Bethlehem, Pennsylvania

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Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_table_infobox_0

Bethlehem, PennsylvaniaBethlehem, Pennsylvania_header_cell_0_0_0
CountryBethlehem, Pennsylvania_header_cell_0_1_0 United StatesBethlehem, Pennsylvania_cell_0_1_1
StateBethlehem, Pennsylvania_header_cell_0_2_0 PennsylvaniaBethlehem, Pennsylvania_cell_0_2_1
CountiesBethlehem, Pennsylvania_header_cell_0_3_0 Lehigh and NorthamptonBethlehem, Pennsylvania_cell_0_3_1
FoundedBethlehem, Pennsylvania_header_cell_0_4_0 December 24, 1741Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_cell_0_4_1
GovernmentBethlehem, Pennsylvania_header_cell_0_5_0
TypeBethlehem, Pennsylvania_header_cell_0_6_0 Mayor-CouncilBethlehem, Pennsylvania_cell_0_6_1
MayorBethlehem, Pennsylvania_header_cell_0_7_0 Robert J. Donchez (D)Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_cell_0_7_1
AreaBethlehem, Pennsylvania_header_cell_0_8_0
CityBethlehem, Pennsylvania_header_cell_0_9_0 19.46 sq mi (50.40 km)Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_cell_0_9_1
LandBethlehem, Pennsylvania_header_cell_0_10_0 19.11 sq mi (49.51 km)Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_cell_0_10_1
WaterBethlehem, Pennsylvania_header_cell_0_11_0 0.34 sq mi (0.89 km)Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_cell_0_11_1
UrbanBethlehem, Pennsylvania_header_cell_0_12_0 289.50 sq mi (749.79 km)Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_cell_0_12_1
MetroBethlehem, Pennsylvania_header_cell_0_13_0 730.0 sq mi (1,174.82 km)Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_cell_0_13_1
ElevationBethlehem, Pennsylvania_header_cell_0_14_0 360 ft (109.728 m)Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_cell_0_14_1
Population (2010)Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_header_cell_0_15_0
CityBethlehem, Pennsylvania_header_cell_0_16_0 74,982Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_cell_0_16_1
Estimate (2019)Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_header_cell_0_17_0 75,815Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_cell_0_17_1
DensityBethlehem, Pennsylvania_header_cell_0_18_0 3,966.26/sq mi (1,531.36/km)Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_cell_0_18_1
UrbanBethlehem, Pennsylvania_header_cell_0_19_0 576,408Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_cell_0_19_1
MetroBethlehem, Pennsylvania_header_cell_0_20_0 740,395Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_cell_0_20_1
Time zoneBethlehem, Pennsylvania_header_cell_0_21_0 UTC−05:00 (EST)Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_cell_0_21_1
Summer (DST)Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_header_cell_0_22_0 UTC−04:00 (EDT)Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_cell_0_22_1
ZIP CodesBethlehem, Pennsylvania_header_cell_0_23_0 18015-18018Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_cell_0_23_1
Area code(s)Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_header_cell_0_24_0 610 and 484Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_cell_0_24_1
FIPS codeBethlehem, Pennsylvania_header_cell_0_25_0 42-06088Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_cell_0_25_1
WebsiteBethlehem, Pennsylvania_header_cell_0_26_0 Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_cell_0_26_1

Bethlehem is a city in Lehigh and Northampton counties in the Lehigh Valley region of the eastern portion of the U.S. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_0 state of Pennsylvania. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_1

As of the 2010 census, the city had a total population of 74,982, making it the seventh largest city in Pennsylvania, after Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Allentown, Erie, Reading, and Scranton. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_2

Of this, 55,639 were in Northampton County, and 19,343 were in Lehigh County. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_3

Bethlehem lies in the center of the Lehigh Valley, a region of 731 sq mi (1,890 km) that is home to more than 800,000 people. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_4

Together with Allentown and Easton, the Valley embraces the Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton, PA-NJ metropolitan area, including Lehigh, Northampton, and Carbon counties within Pennsylvania, and Warren County in the adjacent state of New Jersey. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_5

Smaller than Allentown but larger than Easton, Bethlehem is the Lehigh Valley's second most populous city. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_6

In turn, this metropolitan area comprises Pennsylvania's third-largest metropolitan area. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_7

There are four general sections of the city: central Bethlehem, the south side, the east side, and the west side. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_8

Each of these sections blossomed at different times in the city's development and each contains areas recognized under the National Register of Historic Places. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_9

ZIP codes that use the address Bethlehem totaled 116,000 in population in the year 2000. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_10

These ZIP codes include Bethlehem Township and Hanover Township. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_11

The Norfolk Southern Railway's Lehigh Line (formerly the main line of the Lehigh Valley Railroad), runs through Bethlehem heading east to Easton, Pennsylvania and Phillipsburg, New Jersey across the Delaware River. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_12

The Norfolk Southern Railway's Reading Line runs through Bethlehem heading west to Allentown and Reading. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_13

History Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_section_0

The areas along the Delaware River and its tributaries in eastern Pennsylvania were long inhabited by indigenous peoples of various cultures. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_14

By the time of European contact, these areas were the historic territory of the Algonquian-speaking Lenape Nation, which had three main divisions, the Unami, Unalachtigo, and Munsee. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_15

They traded with the Dutch and then English colonists in the mid-Atlantic area. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_16

On April 2, 1741, William Allen, a wealthy Philadelphia merchant and political figure who later founded the city of Allentown, deeded 500 acres along the banks of the Monocacy Creek and Lehigh River to the Moravian Church. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_17

On Christmas Eve of that year David Nitschmann and Count Zinzendorf, leading a small group of Moravians, founded the mission community of Bethlehem at the juncture of the Monocacy and Lehigh. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_18

They came to set up missionary communities among the Native Americans and unchurched German-speaking Christians, naming the settlement after the Biblical town Bethlehem of Judea, the birthplace of Jesus. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_19

"Count Zinzendorf said, 'Brothers, how more fittingly could we call our new home than to name it in honor of the spot where the event we now commemorate took place. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_20

We will call this place Bethlehem.' Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_21

And so was Bethlehem named after the birthplace of the Man of Peace'" (from a letter by Gordon Dent to Mr. T. Donald Bain March 3, 1965 quoting from "Story of Bethlehem Steel" by Arundel Cotter, more details are given in this article). Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_22

Originally, Bethlehem was a typical Moravian Settlement Congregation, where the Church owned all the property. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_23

Until the 1850s, supposedly only members of the Moravian Church were permitted to lease land plots in Bethlehem. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_24

However, a member of a group of families that were part of a Huguenot settlement in the Delaware River Valley also landed in Bethlehem, and a decade or two before 1800 had established grist and saw mills known as Calvin's Mills. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_25

One member of this family was part of the Bethlehem Township council from 1798 to 1802. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_26

The historic Brethren's House, Sisters' House, Widows' House and Gemeinhaus (Congregation House) with the Old Chapel are remnants of this period of communal living. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_27

The Moravians ministered to regional Lenape Native Americans through their mission in the area, as well as further east in the New York colony. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_28

In the historic Bethlehem God's Acre cemetery, converted Lenape lie buried alongside the Moravians. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_29

In 1762, Bethlehem built the first water-works in America to pump water for public use. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_30

Bethlehem and the surrounding area saw a large influx of fleeing Patriots as the British advanced upon Philadelphia in the autumn of 1777. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_31

The Marquis de Lafayette recovered from an injury received at the Battle of Brandywine in Bethlehem and several members of the Continental Congress fled north to Bethlehem before the congress eventually reconvened in Lancaster. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_32

While George Washington and his troops stayed in Valley Forge, Washington stored his personal effects at the farm of James Burnside in Bethlehem – as of 1998 a historical museum (Burnside Plantation). Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_33

The prosperous village was incorporated into a free borough in the County of Northampton in 1845. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_34

After the Unity Synod of 1848, Bethlehem became the headquarters of the Northern Province of the Moravian Church in North America. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_35

On March 27, 1900, the Bach Choir of Bethlehem presented the United States debut of German Lutheran Johann Sebastian Bach's Mass in B Minor in the city's Central Moravian Church. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_36

Boroughs merge Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_section_1

After the Civil War the Borough of South Bethlehem was formed. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_37

In 1886 the Borough of West Bethlehem (in Lehigh County) was formed. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_38

In 1904, the Boroughs of West Bethlehem (in Lehigh County) and Bethlehem (in Northampton County) merged. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_39

In 1917, the Borough of South Bethlehem and Bethlehem merged to become the City of Bethlehem, with Archibald Johnston (1865-1948) selected as the new city's first mayor. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_40

Bethlehem Township, Pennsylvania has remained a separate political entity. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_41

Even after the merger of the two boroughs, the bureau initially provided a count for the original sections. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_42

Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_table_general_1

Populations of the Municipalities named BethlehemBethlehem, Pennsylvania_table_caption_1
CensusBethlehem, Pennsylvania_header_cell_1_0_0 All Three

boroughsBethlehem, Pennsylvania_header_cell_1_0_1

BethlehemBethlehem, Pennsylvania_header_cell_1_0_2

BethlehemBethlehem, Pennsylvania_header_cell_1_0_3

BethlehemBethlehem, Pennsylvania_header_cell_1_0_4
Bethlehem &
West BethlehemBethlehem, Pennsylvania_header_cell_1_0_5

TownshipBethlehem, Pennsylvania_header_cell_1_0_6

1850Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_cell_1_1_0 Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_cell_1_1_1 -----Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_cell_1_1_2 1,516Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_cell_1_1_3 -----Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_cell_1_1_4 Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_cell_1_1_5 -----Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_cell_1_1_6
1860Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_cell_1_2_0 Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_cell_1_2_1 -----Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_cell_1_2_2 2,868Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_cell_1_2_3 -----Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_cell_1_2_4 Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_cell_1_2_5 -----Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_cell_1_2_6
1870Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_cell_1_3_0 Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_cell_1_3_1 3,556Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_cell_1_3_2 4,512Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_cell_1_3_3 -----Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_cell_1_3_4 Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_cell_1_3_5 2,230Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_cell_1_3_6
1880Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_cell_1_4_0 Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_cell_1_4_1 4,925Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_cell_1_4_2 5,193Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_cell_1_4_3 -----Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_cell_1_4_4 Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_cell_1_4_5 2,282Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_cell_1_4_6
1890Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_cell_1_5_0 19,823Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_cell_1_5_1 10,302Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_cell_1_5_2 6,762Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_cell_1_5_3 2,759Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_cell_1_5_4 9,521Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_cell_1_5_5 2,397Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_cell_1_5_6
1900Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_cell_1_6_0 23,999Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_cell_1_6_1 13,241Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_cell_1_6_2 7,293Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_cell_1_6_3 3,465Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_cell_1_6_4 10,758Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_cell_1_6_5 3,090Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_cell_1_6_6
1910Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_cell_1_7_0 32,810Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_cell_1_7_1 19,973Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_cell_1_7_2 8,365Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_cell_1_7_3 4,472Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_cell_1_7_4 12,837Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_cell_1_7_5 3,414Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_cell_1_7_6

Bethlehem Steel Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_section_2

Bethlehem became a center of heavy industry and trade during the industrial revolution. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_43

The Bethlehem Steel Corporation (1857–2003), founded and based in Bethlehem, was once the second-largest steel producer in the United States, after Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania-based U.S. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_44 Steel. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_45

Bethlehem Steel was also one of the largest shipbuilding companies in the world and one of the most powerful symbols of American industrial manufacturing leadership. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_46

Bethlehem Steel began producing the first wide-flange structural shapes made in the United States and they pioneered the production of the now-ubiquitous "I-beam" used in construction of steel-framed buildings, including skyscrapers. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_47

It manufactured construction materials for numerous New York and other city skyscrapers, as well as for major bridges. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_48

The company became a major supplier of armor plate and ordnance products during World War I and World War II, including the manufacture of 1,100 warships. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_49

After roughly 140 years of metal production at its Bethlehem plant, Bethlehem Steel ceased operations there in 1995, in the face of overseas competition and declining demand. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_50

Christmas star Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_section_3

Climate Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_section_4

Bethlehem has a humid continental climate (Dfa). Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_51

Summers are typically hot and humid, fall and spring are generally mild, and winter is cold. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_52

Precipitation is distributed throughout the year, with thunderstorms in the summer, showers in spring and fall, and snow in winter. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_53

The average high temperature varies widely, from 36 °F (2 °C) in January to 84 °F (29 °C) in July. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_54

The highest recorded temperature was 105 °F (41 °C), while the lowest recorded temperature was −16 °F (−27 °C). Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_55

Bethlehem falls under the USDA 6b Plant Hardiness zone. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_56

Cityscape Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_section_5

Neighborhoods Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_section_6

Bethlehem is divided into four main areas: Center City, West Side, East Side, and South Side. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_57

The West Side is located in Lehigh County, while the other three neighborhoods are located in Northampton county. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_58

Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_unordered_list_0

  • Center City is bounded by the Monocacy Creek to the west, Hanover and Bethlehem townships (both Northampton County) to the north, and Stefko Boulevard to the east.Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_item_0_0
  • The West Side begins at the city's western border with Allentown and continues east to the Monocacy Creek and north to Hanover Township (Lehigh County).Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_item_0_1
    • The Mount Airy Neighborhood is bounded by Pennsylvania Ave to the west, W. Broad St to the north, 2nd Ave to the east and the Lehigh River to the south.Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_item_0_2
  • The East Side is bordered to the west by Center City and to the east by Bethlehem Township and Freemansburg. The East Side includes the Pembroke Village area.Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_item_0_3
  • The South Side's borders are Fountain Hill to the west, the Lehigh River to the north, South Mountain to the south, and Hellertown to the east.Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_item_0_4

Demographics Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_section_7

As of the census of 2010, there were 74,982 people living in the city. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_59

There were 31,221 housing units, with 5.9% vacant. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_60

The racial makeup of the city was 76.4% White, 6.9% African American, 0.3% Native American, 2.9% Asian, 0.0% Pacific Islander, 10.0% from other races, and 3.4% from two or more races. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_61

Hispanic or Latino of any race were 24.4% of the population. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_62

As of the census of 2000, there were 71,329 people living in the city, including 17,094 families and 28,116 households. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_63

The population density was 3,704.4 people per square mile (1,429.9/km). Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_64

There were 29,631 housing units at an average density of 1,538.8 per square mile (594.0/km). Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_65

The racial makeup of the city was 81.85% White, 3.64% African American, 0.26% Native American, 2.22% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 9.44% from other races, and 2.56% from two or more races. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_66

Hispanic or Latino of any race were 18.23% of the population. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_67

There were 28,116 households, out of which 26.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.1% were married couples living together, 12.8% had a female householder with no husband present, and 39.2% were non-families. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_68

32.3% of all households were made up of individuals, and 14.4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_69

The average household size was 2.34 and the average family size was 2.95. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_70

In the city, the population was spread out, with 21.0% under the age of 18, 14.4% from 18 to 24, 26.6% from 25 to 44, 20.1% from 45 to 64, and 17.9% who were 65 years of age or older. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_71

The median age was 36 years. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_72

For every 100 females, there were 91.5 males. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_73

For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.6 males. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_74

The median income for a household in the city was $35,815, and the median income for a family was $45,354. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_75

Males had a median income of $35,190 versus $25,817 for females. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_76

The per capita income for the city was $18,987. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_77

About 11.1% of families and 15.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 20.7% of those under age 18 and 8.8% of those age 65 or over. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_78

The city is served by Lehigh Valley International Airport, which also serves Allentown, Pennsylvania and the greater Lehigh Valley. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_79

Economy Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_section_8

See also: Transportation in the Lehigh Valley Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_80

In December 2006, Las Vegas Sands Corp was awarded a Category 2 Slot Machine License by the Pennsylvania Gaming Control Board. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_81

LVSC began work on the site, categorized as both the largest brownfield redevelopment project in the nation and the largest casino development investment made to date in the Commonwealth. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_82

Its mission was to create reinvestment and urbanization in the area. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_83

At a projected cost of $743 million, the historic Bethlehem Steel plant is being redeveloped as a fully integrated resort, to include 3,000 slot machines, over 300 hotel rooms, 9 restaurants, 200,000 square feet (19,000 m) of retail outlet shopping, and 46,000 square feet (4,300 m) of flexible multi-purpose space. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_84

In 2007, the casino resort company of Las Vegas Sands began the construction of Sands Casino Resort Bethlehem (now Wind Creek Bethlehem). Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_85

The Sands Casino has been projected to bring in approximately one million dollars in revenue per day as of 2009. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_86

Another major economic anchor to the city is St. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_87 Luke's Hospital located in neighboring Fountain Hill. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_88

That Hospital and Health Network is the second largest of its type in the Lehigh Valley. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_89

Other major employers include B. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_90 Braun, Lehigh University, and the Guardian Life Insurance Company of America. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_91

Other companies in Bethlehem include the candy company Just Born. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_92

Shopping Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_section_9

Over the past two decades, many shops and restaurants have opened in the city's downtown and South Side. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_93

In the mid-1970s, West Broad Street between New and Guetter Streets in center city was converted to a pedestrian plaza. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_94

The buildings on the south side of the block were torn down and replaced by an enclosed mall and 11-story office tower. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_95

The tower, at One Bethlehem Plaza on the corner of Broad and New, continues to operate, but the 80,000-square-foot mall, which was erected in response to the development of suburban shopping malls, failed. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_96

Since then, the block has been reopened to traffic, and the mall has been converted into offices for PowerSchool, a major software company based in California, and the Internal Revenue Service. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_97

In recent years, retail business in downtown Bethlehem, particularly along Main Street south of Broad, has experienced a renaissance, based on the city's historic character. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_98

The two-block shopping area is anchored by Moravian College's Main Street Campus and Central Moravian Church at the southern end and The Bethlehem Commons indoor mall and historic Sun Inn (1758) at its northern end. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_99

In between, numerous boutiques have opened, selling artwork, gifts, clothing, antiques, crafted beverages, gourmet foods, jewelry, hand cut crystal, holiday decorations, and other specialties. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_100

Among the blocks' additional attractions are the Moravian Book Shop (1745), the country's oldest continuously operating bookstore, and the historic Hotel Bethlehem (1922). Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_101

Meanwhile, on the city's South Side, stores and restaurants have sprung up on Third and Fourth Streets, largely because of the presence of Lehigh University but also tied to the opening of the Sands Casino and the development of the SteelStacks Arts and Cultural campus. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_102

Outside the center city there are several shopping centers: Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_103

Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_unordered_list_1

Infrastructure Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_section_10

Transportation Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_section_11

Interstate 78 passes to the south of Bethlehem and has access to the city at an interchange with Pennsylvania Route 412. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_104

U.S. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_105 Route 22 passes to the north of Bethlehem on the Lehigh Valley Thruway and has access to the city at interchanges with Pennsylvania Route 378, Schoenersville Road, Pennsylvania Route 512 (Center Street), and Pennsylvania Route 191 (Linden Street). Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_106

PA 378 runs north-south through Bethlehem, passing through the southern part of the city on Wyandotte Street, crossing the Lehigh River on the Hill to Hill Bridge, and heading through the northern part of the city on a freeway to US 22. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_107

PA 412 enters Bethlehem from the south at an interchange with I-78 on the border with Hellertown and runs north and west through the southern part of the city to its northern terminus at PA 378. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_108

LANTA provides local bus service in Bethlehem, serving points in the city and providing connections to Allentown, Easton, the Lehigh Valley Mall, and other points in the Lehigh Valley. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_109

The Bethlehem Transportation Center at Broad and Guetter streets serves as a transit hub for LANTA buses in Bethlehem. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_110

Trans-Bridge Lines provides intercity bus service in Bethlehem, stopping at the Bethlehem Transportation Center and the Wind Creek Bethlehem bus terminal. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_111

Trans-Bridge Lines provides service from Bethlehem to Port Authority Bus Terminal in New York City along two routes, one of which runs from Allentown and Bethlehem to New York City and the other which runs from Bethlehem to New York City via Doylestown, Pennsylvania and Flemington, New Jersey. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_112

OurBus provides bus service from Bethlehem to Philadelphia and Camden, New Jersey. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_113

There are several Chinatown bus lines that provide service from New York City to the Wind Creek Bethlehem bus terminal, with many of the riders being low-income or homeless people who would sell their free play vouchers and hang around Bethlehem for the day without gambling before returning to New York City. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_114

Freight rail service in Bethlehem is provided by the Norfolk Southern Railway and Lehigh Valley Rail Management. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_115

Norfolk Southern Railway operates the Lehigh Line through the city along the Lehigh River, with the Reading Line splitting from the Lehigh Line in Bethlehem. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_116

Bethlehem formerly had passenger rail service at the Bethlehem Union Station, which originally served the Lehigh Valley Railroad and Reading Company and had service along SEPTA's Bethlehem Line south to Philadelphia until 1981, when service was cut back to Quakertown and later Lansdale. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_117

The Central Railroad of New Jersey formerly provided passenger rail service to the city at the Bethlehem station. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_118

The Lehigh Valley International Airport, formerly the Allentown–Bethlehem–Easton (ABE) International Airport, is located northwest of Bethlehem and provides commercial air service to the tri-city area. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_119

Utilities Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_section_12

Electricity in Bethlehem is provided by PPL Electric Utilities. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_120

UGI Utilities supplies natural gas to the city. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_121

The City of Bethlehem Department of Water & Sewer Resources provides water and sewer service to Bethlehem and parts of 10 adjacent municipalities in Lehigh and Northampton counties, serving 35,000 water customers and 25,000 sewer customers. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_122

The city's water supply comes from the Pocono Mountains, with the surface water sources containing 10 billion gallons of freshwater capacity in an area consisting of 23,000 acres of protected watershed. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_123

Trash collection in Bethlehem is provided by private haulers while the City of Bethlehem Recycling Department provides recycling collection. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_124

Politics and government Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_section_13

See also: Mayor of Bethlehem, Pennsylvania Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_125

The city government is composed of a mayor and a seven-person city council. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_126

Mayor Robert Donchez was sworn in on January 6, 2014. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_127

The previous mayor of Bethlehem was John B. Callahan, who was elected to his second term in November 2005. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_128

His election marked the 10th consecutive year a Democrat has held the city's highest office. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_129

Callahan is a member of the Mayors Against Illegal Guns Coalition, a bi-partisan group with a stated goal of "making the public safer by getting illegal guns off the streets." Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_130

The Coalition was founded by former Boston Mayor Thomas Menino and New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_131

Federally, Bethlehem is part of Pennsylvania's 7th congressional district, represented by Democrat Susan Wild. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_132

Crime Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_section_14

Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_table_infobox_2

BethlehemBethlehem, Pennsylvania_header_cell_2_0_0
Violent crimesBethlehem, Pennsylvania_header_cell_2_1_0
HomicideBethlehem, Pennsylvania_header_cell_2_2_0 1.4Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_cell_2_2_1
RapeBethlehem, Pennsylvania_header_cell_2_3_0 22.1Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_cell_2_3_1
RobberyBethlehem, Pennsylvania_header_cell_2_4_0 132.7Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_cell_2_4_1
Aggravated assaultBethlehem, Pennsylvania_header_cell_2_5_0 146.5Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_cell_2_5_1
Total violent crimeBethlehem, Pennsylvania_header_cell_2_6_0 302.7Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_cell_2_6_1
Property crimesBethlehem, Pennsylvania_header_cell_2_7_0
BurglaryBethlehem, Pennsylvania_header_cell_2_8_0 504.5Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_cell_2_8_1
Larceny-theftBethlehem, Pennsylvania_header_cell_2_9_0 1,994.5Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_cell_2_9_1
Motor vehicle theftBethlehem, Pennsylvania_header_cell_2_10_0 171.4Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_cell_2_10_1
ArsonBethlehem, Pennsylvania_header_cell_2_11_0 18.0Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_cell_2_11_1
Total property crimeBethlehem, Pennsylvania_header_cell_2_12_0 2,670.4Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_cell_2_12_1

Bethlehem has a significantly lower crime rate than that of Allentown and Easton. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_133

In 2008, Bethlehem had an overall crime index of 244.4, while Allentown's crime index was 510.4 and Easton's crime index was 379.2. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_134

The United States' average was 320.9. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_135

Education Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_section_15

Colleges and universities Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_section_16

Bethlehem is home to three institutes of higher education. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_136

Lehigh University, located on South Mountain on the city's South Side, has 5,000 undergraduates and 2,100 graduate students. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_137

The university, which was founded in 1865, was ranked No. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_138

44 in U.S. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_139 News & World Report's 2017 ratings of America's best colleges. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_140

Moravian College, located in the center city area, is a small, highly respected liberal arts college. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_141

Founded in 1742 as Bethlehem Female Seminary, Moravian is the sixth oldest college in the nation. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_142

Besides undergraduate programs, the college also includes the Moravian Theological Seminary, a graduate school with approximately 100 students from more than a dozen religious denominations. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_143

The International Institute for Restorative Practices is a graduate school dedicated to the advanced education of professionals and to the conduct of research that can develop the growing field of restorative practices. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_144

The IIRP offers two master's degrees: the Master of Restorative Practices and Education (MRPE) and the Master of Restorative Practices and Youth Counseling (MRPYC). Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_145

The IIRP also offers an 18-credit Graduate Certificate in Restorative Practices. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_146

The main campus of Northampton Community College is located in neighboring Bethlehem Township, but it does have a satellite campus within the city. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_147

Primary and secondary education Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_section_17

Bethlehem is home to the Bethlehem Area School District (BASD), which covers a 40-square-mile (100 km) area that includes the city, the boroughs of Fountain Hill and Freemansburg, and Bethlehem and Hanover Townships. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_148

The district operates two high schools for grades 9–12: Liberty High School near center city and Freedom High School in neighboring Bethlehem Township. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_149

The district also has four public middle schools for grades 6–8: Broughal Middle School, East Hills Middle School, Nitschmann Middle School, and Northeast Middle School. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_150

In addition, BASD maintains 16 public elementary schools for grades K-5: Asa Packer Elementary School, Calypso Elementary School, Clearview Elementary School, Donegan Elementary School, Farmersville Elementary School, Fountain Hill Elementary School, Freemansburg Elementary School, Governor Wolf Elementary School, Hanover Elementary School, James Buchanan Elementary School, Lincoln Elementary School, Marvine Elementary School, Miller Heights Elementary School, Spring Garden Elementary School, Thomas Jefferson Elementary School, and William Penn Elementary School. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_151

Lehigh Valley Charter High School for the Arts is also operated by the district, though it accepts students in grades 9–12 from throughout Northampton and surrounding counties. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_152

Bethlehem has two private high schools: Bethlehem Catholic High School, which serves grades 9–12, and Moravian Academy, which serves all primary and secondary school grades. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_153

Notre Dame High School, located just north of the city, also serves grades 9 through 12. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_154

Bethlehem Catholic, Freedom and Liberty all compete athletically in Pennsylvania's East Pennsylvania Conference. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_155

Media Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_section_18

Main article: Media in the Lehigh Valley Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_156

Bethlehem's daily newspaper, The Globe-Times, ceased publication in 1991. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_157

The Morning Call, based in Allentown, and The Express-Times, based in Easton, are now the city's dominant newspapers. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_158

Other smaller newspapers include the Bethlehem Press; an award-winning weekly, Pulse Weekly, based in Allentown; Eastern Pennsylvania Business Journal, based in Bethlehem; and Lehigh Valley Sports Extra, an all-sports monthly newspaper founded in 2001. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_159

Religious broadcaster WBPH is the only television station licensed in Bethlehem, though WLVT Channel 39, a PBS affiliate, has its operations in the city. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_160

WFMZ Channel 69, an independent station, is based in neighboring Allentown. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_161

Bethlehem is part of the Philadelphia DMA and its cable systems also receive select radio and television broadcasts from New York City. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_162

Bethlehem has two licensed commercial radio stations, variety WGPA AM, and hard rock WZZO FM (though the latter's facilities are in Whitehall Township). Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_163

There is also one non-commercial station, WLVR FM, operated by Lehigh University. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_164

In addition, public radio station WDIY FM, while licensed in Allentown, maintains its facilities in Bethlehem. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_165

There are numerous other stations broadcast from Allentown and Easton representing a variety of commercial formats, as well as several translators of public stations from Philadelphia and New Jersey. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_166

Sports Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_section_19

Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_table_general_3

ClubBethlehem, Pennsylvania_header_cell_3_0_0 LeagueBethlehem, Pennsylvania_header_cell_3_0_1 VenueBethlehem, Pennsylvania_header_cell_3_0_2 EstablishedBethlehem, Pennsylvania_header_cell_3_0_3 ChampionshipsBethlehem, Pennsylvania_header_cell_3_0_4
Bethlehem Steel FCBethlehem, Pennsylvania_header_cell_3_1_0 USL, SoccerBethlehem, Pennsylvania_cell_3_1_1 Goodman StadiumBethlehem, Pennsylvania_cell_3_1_2 2016Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_cell_3_1_3 0Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_cell_3_1_4

Lehigh Valley Storm, Lehigh Valley Steelhawks and Philadelphia Eagles Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_section_20

A semi-professional football team, the Lehigh Valley Storm, is based in the city. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_167

Bethlehem is also home to the Lehigh Valley Steelhawks, a Professional Indoor Football League team who played their home games at Stabler Arena in Bethlehem till they moved to PPL Center in Allentown for 2014. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_168

From 1996 to 2012, the Philadelphia Eagles of the National Football League held their pre-season training camp each summer at the football facilities of Bethlehem's Lehigh University. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_169

As of 2013, the contract expired with the Philadelphia Eagles choosing to hold pre-season camp closer to home in South Philadelphia. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_170

Stabler Arena Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_section_21

Bethlehem also is home to Lehigh University's Stabler Arena, which hosts numerous athletic and music events. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_171

Stabler is home to the Professional Indoor Football League's Lehigh Valley Steelhawks and to Lehigh University collegiate basketball. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_172

High school athletics Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_section_22

Bethlehem-area high schools, including Bethlehem Catholic High School, Freedom High School and Liberty High School, compete athletically in the Eastern Pennsylvania Conference. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_173

Other Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_section_23

In the early part of the 20th century, Bethlehem had a corporate soccer team, the Bethlehem Steel F.C., which won the 1918–19 championship in the National Association Football League (NAFL), and then won what amounted to national championships three more times during the next decade (1920–21 in the NAFL; 1926–27 in the American Soccer League I; and in 1928–29 winning the EPSL II). Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_174

The Bethlehem Steel sides consisted largely of British imported players and also had the distinction of being the first American professional soccer team to play in Europe, which it did during its tour of Sweden in 1919. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_175

The team also won the National Challenge Cup, now called the Lamar Hunt U.S. Open Cup after billionaire sports franchise owner Lamar Hunt, five times beginning in 1915, and for the last time in 1926. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_176

The Lehigh Valley RFC rugby union team play their home matches at Monocacy Park. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_177

Recreation and entertainment Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_section_24

The city is famous for its annual Musikfest, a largely free, ten-day music festival that draws over a million people to the city each August. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_178

Since its founding in 1898, The Bach Choir of Bethlehem has been attracting thousands of visitors to the annual Bethlehem Bach Festival, now held largely on the campus of Lehigh University and on the historic grounds of the Moravian Community. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_179

Other festivals include The Celtic Classic, which celebrates Celtic culture, food and music, and the SouthSide Film Festival, a non-competitive, not-for-profit film festival. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_180

The city has also been the past, and current host of the North East Art Rock Festival, or NEARFest, a popular three-day progressive rock music event. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_181

The Bethlehem Area Public Library is a popular destination for recreation and entertainment. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_182

The Banana Factory houses studios of area artists and is open to the public every first Friday of the month. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_183

Touchstone Theatre, also on the SouthSide, houses the Valley's only professional resident theatre company, producing and presenting original theatre performances. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_184

Historic Bethlehem features many specialized boutiques, spas and nightclubs along its main streets. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_185

On the first Friday of the month, the businesses of the Southside Shopping District hosts First Friday, a celebration of arts and culture. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_186

Stores, restaurants and art galleries stay open late and offer special discounts, refreshments, gallery openings and more. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_187

Lehigh University's Zoellner Arts Center offers a variety of musical and dramatic events through the year. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_188

The city is the location of the Wind Creek Bethlehem casino resort, located on the former Bethlehem Steel property. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_189

The Lehigh Canal provides hiking and biking opportunities along the canal towpath which follows the Lehigh River in Bethlehem. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_190

Both the Lehigh Canal and the Monocacy Creek are popular for sport fishing, and both are stocked annually with trout. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_191

The western part of the former Bethlehem Steel site was selected as a filming location for the movie Transformers: Revenge of the Fallen, which was released in 2009. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_192

In the film, the Steel's blast furnaces and surrounding area are used for the opening sequence of the film to represent Shanghai. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_193

In spring 2011, the city opened Steel Stacks, a ten-acre campus that showcases music, art, festivals, films and educational programming throughout the year. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_194

It is located in the backdrop of the blast furnaces of the former Bethlehem Steel plant. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_195

City parks Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_section_25

Bethlehem owns 39 park sites, encompassing 568 acres (2.3 km). Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_196

Among the city's parks are Buchannan Park, Elmwood Park, Illick's Mill Park, Johnston Park, Monocacy Park, Rockland Park, Rose Garden, Sand Island, Saucon Park, Sell Field, South Mountain Park, Triangle Park, West Side Park, and Yosko Park. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_197

Notable people Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_section_26

See also: List of people from the Lehigh Valley Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_198

Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_unordered_list_2

In popular culture Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_section_27

Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_unordered_list_3

  • In the comic strip Dennis the Menace, Dennis's grandfather lives in Bethlehem. This features in the three-part holiday story, "Dennis in the Christmas City," which has been reprinted frequently since its original appearance in 1963.Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_item_3_59
  • In the HBO show Ballers, Dwayne Johnson's character, Spencer Strasmore, is from Bethlehem.Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_item_3_60
  • Lifetime Movie Christmas Radio(2019) is based in the town of Bethlehem PABethlehem, Pennsylvania_item_3_61

Related communities Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_section_28

Sister cities Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_section_29

Main article: List of sister cities in Pennsylvania Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_sentence_199

Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_unordered_list_4

See also Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_section_30

Bethlehem, Pennsylvania_unordered_list_5

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page:, Pennsylvania.