Bernardo Bertolucci

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"Bertolucci" redirects here. Bernardo Bertolucci_sentence_0

For the surname, see Bertolucci (surname). Bernardo Bertolucci_sentence_1

Bernardo Bertolucci_table_infobox_0

Bernardo BertolucciBernardo Bertolucci_header_cell_0_0_0
BornBernardo Bertolucci_header_cell_0_1_0 (1941-03-16)16 March 1941

Parma, ItalyBernardo Bertolucci_cell_0_1_1

DiedBernardo Bertolucci_header_cell_0_2_0 26 November 2018(2018-11-26) (aged 77)

Rome, ItalyBernardo Bertolucci_cell_0_2_1

OccupationBernardo Bertolucci_header_cell_0_3_0 Bernardo Bertolucci_cell_0_3_1
Years activeBernardo Bertolucci_header_cell_0_4_0 1962–2018Bernardo Bertolucci_cell_0_4_1
Spouse(s)Bernardo Bertolucci_header_cell_0_5_0 Bernardo Bertolucci_cell_0_5_1
Parent(s)Bernardo Bertolucci_header_cell_0_6_0 Bernardo Bertolucci_cell_0_6_1
RelativesBernardo Bertolucci_header_cell_0_7_0 Bernardo Bertolucci_cell_0_7_1
from the BBC programme Front Row, 29 April 2013Bernardo Bertolucci_cell_0_8_0
Bernardo Bertolucci_cell_0_9_0 from the BBC programme Front Row, 29 April 2013Bernardo Bertolucci_cell_0_9_1

Bernardo Bertolucci (Italian: [berˈnardo bertoˈluttʃi; 16 March 1941 – 26 November 2018) was an Italian director and screenwriter, whose films include The Conformist, Last Tango in Paris, 1900, The Last Emperor (for which he won the Academy Award for Best Director and the Academy Award for Best Adapted Screenplay), The Sheltering Sky, Little Buddha, Stealing Beauty and The Dreamers. Bernardo Bertolucci_sentence_2

In recognition of his work, he was presented with the inaugural Honorary Palme d'Or Award at the opening ceremony of the 2011 Cannes Film Festival. Bernardo Bertolucci_sentence_3

From 1979 until his death in 2018, he was married to screenwriter Clare Peploe. Bernardo Bertolucci_sentence_4

Early life Bernardo Bertolucci_section_0

Bertolucci was born in the Italian city of Parma, in the region of Emilia-Romagna. Bernardo Bertolucci_sentence_5

He was the elder son of Ninetta (Giovanardi), a teacher, and Attilio Bertolucci, who was a poet, a reputed art historian, anthologist and film critic. Bernardo Bertolucci_sentence_6

His mother was born in Australia, to an Italian father and an Irish mother. Bernardo Bertolucci_sentence_7

Having been raised in an artistic environment, Bertolucci began writing at the age of fifteen, and soon after received several prestigious literary prizes including the Premio Viareggio for his first book. Bernardo Bertolucci_sentence_8

His father's background helped his career: the elder Bertolucci had helped the Italian filmmaker Pier Paolo Pasolini publish his first novel, and Pasolini reciprocated by hiring Bertolucci as first assistant in Rome on Accattone (1961). Bernardo Bertolucci_sentence_9

Bertolucci had one brother, the theatre director and playwright Giuseppe (27 February 1947 – 16 June 2012). Bernardo Bertolucci_sentence_10

His cousin was the film producer Giovanni Bertolucci (24 June 1940 – 17 February 2005), with whom he worked on a number of films. Bernardo Bertolucci_sentence_11

Career Bernardo Bertolucci_section_1

Directorial breakthrough Bernardo Bertolucci_section_2

Bertolucci initially wished to become a poet like his father. Bernardo Bertolucci_sentence_12

With this goal in mind, he attended the Faculty of Modern Literature of the University of Rome from 1958 to 1961, where his film career as an assistant director to Pasolini began. Bernardo Bertolucci_sentence_13

Shortly after, Bertolucci left the University without graduating. Bernardo Bertolucci_sentence_14

In 1962, at the age of 22, he directed his first feature film, produced by Tonino Cervi with a screenplay by Pasolini, called La commare secca (1962). Bernardo Bertolucci_sentence_15

The film is a murder mystery, following a prostitute's homicide. Bernardo Bertolucci_sentence_16

Bertolucci uses flashbacks to piece together the crime and the person who committed it. Bernardo Bertolucci_sentence_17

The film which shortly followed was his acclaimed Before the Revolution (Prima della rivoluzione, 1964). Bernardo Bertolucci_sentence_18

The boom of Italian cinema, which gave Bertolucci his start, slowed in the 1970s as directors were forced to co-produce their films with several of the American, Swedish, French, and German companies and actors due to the effects of the global economic recession on the Italian film industry. Bernardo Bertolucci_sentence_19

Bertolucci caused controversy in 1972 with the film Last Tango in Paris, starring Marlon Brando, Maria Schneider, Jean-Pierre Léaud and Massimo Girotti. Bernardo Bertolucci_sentence_20

The film presents Brando's character, Paul, as he copes with his wife's suicide by emotionally and physically dominating a young woman, Jeane (Schneider). Bernardo Bertolucci_sentence_21

The depictions of Schneider, then 19 years old, were regarded as exploitative. Bernardo Bertolucci_sentence_22

In one scene, Paul anally rapes Jeane using butter as a lubricant. Bernardo Bertolucci_sentence_23

The use of butter was not in the script; Bertolucci and Brando had discussed it, but they did not tell Schneider. Bernardo Bertolucci_sentence_24

She said in 2007 that she had cried "real tears" during the scene and had felt humiliated and "a little raped". Bernardo Bertolucci_sentence_25

In 2013 Bertolucci said that he had withheld the information from Schneider to generate a real "reaction of frustration and rage". Bernardo Bertolucci_sentence_26

Brando alleged that Bertolucci had wanted the characters to have real sex, but Brando and Schneider both said it was simulated. Bernardo Bertolucci_sentence_27

In 2016 Bertolucci released a statement where he clarified that Schneider had known of the violence to be depicted in the scene, but had not been told about the use of butter. Bernardo Bertolucci_sentence_28

Following the scandal surrounding the film's release, Schneider became a drug addict and suicidal. Bernardo Bertolucci_sentence_29

Criminal proceedings were brought against Bertolucci in Italy for the rape scene; the film was sequestered by the censorship commission and all copies were ordered destroyed. Bernardo Bertolucci_sentence_30

An Italian court revoked Bertolucci's civil rights for five years and gave him a four-month suspended prison sentence. Bernardo Bertolucci_sentence_31

In 1978 the Appeals Court of Bologna ordered three copies of the film to be preserved in the national film library with the stipulation that they could not be viewed, until Bertolucci was later able to re-submit it for general distribution with no cuts. Bernardo Bertolucci_sentence_32

Bertolucci increased his fame with his next few films, from 1900 (1976), an epic depiction of the struggles of farmers in Emilia-Romagna from the beginning of the 20th century up to World War II with an international cast (Robert De Niro, Gérard Depardieu, Donald Sutherland, Sterling Hayden, Burt Lancaster, Dominique Sanda) to La Luna, set in Rome and in Emilia-Romagna, in which Bertolucci deals with the thorny issue of drugs and incest, and finally La tragedia di un uomo ridicolo (1981), with Ugo Tognazzi. Bernardo Bertolucci_sentence_33

He then wrote two screenplays based on Dashiell Hammett’s Red Harvest. Bernardo Bertolucci_sentence_34

He hoped this would be his first film set in America, but nothing came of it. Bernardo Bertolucci_sentence_35

The Last Emperor and later career Bernardo Bertolucci_section_3

In 1987, Bertolucci directed the epic The Last Emperor, a biographical film telling the life story of Aisin-Gioro Puyi, the last Emperor of China. Bernardo Bertolucci_sentence_36

The film was independently produced by British producer Jeremy Thomas, with whom Bertolucci worked almost exclusively from then on. Bernardo Bertolucci_sentence_37

The film was independently financed and three years in the making. Bernardo Bertolucci_sentence_38

Bertolucci, who co-wrote the film with Mark Peploe, won the Academy Award for Best Director. Bernardo Bertolucci_sentence_39

The film uses Puyi's life as a mirror that reflects China's passage from feudalism through revolution to its current state. Bernardo Bertolucci_sentence_40

At the 60th Academy Awards, The Last Emperor won all nine Oscars for which it was nominated: Best Picture, Best Director, Best Writing, Screenplay Based on Material from Another Medium, Best Cinematography, Best Film Editing, Best Costume Design, Best Art Direction-Set Decoration, Best Music, Original Score and Best Sound. Bernardo Bertolucci_sentence_41

The Last Emperor was the first feature film ever authorized by the government of the People's Republic of China to film in the Forbidden City. Bernardo Bertolucci_sentence_42

Bertolucci had proposed the film to the Chinese government as one of two possible projects. Bernardo Bertolucci_sentence_43

The other film was La Condition Humaine by André Malraux. Bernardo Bertolucci_sentence_44

The Chinese government preferred The Last Emperor. Bernardo Bertolucci_sentence_45

After The Last Emperor, The Sheltering Sky and Little Buddha, Bertolucci returned to Italy to film, and to revisit his old themes but with varying results from both critics and the public. Bernardo Bertolucci_sentence_46

He filmed Stealing Beauty in 1996, then The Dreamers in 2003, which describes the political passions and sexual revolutions of two siblings in Paris in 1968. Bernardo Bertolucci_sentence_47

In 2007, Bertolucci received the Golden Lion Award at the Venice Film Festival for his life's work, and in 2011 he also received the Palme d'Or at the Cannes Film Festival. Bernardo Bertolucci_sentence_48

In 2012, his final film, Me and You was screened out of competition at the 2012 Cannes Film Festival and was released early in 2013 in the UK. Bernardo Bertolucci_sentence_49

The film is an adaptation of Niccolò Ammaniti's young-adult's book Me and You. Bernardo Bertolucci_sentence_50

The screenplay for the movie was written by Bertolucci himself, Umberto Contarello and Niccolò Ammaniti. Bernardo Bertolucci_sentence_51

Bertolucci originally intended to shoot the film in 3D but was forced to abandon this plan due to cost. Bernardo Bertolucci_sentence_52

Bertolucci appeared on the Radio Four programme Start the Week on 22 April 2013, and on Front Row on 29 April 2013, where he chose La Dolce Vita, a film directed by Federico Fellini, for the "Cultural Exchange". Bernardo Bertolucci_sentence_53

In the spring of 2018, in an interview with the Italian edition of Vanity Fair, Bertolucci announced that he was preparing a new film. Bernardo Bertolucci_sentence_54

He stated, "The theme will be love, let's call it that. Bernardo Bertolucci_sentence_55

In reality, the theme is communication and therefore also incommunicability. Bernardo Bertolucci_sentence_56

The favorite subject of Michelangelo Antonioni and the condition I found myself facing when I moved on from my films for the few, those of the sixties, to a broader cinema ready to meet a large audience." Bernardo Bertolucci_sentence_57

As a screenwriter, producer and actor Bernardo Bertolucci_section_4

Bertolucci wrote many screenplays, both for his own films and for films directed by others, two of which he also produced. Bernardo Bertolucci_sentence_58

He was an actor in the film Golem: The Spirit of Exile, directed by Amos Gitai in 1992. Bernardo Bertolucci_sentence_59

Politics and personal beliefs Bernardo Bertolucci_section_5

Bertolucci was an atheist. Bernardo Bertolucci_sentence_60

Bertolucci's films are often very political. Bernardo Bertolucci_sentence_61

He was a professed Marxist and, like Luchino Visconti, who similarly employed many foreign artists during the late 1960s, Bertolucci used his films to express his political views; hence they are often autobiographical as well as highly controversial. Bernardo Bertolucci_sentence_62

His political films were preceded by others re-evaluating history. Bernardo Bertolucci_sentence_63

The Conformist (1970) criticised Fascist ideology, touched upon the relationship between nationhood and nationalism, as well as issues of popular taste and collective memory, all amid an international plot by Benito Mussolini to assassinate a politically active leftist professor of philosophy in Paris. Bernardo Bertolucci_sentence_64

1900 also analyses the struggle of Left and Right. Bernardo Bertolucci_sentence_65

On 27 September 2009, Bertolucci was one of the signatories of the appeal to the Swiss government to release Roman Polanski, who was being held awaiting extradition to the United States. Bernardo Bertolucci_sentence_66

On Twitter on 24 April 2015, Bertolucci participated in #whomademyclothes, Fashion Revolution's anti-sweatshop campaign commemorating the 2013 Savar building collapse, the deadliest accident in the history of the garment industry. Bernardo Bertolucci_sentence_67

Bertolucci advocated the practice of Transcendental Meditation: "We want to evoke the present and it is difficult to do it all together, we can only meditate , as in transcendental meditation. Bernardo Bertolucci_sentence_68

One of the most powerful experiences. Bernardo Bertolucci_sentence_69

Either you meditate or watch a good movie, then the two things start to touch ... ". Bernardo Bertolucci_sentence_70

Death Bernardo Bertolucci_section_6

Bertolucci died of lung cancer in Rome on 26 November 2018, at the age of 77. Bernardo Bertolucci_sentence_71

Awards Bernardo Bertolucci_section_7

Cinematographic awards Bernardo Bertolucci_section_8

Bernardo Bertolucci_unordered_list_0

Filmography Bernardo Bertolucci_section_9

Bernardo Bertolucci_table_general_1

YearBernardo Bertolucci_header_cell_1_0_0 TitleBernardo Bertolucci_header_cell_1_0_1 Credited asBernardo Bertolucci_header_cell_1_0_2 NotesBernardo Bertolucci_header_cell_1_0_5
DirectorBernardo Bertolucci_header_cell_1_1_0 WriterBernardo Bertolucci_header_cell_1_1_1 ProducerBernardo Bertolucci_header_cell_1_1_2
1962Bernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_2_0 La Commare SeccaBernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_2_1 YesBernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_2_2 YesBernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_2_3 NoBernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_2_4 Bernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_2_5
1964Bernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_3_0 Before the RevolutionBernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_3_1 YesBernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_3_2 YesBernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_3_3 NoBernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_3_4 Bernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_3_5
1966Bernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_4_0 Il canaleBernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_4_1 YesBernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_4_2 YesBernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_4_3 NoBernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_4_4 Documentary ShortBernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_4_5
1967Bernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_5_0 How to Win a Billion... and Get Away with ItBernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_5_1 NoBernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_5_2 YesBernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_5_3 NoBernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_5_4 Bernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_5_5
1968Bernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_6_0 PartnerBernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_6_1 YesBernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_6_2 YesBernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_6_3 NoBernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_6_4 Nominated - Golden LionBernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_6_5
Once Upon a Time in the WestBernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_7_0 NoBernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_7_1 YesBernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_7_2 NoBernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_7_3 Bernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_7_4
1969Bernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_8_0 Amore e RabbiaBernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_8_1 YesBernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_8_2 YesBernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_8_3 NoBernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_8_4 Segment: Agonia

Nominated - Golden BearBernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_8_5

1970Bernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_9_0 The ConformistBernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_9_1 YesBernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_9_2 YesBernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_9_3 NoBernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_9_4 Nominated - Academy Award for Best Adapted Screenplay

Nominated - Golden BearBernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_9_5

The Spider's StratagemBernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_10_0 YesBernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_10_1 YesBernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_10_2 NoBernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_10_3 Bernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_10_4
1971Bernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_11_0 La salute è malataBernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_11_1 YesBernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_11_2 NoBernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_11_3 NoBernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_11_4 Documentary ShortBernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_11_5
1972Bernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_12_0 Last Tango in ParisBernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_12_1 YesBernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_12_2 YesBernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_12_3 NoBernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_12_4 Nominated - Academy Award for Best Director

Nominated - Directors Guild of America Award for Outstanding Directing in Motion Pictures Nominated - Golden Globe Award for Best DirectorBernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_12_5

1976Bernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_13_0 1900Bernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_13_1 YesBernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_13_2 YesBernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_13_3 NoBernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_13_4 Bernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_13_5
1979Bernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_14_0 La LunaBernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_14_1 YesBernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_14_2 YesBernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_14_3 NoBernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_14_4 Bernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_14_5
1981Bernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_15_0 Tragedy of a Ridiculous ManBernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_15_1 YesBernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_15_2 YesBernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_15_3 NoBernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_15_4 Nominated - Palme d'OrBernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_15_5
1984Bernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_16_0 L'addio a Enrico BerlinguerBernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_16_1 YesBernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_16_2 YesBernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_16_3 NoBernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_16_4 DocumentaryBernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_16_5
1987Bernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_17_0 The Last EmperorBernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_17_1 YesBernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_17_2 YesBernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_17_3 NoBernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_17_4 Academy Award for Best Director

Academy Award for Best Adapted Screenplay BAFTA Award for Best Film César Award for Best Foreign Film David di Donatello for Best Director David di Donatello for Best Screenplay Directors Guild of America Award for Outstanding Directing in Motion Pictures Golden Globe Award for Best Director Golden Globe Award for Best Screenplay Nominated - BAFTA Award for Best DirectionBernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_17_5

1989Bernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_18_0 12 registi per 12 cittàBernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_18_1 YesBernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_18_2 NoBernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_18_3 NoBernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_18_4 Documentary

Segment: BolognaBernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_18_5

1990Bernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_19_0 The Sheltering SkyBernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_19_1 YesBernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_19_2 YesBernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_19_3 NoBernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_19_4 Nominated - Golden Globe Award for Best DirectorBernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_19_5
1993Bernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_20_0 Little BuddhaBernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_20_1 YesBernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_20_2 YesBernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_20_3 NoBernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_20_4 Bernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_20_5
1996Bernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_21_0 Stealing BeautyBernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_21_1 YesBernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_21_2 YesBernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_21_3 NoBernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_21_4 Nominated - David di Donatello for Best Director

Nominated - Palme d'OrBernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_21_5

1998Bernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_22_0 BesiegedBernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_22_1 YesBernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_22_2 YesBernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_22_3 NoBernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_22_4 Nominated - David di Donatello for Best DirectorBernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_22_5
2001Bernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_23_0 The Triumph of LoveBernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_23_1 NoBernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_23_2 YesBernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_23_3 YesBernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_23_4 Bernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_23_5
2002Bernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_24_0 Ten Minutes Older: The CelloBernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_24_1 YesBernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_24_2 YesBernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_24_3 NoBernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_24_4 Segment: Histoire d'eauxBernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_24_5
2003Bernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_25_0 The DreamersBernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_25_1 YesBernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_25_2 NoBernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_25_3 NoBernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_25_4 Bernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_25_5
2012Bernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_26_0 Me and YouBernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_26_1 YesBernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_26_2 YesBernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_26_3 NoBernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_26_4 Nominated - David di Donatello for Best Film

Nominated - David di Donatello for Best Director Nominated - David di Donatello for Best ScreenplayBernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_26_5

2021Bernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_27_0 The Echo ChamberBernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_27_1 NoBernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_27_2 YesBernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_27_3 YesBernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_27_4 Bernardo Bertolucci_cell_1_27_5

Honours Bernardo Bertolucci_section_10

Bernardo Bertolucci_unordered_list_1

  • Grand-Officer of the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic of Italy (Rome, 2 June 1988), under proposal of the Council of Ministers.Bernardo Bertolucci_item_1_16
  • Gold Medal of the Italian Medal of Merit for Culture and Art of Italy (Rome, 21 February 2001). For having been able to combine poetry and great cinema as in the history of Italian cinema. For having known how to make different cultures and worlds dialogue, remaining strongly rooted in the culture of your country. For having been able to represent with passion and courage the political, social and cultural history of the last hundred years.Bernardo Bertolucci_item_1_17
  • Master's Degree Honoris Causa in History and Criticism of Arts and Performance of the University of Parma (Laurea Magistrale Honoris Causa in Storia e critica delle arti e dello spettacolo). Bernardo Bertolucci is one of the greatest and recognized filmmakers in the world. His cinema is a reference point for entire generations of directors, has thrilled millions of viewers, also arousing extensive cultural debates that have gone well beyond the film industry, and is the subject of significant historical and theoretical studies published in all of the major world languages.Bernardo Bertolucci_item_1_18

See also Bernardo Bertolucci_section_11

Bernardo Bertolucci_unordered_list_2


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bernardo Bertolucci.