlin_sentence_274

In 2019, about 437,000 registered residents, 11.6% of the total, reported having a migration background from one of the Member states of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation. Berlin_sentence_275

Between 1992 and 2011 the Muslim population almost doubled. Berlin_sentence_276

About 0.9% of Berliners belong to other religions. Berlin_sentence_277

Of the estimated population of 30,000–45,000 Jewish residents, approximately 12,000 are registered members of religious organizations. Berlin_sentence_278

Berlin is the seat of the Roman Catholic archbishop of Berlin and EKBO's elected chairperson is titled the bishop of EKBO. Berlin_sentence_279

Furthermore, Berlin is the seat of many Orthodox cathedrals, such as the Cathedral of St. Boris the Baptist, one of the two seats of the Bulgarian Orthodox Diocese of Western and Central Europe, and the Resurrection of Christ Cathedral of the Diocese of Berlin (Patriarchate of Moscow). Berlin_sentence_280

The faithful of the different religions and denominations maintain many places of worship in Berlin. Berlin_sentence_281

The Independent Evangelical Lutheran Church has eight parishes of different sizes in Berlin. Berlin_sentence_282

There are 36 Baptist congregations (within Union of Evangelical Free Church Congregations in Germany), 29 New Apostolic Churches, 15 United Methodist churches, eight Free Evangelical Congregations, four Churches of Christ, Scientist (1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 11th), six congregations of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, an Old Catholic church, and an Anglican church in Berlin. Berlin_sentence_283

Berlin has more than 80 mosques, ten synagogues, and two Buddhist temples. Berlin_sentence_284

Government Berlin_section_14

Main articles: Politics of Berlin and Berlin Police Berlin_sentence_285

City state Berlin_section_15

Since reunification on 3 October 1990, Berlin has been one of the three city states in Germany among the present 16 states of Germany. Berlin_sentence_286

The House of Representatives (Abgeordnetenhaus) functions as the city and state parliament, which has 141 seats. Berlin_sentence_287

Berlin's executive body is the Senate of Berlin (Senat von Berlin). Berlin_sentence_288

The Senate consists of the Governing Mayor (Regierender Bürgermeister) and up to ten senators holding ministerial positions, two of them holding the title of "Mayor" (Bürgermeister) as deputy to the Governing Mayor. Berlin_sentence_289

The total annual state budget of Berlin in 2015 exceeded €24.5 ($30.0) billion including a budget surplus of €205 ($240) million. Berlin_sentence_290

The state owns extensive assets, including administrative and government buildings, real estate companies, as well as stakes in the Olympic Stadium, swimming pools, housing companies, and numerous public enterprises and subsidiary companies. Berlin_sentence_291

The Social Democratic Party (SPD) and The Left (Die Linke) took control of the city government after the 2001 state election and won another term in the 2006 state election. Berlin_sentence_292

Since the 2016 state election, there has been a coalition between the Social Democratic Party, the Greens and the Left Party. Berlin_sentence_293

The Governing Mayor is simultaneously Lord Mayor of the City of Berlin (Oberbürgermeister der Stadt) and Minister President of the Federal State of Berlin (Ministerpräsident des Bundeslandes). Berlin_sentence_294

The office of the Governing Mayor is in the Rotes Rathaus (Red City Hall). Berlin_sentence_295

Since 2014 this office has been held by Michael Müller of the Social Democrats. Berlin_sentence_296

Boroughs Berlin_section_16

Main article: Boroughs and neighborhoods of Berlin Berlin_sentence_297

Berlin is subdivided into 12 boroughs or districts (Bezirke). Berlin_sentence_298

Each borough has a number of subdistricts or neighborhoods (Ortsteile), which have roots in much older municipalities that predate the formation of Greater Berlin on 1 October 1920. Berlin_sentence_299

These subdistricts became urbanized and incorporated into the city later on. Berlin_sentence_300

Many residents strongly identify with their neighbourhoods, colloquially called Kiez. Berlin_sentence_301

At present, Berlin consists of 96 subdistricts, which are commonly made up of several smaller residential areas or quarters. Berlin_sentence_302

Each borough is governed by a borough council (Bezirksamt) consisting of five councilors (Bezirksstadträte) including the borough's mayor (Bezirksbürgermeister). Berlin_sentence_303

The council is elected by the borough assembly (Bezirksverordnetenversammlung). Berlin_sentence_304

However, the individual boroughs are not independent municipalities, but subordinate to the Senate of Berlin. Berlin_sentence_305

The borough's mayors make up the council of mayors (Rat der Bürgermeister), which is led by the city's Governing Mayor and advises the Senate. Berlin_sentence_306

The neighborhoods have no local government bodies. Berlin_sentence_307

Twin towns – sister cities Berlin_section_17

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Germany Berlin_sentence_308

Berlin maintains official partnerships with 17 cities. Berlin_sentence_309

Town twinning between Berlin and other cities began with its sister city Los Angeles in 1967. Berlin_sentence_310

East Berlin's partnerships were canceled at the time of German reunification but later partially reestablished. Berlin_sentence_311

West Berlin's partnerships had previously been restricted to the borough level. Berlin_sentence_312

During the Cold War era, the partnerships had reflected the different power blocs, with West Berlin partnering with capitals in the Western World, and East Berlin mostly partnering with cities from the Warsaw Pact and its allies. Berlin_sentence_313

There are several joint projects with many other cities, such as Beirut, Belgrade, São Paulo, Copenhagen, Helsinki, Johannesburg, Mumbai, Oslo, Shanghai, Seoul, Sofia, Sydney, New York City and Vienna. Berlin_sentence_314

Berlin participates in international city associations such as the Union of the Capitals of the European Union, Eurocities, Network of European Cities of Culture, Metropolis, Summit Conference of the World's Major Cities, and Conference of the World's Capital Cities. Berlin_sentence_315

Berlin's official sister cities are: Berlin_sentence_316

Apart from sister cities, there are also several city and district partnerships that Berlin districts have established. Berlin_sentence_317

For example, the district of Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg has a partnership with the Israeli city of Kiryat Yam. Berlin_sentence_318

Capital city Berlin_section_18

Berlin is the capital of the Federal Republic of Germany. Berlin_sentence_319

The President of Germany, whose functions are mainly ceremonial under the German constitution, has their official residence in Bellevue Palace. Berlin_sentence_320

Berlin is the seat of the German Chancellor (Prime Minister), housed in the Chancellery building, the Bundeskanzleramt. Berlin_sentence_321

Facing the Chancellery is the Bundestag, the German Parliament, housed in the renovated Reichstag building since the government's relocation to Berlin in 1998. Berlin_sentence_322

The Bundesrat ("federal council", performing the function of an upper house) is the representation of the federal states (Bundesländer) of Germany and has its seat at the former Prussian House of Lords. Berlin_sentence_323

The total annual federal budget managed by the German government exceeded €310 ($375) billion in 2013. Berlin_sentence_324

Berlin_unordered_list_0

  • Berlin_item_0_0
  • Berlin_item_0_1
  • Berlin_item_0_2
  • Berlin_item_0_3

The relocation of the federal government and Bundestag to Berlin was mostly completed in 1999, however some ministries as well as some minor departments stayed in the federal city Bonn, the former capital of West Germany. Berlin_sentence_325

Discussions about moving the remaining ministries and departments to Berlin continue. Berlin_sentence_326

The Federal Foreign Office and the ministries and departments of Defence, Justice and Consumer Protection, Finance, Interior, Economic Affairs and Energy, Labour and Social Affairs, Family Affairs, Senior Citizens, Women and Youth, Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety, Food and Agriculture, Economic Cooperation and Development, Health, Transport and Digital Infrastructure and Education and Research are based in the capital. Berlin_sentence_327

Berlin hosts in total 158 foreign embassies as well as the headquarters of many think tanks, trade unions, non-profit organizations, lobbying groups, and professional associations. Berlin_sentence_328

Due to the influence and international partnerships of the Federal Republic of Germany, the capital city has become a significant centre of German and European affairs. Berlin_sentence_329

Frequent official visits, and diplomatic consultations among governmental representatives and national leaders are common in contemporary Berlin. Berlin_sentence_330

Economy Berlin_section_19

Main article: Economy of Berlin Berlin_sentence_331

In 2018, the GDP of Berlin totaled €147 billion, an increase of 3.1% over the previous year. Berlin_sentence_332

Berlin's economy is dominated by the service sector, with around 84% of all companies doing business in services. Berlin_sentence_333

In 2015, the total labour force in Berlin was 1.85 million. Berlin_sentence_334

The unemployment rate reached a 24-year low in November 2015 and stood at 10.0% . Berlin_sentence_335

From 2012 to 2015 Berlin, as a German state, had the highest annual employment growth rate. Berlin_sentence_336

Around 130,000 jobs were added in this period. Berlin_sentence_337

Important economic sectors in Berlin include life sciences, transportation, information and communication technologies, media and music, advertising and design, biotechnology, environmental services, construction, e-commerce, retail, hotel business, and medical engineering. Berlin_sentence_338

Research and development have economic significance for the city. Berlin_sentence_339

Several major corporations like Volkswagen, Pfizer, and SAP operate innovation laboratories in the city. Berlin_sentence_340

The Science and Business Park in Adlershof is the largest technology park in Germany measured by revenue. Berlin_sentence_341

Within the Eurozone, Berlin has become a center for business relocation and international investments. Berlin_sentence_342

Berlin_table_general_2

YearBerlin_header_cell_2_0_0 2000Berlin_header_cell_2_0_1 2001Berlin_header_cell_2_0_2 2002Berlin_header_cell_2_0_3 2003Berlin_header_cell_2_0_4 2004Berlin_header_cell_2_0_5 2005Berlin_header_cell_2_0_6 2006Berlin_header_cell_2_0_7 2007Berlin_header_cell_2_0_8 2008Berlin_header_cell_2_0_9 2009Berlin_header_cell_2_0_10 2010Berlin_header_cell_2_0_11 2011Berlin_header_cell_2_0_12 2012Berlin_header_cell_2_0_13 2013Berlin_header_cell_2_0_14 2014Berlin_header_cell_2_0_15 2015Berlin_header_cell_2_0_16 2016Berlin_header_cell_2_0_17 2017Berlin_header_cell_2_0_18 2018Berlin_header_cell_2_0_19 2019Berlin_header_cell_2_0_20
Unemployment rate in %Berlin_cell_2_1_0 15.8Berlin_cell_2_1_1 16.1Berlin_cell_2_1_2 16.9Berlin_cell_2_1_3 18.1Berlin_cell_2_1_4 17.7Berlin_cell_2_1_5 19.0Berlin_cell_2_1_6 17.5Berlin_cell_2_1_7 15.5Berlin_cell_2_1_8 13.8Berlin_cell_2_1_9 14.0Berlin_cell_2_1_10 13.6Berlin_cell_2_1_11 13.3Berlin_cell_2_1_12 12.3Berlin_cell_2_1_13 11.7Berlin_cell_2_1_14 11.1Berlin_cell_2_1_15 10.7Berlin_cell_2_1_16 9.8Berlin_cell_2_1_17 9.0Berlin_cell_2_1_18 8.1Berlin_cell_2_1_19 7.8Berlin_cell_2_1_20

Companies Berlin_section_20

Many German and international companies have business or service centers in the city. Berlin_sentence_343

For several years Berlin has been recognized as a major center of business founders. Berlin_sentence_344

In 2015, Berlin generated the most venture capital for young startup companies in Europe. Berlin_sentence_345

Among the 10 largest employers in Berlin are the City-State of Berlin, Deutsche Bahn, the hospital providers Charité and Vivantes, the Federal Government of Germany, the local public transport provider BVG, Siemens and Deutsche Telekom. Berlin_sentence_346

Siemens, a Global 500 and DAX-listed company is partly headquartered in Berlin. Berlin_sentence_347

Other DAX-listed companies headquartered in Berlin are the property company Deutsche Wohnen and the online food delivery service Delivery Hero. Berlin_sentence_348

The national railway operator Deutsche Bahn, Europe's largest digital publisher Axel Springer as well as the MDAX-listed firms Zalando and HelloFresh and also have their main headquarters in the city. Berlin_sentence_349

Among the largest international corporations who have their German or European headquarters in Berlin are Bombardier Transportation, Gazprom Germania, Coca-Cola, Pfizer, Sony and Total. Berlin_sentence_350

As of 2018, the three largest banks headquartered in the capital were Deutsche Kreditbank, Landesbank Berlin and Berlin Hyp. Berlin_sentence_351

Daimler manufactures cars, and BMW builds motorcycles in Berlin. Berlin_sentence_352

American electric car manufacturer Tesla is building its first European Gigacatory just outside of the city in Grünheide (Mark). Berlin_sentence_353

The Pharmaceuticals division of Bayer and Berlin Chemie are major pharmaceutical companies in the city. Berlin_sentence_354

Tourism and conventions Berlin_section_21

Main article: List of sights in Berlin Berlin_sentence_355

Berlin had 788 hotels with 134,399 beds in 2014. Berlin_sentence_356

The city recorded 28.7 million overnight hotel stays and 11.9 million hotel guests in 2014. Berlin_sentence_357

Tourism figures have more than doubled within the last ten years and Berlin has become the third-most-visited city destination in Europe. Berlin_sentence_358

Some of the most visited places in Berlin include: Potsdamer Platz, Brandenburger Tor, the Berlin wall, Alexanderplatz, Museumsinsel, Fernsehturm, the East-Side Gallery, Schloss-Charlottenburg, Zoologischer Garten, Siegessäule, Gedenkstätte Berliner Mauer, Mauerpark, Botanical Garden, Französischer Dom, Deutscher Dom and Holocaust-Mahnmal. Berlin_sentence_359

The largest visitor groups are from Germany, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Italy, Spain and the United States. Berlin_sentence_360

According to figures from the International Congress and Convention Association in 2015 Berlin became the leading organizer of conferences in the world hosting 195 international meetings. Berlin_sentence_361

Some of these congress events take place on venues such as CityCube Berlin or the Berlin Congress Center (bcc). Berlin_sentence_362

The Messe Berlin (also known as Berlin ExpoCenter City) is the main convention organizing company in the city. Berlin_sentence_363

Its main exhibition area covers more than 160,000 square metres (1,722,226 square feet). Berlin_sentence_364

Several large-scale trade fairs like the consumer electronics trade fair IFA, the ILA Berlin Air Show, the Berlin Fashion Week (including the Premium Berlin and the Panorama Berlin), the Green Week, the Fruit Logistica, the transport fair InnoTrans, the tourism fair ITB and the adult entertainment and erotic fair Venus are held annually in the city, attracting a significant number of business visitors. Berlin_sentence_365

Creative industries Berlin_section_22

For a more comprehensive list, see List of films set in Berlin. Berlin_sentence_366

The creative arts and entertainment business is an important part of Berlin's economy. Berlin_sentence_367

The sector comprises music, film, advertising, architecture, art, design, fashion, performing arts, publishing, R&D, software, TV, radio, and video games. Berlin_sentence_368

In 2014, around 30,500 creative companies operated in the Berlin-Brandenburg metropolitan region, predominantly SMEs. Berlin_sentence_369

Generating a revenue of 15.6 billion Euro and 6% of all private economic sales, the culture industry grew from 2009 to 2014 at an average rate of 5.5% per year. Berlin_sentence_370

Berlin is an important centre in the European and German film industry. Berlin_sentence_371

It is home to more than 1,000 film and television production companies, 270 movie theaters, and around 300 national and international co-productions are filmed in the region every year. Berlin_sentence_372

The historic Babelsberg Studios and the production company UFA are adjacent to Berlin in Potsdam. Berlin_sentence_373

The city is also home of the German Film Academy (Deutsche Filmakademie), founded in 2003, and the European Film Academy, founded in 1988. Berlin_sentence_374

Media Berlin_section_23

Main article: Media in Berlin Berlin_sentence_375

Berlin is home to many magazine, newspaper, book and scientific/academic publishers, as well as their associated service industries. Berlin_sentence_376

In addition around 20 news agencies, more than 90 regional daily newspapers and their websites, as well as the Berlin offices of more than 22 national publications such as Der Spiegel, and Die Zeit re-enforce the capital's position as Germany's epicenter for influential debate. Berlin_sentence_377

Therefore, many international journalists, bloggers and writers live and work in the city. Berlin_sentence_378

Berlin is the central location to several international and regional television and radio stations. Berlin_sentence_379

The public broadcaster RBB has its headquarters in Berlin as well as the commercial broadcasters MTV Europe and Welt. Berlin_sentence_380

German international public broadcaster Deutsche Welle has its TV production unit in Berlin, and most national German broadcasters have a studio in the city including ZDF and RTL. Berlin_sentence_381

Berlin has Germany's largest number of daily newspapers, with numerous local broadsheets (Berliner Morgenpost, Berliner Zeitung, Der Tagesspiegel), and three major tabloids, as well as national dailies of varying sizes, each with a different political affiliation, such as Die Welt, Neues Deutschland, and Die Tageszeitung. Berlin_sentence_382

The Exberliner, a monthly magazine, is Berlin's English-language periodical and La Gazette de Berlin a French-language newspaper. Berlin_sentence_383

Berlin is also the headquarter of major German-language publishing houses like Walter de Gruyter, Springer, the Ullstein Verlagsgruppe (publishing group), Suhrkamp and Cornelsen are all based in Berlin. Berlin_sentence_384

Each of which publish books, periodicals, and multimedia products. Berlin_sentence_385

Quality of life Berlin_section_24

According to Mercer, Berlin ranked number 13 in the Quality of living city ranking in 2019. Berlin_sentence_386

According to Monocle, Berlin occupies the position of the 6th-most-livable city in the world. Berlin_sentence_387

Economist Intelligence Unit ranks Berlin number 21 of all global cities. Berlin_sentence_388

Berlin is number 8 at the Global Power City Index. Berlin_sentence_389

In 2019, Berlin has the best future prospects of all cities in Germany, according to HWWI and Berenberg Bank. Berlin_sentence_390

According to the 2019 study by Forschungsinstitut Prognos, Berlin was ranked number 92 of all 401 regions in Germany. Berlin_sentence_391

It is also the best ranked region in former East Germany after Jena, Dresden and Potsdam. Berlin_sentence_392

Infrastructure Berlin_section_25

Transport Berlin_section_26

Main article: Transport in Berlin Berlin_sentence_393

Roads Berlin_section_27

Berlin's transport infrastructure is highly complex, providing a diverse range of urban mobility. Berlin_sentence_394

A total of 979 bridges cross 197 km (122 mi) of inner-city waterways. Berlin_sentence_395

5,422 km (3,369 mi) of roads run through Berlin, of which 77 km (48 mi) are motorways (Autobahn). Berlin_sentence_396

In 2013, 1.344 million motor vehicles were registered in the city. Berlin_sentence_397

With 377 cars per 1000 residents in 2013 (570/1000 in Germany), Berlin as a Western global city has one of the lowest numbers of cars per capita. Berlin_sentence_398

In 2012, around 7,600 mostly beige colored taxicabs were in service. Berlin_sentence_399

Since 2011, a number of app based e-car and e-scooter sharing services have evolved. Berlin_sentence_400

Rail Berlin_section_28

Long-distance rail lines connect Berlin with all of the major cities of Germany and with many cities in neighboring European countries. Berlin_sentence_401

Regional rail lines of the Verkehrsverbund Berlin-Brandenburg provide access to the surrounding regions of Brandenburg and to the Baltic Sea. Berlin_sentence_402

The Berlin Hauptbahnhof is the largest grade-separated railway station in Europe. Berlin_sentence_403

Deutsche Bahn runs high speed Intercity-Express trains to domestic destinations like Hamburg, Munich, Cologne, Stuttgart, Frankfurt am Main and others. Berlin_sentence_404

It also runs an SXF airport express rail service, as well as trains to several international destinations like Vienna, Prague, Zürich, Warsaw, Budapest and Amsterdam. Berlin_sentence_405

Intercity buses Berlin_section_29

Similarly to other German cities, there is an increasing quantity of intercity bus services. Berlin_sentence_406

The city has more than 10 stations that run buses to destinations throughout Germany and Europe, being Zentraler Omnibusbahnhof Berlin the biggest station. Berlin_sentence_407

Public transport Berlin_section_30

The Berliner Verkehrsbetriebe (BVG) and the Deutsche Bahn (DB) manage several extensive urban public transport systems. Berlin_sentence_408

Berlin_table_general_3

SystemBerlin_header_cell_3_0_0 Stations / Lines / Net lengthBerlin_header_cell_3_0_1 Annual ridershipBerlin_header_cell_3_0_2 Operator / NotesBerlin_header_cell_3_0_3
S-BahnBerlin_header_cell_3_1_0 166 / 16 / 331 km (206 mi)Berlin_cell_3_1_1 431,000,000 (2016)Berlin_cell_3_1_2 DB / Mainly overground rapid transit rail system with suburban stopsBerlin_cell_3_1_3
U-BahnBerlin_header_cell_3_2_0 173 / 10 / 146 km (91 mi)Berlin_cell_3_2_1 563,000,000 (2017)Berlin_cell_3_2_2 BVG / Mainly underground rail system / 24h-service on weekendsBerlin_cell_3_2_3
TramBerlin_header_cell_3_3_0 404 / 22 / 194 km (121 mi)Berlin_cell_3_3_1 197,000,000 (2017)Berlin_cell_3_3_2 BVG / Operates predominantly in eastern boroughsBerlin_cell_3_3_3
BusBerlin_header_cell_3_4_0 3227 / 198 / 1,675 km (1,041 mi)Berlin_cell_3_4_1 440,000,000 (2017)Berlin_cell_3_4_2 BVG / Extensive services in all boroughs / 62 Night LinesBerlin_cell_3_4_3
FerryBerlin_header_cell_3_5_0 6 linesBerlin_cell_3_5_1 Berlin_cell_3_5_2 BVG / Transportation as well as recreational ferriesBerlin_cell_3_5_3

Travelers can access all modes of transport with a single ticket. Berlin_sentence_409

Public transportation in Berlin has a long and complicated history because of the 20 century division of the city, where movement between the two halves was not served. Berlin_sentence_410

Since 1989, the transport network has been developed extensively; however, it still contains early 20 century traits, such as the U1. Berlin_sentence_411

Airports Berlin_section_31

Berlin is served by one commercial international airport: Berlin Brandenburg Airport (BER). Berlin_sentence_412

It began construction in 2006, with the intention of replacing Tegel Airport (TXL) and Schönefeld Airport (SXF) as the single commercial airport of Berlin. Berlin_sentence_413

Previously set to open in 2012, after extensive delays and cost overruns, it opened for commercial operations in October 2020. Berlin_sentence_414

The planned initial capacity of around 27 million passengers per year is to be further developed to bring the terminal capacity to approximately 55 million per year by 2040. Berlin_sentence_415

Before the opening of Bradenburg Airport, Berlin was served by Tegel Airport and Schönefeld Airport. Berlin_sentence_416

Tegel Airport was within the city limits, and Schönefeld Airport was just outside Berlin's south-eastern border, in the state of Brandenburg. Berlin_sentence_417

Both airports together handled 29.5 million passengers in 2015. Berlin_sentence_418

In 2014, 67 airlines served 163 destinations in 50 countries from Berlin. Berlin_sentence_419

Tegel Airport was a focus city for Lufthansa and Eurowings while Schönefeld served as an important destination for airlines like Germania, easyJet and Ryanair. Berlin_sentence_420

Until 2008, Berlin was also served by the smaller Tempelhof Airport, which functioned as a city airport, with a convenient location near the city centre allowing for quick transit times between the central business district and the airport. Berlin_sentence_421

Cycling Berlin_section_32

Main article: Cycling in Berlin Berlin_sentence_422

Berlin is well known for its highly developed bicycle lane system. Berlin_sentence_423

It is estimated Berlin has 710 bicycles per 1000 residents. Berlin_sentence_424

Around 500,000 daily bike riders accounted for 13% of total traffic in 2010. Berlin_sentence_425

Cyclists have access to 620 km (385 mi) of bicycle paths including approximately 150 km (93 mi) of mandatory bicycle paths, 190 km (118 mi) of off-road bicycle routes, 60 km (37 mi) of bicycle lanes on roads, 70 km (43 mi) of shared bus lanes which are also open to cyclists, 100 km (62 mi) of combined pedestrian/bike paths and 50 km (31 mi) of marked bicycle lanes on roadside pavements (or sidewalks). Berlin_sentence_426

Riders are allowed to carry their bicycles on Regionalbahn, S-Bahn and U-Bahn trains, on trams, and on night buses if a bike ticket is purchased. Berlin_sentence_427

Rohrpost (pneumatic postal network) Berlin_section_33

Main article: Rohrpost in Berlin Berlin_sentence_428

From 1865 until 1976 Berlin had an extensive pneumatic postal network, which at its peak in 1940, totalled 400 kilometres length. Berlin_sentence_429

After 1949 the system was split in two separated networks. Berlin_sentence_430

The West Berlin system in operation and open for public use until 1963, and for government use until 1972. Berlin_sentence_431

The East Berlin system which inherited the Hauptelegraphenamt, the central hub of the system, was in operation until 1976 Berlin_sentence_432

Energy Berlin_section_34

Berlin's two largest energy provider for private households are the Swedish firm Vattenfall and the Berlin-based company GASAG. Berlin_sentence_433

Both offer electric power and natural gas supply. Berlin_sentence_434

Some of the city's electric energy is imported from nearby power plants in southern Brandenburg. Berlin_sentence_435

As of 2015 the five largest power plants measured by capacity are the Heizkraftwerk Reuter West, the Heizkraftwerk Lichterfelde, the Heizkraftwerk Mitte, the Heizkraftwerk Wilmersdorf, and the Heizkraftwerk Charlottenburg. Berlin_sentence_436

All of these power stations generate electricity and useful heat at the same time to facilitate buffering during load peaks. Berlin_sentence_437

In 1993 the power grid connections in the Berlin-Brandenburg capital region were renewed. Berlin_sentence_438

In most of the inner districts of Berlin power lines are underground cables; only a 380 kV and a 110 kV line, which run from Reuter substation to the urban Autobahn, use overhead lines. Berlin_sentence_439

The Berlin 380-kV electric line is the backbone of the city's energy grid. Berlin_sentence_440

Health Berlin_section_35

Berlin has a long history of discoveries in medicine and innovations in medical technology. Berlin_sentence_441

The modern history of medicine has been significantly influenced by scientists from Berlin. Berlin_sentence_442

Rudolf Virchow was the founder of cellular pathology, while Robert Koch developed vaccines for anthrax, cholera, and tuberculosis. Berlin_sentence_443

The Charité complex (Universitätsklinik Charité) is the largest university hospital in Europe, tracing back its origins to the year 1710. Berlin_sentence_444

More than half of all German Nobel Prize winners in Physiology or Medicine, including Emil von Behring, Robert Koch and Paul Ehrlich, have worked at the Charité. Berlin_sentence_445

The Charité is spread over four campuses and comprises around 3,000 beds, 15,500 staff, 8,000 students, and more than 60 operating theaters, and it has a turnover of two billion euros annually. Berlin_sentence_446

The Charité is a joint institution of the Freie Universität Berlin and the Humboldt University of Berlin, including a wide range of institutes and specialized medical centers. Berlin_sentence_447

Among them are the German Heart Center, one of the most renowned transplantation centers, the Max-Delbrück-Center for Molecular Medicine and the Max-Planck-Institute for Molecular Genetics. Berlin_sentence_448

The scientific research at these institutions is complemented by many research departments of companies such as Siemens and Bayer. Berlin_sentence_449

The World Health Summit and several international health related conventions are held annually in Berlin. Berlin_sentence_450

Telecommunication Berlin_section_36

Main article: Radio and telecommunication in Berlin Berlin_sentence_451

Since 2017, the digital television standard in Berlin and Germany is DVB-T2. Berlin_sentence_452

This system transmits compressed digital audio, digital video and other data in an MPEG transport stream. Berlin_sentence_453

Berlin has installed several hundred free public Wireless LAN sites across the capital since 2016. Berlin_sentence_454

The wireless networks are concentrated mostly in central districts; 650 hotspots (325 indoor and 325 outdoor access points) are installed. Berlin_sentence_455

Deutsche Bahn is planning to introduce Wi-Fi services in long distance and regional trains in 2017. Berlin_sentence_456

The UMTS (3G) and LTE (4G) networks of the three major cellular operators Vodafone, T-Mobile and O2 enable the use of mobile broadband applications citywide. Berlin_sentence_457

The Fraunhofer Heinrich Hertz Institute develops mobile and stationary broadband communication networks and multimedia systems. Berlin_sentence_458

Focal points are photonic components and systems, fiber optic sensor systems, and image signal processing and transmission. Berlin_sentence_459

Future applications for broadband networks are developed as well. Berlin_sentence_460

Education Berlin_section_37

Main article: Education in Berlin Berlin_sentence_461

As of 2014, Berlin had 878 schools, teaching 340,658 children in 13,727 classes and 56,787 trainees in businesses and elsewhere. Berlin_sentence_462

The city has a 6-year primary education program. Berlin_sentence_463

After completing primary school, students continue to the Sekundarschule (a comprehensive school) or Gymnasium (college preparatory school). Berlin_sentence_464

Berlin has a special bilingual school program in the Europaschule, in which children are taught the curriculum in German and a foreign language, starting in primary school and continuing in high school. Berlin_sentence_465

The Französisches Gymnasium Berlin, which was founded in 1689 to teach the children of Huguenot refugees, offers (German/French) instruction. Berlin_sentence_466

The John F. Kennedy School, a bilingual German–American public school in Zehlendorf, is particularly popular with children of diplomats and the English-speaking expatriate community. Berlin_sentence_467

82 Gymnasien teach Latin and 8 teach Classical Greek. Berlin_sentence_468

Higher education Berlin_section_38

Main article: Universities and research institutions in Berlin Berlin_sentence_469

The Berlin-Brandenburg capital region is one of the most prolific centres of higher education and research in Germany and Europe. Berlin_sentence_470

Historically, 67 Nobel Prize winners are affiliated with the Berlin-based universities. Berlin_sentence_471

The city has four public research universities and more than 30 private, professional, and technical colleges (Hochschulen), offering a wide range of disciplines. Berlin_sentence_472

A record number of 175,651 students were enrolled in the winter term of 2015/16. Berlin_sentence_473

Among them around 18% have an international background. Berlin_sentence_474

The three largest universities combined have approximately 103,000 enrolled students. Berlin_sentence_475

There are the Freie Universität Berlin (Free University of Berlin, FU Berlin) with about 33,000 students, the Humboldt Universität zu Berlin (HU Berlin) with 35,000 students, and the Technische Universität Berlin (TU Berlin) with 35,000 students. Berlin_sentence_476

The Charité Medical School has around 8,000 students. Berlin_sentence_477

The FU, the HU, the TU, and the Charité make up the Berlin University Alliance, which has received funding from the Excellence Strategy program of the German government. Berlin_sentence_478

The Universität der Künste (UdK) has about 4,000 students and ESMT Berlin is only one of four business schools in Germany with triple accreditation. Berlin_sentence_479

The Berlin School of Economics and Law has an enrollment of about 11,000 students, the Beuth University of Applied Sciences Berlin of about 12,000 students, and the Hochschule für Technik und Wirtschaft (University of Applied Sciences for Engineering and Economics) of about 14,000 students. Berlin_sentence_480

Research Berlin_section_39

The city has a high density of internationally renowned research institutions, such as the Fraunhofer Society, the Leibniz Association, the Helmholtz Association, and the Max Planck Society, which are independent of, or only loosely connected to its universities. Berlin_sentence_481

In 2012, around 65,000 professional scientists were working in research and development in the city. Berlin_sentence_482

Berlin is one of the knowledge and innovation communities (KIC) of the European Institute of Innovation and Technology (EIT). Berlin_sentence_483

The KIC is based at the Centre for Entrepreneurship at TU Berlin and has a focus in the development of IT industries. Berlin_sentence_484

It partners with major multinational companies such as Siemens, Deutsche Telekom, and SAP. Berlin_sentence_485

One of Europe's successful research, business and technology clusters is based at WISTA in Berlin-Adlershof, with more than 1,000 affiliated firms, university departments and scientific institutions. Berlin_sentence_486

In addition to the university-affiliated libraries, the Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin is a major research library. Berlin_sentence_487

Its two main locations are on Potsdamer Straße and on Unter den Linden. Berlin_sentence_488

There are also 86 public libraries in the city. Berlin_sentence_489

ResearchGate, a global social networking site for scientists, is based in Berlin. Berlin_sentence_490

Culture Berlin_section_40

Main article: Culture in Berlin Berlin_sentence_491

Berlin is known for its numerous cultural institutions, many of which enjoy international reputation. Berlin_sentence_492

The diversity and vivacity of the metropolis led to a trendsetting atmosphere. Berlin_sentence_493

An innovative music, dance and art scene has developed in the 21st century. Berlin_sentence_494

Young people, international artists and entrepreneurs continued to settle in the city and made Berlin a popular entertainment center in the world. Berlin_sentence_495

The expanding cultural performance of the city was underscored by the relocation of the Universal Music Group who decided to move their headquarters to the banks of the River Spree. Berlin_sentence_496

In 2005, Berlin was named "City of Design" by UNESCO and has been part of the Creative Cities Network ever since. Berlin_sentence_497

Galleries and museums Berlin_section_41

For a more comprehensive list, see List of museums and galleries in Berlin. Berlin_sentence_498

As of 2011 Berlin is home to 138 museums and more than 400 art galleries. Berlin_sentence_499

The ensemble on the Museum Island is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and is in the northern part of the Spree Island between the Spree and the Kupfergraben. Berlin_sentence_500

As early as 1841 it was designated a "district dedicated to art and antiquities" by a royal decree. Berlin_sentence_501

Subsequently, the Altes Museum was built in the Lustgarten. Berlin_sentence_502

The Neues Museum, which displays the bust of Queen Nefertiti, Alte Nationalgalerie, Pergamon Museum, and Bode Museum were built there. Berlin_sentence_503

Apart from the Museum Island, there are many additional museums in the city. Berlin_sentence_504

The Gemäldegalerie (Painting Gallery) focuses on the paintings of the "old masters" from the 13th to the 18th centuries, while the Neue Nationalgalerie (New National Gallery, built by Ludwig Mies van der Rohe) specializes in 20th-century European painting. Berlin_sentence_505

The Hamburger Bahnhof, in Moabit, exhibits a major collection of modern and contemporary art. Berlin_sentence_506

The expanded Deutsches Historisches Museum re-opened in the Zeughaus with an overview of German history spanning more than a millennium. Berlin_sentence_507

The Bauhaus Archive is a museum of 20th century design from the famous Bauhaus school. Berlin_sentence_508

Museum Berggruen houses the collection of noted 20th century collector Heinz Berggruen, and features an extensive assortment of works by Picasso, Matisse, Cézanne, and Giacometti, among others. Berlin_sentence_509

The Jewish Museum has a standing exhibition on two millennia of German-Jewish history. Berlin_sentence_510

The German Museum of Technology in Kreuzberg has a large collection of historical technical artifacts. Berlin_sentence_511

The Museum für Naturkunde (Berlin's natural history museum) exhibits natural history near Berlin Hauptbahnhof. Berlin_sentence_512

It has the largest mounted dinosaur in the world (a Giraffatitan skeleton). Berlin_sentence_513

A well-preserved specimen of Tyrannosaurus rex and the early bird Archaeopteryx are at display as well. Berlin_sentence_514

In Dahlem, there are several museums of world art and culture, such as the Museum of Asian Art, the Ethnological Museum, the Museum of European Cultures, as well as the Allied Museum. Berlin_sentence_515

The Brücke Museum features one of the largest collection of works by artist of the early 20th-century expressionist movement. Berlin_sentence_516

In Lichtenberg, on the grounds of the former East German Ministry for State Security, is the Stasi Museum. Berlin_sentence_517

The site of Checkpoint Charlie, one of the most renowned crossing points of the Berlin Wall, is still preserved. Berlin_sentence_518

A private museum venture exhibits a comprehensive documentation of detailed plans and strategies devised by people who tried to flee from the East. Berlin_sentence_519

The Beate Uhse Erotic Museum claims to be the world's largest erotic museum. Berlin_sentence_520

The cityscape of Berlin displays large quantities of urban street art. Berlin_sentence_521

It has become a significant part of the city's cultural heritage and has its roots in the graffiti scene of Kreuzberg of the 1980s. Berlin_sentence_522

The Berlin Wall itself has become one of the largest open-air canvasses in the world. Berlin_sentence_523

The leftover stretch along the Spree river in Friedrichshain remains as the East Side Gallery. Berlin_sentence_524

Berlin today is consistently rated as an important world city for street art culture. Berlin_sentence_525

Berlin has galleries which are quite rich in contemporary art. Berlin_sentence_526

Located in Mitte, KW Institute for Contemporary Art, KOW, Sprüth Magers; Kreuzberg there are a few galleries as well such as Blain Southern, Esther Schipper, Future Gallery, König Gallerie. Berlin_sentence_527

Nightlife and festivals Berlin_section_42

Berlin's nightlife has been celebrated as one of the most diverse and vibrant of its kind. Berlin_sentence_528

In the 1970s and 80s the SO36 in Kreuzberg was a centre for punk music and culture. Berlin_sentence_529

The SOUND and the Dschungel gained notoriety. Berlin_sentence_530

Throughout the 1990s, people in their 20s from all over the world, particularly those in Western and Central Europe, made Berlin's club scene a premier nightlife venue. Berlin_sentence_531

After the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989, many historic buildings in Mitte, the former city centre of East Berlin, were illegally occupied and re-built by young squatters and became a fertile ground for underground and counterculture gatherings. Berlin_sentence_532

The central boroughs are home to many nightclubs, including the Watergate, Tresor and Berghain. Berlin_sentence_533

The KitKatClub and several other locations are known for their sexually uninhibited parties. Berlin_sentence_534

Clubs are not required to close at a fixed time during the weekends, and many parties last well into the morning, or even all weekend. Berlin_sentence_535

The Weekend Club near Alexanderplatz features a roof terrace that allows partying at night. Berlin_sentence_536

Several venues have become a popular stage for the Neo-Burlesque scene. Berlin_sentence_537

Berlin has a long history of gay culture, and is an important birthplace of the LGBT rights movement. Berlin_sentence_538

Same-sex bars and dance halls operated freely as early as the 1880s, and the first gay magazine, Der Eigene, started in 1896. Berlin_sentence_539

By the 1920s, gays and lesbians had an unprecedented visibility. Berlin_sentence_540

Today, in addition to a positive atmosphere in the wider club scene, the city again has a huge number of queer clubs and festivals. Berlin_sentence_541

The most famous and largest are Berlin Pride, the Christopher Street Day, the Lesbian and Gay City Festival in Berlin-Schöneberg, the Kreuzberg Pride and Hustlaball. Berlin_sentence_542

The annual Berlin International Film Festival (Berlinale) with around 500,000 admissions is considered to be the largest publicly attended film festival in the world. Berlin_sentence_543

The Karneval der Kulturen (Carnival of Cultures), a multi-ethnic street parade, is celebrated every Pentecost weekend. Berlin_sentence_544

Berlin is also well known for the cultural festival, Berliner Festspiele, which includes the jazz festival JazzFest Berlin. Berlin_sentence_545

Several technology and media art festivals and conferences are held in the city, including Transmediale and Chaos Communication Congress. Berlin_sentence_546

The annual Berlin Festival focuses on indie rock, electronic music and synthpop and is part of the International Berlin Music Week. Berlin_sentence_547

Every year Berlin hosts one of the largest New Year's Eve celebrations in the world, attended by well over a million people. Berlin_sentence_548

The focal point is the Brandenburg Gate, where midnight fireworks are centred, but various private fireworks displays take place throughout the entire city. Berlin_sentence_549

Partygoers in Germany often toast the New Year with a glass of sparkling wine. Berlin_sentence_550

Performing arts Berlin_section_43

Main article: Music in Berlin Berlin_sentence_551

Berlin is home to 44 theaters and stages. Berlin_sentence_552

The Deutsches Theater in Mitte was built in 1849–50 and has operated almost continuously since then. Berlin_sentence_553

The Volksbühne at Rosa-Luxemburg-Platz was built in 1913–14, though the company had been founded in 1890. Berlin_sentence_554

The Berliner Ensemble, famous for performing the works of Bertolt Brecht, was established in 1949. Berlin_sentence_555

The Schaubühne was founded in 1962 and moved to the building of the former Universum Cinema on Kurfürstendamm in 1981. Berlin_sentence_556

With a seating capacity of 1,895 and a stage floor of 2,854 square metres (30,720 square feet), the Friedrichstadt-Palast in Berlin Mitte is the largest show palace in Europe. Berlin_sentence_557

Berlin has three major opera houses: the Deutsche Oper, the Berlin State Opera, and the Komische Oper. Berlin_sentence_558

The Berlin State Opera on Unter den Linden opened in 1742 and is the oldest of the three. Berlin_sentence_559

Its musical director is Daniel Barenboim. Berlin_sentence_560

The Komische Oper has traditionally specialized in operettas and is also at Unter den Linden. Berlin_sentence_561

The Deutsche Oper opened in 1912 in Charlottenburg. Berlin_sentence_562

The city's main venue for musical theater performances are the Theater am Potsdamer Platz and Theater des Westens (built in 1895). Berlin_sentence_563

Contemporary dance can be seen at the Radialsystem V. The Tempodrom is host to concerts and circus inspired entertainment. Berlin_sentence_564

It also houses a multi-sensory spa experience. Berlin_sentence_565

The Admiralspalast in Mitte has a vibrant program of variety and music events. Berlin_sentence_566

There are seven symphony orchestras in Berlin. Berlin_sentence_567

The Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra is one of the preeminent orchestras in the world; it is housed in the Berliner Philharmonie near Potsdamer Platz on a street named for the orchestra's longest-serving conductor, Herbert von Karajan. Berlin_sentence_568

Simon Rattle is its principal conductor. Berlin_sentence_569

The Konzerthausorchester Berlin was founded in 1952 as the orchestra for East Berlin. Berlin_sentence_570

Ivan Fischer is its principal conductor. Berlin_sentence_571

The Haus der Kulturen der Welt presents exhibitions dealing with intercultural issues and stages world music and conferences. Berlin_sentence_572

The Kookaburra and the Quatsch Comedy Club are known for satire and stand-up comedy shows. Berlin_sentence_573

In 2018, the New York Times described Berlin as "arguably the world capital of underground electronic music". Berlin_sentence_574

Cuisine Berlin_section_44

See also: German cuisine Berlin_sentence_575

The cuisine and culinary offerings of Berlin vary greatly. Berlin_sentence_576

Twelve restaurants in Berlin have been included in the Michelin Guide of 2015, which ranks the city at the top for the number of restaurants having this distinction in Germany. Berlin_sentence_577

Berlin is well known for its offerings of vegetarian and vegan cuisine and is home to an innovative entrepreneurial food scene promoting cosmopolitan flavors, local and sustainable ingredients, pop-up street food markets, supper clubs, as well as food festivals, such as Berlin Food Week. Berlin_sentence_578

Many local foods originated from north German culinary traditions and include rustic and hearty dishes with pork, goose, fish, peas, beans, cucumbers, or potatoes. Berlin_sentence_579

Typical Berliner fare include popular street food like the Currywurst (which gained popularity with post-war construction workers rebuilding the city), Buletten and the Berliner doughnut, known in Berlin as Pfannkuchen. Berlin_sentence_580

German bakeries offering a variety of breads and pastries are widespread. Berlin_sentence_581

One of Europe's largest delicatessen markets is found at the KaDeWe, and among the world's largest chocolate stores is Fassbender & Rausch. Berlin_sentence_582

Berlin is also home to a diverse gastronomy scene reflecting the immigrant history of the city. Berlin_sentence_583

Turkish and Arab immigrants brought their culinary traditions to the city, such as the lahmajoun and falafel, which have become common fast food staples. Berlin_sentence_584

The modern fast food version of the doner kebab sandwich which evolved in Berlin in the 1970s, has since become a favorite dish in Germany and elsewhere in the world. Berlin_sentence_585

Asian cuisine like Chinese, Vietnamese, Thai, Indian, Korean, and Japanese restaurants, as well as Spanish tapas bars, Italian, and Greek cuisine, can be found in many parts of the city. Berlin_sentence_586

Recreation Berlin_section_45

Zoologischer Garten Berlin, the older of two zoos in the city, was founded in 1844. Berlin_sentence_587

It is the most visited zoo in Europe and presents the most diverse range of species in the world. Berlin_sentence_588

It was the home of the captive-born celebrity polar bear Knut. Berlin_sentence_589

The city's other zoo, Tierpark Friedrichsfelde, was founded in 1955. Berlin_sentence_590

Berlin's Botanischer Garten includes the Botanic Museum Berlin. Berlin_sentence_591

With an area of 43 hectares (110 acres) and around 22,000 different plant species, it is one of the largest and most diverse collections of botanical life in the world. Berlin_sentence_592

Other gardens in the city include the Britzer Garten, and the Gärten der Welt (Gardens of the World) in Marzahn. Berlin_sentence_593

The Tiergarten park in Mitte, with landscape design by Peter Joseph Lenné, is one of Berlin's largest and most popular parks. Berlin_sentence_594

In Kreuzberg, the Viktoriapark provides a viewing point over the southern part of inner-city Berlin. Berlin_sentence_595

Treptower Park, beside the Spree in Treptow, features a large Soviet War Memorial. Berlin_sentence_596

The Volkspark in Friedrichshain, which opened in 1848, is the oldest park in the city, with monuments, a summer outdoor cinema and several sports areas. Berlin_sentence_597

Tempelhofer Feld, the site of the former city airport, is the world's largest inner-city open space. Berlin_sentence_598

Potsdam is on the southwestern periphery of Berlin. Berlin_sentence_599

The city was a residence of the Prussian kings and the German Kaiser, until 1918. Berlin_sentence_600

The area around Potsdam in particular Sanssouci is known for a series of interconnected lakes and cultural landmarks. Berlin_sentence_601

The Palaces and Parks of Potsdam and Berlin are the largest World Heritage Site in Germany. Berlin_sentence_602

Berlin is also well known for its numerous cafés, street musicians, beach bars along the Spree River, flea markets, boutique shops and pop up stores, which are a source for recreation and leisure. Berlin_sentence_603

Sport Berlin_section_46

Main article: Sport in Berlin Berlin_sentence_604

Berlin has established a high-profile as a host city of major international sporting events. Berlin_sentence_605

The city hosted the 1936 Summer Olympics and was the host city for the 2006 FIFA World Cup final. Berlin_sentence_606

The IAAF World Championships in Athletics was held in the Olympiastadion in 2009. Berlin_sentence_607

The city hosted the Basketball Euroleague Final Four in 2009 and 2016. Berlin_sentence_608

and was one of the hosts of the FIBA EuroBasket 2015. Berlin_sentence_609

In 2015 Berlin became the venue for the UEFA Champions League Final. Berlin_sentence_610

Berlin will host the 2023 Special Olympics World Summer Games. Berlin_sentence_611

This will be the first time Germany has ever hosted the Special Olympics World Games. Berlin_sentence_612

The annual Berlin Marathon – a course that holds the most top-10 world record runs – and the ISTAF are well-established athletic events in the city. Berlin_sentence_613

The Mellowpark in Köpenick is one of the biggest skate and BMX parks in Europe. Berlin_sentence_614

A Fan Fest at Brandenburg Gate, which attracts several hundred-thousand spectators, has become popular during international football competitions, like the UEFA European Championship. Berlin_sentence_615

In 2013 around 600,000 Berliners were registered in one of the more than 2,300 sport and fitness clubs. Berlin_sentence_616

The city of Berlin operates more than 60 public indoor and outdoor swimming pools. Berlin_sentence_617

Berlin is the largest Olympic training centre in Germany. Berlin_sentence_618

About 500 top athletes (15% of all German top athletes) are based there. Berlin_sentence_619

Forty-seven elite athletes participated in the 2012 Summer Olympics. Berlin_sentence_620

Berliners would achieve seven gold, twelve silver and three bronze medals. Berlin_sentence_621

Several professional clubs representing the most important spectator team sports in Germany have their base in Berlin. Berlin_sentence_622

The oldest and most popular division-1 team based in Berlin is the football club Hertha BSC. Berlin_sentence_623

The team represented Berlin as a founding member of the Bundesliga, Germany's highest football league, in 1963. Berlin_sentence_624

Other professional team sport clubs include: Berlin_sentence_625

Berlin_table_general_4

ClubBerlin_header_cell_4_0_0 SportBerlin_header_cell_4_0_1 FoundedBerlin_header_cell_4_0_2 LeagueBerlin_header_cell_4_0_3 VenueBerlin_header_cell_4_0_4
Hertha BSCBerlin_cell_4_1_0 FootballBerlin_cell_4_1_1 1892Berlin_cell_4_1_2 BundesligaBerlin_cell_4_1_3 OlympiastadionBerlin_cell_4_1_4
1. FC Union BerlinBerlin_cell_4_2_0 FootballBerlin_cell_4_2_1 1966Berlin_cell_4_2_2 BundesligaBerlin_cell_4_2_3 Stadion An der Alten FörstereiBerlin_cell_4_2_4
ALBA BerlinBerlin_cell_4_3_0 BasketballBerlin_cell_4_3_1 1991Berlin_cell_4_3_2 BBLBerlin_cell_4_3_3 Mercedes-Benz ArenaBerlin_cell_4_3_4
Eisbären BerlinBerlin_cell_4_4_0 Ice hockeyBerlin_cell_4_4_1 1954Berlin_cell_4_4_2 DELBerlin_cell_4_4_3 Mercedes-Benz ArenaBerlin_cell_4_4_4
Füchse BerlinBerlin_cell_4_5_0 HandballBerlin_cell_4_5_1 1891Berlin_cell_4_5_2 HBLBerlin_cell_4_5_3 Max-Schmeling-HalleBerlin_cell_4_5_4

See also Berlin_section_47

Berlin_unordered_list_1


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Berlin.