Humboldt University of Berlin

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"Humboldt University" redirects here. Humboldt University of Berlin_sentence_0

For the university in California, see Humboldt State University. Humboldt University of Berlin_sentence_1

"University of Berlin" redirects here. Humboldt University of Berlin_sentence_2

For other uses, see University of Berlin (disambiguation). Humboldt University of Berlin_sentence_3

Humboldt University of Berlin_table_infobox_0

Humboldt University of BerlinHumboldt University of Berlin_table_caption_0
MottoHumboldt University of Berlin_header_cell_0_0_0 Universitas litterarum (Latin)Humboldt University of Berlin_cell_0_0_1
Motto in EnglishHumboldt University of Berlin_header_cell_0_1_0 The Entity of SciencesHumboldt University of Berlin_cell_0_1_1
TypeHumboldt University of Berlin_header_cell_0_2_0 PublicHumboldt University of Berlin_cell_0_2_1
EstablishedHumboldt University of Berlin_header_cell_0_3_0 15 October 1810; 210 years ago (1810-10-15)Humboldt University of Berlin_cell_0_3_1
BudgetHumboldt University of Berlin_header_cell_0_4_0 € 452.9 million (2018)Humboldt University of Berlin_cell_0_4_1
PresidentHumboldt University of Berlin_header_cell_0_5_0 Sabine KunstHumboldt University of Berlin_cell_0_5_1
Academic staffHumboldt University of Berlin_header_cell_0_6_0 2,403Humboldt University of Berlin_cell_0_6_1
Administrative staffHumboldt University of Berlin_header_cell_0_7_0 1,516Humboldt University of Berlin_cell_0_7_1
StudentsHumboldt University of Berlin_header_cell_0_8_0 32,553Humboldt University of Berlin_cell_0_8_1
UndergraduatesHumboldt University of Berlin_header_cell_0_9_0 18,712Humboldt University of Berlin_cell_0_9_1
PostgraduatesHumboldt University of Berlin_header_cell_0_10_0 10,881Humboldt University of Berlin_cell_0_10_1
Doctoral studentsHumboldt University of Berlin_header_cell_0_11_0 2,951Humboldt University of Berlin_cell_0_11_1
LocationHumboldt University of Berlin_header_cell_0_12_0 Berlin, GermanyHumboldt University of Berlin_cell_0_12_1
CampusHumboldt University of Berlin_header_cell_0_13_0 Urban and SuburbanHumboldt University of Berlin_cell_0_13_1
Nobel LaureatesHumboldt University of Berlin_header_cell_0_14_0 57 (as of 2020)Humboldt University of Berlin_cell_0_14_1
ColorsHumboldt University of Berlin_header_cell_0_15_0 Blue and WhiteHumboldt University of Berlin_cell_0_15_1
AffiliationsHumboldt University of Berlin_header_cell_0_16_0 German Universities Excellence Initiative
Atomium Culture 
ErasmusHumboldt University of Berlin_cell_0_16_1
WebsiteHumboldt University of Berlin_header_cell_0_17_0 Humboldt University of Berlin_cell_0_17_1

Humboldt University of Berlin (German: Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, abbreviated HU Berlin) is a public research university in the central borough of Mitte in Berlin, Germany. Humboldt University of Berlin_sentence_4

It was established by Frederick William III on the initiative of Wilhelm von Humboldt, Johann Gottlieb Fichte and Friedrich Ernst Daniel Schleiermacher as the University of Berlin (Universität zu Berlin) in 1809, and opened in 1810, making it the oldest of Berlin's four universities. Humboldt University of Berlin_sentence_5

From 1810 until its closure in 1945, it was named Friedrich Wilhelm University (German: Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität). Humboldt University of Berlin_sentence_6

During the Cold War the university found itself in East Berlin and was de facto split in two when the Free University of Berlin opened in West Berlin. Humboldt University of Berlin_sentence_7

The university received its current name in honour of Alexander and Wilhelm von Humboldt in 1949. Humboldt University of Berlin_sentence_8

The university is divided into nine faculties, including its medical school shared with the Free University of Berlin, has a student enrollment of around 32,000 students, and offers degree programmes in some 189 disciplines from undergraduate to postdoctorate level. Humboldt University of Berlin_sentence_9

Its main campus is located on the Unter den Linden boulevard in central Berlin. Humboldt University of Berlin_sentence_10

The university is known worldwide for pioneering the Humboldtian model of higher education, which has strongly influenced other European and Western universities. Humboldt University of Berlin_sentence_11

It was regarded as the world's preeminent university for the natural sciences during the 19th and early 20th century, as the university is linked to major breakthroughs in physics and other sciences by its professors, such as Albert Einstein. Humboldt University of Berlin_sentence_12

Past and present faculty and notable alumni include 57 Nobel Prize laureates (the most of any German university by a substantial margin), as well as eminent philosophers, sociologists, artists, lawyers, politicians, mathematicians, scientists, and Heads of State; among them are Albert Einstein, Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels, Otto von Bismarck, W. Humboldt University of Berlin_sentence_13 E. B. Humboldt University of Berlin_sentence_14 Du Bois, Angela Davis, Arthur Schopenhauer, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Walter Benjamin, Max Weber, Georg Simmel, Karl Liebknecht, Ernst Cassirer, Heinrich Heine, Max Planck and the Brothers Grimm. Humboldt University of Berlin_sentence_15

As one of Germany's most prestigious institutions of higher education, Humboldt University of Berlin has been conferred the title of "University of Excellence" under the German Universities Excellence Initiative. Humboldt University of Berlin_sentence_16

History Humboldt University of Berlin_section_0

Main building Humboldt University of Berlin_section_1

The main building of Humboldt University is the Prinz-Heinrich-Palais (English: Prince Henry’s Palace) on Unter den Linden boulevard in the historic centre of Berlin. Humboldt University of Berlin_sentence_17

It was erected from 1748 to 1753 for Prince Henry of Prussia, the brother of Frederick the Great, according to plans by Johann Boumann in Baroque style. Humboldt University of Berlin_sentence_18

In 1809, the former Royal Prussian residence was converted into a university building. Humboldt University of Berlin_sentence_19

Damaged during the Allied bombing in World War II, it was rebuilt from 1949 to 1962. Humboldt University of Berlin_sentence_20

In 1967, eight statues from the destroyed Potsdam City Palace were placed on the side wings of the university building. Humboldt University of Berlin_sentence_21

Currently there is discussion about returning the statues to the Potsdam City Palace, which was rebuilt as the Landtag of Brandenburg in 2013. Humboldt University of Berlin_sentence_22

Early history Humboldt University of Berlin_section_2

The University of Berlin was established on 16 August 1809, on the initiative of the liberal Prussian educational politician Wilhelm von Humboldt by King Friedrich Wilhelm III, during the period of the Prussian Reform Movement. Humboldt University of Berlin_sentence_23

The university was located in a palace constructed from 1748-1766 for the late Prince Henry, the younger brother of Frederick the Great. Humboldt University of Berlin_sentence_24

After his widow and her ninety-member staff moved out, the first unofficial lectures were given in the building in the winter of 1809. Humboldt University of Berlin_sentence_25

Humboldt faced great resistance to his ideas as he set up the university. Humboldt University of Berlin_sentence_26

He submitted his resignation to the King in April 1810, and was not present when the school opened that fall. Humboldt University of Berlin_sentence_27

The first students were admitted on 6 October 1810, and the first semester started on 10 October 1810, with 256 students and 52 lecturers in faculties of law, medicine, theology and philosophy under rector Theodor Schmalz. Humboldt University of Berlin_sentence_28

The university celebrates 15 October 1810 as the date of its opening. Humboldt University of Berlin_sentence_29

From 1828 to 1945, the school was named the Friedrich Wilhelm University, in honor of its founder. Humboldt University of Berlin_sentence_30

Ludwig Feuerbach, then one of the students, made a comment on the university in 1826: "There is no question here of drinking, duelling and pleasant communal outings; in no other university can you find such a passion for work, such an interest for things that are not petty student intrigues, such an inclination for the sciences, such calm and such silence. Humboldt University of Berlin_sentence_31

Compared to this temple of work, the other universities appear like public houses." Humboldt University of Berlin_sentence_32

The university has been home to many of Germany's greatest thinkers of the past two centuries, among them the subjective idealist philosopher Johann Gottlieb Fichte, the theologian Friedrich Schleiermacher, the absolute idealist philosopher G.W.F. Humboldt University of Berlin_sentence_33 Hegel, the Romantic legal theorist Friedrich Carl von Savigny, the pessimist philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer, the objective idealist philosopher Friedrich Schelling, cultural critic Walter Benjamin, and famous physicists Albert Einstein and Max Planck. Humboldt University of Berlin_sentence_34

The founders of Marxist theory Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels attended the university, as did poet Heinrich Heine, novelist Alfred Döblin, founder of structuralism Ferdinand de Saussure, German unifier Otto von Bismarck, Communist Party of Germany founder Karl Liebknecht, African American Pan Africanist W. Humboldt University of Berlin_sentence_35 E. B. Humboldt University of Berlin_sentence_36 Du Bois and European unifier Robert Schuman, as well as the influential surgeon Johann Friedrich Dieffenbach in the early half of the 1800s. Humboldt University of Berlin_sentence_37

The structure of German research-intensive universities served as a model for institutions like Johns Hopkins University. Humboldt University of Berlin_sentence_38

Further, it has been claimed that "the 'Humboldtian' university became a model for the rest of Europe [...] with its central principle being the union of teaching and research in the work of the individual scholar or scientist." Humboldt University of Berlin_sentence_39

Enlargement Humboldt University of Berlin_section_3

In addition to the strong anchoring of traditional subjects, such as science, law, philosophy, history, theology and medicine, the university developed to encompass numerous new scientific disciplines. Humboldt University of Berlin_sentence_40

Alexander von Humboldt, brother of the founder William, promoted the new learning. Humboldt University of Berlin_sentence_41

With the construction of modern research facilities in the second half of the 19th Century teaching of the natural sciences began. Humboldt University of Berlin_sentence_42

Famous researchers, such as the chemist August Wilhelm Hofmann, the physicist Hermann von Helmholtz, the mathematicians Ernst Eduard Kummer, Leopold Kronecker, Karl Weierstrass, the physicians Johannes Peter Müller, Albrecht von Graefe, Rudolf Virchow and Robert Koch, contributed to Berlin University's scientific fame. Humboldt University of Berlin_sentence_43

During this period of enlargement, the university gradually expanded to incorporate other previously separate colleges in Berlin. Humboldt University of Berlin_sentence_44

An example would be the Charité, the Pépinière and the Collegium Medico-chirurgicum. Humboldt University of Berlin_sentence_45

In 1710, King Friedrich I had built a quarantine house for Plague at the city gates, which in 1727 was rechristened by the "soldier king" Friedrich Wilhelm: "Es soll das Haus die Charité heißen" (It will be called Charité [French for charity]). Humboldt University of Berlin_sentence_46

By 1829 the site became the Friedrich Wilhelm University's medical campus and remained so until 1927 when the more modern University Hospital was constructed. Humboldt University of Berlin_sentence_47

The university started a natural history collection in 1810, which, by 1889 required a separate building and became the Museum für Naturkunde. Humboldt University of Berlin_sentence_48

The preexisting Tierarznei School, founded in 1790 and absorbed by the university, in 1934 formed the basis of the Veterinary Medicine Facility (Grundstock der Veterinärmedizinischen Fakultät). Humboldt University of Berlin_sentence_49

Also the Landwirtschaftliche Hochschule Berlin (Agricultural University of Berlin), founded in 1881 was affiliated with the Agricultural Faculties of the University. Humboldt University of Berlin_sentence_50

Third Reich Humboldt University of Berlin_section_4

After 1933, like all German universities, Friedrich Wilhelm University was affected by the Nazi regime. Humboldt University of Berlin_sentence_51

The rector during this period was Eugen Fischer. Humboldt University of Berlin_sentence_52

It was from the university's library that some 20,000 books by "degenerates" and opponents of the regime were taken to be burned on May 10 of that year in the Opernplatz (now the Bebelplatz) for a demonstration protected by the SA that also featured a speech by Joseph Goebbels. Humboldt University of Berlin_sentence_53

A monument to this can now be found in the center of the square, consisting of a glass panel opening onto an underground white room with empty shelf space for 20,000 volumes and a plaque, bearing an epigraph from an 1820 work by Heinrich Heine: "Das war ein Vorspiel nur, dort wo man Bücher verbrennt, verbrennt man am Ende auch Menschen" ("This was but a prelude; where they burn books, they ultimately burn people"). Humboldt University of Berlin_sentence_54

The Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service (German "Gesetz zur Wiederherstellung des Berufsbeamtentums") resulted in 250 Jewish professors and employees being fired from Friedrich Wilhelm University during 1933/1934 and numerous doctorates being withdrawn. Humboldt University of Berlin_sentence_55

Students and scholars and political opponents of Nazis were ejected from the university and often deported. Humboldt University of Berlin_sentence_56

During this time nearly one third of all of the staff were fired by the Nazis. Humboldt University of Berlin_sentence_57

Cold War Humboldt University of Berlin_section_5

Modern Germany Humboldt University of Berlin_section_6

After the German reunification, the university was radically restructured under the Structure and Appointment Commissions, which were presided by West German professors. Humboldt University of Berlin_sentence_58

For departments on social sciences and humanities, the faculty was subjected to a "liquidation" process, in which contracts of employees were terminated and positions were made open to new academics, mainly West Germans. Humboldt University of Berlin_sentence_59

Older professors were offered early retirement. Humboldt University of Berlin_sentence_60

The East German higher education system included a much larger number of permanent assistant professors, lecturers and other middle level academic positions. Humboldt University of Berlin_sentence_61

After reunification, these positions were abolished or converted to temporary posts for consistency with the West German system. Humboldt University of Berlin_sentence_62

As a result, only 10% of the mid-level academics in Humboldt University still had a position in 1998. Humboldt University of Berlin_sentence_63

Through the transformations, the university's research and exchange links with Eastern European institutions were maintained and stabilized. Humboldt University of Berlin_sentence_64

Today, Humboldt University is a state university with a large number of students (36,986 in 2014, among them more than 4,662 foreign students) after the model of West German universities, and like its counterpart the Free University of Berlin. Humboldt University of Berlin_sentence_65

The university consists of three different campuses, namely Campus Mitte, Campus Nord and Campus Adlershof. Humboldt University of Berlin_sentence_66

Its main building is located in the centre of Berlin at the boulevard Unter den Linden and is the heart of Campus Mitte. Humboldt University of Berlin_sentence_67

The building was erected on order by King Frederick II for his younger brother Prince Henry of Prussia. Humboldt University of Berlin_sentence_68

All the institutes of humanities are located around the main building together with the Department of Law and the Department of Business and Economics. Humboldt University of Berlin_sentence_69

Campus Nord is located north of the main building close to Berlin Hauptbahnhof and is the home of the life science departments including the university medical center Charité. Humboldt University of Berlin_sentence_70

The natural sciences, together with computer science and mathematics, are located at Campus Adlershof in the south-east of Berlin. Humboldt University of Berlin_sentence_71

Furthermore, the university continues its tradition of a book sale at the university gates facing Bebelplatz. Humboldt University of Berlin_sentence_72

Organization Humboldt University of Berlin_section_7

These are the nine faculties into which the university is divided: Humboldt University of Berlin_sentence_73

Humboldt University of Berlin_unordered_list_0

Furthermore, there are two independent institutes (Zentralinstitute) that are part of the university: Humboldt University of Berlin_sentence_74

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  • Centre for British Studies (in German: Großbritannienzentrum)Humboldt University of Berlin_item_1_9
  • Humboldt-Innovation (research transfer and spin-off service)Humboldt University of Berlin_item_1_10
  • Museum für Naturkunde (Natural History Museum)Humboldt University of Berlin_item_1_11
  • Späth-ArboretumHumboldt University of Berlin_item_1_12

Library Humboldt University of Berlin_section_8

When the Royal Library proved insufficient, a new library was founded in 1831, first located in several temporary sites. Humboldt University of Berlin_sentence_75

In 1871–1874 a library building was constructed, following the design of architect Paul Emanuel Spieker. Humboldt University of Berlin_sentence_76

In 1910 the collection was relocated to the building of the Berlin State Library. Humboldt University of Berlin_sentence_77

During the Weimar Period the library contained 831,934 volumes (1930) and was thus one of the leading university libraries in Germany at that time. Humboldt University of Berlin_sentence_78

During the Nazi book burnings in 1933, no volumes from the university library were destroyed. Humboldt University of Berlin_sentence_79

The loss through World War II was comparatively small. Humboldt University of Berlin_sentence_80

In 2003, natural science-related books were outhoused to the newly founded library at the Adlershof campus, which is dedicated solely to the natural sciences. Humboldt University of Berlin_sentence_81

Since the premises of the State Library had to be cleared in 2005, a new library building was erected close to the main building in the center of Berlin. Humboldt University of Berlin_sentence_82

The "Jacob und Wilhelm Grimm-Zentrum" (Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm Centre, Grimm Zentrum, or GZ as referred to by students) opened in 2009. Humboldt University of Berlin_sentence_83

In total, the university library contains about 6.5 million volumes and 9,000 held magazines and journals, and is one of the biggest university libraries in Germany. Humboldt University of Berlin_sentence_84

The books of the Institut für Sexualwissenschaft were destroyed during the Nazi book burnings, and the institute destroyed. Humboldt University of Berlin_sentence_85

Under the terms of the Magnus Hirschfeld Foundation, the government had agreed to continue the work of the institute at the university after its founder's death. Humboldt University of Berlin_sentence_86

However, these terms were ignored. Humboldt University of Berlin_sentence_87

In 2001, the university acquired the Archive for Sexology from the Robert Koch Institute, which was founded with a large private library donated by Erwin J. Haeberle. Humboldt University of Berlin_sentence_88

This has now been housed at the new Magnus Hirschfeld Center. Humboldt University of Berlin_sentence_89

Academics Humboldt University of Berlin_section_9

Humboldt University of Berlin_table_infobox_1

University rankingsHumboldt University of Berlin_header_cell_1_0_0
Global – OverallHumboldt University of Berlin_header_cell_1_1_0
QS WorldHumboldt University of Berlin_header_cell_1_2_0 117 (2020)Humboldt University of Berlin_cell_1_2_1
THE WorldHumboldt University of Berlin_header_cell_1_3_0 67 (2018)Humboldt University of Berlin_cell_1_3_1
USNWR GlobalHumboldt University of Berlin_header_cell_1_4_0 82 (2020)Humboldt University of Berlin_cell_1_4_1

Rankings Humboldt University of Berlin_section_10

Measured by the number of top managers in the German economy, Humboldt University ranked 53rd in 2019. Humboldt University of Berlin_sentence_90

In 2020 the British QS World University Rankings ranked Humboldt University 117th overall in the world and 4th best in Germany. Humboldt University of Berlin_sentence_91

Its subject rankings were: 15th in Arts & Humanities, 13th in Philosophy and 7th in Classics & Ancient History. Humboldt University of Berlin_sentence_92

The British Times Higher Education World University Ranking 2019 listed Humboldt-University as the 67th best university in the world and 4th best in Germany. Humboldt University of Berlin_sentence_93

In 2020, the American U.S. Humboldt University of Berlin_sentence_94 News & World Report listed Humboldt-University as the 82nd best in the world, climbing eight positions. Humboldt University of Berlin_sentence_95

Being among the 100 best in the world in 17 areas of 29 ranked. Humboldt University of Berlin_sentence_96

International partnerships Humboldt University of Berlin_section_11

HU students can study abroad for a semester or a year at partner institutions such as the University of Warwick, Princeton University, and the University of Vienna. Humboldt University of Berlin_sentence_97

Notable alumni and faculty Humboldt University of Berlin_section_12

Main articles: List of Humboldt University of Berlin people and List of Nobel laureates affiliated with Humboldt University of Berlin Humboldt University of Berlin_sentence_98

Humboldt University of Berlin_unordered_list_2

  • Humboldt University of Berlin_item_2_13
  • Humboldt University of Berlin_item_2_14
  • Humboldt University of Berlin_item_2_15
  • Humboldt University of Berlin_item_2_16
  • Humboldt University of Berlin_item_2_17
  • Humboldt University of Berlin_item_2_18
  • Humboldt University of Berlin_item_2_19
  • Humboldt University of Berlin_item_2_20
  • Humboldt University of Berlin_item_2_21
  • Humboldt University of Berlin_item_2_22
  • Humboldt University of Berlin_item_2_23
  • Humboldt University of Berlin_item_2_24
  • Humboldt University of Berlin_item_2_25
  • Humboldt University of Berlin_item_2_26
  • Humboldt University of Berlin_item_2_27
  • Humboldt University of Berlin_item_2_28
  • Humboldt University of Berlin_item_2_29
  • Humboldt University of Berlin_item_2_30
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  • Humboldt University of Berlin_item_2_33
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  • Humboldt University of Berlin_item_2_36
  • Humboldt University of Berlin_item_2_37
  • Humboldt University of Berlin_item_2_38
  • Humboldt University of Berlin_item_2_39

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: University of Berlin.