Bernie Sanders

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For the Canadian hockey player, see Bernie Saunders. Bernie Sanders_sentence_0

"Senator Sanders" redirects here. Bernie Sanders_sentence_1

For other uses, see Senator Sanders (disambiguation). Bernie Sanders_sentence_2

Bernie Sanders_table_infobox_0

Bernie SandersBernie Sanders_header_cell_0_0_0
United States Senator

from VermontBernie Sanders_header_cell_0_1_0

Preceded byBernie Sanders_header_cell_0_2_0 Jim JeffordsBernie Sanders_cell_0_2_1
Ranking Member of the Senate Budget CommitteeBernie Sanders_header_cell_0_3_0
Preceded byBernie Sanders_header_cell_0_4_0 Jeff SessionsBernie Sanders_cell_0_4_1
Chair of the Senate Veterans' Affairs CommitteeBernie Sanders_header_cell_0_5_0
Preceded byBernie Sanders_header_cell_0_6_0 Patty MurrayBernie Sanders_cell_0_6_1
Succeeded byBernie Sanders_header_cell_0_7_0 Johnny IsaksonBernie Sanders_cell_0_7_1
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives

from Vermont's at-large districtBernie Sanders_header_cell_0_8_0

Preceded byBernie Sanders_header_cell_0_9_0 Peter Plympton SmithBernie Sanders_cell_0_9_1
Succeeded byBernie Sanders_header_cell_0_10_0 Peter WelchBernie Sanders_cell_0_10_1
37th Mayor of BurlingtonBernie Sanders_header_cell_0_11_0
Preceded byBernie Sanders_header_cell_0_12_0 Gordon PaquetteBernie Sanders_cell_0_12_1
Succeeded byBernie Sanders_header_cell_0_13_0 Peter ClavelleBernie Sanders_cell_0_13_1
Personal detailsBernie Sanders_header_cell_0_14_0
BornBernie Sanders_header_cell_0_15_0 Bernard Sanders
(1941-09-08) September 8, 1941 (age 79)

Brooklyn, New York CityBernie Sanders_cell_0_15_1

Political partyBernie Sanders_header_cell_0_16_0 Independent (1978–present)

Democratic (2015–16; 2019–20) Liberty Union (1970–1977)Bernie Sanders_cell_0_16_1

Other political

affiliationsBernie Sanders_header_cell_0_17_0

Progressive (1981–present)Bernie Sanders_cell_0_17_1
Spouse(s)Bernie Sanders_header_cell_0_18_0 Bernie Sanders_cell_0_18_1
ChildrenBernie Sanders_header_cell_0_19_0 4 (3 adopted, 1 biological)Bernie Sanders_cell_0_19_1
RelativesBernie Sanders_header_cell_0_20_0 Larry Sanders (brother)Bernie Sanders_cell_0_20_1
EducationBernie Sanders_header_cell_0_21_0 Brooklyn College

University of Chicago (BA)Bernie Sanders_cell_0_21_1

OccupationBernie Sanders_header_cell_0_22_0 Bernie Sanders_cell_0_22_1
SignatureBernie Sanders_header_cell_0_23_0 Bernie Sanders_cell_0_23_1
WebsiteBernie Sanders_header_cell_0_24_0 Bernie Sanders_cell_0_24_1

Bernard Sanders (born September 8, 1941) is an American politician who has served as the junior United States senator from Vermont since 2007 and as U.S. Bernie Sanders_sentence_3 Representative for the state's at-large congressional district from 1991 to 2007. Bernie Sanders_sentence_4

Before his election to Congress, he served as mayor of Burlington, Vermont. Bernie Sanders_sentence_5

He is the longest-serving independent in U.S. congressional history, although he has a close relationship with the Democratic Party, having caucused with House and Senate Democrats for most of his congressional career. Bernie Sanders_sentence_6

Sanders unsuccessfully sought the Democratic Party nomination for president of the United States in 2016 and 2020, finishing in second place in both campaigns. Bernie Sanders_sentence_7

An advocate of social democratic and progressive policies, Sanders is known for his opposition to economic inequality and neoliberalism. Bernie Sanders_sentence_8

On domestic policy, he supports labor rights, universal and single-payer healthcare, paid parental leave, tuition-free tertiary education, and an ambitious Green New Deal to create jobs addressing climate change. Bernie Sanders_sentence_9

On foreign policy, he supports reducing military spending, pursuing more diplomacy and international cooperation, and putting greater emphasis on labor rights and environmental concerns when negotiating international trade agreements. Bernie Sanders_sentence_10

Sanders describes himself as a democratic socialist, supports workplace democracy, and has praised elements of the Nordic model. Bernie Sanders_sentence_11

Some commentators have described his politics as aligned with the New Deal policies of President Franklin D. Roosevelt and left-wing populism. Bernie Sanders_sentence_12

Sanders has been credited with influencing a leftward shift in the Democratic Party since his 2016 presidential campaign. Bernie Sanders_sentence_13

Sanders was born into a working-class Jewish family and raised in the Brooklyn borough of New York City. Bernie Sanders_sentence_14

He attended Brooklyn College before graduating from the University of Chicago in 1964. Bernie Sanders_sentence_15

While a student, he was an active protest organizer for the Congress of Racial Equality as well as for the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee during the civil rights movement. Bernie Sanders_sentence_16

After settling in Vermont in 1968, he ran unsuccessful third-party political campaigns in the early to mid-1970s. Bernie Sanders_sentence_17

He was elected mayor of Burlington in 1981 as an independent and was reelected three times. Bernie Sanders_sentence_18

He won election to the U.S. House of Representatives in 1990, representing Vermont's at-large congressional district, later co-founding the Congressional Progressive Caucus. Bernie Sanders_sentence_19

He served as a U.S. Representative for 16 years before being elected to the U.S. Senate in 2006. Bernie Sanders_sentence_20

Sanders was reelected to the Senate in 2012 and 2018. Bernie Sanders_sentence_21

Sanders was a major candidate for the Democratic presidential nomination in 2016 and 2020. Bernie Sanders_sentence_22

Despite initially low expectations, his 2016 campaign generated significant grassroots enthusiasm and funding from small-dollar donors, carrying Sanders to victory against eventual nominee Hillary Clinton in 23 primaries and caucuses before he conceded in July. Bernie Sanders_sentence_23

In 2020, Sanders's strong showing in early primaries and caucuses briefly made him the front-runner in a historically large field of Democratic candidates. Bernie Sanders_sentence_24

In April 2020, he conceded the nomination to Joe Biden, who had won a series of decisive victories as the field narrowed. Bernie Sanders_sentence_25

Sanders endorsed Clinton and Biden in their general election campaigns against Donald Trump, while continuing his efforts to move the Democratic Party in a more progressive direction. Bernie Sanders_sentence_26

Early life Bernie Sanders_section_0

Bernard Sanders was born on September 8, 1941, in the Brooklyn borough of New York City. Bernie Sanders_sentence_27

His father, Elias Ben Yehuda Sanders, was born in Słopnice, Galicia, in Austria-Hungary (now part of Poland), to a Jewish working-class family. Bernie Sanders_sentence_28

In 1921, Elias immigrated to the United States, where he became a paint salesman. Bernie Sanders_sentence_29

Bernard's mother, Dorothy Sanders (née Glassberg), was born in New York City to Jewish immigrant parents from Radzyń Podlaski, in modern-day eastern Poland, and with roots in Russia. Bernie Sanders_sentence_30

Sanders became interested in politics at an early age. Bernie Sanders_sentence_31

He said, "A guy named Adolf Hitler won an election in 1932. Bernie Sanders_sentence_32

He won an election, and 50 million people died as a result of that election in World War II, including six million Jews. Bernie Sanders_sentence_33

So what I learned as a little kid is that politics is, in fact, very important." Bernie Sanders_sentence_34

In the 1940s, many of his relatives in German-occupied Poland were murdered in the Holocaust. Bernie Sanders_sentence_35

Sanders lived in Midwood, Brooklyn. Bernie Sanders_sentence_36

He attended elementary school at P.S. Bernie Sanders_sentence_37 197, where he won a borough championship on the basketball team. Bernie Sanders_sentence_38

He attended Hebrew school in the afternoons, and celebrated his bar mitzvah in 1954. Bernie Sanders_sentence_39

His older brother, Larry, said that during their childhood, the family never lacked for food or clothing, but major purchases, "like curtains or a rug," were not affordable. Bernie Sanders_sentence_40

Sanders attended James Madison High School, where he was captain of the track team and took third place in the New York City indoor one-mile race. Bernie Sanders_sentence_41

In high school, he lost his first election, finishing last out of three candidates for the student body presidency with a campaign that focused on aiding Korean War orphans. Bernie Sanders_sentence_42

Despite the loss he became active in his school's fundraising activities for Korean orphans, including organizing a charity basketball game. Bernie Sanders_sentence_43

Not long after his high school graduation, his mother died at the age of 46. Bernie Sanders_sentence_44

His father died a few years later in 1962, at the age of 57. Bernie Sanders_sentence_45

Sanders studied at Brooklyn College for a year in 1959–1960 before transferring to the University of Chicago and graduating with a bachelor of arts degree in political science in 1964. Bernie Sanders_sentence_46

He has described himself as a mediocre college student because the classroom was "boring and irrelevant," while the community was more important to his education. Bernie Sanders_sentence_47

Early career Bernie Sanders_section_1

Political activism Bernie Sanders_section_2

Main article: University of Chicago sit-ins Bernie Sanders_sentence_48

Sanders later described his time in Chicago as "the major period of intellectual ferment in my life." Bernie Sanders_sentence_49

While there, he joined the Young People's Socialist League (the youth affiliate of the Socialist Party of America) and was active in the civil rights movement as a student for the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). Bernie Sanders_sentence_50

Under his chairmanship, the university chapter of CORE merged with the university chapter of the SNCC. Bernie Sanders_sentence_51

In January 1962, he went to a rally at the University of Chicago administration building to protest university president George Wells Beadle's segregated campus housing policy. Bernie Sanders_sentence_52

At the protest, Sanders said, "We feel it is an intolerable situation when Negro and white students of the university cannot live together in university-owned apartments". Bernie Sanders_sentence_53

He and 32 other students then entered the building and camped outside the president's office. Bernie Sanders_sentence_54

After weeks of sit-ins, Beadle and the university formed a commission to investigate discrimination. Bernie Sanders_sentence_55

After further protests, the University of Chicago ended racial segregation in private university housing in the summer of 1963. Bernie Sanders_sentence_56

Joan Mahoney, a member of the University of Chicago CORE chapter at the time and a fellow participant in the sit-ins, described Sanders in a 2016 interview as "a swell guy, a nice Jewish boy from Brooklyn, but he wasn't terribly charismatic. Bernie Sanders_sentence_57

One of his strengths, though, was his ability to work with a wide group of people, even those he didn't agree with." Bernie Sanders_sentence_58

He once spent a day putting up fliers protesting police brutality, only to notice later that Chicago police had shadowed him and taken them all down. Bernie Sanders_sentence_59

He attended the 1963 March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom, where Martin Luther King Jr. gave the "I Have a Dream" speech. Bernie Sanders_sentence_60

That summer, Sanders was fined $25 (equivalent to $209 in 2019) for resisting arrest during a demonstration in Englewood against segregation in Chicago's public schools. Bernie Sanders_sentence_61

In addition to his civil rights activism during the 1960s and 1970s, Sanders was active in several peace and antiwar movements while attending the University of Chicago, becoming a member of the Student Peace Union. Bernie Sanders_sentence_62

He applied for conscientious objector status during the Vietnam War; his application was eventually turned down, by which point he was too old to be drafted. Bernie Sanders_sentence_63

Although he opposed the war, Sanders never criticized those who fought in it, and he has long been a strong supporter of veterans' benefits. Bernie Sanders_sentence_64

He also was briefly an organizer with the United Packinghouse Workers of America while in Chicago. Bernie Sanders_sentence_65

He also worked on the reelection campaign of Leon Despres, a prominent Chicago alderman who was opposed to mayor Richard J. Daley's Democratic Party machine. Bernie Sanders_sentence_66

Throughout his student years, Sanders read the works of many political authors, from Thomas Jefferson, Abraham Lincoln, and John Dewey to Karl Marx and Erich Fromm. Bernie Sanders_sentence_67

Professional history and early years in Vermont Bernie Sanders_section_3

After graduating from college, Sanders returned to New York City, where he worked various jobs, including Head Start teacher, psychiatric aide, and carpenter. Bernie Sanders_sentence_68

In 1968, he moved to Stannard, Vermont, a town small in both area and population (88 residents at the 1970 census) within Vermont's rural Northeast Kingdom region, because he had been "captivated by rural life." Bernie Sanders_sentence_69

While there, he worked as a carpenter, filmmaker, and writer who created and sold "radical film strips" and other educational materials to schools. Bernie Sanders_sentence_70

He also wrote several articles for the alternative publication The Vermont Freeman. Bernie Sanders_sentence_71

He lived in the area for several years before moving to the more populous Chittenden County in the mid-1970s. Bernie Sanders_sentence_72

During his 2018 reelection campaign, he returned to the town to hold an event with voters and other candidates. Bernie Sanders_sentence_73

Liberty Union campaigns Bernie Sanders_section_4

Sanders began his electoral political career in 1971 as a member of the Liberty Union Party, which originated in the anti-war movement and the People's Party. Bernie Sanders_sentence_74

He ran as the Liberty Union candidate for governor of Vermont in 1972 and 1976 and as a candidate for U.S. senator in 1972 and 1974. Bernie Sanders_sentence_75

In the 1974 senatorial race, he finished third (5,901 votes; 4%), behind 33-year-old Chittenden County state's attorney Patrick Leahy (D; 70,629 votes; 49%) and two-term incumbent U.S. Representative Dick Mallary (R; 66,223 votes; 46%). Bernie Sanders_sentence_76

The 1976 campaign was the zenith of the Liberty Union's influence, with Sanders collecting 11,317 votes for governor and the party. Bernie Sanders_sentence_77

His strong performance forced the down-ballot races for lieutenant governor and secretary of state to be decided by the state legislature when its vote total prevented either the Republican or Democratic candidate for those offices from garnering a majority of votes. Bernie Sanders_sentence_78

The campaign drained the finances and energy of the Liberty Union, however, and in October 1977, less than a year after the 1976 campaign concluded, he and the Liberty Union candidate for attorney general, Nancy Kaufman, announced their retirement from the party. Bernie Sanders_sentence_79

During the 1980 presidential election Sanders served as one of three electors for the Socialist Workers Party in Vermont. Bernie Sanders_sentence_80

After his resignation from the Liberty Union Party in 1977, Sanders worked as a writer and as the director of the nonprofit American People's Historical Society (APHS). Bernie Sanders_sentence_81

While with the APHS, he produced a 30-minute documentary about American labor leader Eugene V. Debs, who ran for president five times as the Socialist Party candidate. Bernie Sanders_sentence_82

Mayor of Burlington, Vermont (1981–1989) Bernie Sanders_section_5

Main article: Mayoralty of Bernie Sanders Bernie Sanders_sentence_83

See also: Electoral history of Bernie Sanders Bernie Sanders_sentence_84

Campaigns Bernie Sanders_section_6

On November 8, 1980, Sanders announced his candidacy for mayor. Bernie Sanders_sentence_85

He formally announced his campaign on December 16 at a City Hall press conference. Bernie Sanders_sentence_86

Sanders selected Linda Niedweske as his campaign manager. Bernie Sanders_sentence_87

The Citizens Party attempted to nominate Greg Guma for mayor, but Guma declined, saying it would be "difficult to run against another progressive candidate". Bernie Sanders_sentence_88

Sanders had been convinced to run for the mayoralty by Richard Sugarman, an Orthodox Jewish scholar at the University of Vermont, who had shown him a ward-by-ward breakdown of the 1976 Vermont gubernatorial election, in which Sanders had run, that showed him receiving 12% of the vote in Burlington despite only getting 6% statewide. Bernie Sanders_sentence_89

Sanders initially won the mayoral election by 22 votes against Paquette, Bove, and McGrath, but the margin was later reduced to 10 votes. Bernie Sanders_sentence_90

Paquette did not contest the results of the recount. Bernie Sanders_sentence_91

Paquette's loss was attributed to his own shortcomings, as he did not campaign or promote his candidacy since both Sanders and Independent candidate Richard Bove were not seen as a serious challengers, as Sanders had not previously won an election. Bernie Sanders_sentence_92

Paquette was also considered to have lost because he proposed an unpopular $0.65 per $100 raise in taxes that Sanders opposed. Bernie Sanders_sentence_93

Sanders spent around $4,000 on his campaign. Bernie Sanders_sentence_94

Sanders castigated the pro-development incumbent as an ally of prominent shopping center developer Antonio Pomerleau, while Paquette warned of ruin for Burlington if Sanders were elected. Bernie Sanders_sentence_95

The Sanders campaign was bolstered by a wave of optimistic volunteers as well as a series of endorsements from university professors, social welfare agencies, and the police union. Bernie Sanders_sentence_96

The result shocked the local political establishment. Bernie Sanders_sentence_97

Sanders formed a coalition between independents and the Citizens Party. Bernie Sanders_sentence_98

On December 3, 1982, he announced that he would seek reelection. Bernie Sanders_sentence_99

On January 22, 1983, the Citizens Party voted unanimously to endorse Sanders, although Sanders ran as an independent. Bernie Sanders_sentence_100

He was reelected, defeating Judith Stephany and James Gilson. Bernie Sanders_sentence_101

Sanders initially considered not seeking a third term, but announced on December 5, 1984, that he would run. Bernie Sanders_sentence_102

He formally launched his campaign on December 7, and was reelected. Bernie Sanders_sentence_103

On December 1, 1986, Sanders, who had finished third in the 1986 Vermont gubernatorial election, announced that he would seek reelection to a fourth term as mayor of Burlington, despite close associates stating that he was tired of being mayor. Bernie Sanders_sentence_104

Sanders defeated Democratic nominee Paul Lafayette in the election. Bernie Sanders_sentence_105

He said he would not seek another mayoral term after the 1987 election: "eight years is enough and I think it is time for new leadership, which does exist within the coalition, to come up". Bernie Sanders_sentence_106

Sanders did not run for a fifth term as mayor. Bernie Sanders_sentence_107

He went on to lecture in political science at Harvard University's Kennedy School of Government that year and at Hamilton College in 1991. Bernie Sanders_sentence_108

Administration Bernie Sanders_section_7

During his mayoralty, Sanders called himself a socialist and was so described in the press. Bernie Sanders_sentence_109

During his first term, his supporters, including the first Citizens Party city councilor Terry Bouricius, formed the Progressive Coalition, the forerunner of the Vermont Progressive Party. Bernie Sanders_sentence_110

The Progressives never held more than six seats on the 13-member city council, but they had enough to keep the council from overriding Sanders's vetoes. Bernie Sanders_sentence_111

Under his leadership, Burlington balanced its city budget; attracted a minor league baseball team, the Vermont Reds, then the Double-A affiliate of the Cincinnati Reds; became the first U.S. city to fund community-trust housing; and successfully sued the local cable television franchise, thereby winning reduced rates for customers. Bernie Sanders_sentence_112

As mayor, Sanders also led extensive downtown revitalization projects. Bernie Sanders_sentence_113

One of his primary achievements was improving Burlington's Lake Champlain waterfront. Bernie Sanders_sentence_114

In 1981, he campaigned against the unpopular plans by Burlington developer Tony Pomerleau to convert the then-industrial waterfront property owned by the Central Vermont Railway into expensive condominiums, hotels, and offices. Bernie Sanders_sentence_115

He ran under the slogan "Burlington is not for sale" and successfully supported a plan that redeveloped the waterfront area into a mixed-use district featuring housing, parks, and public spaces. Bernie Sanders_sentence_116

Sanders was a consistent critic of U.S. foreign policy in Latin America throughout the 1980s. Bernie Sanders_sentence_117

In 1985, Burlington City Hall hosted a foreign policy speech by Noam Chomsky. Bernie Sanders_sentence_118

In his introduction, he praised Chomsky as "a very vocal and important voice in the wilderness of intellectual life in America" and said that he was "delighted to welcome a person who I think we're all very proud of." Bernie Sanders_sentence_119

Sanders hosted and produced a public-access television program, Bernie Speaks with the Community, from 1986 to 1988. Bernie Sanders_sentence_120

He collaborated with 30 Vermont musicians to record a folk album, We Shall Overcome, in 1987. Bernie Sanders_sentence_121

That same year, U.S. Bernie Sanders_sentence_122 News & World Report ranked Sanders one of America's best mayors. Bernie Sanders_sentence_123

As of 2013, Burlington was regarded as one of the most livable cities in the United States. Bernie Sanders_sentence_124

When Sanders left office in 1989, Bouricius, a member of the Burlington city council, said that Sanders had "changed the entire nature of politics in Burlington and also in the state of Vermont". Bernie Sanders_sentence_125

U.S. House of Representatives (1991–2007) Bernie Sanders_section_8

See also: Electoral history of Bernie Sanders Bernie Sanders_sentence_126

Elections Bernie Sanders_section_9

In 1988, incumbent Republican congressman Jim Jeffords decided to run for the U.S. Senate, vacating the House seat representing Vermont's at-large congressional district. Bernie Sanders_sentence_127

Former Lieutenant Governor Peter P. Smith (R) won the House election with a plurality, securing 41% of the vote. Bernie Sanders_sentence_128

Sanders, who ran as an independent, placed second with 38% of the vote, while Democratic State Representative Paul N. Poirier placed third with 19%. Bernie Sanders_sentence_129

Two years later, he ran for the seat again and defeated Smith by a margin of 56% to 39%. Bernie Sanders_sentence_130

Sanders was the first independent elected to the U.S. House of Representatives since Frazier Reams of Ohio, as well as the first socialist elected to the House in decades. Bernie Sanders_sentence_131

He served as a representative from 1991 until he became a senator in 2007, winning reelection by large margins except during the 1994 Republican Revolution, when he won by 3%, with 50% of the vote. Bernie Sanders_sentence_132

Legislation Bernie Sanders_section_10

During his first year in the House, Sanders often alienated allies and colleagues with his criticism of both political parties as working primarily on behalf of the wealthy. Bernie Sanders_sentence_133

In 1991, he co-founded the Congressional Progressive Caucus, a group of mostly liberal Democrats that he chaired for its first eight years, while still refusing to join the Democratic Party or caucus. Bernie Sanders_sentence_134

In 2005, Rolling Stone called Sanders the "amendment king" for his ability to get more roll call amendments passed than any other congressman during the period since 1995, when Congress was entirely under Republican control. Bernie Sanders_sentence_135

Being an independent allowed him to form coalitions across party lines. Bernie Sanders_sentence_136

Banking reform Bernie Sanders_section_11

In 1999, Sanders voted and advocated against rolling back the Glass–Steagall legislation provisions that kept investment banks and commercial banks separate entities. Bernie Sanders_sentence_137

He was a vocal critic of Federal Reserve Chair Alan Greenspan; in June 2003, during a question-and-answer discussion, Sanders told him he was concerned that Greenspan was "way out of touch" and "that you see your major function in your position as the need to represent the wealthy and large corporations." Bernie Sanders_sentence_138

Cancer registries Bernie Sanders_section_12

Concerned by high breast cancer rates in Vermont, on February 7, 1992, Sanders sponsored the Cancer Registries Amendment Act to establish cancer registries to collect data on cancer. Bernie Sanders_sentence_139

Senator Patrick Leahy introduced a companion bill in the Senate on October 2, 1992. Bernie Sanders_sentence_140

The Senate bill was passed by the House on October 6 and signed into law by President George H. W. Bush on October 24, 1992. Bernie Sanders_sentence_141

Firearms and criminal justice Bernie Sanders_section_13

In 1993, Sanders voted against the Brady Bill, which mandated federal background checks when buying guns and imposed a waiting period on firearm purchasers in the United States; the bill passed by a vote of 238–187. Bernie Sanders_sentence_142

He voted against the bill four more times in the 1990s, explaining his Vermont constituents saw waiting-period mandates as more appropriately a state than federal matter. Bernie Sanders_sentence_143

Sanders did vote for other gun-control measures. Bernie Sanders_sentence_144

For example, in 1994, he voted for the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act "because it included the Violence Against Women Act and the ban on certain assault weapons." Bernie Sanders_sentence_145

He was nevertheless critical of the other parts of the bill. Bernie Sanders_sentence_146

Although he acknowledged that "clearly, there are some people in our society who are horribly violent, who are deeply sick and sociopathic, and clearly these people must be put behind bars in order to protect society from them," he maintained that governmental policies played a large part in "dooming tens of millions of young people to a future of bitterness, misery, hopelessness, drugs, crime, and violence" and argued that the repressive policies introduced by the bill were not addressing the causes of violence, saying, "we can create meaningful jobs, rebuilding our society, or we can build more jails." Bernie Sanders_sentence_147

Sanders has at times favored stronger law enforcement and sentencing. Bernie Sanders_sentence_148

In 1996, he voted against a bill that would have prohibited police from purchasing tanks and armored carriers. Bernie Sanders_sentence_149

In 1998, he voted for a bill that would have increased minimum sentencing for possessing a gun while committing a federal crime to ten years in prison, including nonviolent crimes such as marijuana possession. Bernie Sanders_sentence_150

In 2005, Sanders voted for the Protection of Lawful Commerce in Arms Act. Bernie Sanders_sentence_151

The purpose of the act was to prevent firearms manufacturers and dealers from being held liable for negligence when crimes have been committed with their products. Bernie Sanders_sentence_152

As of 2016, he said that he has since changed his position and would vote for legislation to defeat this bill. Bernie Sanders_sentence_153

Opposition to the Patriot Act Bernie Sanders_section_14

Sanders was a consistent critic of the Patriot Act. Bernie Sanders_sentence_154

As a member of Congress, he voted against the original Patriot Act legislation. Bernie Sanders_sentence_155

After its 357–66 passage in the House, he sponsored and voted for several subsequent amendments and acts attempting to curtail its effects and voted against each reauthorization. Bernie Sanders_sentence_156

In June 2005, he proposed an amendment to limit Patriot Act provisions that allow the government to obtain individuals' library and book-buying records. Bernie Sanders_sentence_157

The amendment passed the House by a bipartisan majority, but was removed on November 4 of that year in House–Senate negotiations and never became law. Bernie Sanders_sentence_158

Opposition to the War in Iraq Bernie Sanders_section_15

Sanders voted against the resolutions authorizing the use of force against Iraq in 1991 and 2002, and he opposed the 2003 invasion of Iraq. Bernie Sanders_sentence_159

He voted for the 2001 Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Terrorists that has been cited as the legal justification for controversial military actions since the September 11 attacks. Bernie Sanders_sentence_160

He voted for a non-binding resolution expressing support for troops at the outset of the invasion of Iraq, but gave a floor speech criticizing the partisan nature of the vote and the Bush administration's actions in the run-up to the war. Bernie Sanders_sentence_161

Regarding the leak of CIA agent Valerie Plame's identity by a State Department official, he stated: "The revelation that the President authorized the release of classified information in order to discredit an Iraq war critic should tell every member of Congress that the time is now for a serious investigation of how we got into the war in Iraq and why Congress can no longer act as a rubber stamp for the President." Bernie Sanders_sentence_162

Trade policy Bernie Sanders_section_16

In February 2005, Sanders introduced a bill that would have withdrawn the permanent normal trade relations (PNTR) status that had been extended to China in October 2000. Bernie Sanders_sentence_163

He said to the House, "Anyone who takes an objective look at our trade policy with China must conclude that it is an absolute failure and needs to be fundamentally overhauled", citing the American jobs being lost to overseas competitors. Bernie Sanders_sentence_164

His bill received 71 co-sponsors but was not sent to the floor for a vote. Bernie Sanders_sentence_165

U.S. Senate (2007–present) Bernie Sanders_section_17

Elections Bernie Sanders_section_18

Main articles: 2006 United States Senate election in Vermont, 2012 United States Senate election in Vermont, and 2018 United States Senate election in Vermont Bernie Sanders_sentence_166

Sanders entered the race for the U.S. Senate on April 21, 2005, after Senator Jim Jeffords announced that he would not seek a fourth term. Bernie Sanders_sentence_167

Chuck Schumer, chairman of the Democratic Senatorial Campaign Committee, endorsed Sanders, a critical move as it meant that no Democrat running against him could expect to receive financial help from the party. Bernie Sanders_sentence_168

He was also endorsed by Senate Minority Leader Harry Reid and Democratic National Committee chairman and former Vermont governor Howard Dean. Bernie Sanders_sentence_169

Dean said in May 2005 that he considered Sanders an ally who "votes with the Democrats 98% of the time." Bernie Sanders_sentence_170

Then-Senator Barack Obama also campaigned for him in Vermont in March 2006. Bernie Sanders_sentence_171

Sanders entered into an agreement with the Democratic Party, much as he had as a congressman, to be listed in their primary but to decline the nomination should he win, which he did. Bernie Sanders_sentence_172

In the most expensive political campaign in Vermont's history, he defeated businessman Rich Tarrant by an almost 2-to-1 margin. Bernie Sanders_sentence_173

Many national media outlets projected Sanders as the winner just after the polls closed, before any returns came in. Bernie Sanders_sentence_174

He was reelected in 2012 with 71% of the vote, and in 2018 with 67% of the vote. Bernie Sanders_sentence_175

Legislation Bernie Sanders_section_19

While a member of Congress, Sanders sponsored 15 concurrent resolutions and 15 Senate resolutions. Bernie Sanders_sentence_176

Of those he co-sponsored, 218 became law. Bernie Sanders_sentence_177

While he has consistently advocated for progressive causes, Politico wrote that he has "rarely forged actual legislation or left a significant imprint on it." Bernie Sanders_sentence_178

According to The New York Times, "Big legislation largely eludes Mr. Sanders because his ideas are usually far to the left of the majority of the Senate… Mr. Sanders has largely found ways to press his agenda through appending small provisions to the larger bills of others." Bernie Sanders_sentence_179

During his time in the Senate, he had lower legislative effectiveness than the average senator, as measured by the number of sponsored bills that passed and successful amendments made. Bernie Sanders_sentence_180

Nevertheless, he has sponsored over 500 amendments to bills, many of which became law. Bernie Sanders_sentence_181

The results of these amendments include a ban on imported goods made by child labor; $100 million in funding for community health centers; $10 million for an outreach program for servicemembers suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder, traumatic brain injury, depression, panic attacks, and other mental disorders; a public database of senior Department of Defense officials seeking employment with defense contractors; and including autism treatment in the military healthcare program. Bernie Sanders_sentence_182

Finance and monetary policy Bernie Sanders_section_20

In 2008 and 2009, Sanders voted against the Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP, also known as the Wall Street bailout), a program to purchase toxic banking assets and provide loans to banks that were in free-fall. Bernie Sanders_sentence_183

On February 4, 2009, he sponsored an amendment to ensure that TARP funds would not displace U.S. workers. Bernie Sanders_sentence_184

The amendment passed and was added to the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009. Bernie Sanders_sentence_185

Among his proposed financial reforms is auditing the Federal Reserve, which would reduce its independence in monetary policy deliberations; Federal Reserve officials say that "Audit the Fed" legislation would expose the Federal Reserve to undue political pressure from lawmakers who do not like its decisions. Bernie Sanders_sentence_186

On December 10, 2010, Sanders delivered an ​8 ⁄2–hour speech against the Tax Relief, Unemployment Insurance Reauthorization, and Job Creation Act of 2010, which proposed extending the Bush-era tax rates. Bernie Sanders_sentence_187

He argued that the legislation would favor the wealthiest Americans. Bernie Sanders_sentence_188

"Enough is enough!… How many homes can you own?" Bernie Sanders_sentence_189

he asked. Bernie Sanders_sentence_190

Nevertheless, the bill passed the Senate with a strong majority and was signed into law a week later. Bernie Sanders_sentence_191

In February 2011, Nation Books published the speech as The Speech: A Historic Filibuster on Corporate Greed and the Decline of Our Middle Class, with authorial proceeds going to Vermont nonprofit charitable organizations. Bernie Sanders_sentence_192

In 2016, Sanders voted for the Federal Reserve Transparency Act, which included proposals for a reformed audit of the Federal Reserve System. Bernie Sanders_sentence_193

Foreign policy Bernie Sanders_section_21

On June 12, 2017, U.S. senators agreed to legislation imposing new sanctions on Russia and Iran. Bernie Sanders_sentence_194

The bill was opposed only by Sanders and Republican Rand Paul. Bernie Sanders_sentence_195

He supported the sanctions on Russia, but voted against the bill because he believed the sanctions could endanger the Iran nuclear deal. Bernie Sanders_sentence_196

In 2018, Sanders sponsored a bill and was joined by Senators Chris Murphy (DCT) and Mike Lee (RUT) to invoke the 1973 War Powers Resolution to end U.S. support for the Saudi-led military intervention in Yemen, which has resulted in hundreds of thousands of civilian casualties and "millions more suffering from starvation and disease". Bernie Sanders_sentence_197

After the assassination of Jamal Khashoggi in October 2018 (which was ordered by Saudi Arabian Crown Prince Mohammad bin Salman, according to multiple intelligence agencies), his bill attracted bipartisan co-sponsors and support, and the Senate passed it by a vote of 56–41. Bernie Sanders_sentence_198

The bill passed the House in February 2019 by a 247–175 vote and President Trump vetoed it in March, saying: "This resolution is an unnecessary, dangerous attempt to weaken my constitutional authorities, endangering the lives of American citizens and brave service members, both today and in the future." Bernie Sanders_sentence_199

Health care Bernie Sanders_section_22

In mid-December 2009, Sanders successfully added a provision to the Affordable Care Act to fund $11 billion to community health centers, especially those in rural areas. Bernie Sanders_sentence_200

The provision brought together Democrats on the left with Democrats from conservative, rural areas, helping to secure the 60 votes needed for passage. Bernie Sanders_sentence_201

On May 4, 2017, in response to the House vote to repeal and replace the Affordable Care Act, he predicted "thousands of Americans would die" from no longer having access to health care. Bernie Sanders_sentence_202

PolitiFact rated his statement "mostly true." Bernie Sanders_sentence_203

In September 2017, Sanders along with 15 Senate co-sponsors submitted the Medicare for All bill, a single-payer healthcare plan. Bernie Sanders_sentence_204

The bill covers vision and dental care, unlike Medicare. Bernie Sanders_sentence_205

Some Republicans have called the bill "Berniecare" and "the latest Democratic push for socialized medicine and higher taxes." Bernie Sanders_sentence_206

He responded that the Republican Party has no credibility on the issue of health care after voting for legislation that would take health insurance away from 32 million Americans under the Affordable Care Act. Bernie Sanders_sentence_207

As chairman of the Senate Subcommittee on Primary Health and Aging, Sanders has introduced legislation to reauthorize and strengthen the Older Americans Act, which supports Meals on Wheels and other programs for seniors. Bernie Sanders_sentence_208

Immigration policy Bernie Sanders_section_23

In 2007, Sanders helped kill a bill introducing comprehensive immigration reform, arguing that its guest-worker program would depress wages for American workers. Bernie Sanders_sentence_209

In 2010, he supported the DREAM Act, which would have provided a path to citizenship for undocumented immigrants who had been brought to the United States as minors. Bernie Sanders_sentence_210

In 2013, he supported the Gang of Eight's comprehensive immigration reform bill after securing a $1.5 billion youth jobs program provision, which he argued would offset the harm of labor market competition with immigrants. Bernie Sanders_sentence_211

Income and wealth distribution Bernie Sanders_section_24

In April 2017, Sanders introduced a bill that would raise the minimum wage for federal contract workers to $15 an hour, an increase over an earlier Democratic $12 an hour proposal. Bernie Sanders_sentence_212

On May 9, 2018, he introduced the Workplace Democracy Act, a bill that would expand labor rights by making it easier for workers to join a union, ban right-to-work laws and some anti-union provisions of the Taft–Hartley Act, and outlaw some union-busting tactics. Bernie Sanders_sentence_213

Announcing the legislation, he said, "If we are serious about reducing income and wealth inequality and rebuilding the middle class, we have got to substantially increase the number of union jobs in this country." Bernie Sanders_sentence_214

Sanders opposed the 2018 United States federal budget proposed by the Trump administration, calling it "a budget for the billionaire class, for Wall Street, for corporate CEOs, and for the wealthiest people in this country… nothing less than a massive transfer of wealth from working families, the elderly, children, the sick and the poor to the top 1%." Bernie Sanders_sentence_215

After the November 2017 revelations from the Paradise Papers and a recent report from the Institute for Policy Studies which says just three people (Jeff Bezos, Bill Gates, and Warren Buffett) own more wealth than the bottom half of the U.S. population, Sanders stated that "we must end global oligarchy" and that "we need, in the United States and throughout the world, a tax system which is fair, progressive and transparent." Bernie Sanders_sentence_216

On September 5, 2018, Sanders partnered with Ro Khanna to introduce the Stop Bad Employers by Zeroing Out Subsidies (Stop BEZOS) Act, which would require large corporations to pay for the food stamps and Medicaid benefits that their employees receive, relieving the burden on taxpayers. Bernie Sanders_sentence_217

Veterans affairs Bernie Sanders_section_25

On June 9, 2014, Sanders sponsored the Veterans' Access to Care through Choice, Accountability, and Transparency Act of 2014 to reform the Department of Veterans Affairs in the wake of the Veterans Health Administration scandal of 2014. Bernie Sanders_sentence_218

He worked with Senator John McCain, who co-sponsored the bill. Bernie Sanders_sentence_219

His bill was incorporated into the House version of the bill, which passed both chambers on July 31, 2014, and was signed into law by President Barack Obama on August 7, 2014. Bernie Sanders_sentence_220

Supreme Court nominees Bernie Sanders_section_26

On March 17, 2016, Sanders said he would support Merrick Garland's nomination to the Supreme Court, though he added, "there are some more progressive judges out there." Bernie Sanders_sentence_221

He opposed Neil Gorsuch's nomination to the Court, saying that Gorsuch had "refused to answer legitimate questions." Bernie Sanders_sentence_222

He also objected to Senate Republicans using the nuclear option to "choke off debate and ram the nomination through the Senate." Bernie Sanders_sentence_223

He voted against Gorsuch's confirmation as an associate justice. Bernie Sanders_sentence_224

Committee assignments Bernie Sanders_section_27

As an independent, Sanders worked out a deal with the Senate Democratic leadership in which he agreed to vote with the Democrats on all procedural matters unless the Democratic whip, Dick Durbin, agreed that he need not (a request rarely made or granted). Bernie Sanders_sentence_225

In return he was allowed to keep his seniority and received the committee seats that would have been available to him as a Democrat; in 2013–14 he was chairman of the United States Senate Committee on Veterans' Affairs (during the Veterans Health Administration scandal). Bernie Sanders_sentence_226

Sanders became the ranking minority member on the Senate Budget Committee in January 2015; he had previously chaired the Senate Veterans' Affairs Committee for two years. Bernie Sanders_sentence_227

Since January 2017, he has been Chair of the Senate Democratic Outreach Committee. Bernie Sanders_sentence_228

He appointed economics professor Stephanie Kelton, a modern monetary theory scholar, as the chief economic adviser for the committee's Democratic minority and presented a report about helping "rebuild the disappearing middle class," which included proposals to raise the minimum wage, boost infrastructure spending, and increase Social Security payments. Bernie Sanders_sentence_229

As of 2020, Sanders's committee assignments are as follows: Bernie Sanders_sentence_230

Bernie Sanders_unordered_list_0

Caucus memberships Bernie Sanders_section_28

Sanders was only the third senator from Vermont to caucus with the Democrats, after Jeffords and Leahy. Bernie Sanders_sentence_231

His caucusing with the Democrats gave them a 51–49 majority in the Senate during the 110th Congress in 2007–08. Bernie Sanders_sentence_232

The Democrats needed 51 seats to control the Senate because Vice President Dick Cheney would likely have broken any tie in favor of the Republicans. Bernie Sanders_sentence_233

He is a member of the following caucuses: Bernie Sanders_sentence_234

Bernie Sanders_unordered_list_1

Approval ratings Bernie Sanders_section_29

Polling conducted in August 2011 by Public Policy Polling found that Sanders's approval rating was 67% and his disapproval rating 28%, making him then the third-most popular U.S. senator. Bernie Sanders_sentence_235

Both the NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People) and the NHLA (National Hispanic Leadership Agenda) have given him 100% voting scores during his tenure in the Senate. Bernie Sanders_sentence_236

In 2015, he was named one of the Top 5 of The Forward 50. Bernie Sanders_sentence_237

In a November 2015 Morning Consult poll, he reached an 83% approval rating among his constituents, making him the most popular U.S. senator. Bernie Sanders_sentence_238

Fox News found him to have the highest net favorability at +28 points of any prominent politician included in its March 2017 poll. Bernie Sanders_sentence_239

He ranked third in 2014 and first in both 2015 and 2016. Bernie Sanders_sentence_240

In April 2017, a nationwide Harvard-Harris Poll found that Sanders had the highest favorability rating among the political figures included in the poll, a standing confirmed by subsequent polling. Bernie Sanders_sentence_241

2016 presidential campaign Bernie Sanders_section_30

Main articles: Bernie Sanders 2016 presidential campaign and 2016 Democratic Party presidential primaries Bernie Sanders_sentence_242

During the 2012 Democratic presidential primaries, Sanders—dissatisfied with President Obama's "attempts to trade Social Security cuts for tax hikes"—reportedly considered running against him in the primaries. Bernie Sanders_sentence_243

Sanders had previously suggested in 2011 that it was "a good idea" for someone to challenge Obama, and "got so close to running a primary challenge… that Senator Harry Reid had to intervene to stop him." Bernie Sanders_sentence_244

In November 2013, Sanders suggested that Senator Elizabeth Warren could be president and that she might earn his backing if she ran. Bernie Sanders_sentence_245

He added that if no progressive candidate ran, he might feel compelled to do so himself. Bernie Sanders_sentence_246

In December 2014, Warren said she was not running. Bernie Sanders_sentence_247

Sanders announced his intention to seek the Democratic Party's nomination for president on April 30, 2015. Bernie Sanders_sentence_248

His campaign was officially launched on May 26 in Burlington. Bernie Sanders_sentence_249

In his announcement Sanders said, "I don't believe that the men and women who defended American democracy fought to create a situation where billionaires own the political process," and made this a central idea throughout his campaign. Bernie Sanders_sentence_250

Warren welcomed Sanders's entry into the race, saying, "I'm glad to see him get out there and give his version of what leadership in this country should be," but never endorsed him. Bernie Sanders_sentence_251

Initially considered a long shot, Sanders won 23 primaries and caucuses and around 46% of pledged delegates to Hillary Clinton's 54%. Bernie Sanders_sentence_252

His campaign was noted for its supporters' enthusiasm, as well as for rejecting large donations from corporations, the financial industry, and any associated Super PAC. Bernie Sanders_sentence_253

Some of the Democratic National Committee (DNC) emails leaked to the public in June and July 2016 showed that the committee leadership had favored Clinton over him and had worked to help Clinton win the nomination. Bernie Sanders_sentence_254

On July 12, 2016, Sanders formally endorsed Clinton in her unsuccessful general election campaign against Republican Donald Trump, while urging his supporters to continue the "political revolution" his campaign had begun. Bernie Sanders_sentence_255

Campaign methods Bernie Sanders_section_31

Unlike the other major candidates, Sanders did not pursue funding through a Super PAC or by wealthy donors, instead focusing on small-dollar donations. Bernie Sanders_sentence_256

His presidential campaign raised $1.5 million within 24 hours of his official announcement. Bernie Sanders_sentence_257

At the end of the year, the campaign had raised a total of $73 million from more than one million people, making 2.5 million donations, with an average donation of $27.16. Bernie Sanders_sentence_258

The campaign reached 3.25 million donations by the end of January 2016, raising $20 million in that month alone. Bernie Sanders_sentence_259

Sanders used social media to help his campaign gain momentum, posting content to online platforms such as Twitter and Facebook and answering questions on Reddit. Bernie Sanders_sentence_260

He gained a large grassroots organizational following online. Bernie Sanders_sentence_261

A July 29, 2015 meetup organized online brought 100,000 supporters to more than 3,500 simultaneous events nationwide. Bernie Sanders_sentence_262

To his surprise, Sanders's June 2015 campaign events drew overflow crowds across the country. Bernie Sanders_sentence_263

When Clinton and Sanders made public appearances within days of each other in Des Moines, Iowa, he drew larger crowds, even though he had already made many stops around the state and Clinton's visit was her first in 2015. Bernie Sanders_sentence_264

On July 1, 2015, his campaign stop in Madison, Wisconsin, drew the largest crowd of any 2016 presidential candidate to that date, with an estimated turnout of 10,000. Bernie Sanders_sentence_265

Over the following weeks, he drew even larger crowds: 11,000 in Phoenix; 15,000 in Seattle; and 28,000 in Portland, Oregon. Bernie Sanders_sentence_266

Presidential debates Bernie Sanders_section_32

Main article: 2016 Democratic Party presidential debates and forums Bernie Sanders_sentence_267

The Democratic National Committee (DNC) announced in May 2015 that there would be six debates. Bernie Sanders_sentence_268

Critics alleged that the small number of debates and the schedule, with half of the debates on Saturday or Sunday nights, were part of the DNC's deliberate attempt to protect Clinton, who was perceived as the front-runner. Bernie Sanders_sentence_269

In February 2016, both the Clinton and Sanders campaigns agreed in principle to holding four more debates for a total of ten. Bernie Sanders_sentence_270

Clinton dropped out of the tenth debate, scheduled to take place just before the California primary, citing a need to devote her time to making direct contact with California voters and preparing for the general election. Bernie Sanders_sentence_271

Sanders expressed disappointment that Clinton canceled the debate "before the largest and most important primary in the presidential nominating process." Bernie Sanders_sentence_272

Polls and news coverage Bernie Sanders_section_33

See also: Media coverage of Bernie Sanders Bernie Sanders_sentence_273

Some supporters raised concerns that publications such as The New York Times minimized coverage of the Sanders campaign in favor of other candidates, especially Trump and Clinton. Bernie Sanders_sentence_274

The Timess ombudsman reviewed her paper's coverage of the Sanders campaign and found that as of September 2015 the Times "hasn't always taken it very seriously. Bernie Sanders_sentence_275

The tone of some stories is regrettably dismissive, even mocking at times. Bernie Sanders_sentence_276

Some of that is focused on the candidate's age, appearance and style, rather than what he has to say." Bernie Sanders_sentence_277

She also found that the Times's coverage of Sanders's campaign was much scanter than its coverage of Trump's, though Trump's was also initially considered a long shot at that time, with 63 articles covering the Trump campaign and 14 covering Sanders's. Bernie Sanders_sentence_278

A December 2015 report found that the three major networks—CBS, NBC, and ABC—had spent 234 minutes reporting on Trump and 10 minutes on Sanders, despite their similar polling results. Bernie Sanders_sentence_279

The report noted that ABC World News Tonight had spent 81 minutes on Trump and less than one minute on Sanders during 2015. Bernie Sanders_sentence_280

A study of media coverage in the 2016 election concluded that while Sanders received less coverage than his rival Hillary Clinton, the amount of coverage of Sanders during the election was largely consistent with his polling performance, except during 2015 when Sanders received coverage that far exceeded his standing in the polls. Bernie Sanders_sentence_281

Studies concluded that the tone of media coverage of Sanders was more favorable than that of any other candidate, whereas his main opponent in the democratic primary, Hillary Clinton, received the most negative coverage of any candidate. Bernie Sanders_sentence_282

All 2016 candidates received vastly less media coverage than Donald Trump, and the Democratic primary received substantially less coverage than the Republican primary. Bernie Sanders_sentence_283

Amy Goodman of Democracy Now! Bernie Sanders_sentence_284

noted that on March 15, Super Tuesday III, the speeches of Trump, Clinton, Marco Rubio, and Ted Cruz were broadcast in full. Bernie Sanders_sentence_285

Sanders was in Phoenix, Arizona, on that date, speaking to a rally larger than any of the others, yet his speech was not mentioned, let alone broadcast. Bernie Sanders_sentence_286

However, political scientist Rachel Bitecofer wrote in her 2018 book about the 2016 election that the Democratic primary was effectively over in terms of delegate count by mid-March 2016, but that the media promoted the narrative that the contest between Sanders and Clinton was "heating up" at that time. Bernie Sanders_sentence_287

An NBC/Wall Street Journal poll conducted in May 2016 found Clinton and Trump (by then the presumptive Republican nominee) in a "dead heat," but the same poll found that if Sanders were the Democratic nominee, 53% of voters would support him to 39% for Trump. Bernie Sanders_sentence_288

Clinton and Trump were the least popular likely candidates ever polled, while Sanders received a 43% positive, 36% negative rating. Bernie Sanders_sentence_289

Polls showed that Democratic voters older than 50 preferred Clinton by a large margin but that those under 50 overwhelmingly favored Sanders. Bernie Sanders_sentence_290

A 2017 analysis in Newsweek found that 12% of those who voted for Sanders in the Democratic primary voted for Trump in the general election, enough to swing the election in his favor. Bernie Sanders_sentence_291

DNC email leak Bernie Sanders_section_34

Main articles: 2016 Democratic National Committee email leak and Podesta emails Bernie Sanders_sentence_292

In July 2016, a leak of the Democratic National Committee's emails appeared to show DNC officials favoring Clinton over Sanders. Bernie Sanders_sentence_293

Staff repeatedly discussed making his irreligious tendencies a potential campaign issue in southern states and questioned his party loyalty. Bernie Sanders_sentence_294

DNC chair Debbie Wasserman Schultz called his campaign manager "an ASS" and "a damn liar." Bernie Sanders_sentence_295

Speaking with Jake Tapper on CNN, Sanders responded to the leak, saying, "it is an outrage and sad that you would have people in important positions in the DNC trying to undermine my campaign. Bernie Sanders_sentence_296

It goes without saying: the function of the DNC is to represent all of the candidates—to be fair and even-minded. Bernie Sanders_sentence_297

But again, we discussed this many, many months ago, on this show, so what is revealed now is not a shock to me." Bernie Sanders_sentence_298

Primary loss and endorsement of Hillary Clinton Bernie Sanders_section_35

Main articles: Results of the 2016 Democratic Party presidential primaries and 2016 United States presidential election Bernie Sanders_sentence_299

After the final primary election, Clinton became the presumptive Democratic nominee. Bernie Sanders_sentence_300

On July 12, Sanders formally endorsed Clinton. Bernie Sanders_sentence_301

He said he would continue to work with the Democratic National Convention organizers to implement progressive positions. Bernie Sanders_sentence_302

Sanders refused to formally concede before the convention. Bernie Sanders_sentence_303

He spoke at the 2016 Democratic National Convention on July 25, during which he gave Clinton his full support. Bernie Sanders_sentence_304

Some of his supporters attempted to protest Clinton's nomination and booed when Sanders called for party unity. Bernie Sanders_sentence_305

He responded, "Our job is to do two things: to defeat Donald Trump and to elect Hillary Clinton … It is easy to boo, but it is harder to look your kids in the face if we are living under a Trump presidency." Bernie Sanders_sentence_306

On November 8, in the general election, Sanders received almost 6% of the vote in Vermont, even though he was no longer a candidate. Bernie Sanders_sentence_307

This was the highest share of a statewide presidential vote for a write-in draft campaign in American history. Bernie Sanders_sentence_308

He also received more votes in Vermont than Gary Johnson, the Libertarian candidate, and Jill Stein, the Green candidate, combined. Bernie Sanders_sentence_309

It was possible to vote for Sanders as a write-in candidate in 12 states, and exact totals of write-in votes for him were published in three of them: California, New Hampshire, and Vermont. Bernie Sanders_sentence_310

In those three states, he received 111,850 write-in votes, about 15% of the write-in votes nationwide, and less than 1% of total nationwide vote. Bernie Sanders_sentence_311

Post-election activities Bernie Sanders_section_36

In November 2016, Sanders's book Our Revolution: A Future to Believe In was released; upon its release, it was number three on The New York Times Best Seller list. Bernie Sanders_sentence_312

The audiobook later received a Grammy nomination for Best Spoken Word Album. Bernie Sanders_sentence_313

In February 2017, he began webcasting The Bernie Sanders Show on Facebook live streaming. Bernie Sanders_sentence_314

As of April 2, 2017, guests had included William Barber, Josh Fox, Jane Mayer, and Bill Nye. Bernie Sanders_sentence_315

Polls taken in 2017 found him to be the most popular politician in the United States. Bernie Sanders_sentence_316

In February 2018, Special Counsel Robert Mueller's investigation into Russian interference in the 2016 U.S. elections concluded that Russians had communicated false information during the primary campaigns to help Sanders and Stein and harm Clinton. Bernie Sanders_sentence_317

Sanders rejected the investigation's conclusion, saying that he had seen no evidence that Russians had helped his campaign. Bernie Sanders_sentence_318

Furthermore, he blamed the Clinton campaign for not doing more to prevent Russian interference. Bernie Sanders_sentence_319

He later said that his campaign had taken action to prevent Russian meddling in the election and that a campaign staffer had alerted the Clinton campaign. Bernie Sanders_sentence_320

Politico noted that a Sanders campaign volunteer contacted a political action committee (PAC) that supported the Clinton campaign to report suspicious activities but that the Sanders campaign did not contact the Clinton campaign as such. Bernie Sanders_sentence_321

In November 2018, the Sanders Institute and Yanis Varoufakis, co-founder of DiEM25, launched Progressive International, an international organization uniting progressive activists and organizations "to mobilize people around the world to transform the global order and the institutions that shape it." Bernie Sanders_sentence_322

Influence on the Democratic Party Bernie Sanders_section_37

Analysts have suggested that Sanders's campaign shifted both the Clinton campaign and the Democratic Party politically leftward. Bernie Sanders_sentence_323

A new political organization, Brand New Congress, was formed in April 2016 by former campaign staffers. Bernie Sanders_sentence_324

It works to elect congressional representatives with platforms in line with Sanders. Bernie Sanders_sentence_325

In August 2016, he formed Our Revolution, a political organization dedicated to educating voters about issues, getting people involved in the political process, and electing progressive candidates for local, state, and national office. Bernie Sanders_sentence_326

Speaking on the PBS Newshour about the upcoming 2018 elections and discussing the main principles of the two major parties, Susan Page described the Republican Party as "Trump's party" and the Democratic Party as "Bernie Sanders's party," saying that "Sanders and his more progressive stance has really taken hold." Bernie Sanders_sentence_327

Noting the increasing acceptance of his national single-payer health-care program, his $15-an-hour minimum wage stance, free college tuition and many of the other campaign platform issues he introduced, an April 2018 opinion article in The Week suggested, "Quietly but steadily, the Democratic Party is admitting that Sanders was right." Bernie Sanders_sentence_328

In July 2016, a Slate article called the Democratic platform draft "a monument to his campaign," noting not only his call for a $15 minimum wage, but other campaign issues, such as Social Security expansion, a carbon tax, Wall Street reform, opposition to the death penalty, and a "reasoned pathway for future legalization" of marijuana. Bernie Sanders_sentence_329

2020 presidential campaign Bernie Sanders_section_38

Main articles: Bernie Sanders 2020 presidential campaign and 2020 Democratic Party presidential primaries Bernie Sanders_sentence_330

On February 19, 2019, Sanders announced that he would seek the Democratic Party's 2020 nomination for president. Bernie Sanders_sentence_331

He had declined the Vermont Democratic Party nomination for U.S. Senate in 2006, 2012, and 2018, which caused an unsuccessful legal challenge to his candidacy for the Democratic presidential nomination in 2016. Bernie Sanders_sentence_332

Along with his 2019 campaign announcement, he said he would abide by a new Democratic Party rule for presidential candidates and that he would affirm his membership in that party. Bernie Sanders_sentence_333

On March 5, 2019, he signed a formal statement, known as a "loyalty pledge," that he is a member of the Democratic Party and will serve as a Democrat if elected. Bernie Sanders_sentence_334

News reports noted that the day before, he had signed paperwork to run as an independent for reelection to his Senate seat in 2024. Bernie Sanders_sentence_335

Sanders's campaign manager is Faiz Shakir. Bernie Sanders_sentence_336

The campaign's national co-chairs are Ben & Jerry's co-founder Ben Cohen, Representative Ro Khanna, Our Revolution President Nina Turner, and San Juan mayor Carmen Yulín Cruz. Bernie Sanders_sentence_337

Campaign methods Bernie Sanders_section_39

Given the high national profile that Sanders has maintained since his 2016 campaign, NPR described him as "no longer an underdog" when he announced his 2020 campaign. Bernie Sanders_sentence_338

Using the large email list it built during the 2016 campaign, the 2020 campaign recruited more than one million volunteers within weeks of its launch. Bernie Sanders_sentence_339

It enlisted several former NowThis News employees to produce professional videos for wide social media distribution, has live-streamed various forums to its millions of social media followers, and has launched a podcast and smartphone app for grassroots organizing. Bernie Sanders_sentence_340

Fundraising Bernie Sanders_section_40

Sanders's campaign has employed many of the same methods as its 2016 counterpart, eschewing a Super PAC and relying predominantly on small-dollar contributions. Bernie Sanders_sentence_341

According to Federal Election Commission filings, the Sanders campaign had raised the most money in the 2020 Democratic field as of June 2019, including money left over from his 2018 Senate and 2016 presidential races. Bernie Sanders_sentence_342

In September 2019, the Sanders campaign became the fastest in U.S. history to reach one million donors. Bernie Sanders_sentence_343

On October 1, 2019, the campaign announced it had raised $25.3 million in the year's third quarter, with an average donation of $18. Bernie Sanders_sentence_344

It was the largest quarterly sum raised by any Democratic candidate. Bernie Sanders_sentence_345

The campaign raised $34.5 million during the fourth quarter of 2019. Bernie Sanders_sentence_346

Polls and news coverage Bernie Sanders_section_41

See also: Media coverage of Bernie Sanders Bernie Sanders_sentence_347

Sanders steadily polled between 15–20% on most national surveys between May and September 2019, according to the RealClearPolitics average. Bernie Sanders_sentence_348

This placed him in a decisive second-place behind Joe Biden until Elizabeth Warren and Kamala Harris caught up in July. Bernie Sanders_sentence_349

From mid-February 2020 to the start of March, Sanders polled in first place in the Democratic primary ahead of Joe Biden and was described by the press as the party's presidential front-runner. Bernie Sanders_sentence_350

According to a RealClearPolitics analysis, Sanders received the third-most mentions on CNN, Fox News, and MSNBC between January and August 2019, trailing only Joe Biden and Kamala Harris. Bernie Sanders_sentence_351

Biden, however, received twice as many mentions as Sanders and Harris. Bernie Sanders_sentence_352

Mentions of Sanders on ABC World News Tonight found him in second place, though also trailing Biden by a large margin. Bernie Sanders_sentence_353

Online mentions "reflect a slightly more balanced picture," with both Sanders and Elizabeth Warren running "neck-and-neck" with Biden. Bernie Sanders_sentence_354

Forums and other appearances Bernie Sanders_section_42

Main article: 2020 Democratic Party presidential forums Bernie Sanders_sentence_355

On April 6, 2019, Sanders participated in a Fox News town hall that attracted more than 2.55 million viewers. Bernie Sanders_sentence_356

His decision to appear on Fox was controversial given the Democratic National Committee's decision not to allow Fox to host any of its debates. Bernie Sanders_sentence_357

His appearance saw an increase of Fox News viewers by 24% overall and 40% in the 25-to-54-year-old demographic, surpassing the ratings of all other Democratic presidential candidate town halls that year. Bernie Sanders_sentence_358

As of September 2019, the town hall had received more than 1.5 million views on YouTube. Bernie Sanders_sentence_359

On August 6, Sanders appeared on The Joe Rogan Experience podcast. Bernie Sanders_sentence_360

Some praised Rogan for "hosting a pragmatic discussion" while others "seemed rather stunned by Sanders's decision to appear on the show at all." Bernie Sanders_sentence_361

After the podcast, Rogan became a top-trending Twitter topic. Bernie Sanders_sentence_362

After interviewing him, Rogan said, "I am not right-wing… I've interviewed right-wing people. Bernie Sanders_sentence_363

I am 100% left-wing… Bernie Sanders made a ton of sense to me and I would 100% vote for him." Bernie Sanders_sentence_364

As of October 2019, the podcast had received more than ten million views on YouTube. Bernie Sanders_sentence_365

Presidential debates Bernie Sanders_section_43

See also: 2020 Democratic Party presidential debates Bernie Sanders_sentence_366

In December 2018, the Democratic National Committee (DNC) announced the preliminary schedule for 12 official DNC-sanctioned debates, set to begin in June 2019, with six in 2019 and the remaining six during the first four months of 2020. Bernie Sanders_sentence_367

During the July and September debates, commentators described Sanders and Elizabeth Warren as having a "non-aggression pact," staking out similar progressive positions in contrast to the more centrist candidates. Bernie Sanders_sentence_368

In the October 15 debate, his first appearance since his heart attack, debate coach Todd Graham gave Sanders's performance an A, his highest rating of all the candidates. Bernie Sanders_sentence_369

CNN hosted the first 2020 debate in January with six candidates remaining. Bernie Sanders_sentence_370

Co-moderator Abby Phillip questioned Sanders and Warren about an allegation Warren had made that he had privately told her that a woman could not defeat Donald Trump. Bernie Sanders_sentence_371

Phillip asked Sanders, "Senator Sanders, CNN reported yesterday, and Senator Warren confirmed in a statement, that in 2018 you told her that you did not believe that a woman could win the election. Bernie Sanders_sentence_372

Why did you say that?" Bernie Sanders_sentence_373

Ignoring Sanders's strong denial, Phillip asked Warren, "What did you think when Bernie Sanders told you that a woman couldn't become president?" Bernie Sanders_sentence_374

In an interview after the debate, Sanders called it ludicrous to believe that he would doubt a woman's ability to win the presidency and noted that a woman already had won, saying, "After all, Hillary Clinton beat Donald Trump by 3 million votes in 2016." Bernie Sanders_sentence_375

Suspension of campaign Bernie Sanders_section_44

Sanders announced that he was suspending his campaign on April 8, 2020. Bernie Sanders_sentence_376

He stated that he would remain on the ballot in the remaining states and continue to accumulate delegates with the goal of influencing the Democratic Party's platform. Bernie Sanders_sentence_377

On April 14 Sanders endorsed Biden. Bernie Sanders_sentence_378

Biden responded, "I think that your endorsement means a great deal. Bernie Sanders_sentence_379

It means a great deal to me. Bernie Sanders_sentence_380

I think people are going to be surprised that we are apart on some issues but we're awfully close on a whole bunch of others. Bernie Sanders_sentence_381

I'm going to need you—not just to win the campaign, but to govern." Bernie Sanders_sentence_382

Political positions Bernie Sanders_section_45

Main article: Political positions of Bernie Sanders Bernie Sanders_sentence_383

A self-described "democratic socialist", Sanders is a progressive who admires the Nordic model of social democracy and has been a proponent of workplace democracy. Bernie Sanders_sentence_384

He advocates for universal and single-payer healthcare, paid parental leave, as well as tuition-free tertiary education. Bernie Sanders_sentence_385

He supports lowering the cost of drugs by reforming patent laws to allow cheaper generic versions to be sold in the U.S. Bernie Sanders_sentence_386

He supported the Affordable Care Act, though he said it did not go far enough. Bernie Sanders_sentence_387

In November 2015, he gave a speech at Georgetown University about his view of democratic socialism, including its place in the policies of presidents Franklin D. Roosevelt and Lyndon B. Johnson. Bernie Sanders_sentence_388

In defining what democratic socialism means to him, Sanders said: "I don't believe government should take over the grocery store down the street or own the means of production, but I do believe that the middle class and the working families who produce the wealth of America deserve a decent standard of living and that their incomes should go up, not down. Bernie Sanders_sentence_389

I do believe in private companies that thrive and invest and grow in America, companies that create jobs here, rather than companies that are shutting down in America and increasing their profits by exploiting low-wage labor abroad." Bernie Sanders_sentence_390

Based on his positions and votes throughout his career, many commentators consider his political platform based on tax-funded social benefits and not on social ownership of the means of production. Bernie Sanders_sentence_391

Some have described Sanders's political philosophy as "welfarism" or "social democracy" but not democratic socialism defined as "an attempt to create a property-free, socialist society." Bernie Sanders_sentence_392

Some members of various U.S. socialist parties and organizations have said that Sanders is a reformer of capitalism, not a socialist. Bernie Sanders_sentence_393

Others distinguish among socialism, social democracy, and democratic socialism, and describe his philosophy as extending from such existing liberal programs in the U.S. as Social Security and Medicare, and more consistent with the social democracy found in much of Europe, especially the Nordic countries. Bernie Sanders_sentence_394

Noam Chomsky and Thomas Frank have described Sanders as "a New Dealer." Bernie Sanders_sentence_395

Other observers, such as Lane Kenworthy and Bhaskar Sunkara, suggest that his views are more closely related to those of social democrats. Bernie Sanders_sentence_396

Climate change Bernie Sanders_section_46

Sanders views global warming as a serious problem, and advocates bold action to reverse its effects. Bernie Sanders_sentence_397

He calls for substantial investment in infrastructure, with energy efficiency, sustainability, and job creation as prominent goals. Bernie Sanders_sentence_398

He considers climate change the greatest threat to national security. Bernie Sanders_sentence_399

He said that family planning can help fight climate change. Bernie Sanders_sentence_400

He opposed the construction of the Dakota Access Pipeline on the grounds that, like the Keystone XL Pipeline, it "will have a significant impact on our climate." Bernie Sanders_sentence_401

In 2019, he announced his support for Green New Deal legislation, and joined Representatives Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez and Earl Blumenauer in proposing legislation that would declare climate change a national and international emergency. Bernie Sanders_sentence_402

Economic issues Bernie Sanders_section_47

Sanders focuses on economic issues such as income and wealth inequality, poverty, raising the minimum wage, universal healthcare, cancelling all student debt, making public colleges and universities tuition-free by taxing financial transactions, and expanding Social Security benefits by eliminating the cap on the payroll tax on all incomes above $250,000. Bernie Sanders_sentence_403

He has become a prominent supporter of laws requiring companies to give their workers parental leave, sick leave, and vacation time, noting that such laws have been adopted by nearly all other developed countries. Bernie Sanders_sentence_404

He also supports legislation that would make it easier for workers to join or form a trade union. Bernie Sanders_sentence_405

He was against the Troubled Asset Relief Program, and has called for comprehensive financial reforms, such as breaking up "too big to fail" financial institutions, restoring Glass–Steagall legislation, reforming the Federal Reserve Bank, and allowing the Post Office to offer basic financial services in economically marginalized communities. Bernie Sanders_sentence_406

Believing greater emphasis is needed on labor rights and environmental concerns when negotiating international trade agreements, Sanders voted against and has long spoken against NAFTA, CAFTA, and PNTR with China. Bernie Sanders_sentence_407

He has called them a "disaster for the American worker," saying that they have resulted in American corporations moving abroad. Bernie Sanders_sentence_408

He also opposes the Trans-Pacific Partnership, which he says was "written by corporate America and the pharmaceutical industry and Wall Street." Bernie Sanders_sentence_409

On May 1, 2019, he tweeted: "Since the China trade deal I voted against, America has lost over three million manufacturing jobs. Bernie Sanders_sentence_410

It's wrong to pretend that China isn't one of our major economic competitors." Bernie Sanders_sentence_411

Foreign relations Bernie Sanders_section_48

On foreign policy, Sanders supports reducing military spending while pursuing more diplomacy and international cooperation. Bernie Sanders_sentence_412

He opposed funding Nicaraguan rebels, known as contras, in the CIA's covert war against Nicaragua's leftist government. Bernie Sanders_sentence_413

He opposed the U.S. Bernie Sanders_sentence_414 invasion of Iraq and has criticized a number of policies instituted during the War on Terror, particularly that of mass surveillance and the USA Patriot Act. Bernie Sanders_sentence_415

He criticized Israel's bellicose actions during the 2014 Gaza war and U.S. involvement in the Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen. Bernie Sanders_sentence_416

On November 15, 2015, in response to the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL)'s attacks in Paris, he cautioned against Islamophobia and said, "We gotta be tough, not stupid" in the war against ISIL, adding that the U.S. should continue to welcome Syrian refugees. Bernie Sanders_sentence_417

He criticized the January 2020 drone assassination of Iranian general Qasem Soleimani, calling it a dangerous escalation of tensions that could lead to an expensive war. Bernie Sanders_sentence_418

Sanders supports Palestinians' rights and has criticized Israel on several occasions. Bernie Sanders_sentence_419

In 2020, he described the American Israel Public Affairs Committee as a platform for bigotry and said he would not attend its conference. Bernie Sanders_sentence_420

He condemned Trump's decision to recognize Jerusalem as Israel's capital, saying, "It would dramatically undermine the prospects for an Israeli-Palestinian peace agreement, and severely, perhaps irreparably, damage the United States' ability to broker that peace." Bernie Sanders_sentence_421

Addressing Westminster College in a September 2017 speech, Sanders laid out a foreign policy plan for greater international collaboration, adherence to U.S.-led international agreements such as the Paris Agreement and the Iran nuclear deal framework, and promoting human rights and democratic ideals. Bernie Sanders_sentence_422

He emphasized the consequences associated with global economic inequality and climate change, and urged reining in the use of U.S. military power, saying it "must always be a last resort." Bernie Sanders_sentence_423

He also criticized U.S. Bernie Sanders_sentence_424 support for "murderous regimes" during the Cold War, such as those in Iran, Chile and El Salvador, and said that those actions continue to make the U.S. less safe. Bernie Sanders_sentence_425

He also spoke critically of Russian interference in the 2016 U.S. elections and the way President Trump has handled the crisis. Bernie Sanders_sentence_426

He does not consider Turkey a U.S. ally, and condemned the Turkish military offensive against U.S.-aligned Kurdish forces in northeastern Syria. Bernie Sanders_sentence_427

Gun laws Bernie Sanders_section_49

Sanders supports banning assault weapons, universal federal background checks for gun purchases, and closing the gun show loophole. Bernie Sanders_sentence_428

In 1990, he was supported by the National Rifle Association in his bid to become a U.S. Representative in exchange for opposing both the competing campaign of Peter Smith, who had reversed his stance on firearm restrictions, and waiting periods for handgun purchases. Bernie Sanders_sentence_429

In 1993, while a U.S. Representative, he voted against the Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act (which established background checks and wait periods), and in 2005 voted for legislation that gave gun manufacturers legal immunity against claims of negligence, but as of 2016 he has since said that he would support repealing that law. Bernie Sanders_sentence_430

In 1996, he voted against additional funding to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for research on issues related to firearms, but in 2016, he called for an increase in CDC funding for the study of gun violence. Bernie Sanders_sentence_431

Social issues Bernie Sanders_section_50

On social issues, Sanders has long taken liberal stances. Bernie Sanders_sentence_432

He considers himself a feminist, is pro-choice on abortion, and opposes defunding Planned Parenthood. Bernie Sanders_sentence_433

He has denounced institutional racism and called for criminal justice reform to reduce the number of people in prison, advocates a crackdown on police brutality, and supports abolishing private, for-profit prisons and the death penalty. Bernie Sanders_sentence_434

He supports Black Lives Matter. Bernie Sanders_sentence_435

He also supports legalizing marijuana at the federal level. Bernie Sanders_sentence_436

He has advocated for greater democratic participation by citizens, campaign finance reform, and a constitutional amendment or judicial decision that would overturn Citizens United v. FEC. Bernie Sanders_sentence_437

LGBTQ rights Bernie Sanders_section_51

He advocated for LGBT rights as Burlington mayor in 1983 and voted against the 1996 Defense of Marriage Act. Bernie Sanders_sentence_438

In 2006, he indicated that the time was not right for legalizing same-sex marriage nationally, describing the issue as one that should be handled at the state level; but then in 2009, he supported the legalizing same-sex marriage in Vermont, which was enacted that year. Bernie Sanders_sentence_439

Trump administration Bernie Sanders_section_52

Sanders criticized President Trump for appointing multiple billionaires to his cabinet. Bernie Sanders_sentence_440

He criticized Trump's rolling back President Barack Obama's Clean Power Plan, noting the scientifically reported effect on climate change of human activity and citing Trump's calling those reports a hoax. Bernie Sanders_sentence_441

He called for caution on the Syrian Civil War, saying, "it's easier to get into a war than out of one." Bernie Sanders_sentence_442

He has promised to defeat "Trump and Trumpism and the Republican right-wing ideology." Bernie Sanders_sentence_443

Sanders gave an online reply to Trump's January 2018 State of the Union address in which he called Trump "compulsively dishonest" and criticized him for initiating "a looming immigration crisis" by ending the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals program. Bernie Sanders_sentence_444

He voiced concern about Trump's failure to mention the finding that Russia had interfered in the 2016 election and "will likely interfere in the 2018 midterms we will be holding… Unless you have a very special relationship with Mr. Bernie Sanders_sentence_445

Putin." Bernie Sanders_sentence_446

Party affiliations Bernie Sanders_section_53

Born into a Democratic-voting family, Sanders was first introduced to political activism when his brother Larry joined the Young Democrats of America and campaigned for Adlai Stevenson II in 1956. Bernie Sanders_sentence_447

Sanders joined Vermont's Liberty Union Party in 1971 and was a candidate for several offices, never coming close to winning election. Bernie Sanders_sentence_448

He became party chairman, but quit in 1977 to become an independent. Bernie Sanders_sentence_449

In 1980, he served as an elector for the Socialist Workers Party. Bernie Sanders_sentence_450

In 1981, Sanders ran as an independent for mayor of Burlington, Vermont, and defeated the Democratic incumbent; he was reelected three times. Bernie Sanders_sentence_451

Although an independent, he endorsed Democratic presidential candidates Walter Mondale in 1984 and Jesse Jackson in 1988. Bernie Sanders_sentence_452

His endorsement of Mondale was lukewarm (telling reporters that "if you go around saying that Mondale would be a great president, you would be a liar and a hypocrite"), but he supported Jackson enthusiastically. Bernie Sanders_sentence_453

The Washington Post reported that the Jackson campaign helped inspire Sanders to work more closely with the Democratic Party. Bernie Sanders_sentence_454

Sanders attended the 1983 conference of the Socialist Party USA where he gave a speech. Bernie Sanders_sentence_455

Sanders first ran for the U.S. House of Representatives in 1988 and for the U.S. Senate in 2006, each time adopting a strategy of winning the Democratic Party primary, thereby eliminating Democratic challengers, and then running as an independent in the general election. Bernie Sanders_sentence_456

He continued this strategy through his reelection in the 2018 United States Senate election in Vermont. Bernie Sanders_sentence_457

Throughout his tenure in Congress, he has been listed as an independent. Bernie Sanders_sentence_458

He caucused with Democrats in the House while refusing to join the party, and continues to caucus with Democrats in the Senate. Bernie Sanders_sentence_459

Some conservative southern House Democrats initially barred him from the caucus as they believed that allowing a self-described socialist to join would harm their electoral prospects. Bernie Sanders_sentence_460

He soon came to work constructively with Democrats, voting with the party over 90% of the time during his tenure in Congress. Bernie Sanders_sentence_461

Starting with his 2016 presidential campaign, Sanders's announcements suggested that not only was he running as a Democrat, but that he would run as a Democrat in future elections. Bernie Sanders_sentence_462

When challenged by Clinton about his party commitment, he said, "Of course I am a Democrat and running for the Democratic nomination." Bernie Sanders_sentence_463

Since he remained a senator elected as an independent, his U.S. Senate website and press materials continued to refer to him as an independent during the campaign and upon his return to the Senate. Bernie Sanders_sentence_464

In October 2017, Sanders said he would run for reelection as an independent in 2018 despite pressure to run as a Democrat. Bernie Sanders_sentence_465

His party status became ambiguous again in March 2019 when he signed a formal "loyalty pledge" to the Democratic Party stating that he was a member of the party and would serve as a Democrat if elected president. Bernie Sanders_sentence_466

He signed the pledge the day after he signed paperwork to run as an independent for reelection to the Senate in 2024. Bernie Sanders_sentence_467

After Trump's victory in the 2016 elections, Sanders suggested the Democratic Party undergo a series of reforms and that it "break loose from its corporate establishment ties and, once again, become a grass-roots party of working people, the elderly and the poor." Bernie Sanders_sentence_468

He drew parallels between his campaign and that of the Labour Party in the 2017 UK general election. Bernie Sanders_sentence_469

He wrote in The New York Times that "the British elections should be a lesson for the Democratic Party" and urged the Democrats to stop holding on to an "overly cautious, centrist ideology," arguing that "momentum shifted to Labour after it released a very progressive manifesto that generated much enthusiasm among young people and workers." Bernie Sanders_sentence_470

He had earlier praised Jeremy Corbyn's stance on class issues. Bernie Sanders_sentence_471

Personal life Bernie Sanders_section_54

In 1963, Sanders and Deborah Shiling Messing, whom he met in college, volunteered for several months on the Israeli kibbutz Sha'ar HaAmakim. Bernie Sanders_sentence_472

They married in 1964 and bought a summer home in Vermont; they had no children and divorced in 1966. Bernie Sanders_sentence_473

His son (and only biological child), Levi Sanders, was born in 1969 to then-girlfriend Susan Campbell Mott. Bernie Sanders_sentence_474

On May 28, 1988, Sanders married Jane O'Meara Driscoll (née Mary Jane O'Meara), who later became president of Burlington College, in Burlington, Vermont. Bernie Sanders_sentence_475

The day after their wedding, the couple visited the Soviet Union as part of an official delegation in his capacity as mayor. Bernie Sanders_sentence_476

They own a row house in Capitol Hill, a house in Burlington's New North End neighborhood, and a lakefront summer home in North Hero. Bernie Sanders_sentence_477

He considers Jane's three children—Dave Driscoll (born 1975), Carina Driscoll (born 1974), and Heather Titus (née Driscoll; 1971)—to be his own. Bernie Sanders_sentence_478

He also has seven grandchildren, three (including one who was adopted) through his son Levi and four through his stepchildren. Bernie Sanders_sentence_479

Sanders's elder brother, Larry, lives in England; he was a Green Party county councillor, representing the East Oxford division on Oxfordshire County Council, until he retired from the council in 2013. Bernie Sanders_sentence_480

Larry ran as a Green Party candidate for Oxford West and Abingdon in the 2015 British general election and came in fifth. Bernie Sanders_sentence_481

Bernie Sanders told CNN, "I owe my brother an enormous amount. Bernie Sanders_sentence_482

It was my brother who actually introduced me to a lot of my ideas." Bernie Sanders_sentence_483

Health Bernie Sanders_section_55

On October 1, 2019, Sanders was hospitalized after experiencing chest pains at a campaign event in Las Vegas. Bernie Sanders_sentence_484

His campaign announced the next day that a blockage had been found in one coronary artery and two stents inserted. Bernie Sanders_sentence_485

Scheduled campaign events and appearances were canceled until further notice. Bernie Sanders_sentence_486

Two days later his campaign released a statement that he had been diagnosed with a heart attack. Bernie Sanders_sentence_487

He was released from the hospital the same day. Bernie Sanders_sentence_488

The statement included the following from Sanders's doctors: Bernie Sanders_sentence_489

A few days after returning home, Sanders addressed media outside his home and said he had experienced fatigue and chest discomfort for a month or two before the incident; he expressed regret for not seeking medical assessment sooner: "I was dumb." Bernie Sanders_sentence_490

Sanders made his first national appearance after his heart attack on October 15 at the Democratic debate, at which he said, "I'm healthy, I'm feeling great." Bernie Sanders_sentence_491

When asked how he would reassure voters about his health and ability to take on the duties of the presidency, he said, "We are going to be mounting a vigorous campaign all over this country. Bernie Sanders_sentence_492

That is how I think I can reassure the American people." Bernie Sanders_sentence_493

It was noted that he was "lively and sharp at the debate." Bernie Sanders_sentence_494

In December 2019, three months after the heart attack, Sanders released letters from three physicians, Attending Physician of Congress Brian P. Monahan and two cardiologists, who declared Sanders healthy and recovered from his heart condition. Bernie Sanders_sentence_495

Honors and awards Bernie Sanders_section_56

On December 4, 2015, Sanders won Time's 2015 Person of the Year readers' poll with 10.2% of the vote but did not receive the editorial board's award. Bernie Sanders_sentence_496

On March 20, 2016, he was given an honorary Coast Salish name, dxʷshudičup, by Deborah Parker in Seattle to honor his focus on Native American issues during his presidential campaign. Bernie Sanders_sentence_497

On May 30, 2017, Sanders received an honorary degree of Doctor of Humane Letters from Brooklyn College. Bernie Sanders_sentence_498

In popular culture Bernie Sanders_section_57

In December 1987, during his tenure as mayor of Burlington, Sanders recorded a folk album, We Shall Overcome, with 30 Vermont musicians. Bernie Sanders_sentence_499

As he was not a skilled singer, he performed his vocals in a talking blues style. Bernie Sanders_sentence_500

He appeared in a cameo role in the 1988 comedy-drama film Sweet Hearts Dance, playing a man who distributes candy to young trick-or-treaters. Bernie Sanders_sentence_501

In 1999, he acted in the film My X-Girlfriend's Wedding Reception, playing Rabbi Manny Shevitz. Bernie Sanders_sentence_502

In this role he mourned the Brooklyn Dodgers' move to Los Angeles, reflecting Sanders's own upbringing in Brooklyn. Bernie Sanders_sentence_503

On February 6, 2016, he was a guest star alongside Larry David on Saturday Night Live, playing a Polish immigrant on a steamship that was sinking near the Statue of Liberty. Bernie Sanders_sentence_504

Religion, heritage, and values Bernie Sanders_section_58

As Sanders described his upbringing as an American Jew in a 2016 speech: his father generally attended synagogue only on Yom Kippur; he attended public schools while his mother "chafed" at his yeshiva Sunday schooling at a Hebrew school; and their religious observances were mostly limited to Passover seders with their neighbors. Bernie Sanders_sentence_505

Larry Sanders said of their parents, "They were very pleased to be Jews, but didn't have a strong belief in God." Bernie Sanders_sentence_506

Bernie had a bar mitzvah at the historic Kingsway Jewish Center in Midwood, Brooklyn, where he grew up. Bernie Sanders_sentence_507

In 1963, in cooperation with the Labor Zionist youth movement Hashomer Hatzair, Sanders and his first wife volunteered at Sha'ar HaAmakim, a kibbutz in northern Israel. Bernie Sanders_sentence_508

His motivation for the trip was as much socialistic as it was Zionistic. Bernie Sanders_sentence_509

As mayor of Burlington, Sanders allowed a Chabad public menorah to be placed at city hall, an action the ACLU contested. Bernie Sanders_sentence_510

He publicly inaugurated the Hanukkah menorah and performed the Jewish religious ritual of blessing Hanukkah candles. Bernie Sanders_sentence_511

His early and strong support played a significant role in the now widespread public menorah celebrations around the globe. Bernie Sanders_sentence_512

When asked about his Jewish heritage, Sanders has said that he is "proud to be Jewish." Bernie Sanders_sentence_513

Sanders rarely speaks about religion. Bernie Sanders_sentence_514

He describes himself as "not particularly religious" and "not actively involved" with organized religion. Bernie Sanders_sentence_515

A press package issued by his office states his religion as Jewish. Bernie Sanders_sentence_516

He has said he believes in God, but not necessarily in a traditional way: "I think everyone believes in God in their own ways," he said. Bernie Sanders_sentence_517

"To me, it means that all of us are connected, all of life is connected, and that we are all tied together." Bernie Sanders_sentence_518

In October 2015, on the late-night talk show Jimmy Kimmel Live! Bernie Sanders_sentence_519 , Kimmel asked him, "You say you are culturally Jewish and you don't feel religious; do you believe in God and do you think that's important to the people of the United States?" Bernie Sanders_sentence_520

Sanders replied: Bernie Sanders_sentence_521

In 2016, he disclosed that he had "very strong religious and spiritual feelings," adding, "My spirituality is that we are all in this together and that when children go hungry, when veterans sleep out on the street, it impacts me." Bernie Sanders_sentence_522

Sanders does not regularly attend synagogue, and he does not refrain from working on Rosh Hashanah, as observant Jews do. Bernie Sanders_sentence_523

He has attended yahrzeit observances in memory of the deceased, for the father of a friend, and in 2015 attended a Tashlikh, an atonement ceremony, with the mayor of Lynchburg on the afternoon of Rosh Hashanah. Bernie Sanders_sentence_524

According to his close friend Richard Sugarman, a professor of religious studies at the University of Vermont, Sanders's Jewish identity is "certainly more ethnic and cultural than religious." Bernie Sanders_sentence_525

Deborah Dash Moore, a Judaic scholar at the University of Michigan, has said that Sanders has a particular type of "ethnic Jewishness that is out of style these days among American Jews." Bernie Sanders_sentence_526

His wife is Roman Catholic, and he has often expressed admiration for Pope Francis, saying that "the leader of the Catholic Church is raising profound issues. Bernie Sanders_sentence_527

It is important that we listen to what he has said." Bernie Sanders_sentence_528

He has said he feels very close to Francis's economic teachings, describing him as "incredibly smart and brave." Bernie Sanders_sentence_529

In April 2016, he accepted an invitation from Marcelo Sánchez Sorondo, an aide close to Francis, to speak at a Vatican conference on economic and environmental issues. Bernie Sanders_sentence_530

While at the Vatican, he met briefly with Francis. Bernie Sanders_sentence_531

Publications Bernie Sanders_section_59

Bernie Sanders_unordered_list_2

See also Bernie Sanders_section_60

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: Sanders.