Bill Clinton

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"William Clinton" redirects here. Bill Clinton_sentence_0

For other uses, see William Clinton (disambiguation). Bill Clinton_sentence_1

Bill Clinton_table_infobox_0

Bill ClintonBill Clinton_header_cell_0_0_0
42nd President of the United StatesBill Clinton_header_cell_0_1_0
Vice PresidentBill Clinton_header_cell_0_2_0 Al GoreBill Clinton_cell_0_2_1
Preceded byBill Clinton_header_cell_0_3_0 George H. W. BushBill Clinton_cell_0_3_1
Succeeded byBill Clinton_header_cell_0_4_0 George W. BushBill Clinton_cell_0_4_1
40th and 42nd Governor of ArkansasBill Clinton_header_cell_0_5_0
LieutenantBill Clinton_header_cell_0_6_0 Bill Clinton_cell_0_6_1
Preceded byBill Clinton_header_cell_0_7_0 Frank D. WhiteBill Clinton_cell_0_7_1
Succeeded byBill Clinton_header_cell_0_8_0 Jim Guy TuckerBill Clinton_cell_0_8_1
LieutenantBill Clinton_header_cell_0_9_0 Joe PurcellBill Clinton_cell_0_9_1
Preceded byBill Clinton_header_cell_0_10_0 Joe Purcell (acting)Bill Clinton_cell_0_10_1
Succeeded byBill Clinton_header_cell_0_11_0 Frank D. WhiteBill Clinton_cell_0_11_1
Chair of the National Governors AssociationBill Clinton_header_cell_0_12_0
DeputyBill Clinton_header_cell_0_13_0 John H. SununuBill Clinton_cell_0_13_1
Preceded byBill Clinton_header_cell_0_14_0 Lamar AlexanderBill Clinton_cell_0_14_1
Succeeded byBill Clinton_header_cell_0_15_0 John H. SununuBill Clinton_cell_0_15_1
Vice Chair of the National Governors AssociationBill Clinton_header_cell_0_16_0
LeaderBill Clinton_header_cell_0_17_0 Lamar AlexanderBill Clinton_cell_0_17_1
Preceded byBill Clinton_header_cell_0_18_0 Lamar AlexanderBill Clinton_cell_0_18_1
Succeeded byBill Clinton_header_cell_0_19_0 John H. SununuBill Clinton_cell_0_19_1
50th Attorney General of ArkansasBill Clinton_header_cell_0_20_0
GovernorBill Clinton_header_cell_0_21_0 Bill Clinton_cell_0_21_1
Preceded byBill Clinton_header_cell_0_22_0 Jim Guy TuckerBill Clinton_cell_0_22_1
Succeeded byBill Clinton_header_cell_0_23_0 Steve ClarkBill Clinton_cell_0_23_1
Personal detailsBill Clinton_header_cell_0_24_0
BornBill Clinton_header_cell_0_25_0 William Jefferson Blythe III
(1946-08-19) August 19, 1946 (age 74)

Hope, Arkansas, U.S.Bill Clinton_cell_0_25_1

Political partyBill Clinton_header_cell_0_26_0 DemocraticBill Clinton_cell_0_26_1
Spouse(s)Bill Clinton_header_cell_0_27_0 Hillary Rodham ​(m. 1975)​Bill Clinton_cell_0_27_1
ChildrenBill Clinton_header_cell_0_28_0 Chelsea ClintonBill Clinton_cell_0_28_1
ParentsBill Clinton_header_cell_0_29_0 Bill Clinton_cell_0_29_1
RelativesBill Clinton_header_cell_0_30_0 Clinton familyBill Clinton_cell_0_30_1
ResidenceBill Clinton_header_cell_0_31_0 Chappaqua, New York, U.S.

Washington, D.C., U.S.Bill Clinton_cell_0_31_1

EducationBill Clinton_header_cell_0_32_0 Georgetown University (BS)

University College, Oxford (no degree) Yale University (JD)Bill Clinton_cell_0_32_1

OccupationBill Clinton_header_cell_0_33_0 Bill Clinton_cell_0_33_1
AwardsBill Clinton_header_cell_0_34_0 Bill Clinton_cell_0_34_1
SignatureBill Clinton_header_cell_0_35_0 Bill Clinton_cell_0_35_1

William Jefferson Clinton ( Blythe III; born August 19, 1946) is an American politician and attorney who served as the 42nd president of the United States from 1993 to 2001. Bill Clinton_sentence_2

Prior to his presidency, he served as governor of Arkansas (1979–1981 and 1983–1992) and as attorney general of Arkansas (1977–1979). Bill Clinton_sentence_3

A member of the Democratic Party, Clinton was known as a New Democrat, and many of his policies reflected a centrist "Third Way" political philosophy. Bill Clinton_sentence_4

He is the husband of former secretary of state, former U.S. senator, and two-time candidate for president Hillary Clinton. Bill Clinton_sentence_5

Clinton was born and raised in Arkansas and attended Georgetown University, University College, Oxford, and Yale Law School. Bill Clinton_sentence_6

He met Hillary Rodham at Yale and they were married in 1975. Bill Clinton_sentence_7

After graduating from law school, Clinton returned to Arkansas and won election as state attorney general, followed by two non-consecutive terms as Arkansas governor. Bill Clinton_sentence_8

As governor, he overhauled the state's education system and served as chairman of the National Governors Association. Bill Clinton_sentence_9

Clinton was elected president in 1992, defeating incumbent Republican opponent George H. W. Bush. Bill Clinton_sentence_10

At age 46, he became the third-youngest president in history. Bill Clinton_sentence_11

Clinton presided over the longest period of peacetime economic expansion in American history. Bill Clinton_sentence_12

He signed into law the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act, but failed to pass his plan for national health care reform. Bill Clinton_sentence_13

In the 1994 elections, the Republican Party won unified control of Congress for the first time in 40 years. Bill Clinton_sentence_14

In 1996, Clinton became the first Democrat since Franklin D. Roosevelt to be elected to a second full term. Bill Clinton_sentence_15

He passed welfare reform and the State Children's Health Insurance Program, as well as financial deregulation measures. Bill Clinton_sentence_16

He also appointed Ruth Bader Ginsburg and Stephen Breyer to the U.S. Bill Clinton_sentence_17 Supreme Court. Bill Clinton_sentence_18

During the last three years of Clinton's presidency, the Congressional Budget Office reported a budget surplus—the first such surplus since 1969. Bill Clinton_sentence_19

In foreign policy, Clinton ordered U.S. military intervention in the Bosnian and Kosovo wars, signed the Dayton Peace agreement, signed the Iraq Liberation Act in opposition to Saddam Hussein, participated in the Oslo I Accord and Camp David Summit to advance the Israeli–Palestinian peace process, and assisted the Northern Ireland peace process. Bill Clinton_sentence_20

In 1998, Clinton was impeached by the House of Representatives, becoming the second U.S. president to be impeached, after Andrew Johnson. Bill Clinton_sentence_21

The impeachment was based on accusations that Clinton committed perjury and obstruction of justice for the purpose of concealing his affair with Monica Lewinsky, a 22-year-old White House intern. Bill Clinton_sentence_22

He was acquitted by the Senate and completed his second term in office. Bill Clinton_sentence_23

Clinton left office with the highest end-of-office approval rating of any U.S. president since World War II, and has continually received high scores in the historical rankings of U.S. presidents, but has also been subject to substantial criticism for his sex scandals and lies especially in the wake of the MeToo movement. Bill Clinton_sentence_24

Since leaving office, he has been involved in public speaking and humanitarian work. Bill Clinton_sentence_25

He created the William J. Clinton Foundation to address international causes such as the prevention of AIDS and global warming. Bill Clinton_sentence_26

In 2004, Clinton published his autobiography, My Life. Bill Clinton_sentence_27

In 2009, he was named the United Nations Special Envoy to Haiti and after the 2010 Haiti earthquake, he teamed up with George W. Bush to form the Clinton Bush Haiti Fund. Bill Clinton_sentence_28

In addition, he secured the release of two American journalists imprisoned by North Korea, visiting the capital Pyongyang in 2009 and negotiating their release with then-North Korean leader Kim Jong-il. Bill Clinton_sentence_29

Early life and career Bill Clinton_section_0

Further information: Early life and career of Bill Clinton Bill Clinton_sentence_30

Clinton was born William Jefferson Blythe III on August 19, 1946, at Julia Chester Hospital in Hope, Arkansas. Bill Clinton_sentence_31

He is the son of William Jefferson Blythe Jr., a traveling salesman who had died in an automobile accident three months before his birth, and Virginia Dell Cassidy (later Virginia Kelley). Bill Clinton_sentence_32

His parents had married on September 4, 1943, but this union later proved to be bigamous, as Blythe was still married to his third wife. Bill Clinton_sentence_33

Virginia traveled to New Orleans to study nursing soon after Bill was born, leaving him in Hope with her parents Eldridge and Edith Cassidy, who owned and ran a small grocery store. Bill Clinton_sentence_34

At a time when the southern United States was racially segregated, Clinton's grandparents sold goods on credit to people of all races. Bill Clinton_sentence_35

In 1950, Bill's mother returned from nursing school and married Roger Clinton Sr., who co-owned an automobile dealership in Hot Springs, Arkansas, with his brother and Earl T. Ricks. Bill Clinton_sentence_36

The family moved to Hot Springs in 1950. Bill Clinton_sentence_37

Although he immediately assumed use of his stepfather's surname, it was not until Clinton turned 15 that he formally adopted the surname Clinton as a gesture toward him. Bill Clinton_sentence_38

Clinton has described his stepfather as a gambler and an alcoholic who regularly abused his mother and half-brother, Roger Clinton Jr. He threatened his stepfather with violence multiple times to protect them. Bill Clinton_sentence_39

In Hot Springs, Clinton attended St. John's Catholic Elementary School, Ramble Elementary School, and Hot Springs High School, where he was an active student leader, avid reader, and musician. Bill Clinton_sentence_40

Clinton was in the chorus and played the tenor saxophone, winning first chair in the state band's saxophone section. Bill Clinton_sentence_41

He briefly considered dedicating his life to music, but as he noted in his autobiography My Life: Bill Clinton_sentence_42

Clinton began an interest in law at Hot Springs High, when he took up the challenge to argue the defense of the ancient Roman senator Catiline in a mock trial in his Latin class. Bill Clinton_sentence_43

After a vigorous defense that made use of his "budding rhetorical and political skills", he told the Latin teacher Elizabeth Buck it "made him realize that someday he would study law". Bill Clinton_sentence_44

Clinton has identified two influential moments in his life, both occurring in 1963, that contributed to his decision to become a public figure. Bill Clinton_sentence_45

One was his visit as a Boys Nation senator to the White House to meet President John F. Kennedy. Bill Clinton_sentence_46

The other was watching Martin Luther King Jr.'s 1963 "I Have a Dream" speech on TV, which impressed him so much that he later memorized it. Bill Clinton_sentence_47

College and law school years Bill Clinton_section_1

Georgetown University Bill Clinton_section_2

With the aid of scholarships, Clinton attended the School of Foreign Service at Georgetown University in Washington, D.C., receiving a Bachelor of Science in Foreign Service degree in 1968. Bill Clinton_sentence_48

In 1964 and 1965, Clinton won elections for class president. Bill Clinton_sentence_49

From 1964 to 1967, he was an intern and then a clerk in the office of Arkansas Senator J. Bill Clinton_sentence_50 William Fulbright. Bill Clinton_sentence_51

While in college, he became a brother of service fraternity Alpha Phi Omega and was elected to Phi Beta Kappa. Bill Clinton_sentence_52

Clinton was also a member of the Order of DeMolay, a youth group affiliated with Freemasonry, but he never became a Freemason. Bill Clinton_sentence_53

He is a member of Kappa Kappa Psi honorary band fraternity. Bill Clinton_sentence_54

Oxford Bill Clinton_section_3

Upon graduating from Georgetown in 1968, Clinton won a Rhodes Scholarship to University College, Oxford, where he initially read for a B.Phil. Bill Clinton_sentence_55

in philosophy, politics, and economics but transferred to a B.Litt. Bill Clinton_sentence_56

in politics and, ultimately, a B.Phil. Bill Clinton_sentence_57

in politics. Bill Clinton_sentence_58

Clinton did not expect to return for the second year because of the draft and he switched programs; this type of activity was common among other Rhodes Scholars from his cohort. Bill Clinton_sentence_59

He had received an offer to study at Yale Law School, Yale University, and so he left early to return to the United States and did not receive a degree from Oxford. Bill Clinton_sentence_60

During his time at Oxford, Clinton befriended fellow American Rhodes Scholar Frank Aller. Bill Clinton_sentence_61

In 1969, Aller received a draft letter that mandated deployment to the Vietnam War. Bill Clinton_sentence_62

Aller's 1971 suicide had an influential impact on Clinton. Bill Clinton_sentence_63

British writer and feminist Sara Maitland said of Clinton, "I remember Bill and Frank Aller taking me to a pub in Walton Street in the summer term of 1969 and talking to me about the Vietnam War. Bill Clinton_sentence_64

I knew nothing about it, and when Frank began to describe the napalming of civilians I began to cry. Bill Clinton_sentence_65

Bill said that feeling bad wasn't good enough. Bill Clinton_sentence_66

That was the first time I encountered the idea that liberal sensitivities weren't enough and you had to do something about such things". Bill Clinton_sentence_67

Clinton was a member of the Oxford University Basketball Club and also played for Oxford University's rugby union team. Bill Clinton_sentence_68

While Clinton was president in 1994, he received an honorary degree and a fellowship from the University of Oxford, specifically for being "a doughty and tireless champion of the cause of world peace", having "a powerful collaborator in his wife," and for winning "general applause for his achievement of resolving the gridlock that prevented an agreed budget". Bill Clinton_sentence_69

Vietnam War opposition and draft controversy Bill Clinton_section_4

During the Vietnam War, Clinton received educational draft deferments while he was in England in 1968 and 1969. Bill Clinton_sentence_70

While at Oxford, he participated in Vietnam War protests and organized a Moratorium to End the War in Vietnam event in October 1969. Bill Clinton_sentence_71

He was planning to attend law school in the U.S. and knew he might lose his deferment. Bill Clinton_sentence_72

Clinton tried unsuccessfully to obtain positions in the National Guard or Air Force, and he then made arrangements to join the Reserve Officers' Training Corps (ROTC) program at the University of Arkansas. Bill Clinton_sentence_73

He subsequently decided not to join the ROTC, saying in a letter to the officer in charge of the program that he opposed the war, but did not think it was honorable to use ROTC, National Guard, or Reserve service to avoid serving in Vietnam. Bill Clinton_sentence_74

He further stated that because he opposed the war, he would not volunteer to serve in uniform, but would subject himself to the draft, and would serve if selected only as a way "to maintain my political viability within the system". Bill Clinton_sentence_75

Clinton registered for the draft and received a high number (311), meaning that those whose birthdays had been drawn as numbers 1 to 310 would be drafted before him, making it unlikely he would be called up. Bill Clinton_sentence_76

(In fact, the highest number drafted was 195.) Bill Clinton_sentence_77

Colonel Eugene Holmes, the Army officer who had been involved with Clinton's ROTC application, suspected that Clinton attempted to manipulate the situation to avoid the draft and avoid serving in uniform. Bill Clinton_sentence_78

He issued a notarized statement during the 1992 presidential campaign: Bill Clinton_sentence_79

During the 1992 campaign, it was revealed that Clinton's uncle had attempted to secure him a position in the Navy Reserve, which would have prevented him from being deployed to Vietnam. Bill Clinton_sentence_80

This effort was unsuccessful and Clinton said in 1992 that he had been unaware of it until then. Bill Clinton_sentence_81

Although legal, Clinton's actions with respect to the draft and deciding whether to serve in the military were criticized during his first presidential campaign by conservatives and some Vietnam veterans, some of whom charged that he had used Fulbright's influence to avoid military service. Bill Clinton_sentence_82

Clinton's 1992 campaign manager, James Carville, successfully argued that Clinton's letter in which he declined to join the ROTC should be made public, insisting that voters, many of whom had also opposed the Vietnam War, would understand and appreciate his position. Bill Clinton_sentence_83

Law school Bill Clinton_section_5

After Oxford, Clinton attended Yale Law School and earned a Juris Doctor (J.D.) degree in 1973. Bill Clinton_sentence_84

In 1971, he met his future wife, Hillary Rodham, in the Yale Law Library; she was a class year ahead of him. Bill Clinton_sentence_85

They began dating and were soon inseparable. Bill Clinton_sentence_86

After only about a month, Clinton postponed his summer plans to be a coordinator for the George McGovern campaign for the 1972 United States presidential election in order to move in with her in California. Bill Clinton_sentence_87

The couple continued living together in New Haven when they returned to law school. Bill Clinton_sentence_88

Clinton eventually moved to Texas with Rodham in 1972 to take a job leading McGovern's effort there. Bill Clinton_sentence_89

He spent considerable time in Dallas, at the campaign's local headquarters on Lemmon Avenue, where he had an office. Bill Clinton_sentence_90

Clinton worked with future two-term mayor of Dallas Ron Kirk, future governor of Texas Ann Richards, and then unknown television director (and future filmmaker) Steven Spielberg. Bill Clinton_sentence_91

Bill married Hillary on October 11, 1975, and their only child, Chelsea, was born on February 27, 1980. Bill Clinton_sentence_92

Governor of Arkansas (1979–1981, 1983–1992) Bill Clinton_section_6

Further information: Electoral history of Bill Clinton Bill Clinton_sentence_93

After graduating from Yale Law School, Clinton returned to Arkansas and became a law professor at the University of Arkansas. Bill Clinton_sentence_94

In 1974, he ran for the House of Representatives. Bill Clinton_sentence_95

Running in the conservative 3rd district against incumbent Republican John Paul Hammerschmidt, Clinton's campaign was bolstered by the anti-Republican and anti-incumbent mood resulting from the Watergate scandal. Bill Clinton_sentence_96

Hammerschmidt, who had received 77 percent of the vote in 1972, defeated Clinton by only a 52 percent to 48 percent margin. Bill Clinton_sentence_97

In 1976, Clinton ran for Arkansas attorney general. Bill Clinton_sentence_98

With only minor opposition in the primary and no opposition at all in the general election, Clinton was elected. Bill Clinton_sentence_99

In 1978, Clinton entered the Arkansas gubernatorial primary. Bill Clinton_sentence_100

At just 31 years old, he was one of the youngest gubernatorial candidates in the state's history. Bill Clinton_sentence_101

Clinton was elected Governor of Arkansas in 1978, having defeated the Republican candidate Lynn Lowe, a farmer from Texarkana. Bill Clinton_sentence_102

Clinton was only 32 years old when he took office, the youngest governor in the country at the time and the second youngest governor in the history of Arkansas. Bill Clinton_sentence_103

Due to his youthful appearance, Clinton was often called the "Boy Governor". Bill Clinton_sentence_104

He worked on educational reform and directed the maintenance of Arkansas's roads, with wife Hillary leading a successful committee on urban health care reform. Bill Clinton_sentence_105

However, his term included an unpopular motor vehicle tax and citizens' anger over the escape of Cuban refugees (from the Mariel boatlift) detained in Fort Chaffee in 1980. Bill Clinton_sentence_106

Monroe Schwarzlose, of Kingsland in Cleveland County, polled 31 percent of the vote against Clinton in the Democratic gubernatorial primary of 1980. Bill Clinton_sentence_107

Some suggested Schwarzlose's unexpected voter turnout foreshadowed Clinton's defeat by Republican challenger Frank D. White in the general election that year. Bill Clinton_sentence_108

As Clinton once joked, he was the youngest ex-governor in the nation's history. Bill Clinton_sentence_109

Clinton joined friend Bruce Lindsey's Little Rock law firm of Wright, Lindsey and Jennings. Bill Clinton_sentence_110

In 1982, he was elected governor a second time and kept the office for ten years. Bill Clinton_sentence_111

Effective with the 1986 election, Arkansas had changed its gubernatorial term of office from two to four years. Bill Clinton_sentence_112

During his term, he helped transform Arkansas's economy and improved the state's educational system. Bill Clinton_sentence_113

For senior citizens, he removed the sales tax from medications and increased the home property-tax exemption. Bill Clinton_sentence_114

He became a leading figure among the New Democrats, a group of Democrats who advocated welfare reform, smaller government, and other policies not supported by liberals. Bill Clinton_sentence_115

Formally organized as the Democratic Leadership Council (DLC), the New Democrats argued that in light of President Ronald Reagan's landslide victory in 1984, the Democratic Party needed to adopt a more centrist political stance in order to succeed at the national level. Bill Clinton_sentence_116

Clinton delivered the Democratic response to Reagan's 1985 State of the Union Address and served as chair of the National Governors Association from 1986 to 1987, bringing him to an audience beyond Arkansas. Bill Clinton_sentence_117

In the early 1980s, Clinton made reform of the Arkansas education system a top priority of his gubernatorial administration. Bill Clinton_sentence_118

The Arkansas Education Standards Committee was chaired by Clinton's wife Hillary, who was also an attorney as well as the chair of the Legal Services Corporation. Bill Clinton_sentence_119

The committee transformed Arkansas's education system. Bill Clinton_sentence_120

Proposed reforms included more spending for schools (supported by a sales-tax increase), better opportunities for gifted children, vocational education, higher teachers' salaries, more course variety, and compulsory teacher competency exams. Bill Clinton_sentence_121

The reforms passed in September 1983 after Clinton called a special legislative session—the longest in Arkansas history. Bill Clinton_sentence_122

Many have considered this the greatest achievement of the Clinton governorship. Bill Clinton_sentence_123

He defeated four Republican candidates for governor: Lowe (1978), White (1982 and 1986), Jonesboro businessmen Woody Freeman (1984), and Sheffield Nelson of Little Rock (1990). Bill Clinton_sentence_124

Also in the 1980s, the Clintons' personal and business affairs included transactions that became the basis of the Whitewater controversy investigation, which later dogged his presidential administration. Bill Clinton_sentence_125

After extensive investigation over several years, no indictments were made against the Clintons related to the years in Arkansas. Bill Clinton_sentence_126

According to some sources, Clinton was a death penalty opponent in his early years, but he eventually switched positions. Bill Clinton_sentence_127

During Clinton's term, Arkansas performed its first executions since 1964 (the death penalty had been reinstated in 1976). Bill Clinton_sentence_128

As Governor, he oversaw four executions: one by electric chair and three by lethal injection. Bill Clinton_sentence_129

Later, Clinton was the first president to pardon a death-row inmate since the federal death penalty was reinstated in 1988. Bill Clinton_sentence_130

1988 Democratic presidential primaries Bill Clinton_section_7

In 1987, the media speculated that Clinton would enter the presidential race after incumbent New York governor Mario Cuomo declined to run and Democratic front-runner Gary Hart withdrew owing to revelations of multiple marital infidelities. Bill Clinton_sentence_131

Clinton decided to remain as Arkansas governor (following consideration for the potential candidacy of Hillary Rodham Clinton for governor, initially favored—but ultimately vetoed—by the First Lady). Bill Clinton_sentence_132

For the nomination, Clinton endorsed Massachusetts governor Michael Dukakis. Bill Clinton_sentence_133

He gave the nationally televised opening night address at the 1988 Democratic National Convention, but his speech, which was 33 minutes long and twice the length it was expected to be, was criticized for being too long and poorly delivered. Bill Clinton_sentence_134

Clinton presented himself both as a moderate and as a member of the New Democrat wing of the Democratic Party, and he headed the moderate Democratic Leadership Council in 1990 and 1991. Bill Clinton_sentence_135

President (1993–2001) Bill Clinton_section_8

Main article: Presidency of Bill Clinton Bill Clinton_sentence_136

For a chronological guide to this subject, see Timeline of the Bill Clinton presidency. Bill Clinton_sentence_137

During his presidency, Clinton advocated for a wide variety of legislation and programs, most of which were enacted into law or implemented by the executive branch. Bill Clinton_sentence_138

His policies, particularly the North American Free Trade Agreement and welfare reform, have been attributed to a centrist Third Way philosophy of governance. Bill Clinton_sentence_139

His policy of fiscal conservatism helped to reduce deficits on budgetary matters. Bill Clinton_sentence_140

Clinton presided over the longest period of peacetime economic expansion in American history. Bill Clinton_sentence_141

The Congressional Budget Office reported budget surpluses of $69 billion in 1998, $126 billion in 1999, and $236 billion in 2000, during the last three years of Clinton's presidency. Bill Clinton_sentence_142

Over the years of the recorded surplus, the gross national debt rose each year. Bill Clinton_sentence_143

At the end of the fiscal year (September 30) for each of the years a surplus was recorded, The U.S. treasury reported a gross debt of $5.413 trillion in 1997, $5.526 trillion in 1998, $5.656 trillion in 1999, and $5.674 trillion in 2000. Bill Clinton_sentence_144

Over the same period, the Office of Management and Budget reported an end of year (December 31) gross debt of $5.369 trillion in 1997, $5.478 trillion in 1998, $5.606 in 1999, and $5.629 trillion in 2000. Bill Clinton_sentence_145

At the end of his presidency, the Clintons moved to Chappaqua, New York, in order to satisfy a residency requirement for his wife to win election as a U.S. Bill Clinton_sentence_146

Senator from New York. Bill Clinton_sentence_147

1992 presidential campaign Bill Clinton_section_9

Further information: 1992 Democratic Party presidential primaries, 1992 United States presidential election, and Bill Clinton 1992 presidential campaign Bill Clinton_sentence_148

In the first primary contest, the Iowa Caucus, Clinton finished a distant third to Iowa senator Tom Harkin. Bill Clinton_sentence_149

During the campaign for the New Hampshire primary, reports surfaced that Clinton had engaged in an extramarital affair with Gennifer Flowers. Bill Clinton_sentence_150

Clinton fell far behind former Massachusetts senator Paul Tsongas in the New Hampshire polls. Bill Clinton_sentence_151

Following Super Bowl XXVI, Clinton and his wife Hillary went on 60 Minutes to rebuff the charges. Bill Clinton_sentence_152

Their television appearance was a calculated risk, but Clinton regained several delegates. Bill Clinton_sentence_153

He finished second to Tsongas in the New Hampshire primary, but after trailing badly in the polls and coming within single digits of winning, the media viewed it as a victory. Bill Clinton_sentence_154

News outlets labeled him "The Comeback Kid" for earning a firm second-place finish. Bill Clinton_sentence_155

Winning the big prizes of Florida and Texas and many of the Southern primaries on Super Tuesday gave Clinton a sizable delegate lead. Bill Clinton_sentence_156

However, former California governor Jerry Brown was scoring victories and Clinton had yet to win a significant contest outside his native South. Bill Clinton_sentence_157

With no major Southern state remaining, Clinton targeted New York, which had many delegates. Bill Clinton_sentence_158

He scored a resounding victory in New York City, shedding his image as a regional candidate. Bill Clinton_sentence_159

Having been transformed into the consensus candidate, he secured the Democratic Party nomination, finishing with a victory in Jerry Brown's home state of California. Bill Clinton_sentence_160

During the campaign, questions of conflict of interest regarding state business and the politically powerful Rose Law Firm, at which Hillary Rodham Clinton was a partner, arose. Bill Clinton_sentence_161

Clinton argued the questions were moot because all transactions with the state had been deducted before determining Hillary's firm pay. Bill Clinton_sentence_162

Further concern arose when Bill Clinton announced that, with Hillary, voters would be getting two presidents "for the price of one". Bill Clinton_sentence_163

Clinton was still the governor of Arkansas while campaigning for U.S. president, and he returned to his home state to see that Ricky Ray Rector would be executed. Bill Clinton_sentence_164

After killing a police officer and a civilian, Rector shot himself in the head, leading to what his lawyers said was a state where he could still talk but did not understand the idea of death. Bill Clinton_sentence_165

According to both Arkansas state law and Federal law, a seriously mentally impaired inmate cannot be executed. Bill Clinton_sentence_166

The courts disagreed with the allegation of grave mental impairment and allowed the execution. Bill Clinton_sentence_167

Clinton's return to Arkansas for the execution was framed in an article for The New York Times as a possible political move to counter "soft on crime" accusations. Bill Clinton_sentence_168

Bush's approval ratings were around 80 percent during the Gulf War, and he was described as unbeatable. Bill Clinton_sentence_169

When Bush compromised with Democrats to try to lower Federal deficits, he reneged on his promise not to raise taxes, which hurt his approval rating. Bill Clinton_sentence_170

Clinton repeatedly condemned Bush for making a promise he failed to keep. Bill Clinton_sentence_171

By election time, the economy was souring and Bush saw his approval rating plummet to just slightly over 40 percent. Bill Clinton_sentence_172

Finally, conservatives were previously united by anti-communism, but with the end of the Cold War, the party lacked a uniting issue. Bill Clinton_sentence_173

When Pat Buchanan and Pat Robertson addressed Christian themes at the Republican National Convention—with Bush criticizing Democrats for omitting God from their platform—many moderates were alienated. Bill Clinton_sentence_174

Clinton then pointed to his moderate, "New Democrat" record as governor of Arkansas, though some on the more liberal side of the party remained suspicious. Bill Clinton_sentence_175

Many Democrats who had supported Ronald Reagan and Bush in previous elections switched their support to Clinton. Bill Clinton_sentence_176

Clinton and his running mate, Al Gore, toured the country during the final weeks of the campaign, shoring up support and pledging a "new beginning". Bill Clinton_sentence_177

On March 26, 1992, during a Democratic fund raiser of the presidential campaign, Robert Rafsky confronted then Gov. Bill Clinton_sentence_178

Bill Clinton of Arkansas and asked what he was going to do about AIDS, to which Clinton replied, "I feel your pain." Bill Clinton_sentence_179

The televised exchange led to AIDS becoming an issue in the 1992 presidential election. Bill Clinton_sentence_180

On April 4, then candidate Clinton met with members of ACT UP and other leading AIDS advocates to discuss his AIDS agenda and agreed to make a major AIDS policy speech, to have people with HIV speak to the Democratic Convention, and to sign onto the AIDS United Action five point plan. Bill Clinton_sentence_181

Clinton won the 1992 presidential election (370 electoral votes) against Republican incumbent George H. W. Bush (168 electoral votes) and billionaire populist Ross Perot (zero electoral votes), who ran as an independent on a platform that focused on domestic issues. Bill Clinton_sentence_182

Bush's steep decline in public approval was a significant part of Clinton's success. Bill Clinton_sentence_183

Clinton's victory in the election ended twelve years of Republican rule of the White House and twenty of the previous twenty-four years. Bill Clinton_sentence_184

The election gave Democrats full control of the United States Congress, the first time one party controlled both the executive and legislative branches since Democrats held the 96th United States Congress during the presidency of Jimmy Carter. Bill Clinton_sentence_185

First term (1993–1997) Bill Clinton_section_10

Clinton was inaugurated as the 42nd president of the United States on January 20, 1993. Bill Clinton_sentence_186

Less than a month after taking office, he signed the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993, which required large employers to allow employees to take unpaid leave for pregnancy or a serious medical condition. Bill Clinton_sentence_187

This action had bipartisan support, and was popular with the public. Bill Clinton_sentence_188

Two days after taking office, on January 22, 1993—the 20th anniversary of the U.S. Supreme Court decision in Roe v. Wade—Clinton reversed restrictions on domestic and international family planning programs that had been imposed by Reagan and Bush. Bill Clinton_sentence_189

Clinton said abortion should be kept "safe, legal, and rare"—a slogan that had been suggested by University of California, San Diego political scientist Samuel L. Popkin and first used by Clinton in December 1991, while campaigning. Bill Clinton_sentence_190

During the eight years of the Clinton administration, the U.S. abortion rate declined by about 18.4 percent. Bill Clinton_sentence_191

On February 15, 1993, Clinton made his first address to the nation, announcing his plan to raise taxes to close a budget deficit. Bill Clinton_sentence_192

Two days later, in a nationally televised address to a joint session of Congress, Clinton unveiled his economic plan. Bill Clinton_sentence_193

The plan focused on reducing the deficit rather than on cutting taxes for the middle class, which had been high on his campaign agenda. Bill Clinton_sentence_194

Clinton's advisers pressured him to raise taxes, based on the theory that a smaller federal budget deficit would reduce bond interest rates. Bill Clinton_sentence_195

President Clinton's attorney general Janet Reno authorized the FBI's use of armored vehicles to deploy tear gas into the buildings of the Branch Davidian community near Waco, Texas, in hopes of ending a 51 day siege. Bill Clinton_sentence_196

During the operation on April 19, 1993, the buildings caught fire and 75 of the residents died, including 24 children. Bill Clinton_sentence_197

On May 19, 1993, Clinton fired seven employees of the White House Travel Office. Bill Clinton_sentence_198

This caused the White House travel office controversy even though the travel office staff served at the pleasure of the president and could be dismissed without cause. Bill Clinton_sentence_199

The White House responded to the controversy by claiming that the firings were done in response to financial improprieties that had been revealed by a brief FBI investigation. Bill Clinton_sentence_200

Critics contended that the firings had been done to allow friends of the Clintons to take over the travel business and the involvement of the FBI was unwarranted. Bill Clinton_sentence_201

In August, Clinton signed the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1993, which passed Congress without a Republican vote. Bill Clinton_sentence_202

It cut taxes for 15 million low-income families, made tax cuts available to 90 percent of small businesses, and raised taxes on the wealthiest 1.2 percent of taxpayers. Bill Clinton_sentence_203

Additionally, it mandated that the budget be balanced over a number of years through the implementation of spending restraints. Bill Clinton_sentence_204

On September 22, 1993, Clinton made a major speech to Congress regarding a health care reform plan; the program aimed at achieving universal coverage through a national health care plan. Bill Clinton_sentence_205

This was one of the most prominent items on Clinton's legislative agenda and resulted from a task force headed by Hillary Clinton. Bill Clinton_sentence_206

The plan was well received in political circles, but it was eventually doomed by well-organized lobby opposition from conservatives, the American Medical Association, and the health insurance industry. Bill Clinton_sentence_207

However, Clinton biographer John F. Harris said the program failed because of a lack of coordination within the White House. Bill Clinton_sentence_208

Despite the Democratic majority in Congress, the effort to create a national health care system ultimately died when compromise legislation by George J. Mitchell failed to gain a majority of support in August 1994. Bill Clinton_sentence_209

The failure of the bill was the first major legislative defeat of the Clinton administration. Bill Clinton_sentence_210

In November 1993, David Hale—the source of criminal allegations against Bill Clinton in the Whitewater controversy—alleged that while he was governor of Arkansas, Clinton pressured him to provide an illegal $300,000 loan to Susan McDougal, the Clintons' partner in the Whitewater land deal. Bill Clinton_sentence_211

A U.S. Bill Clinton_sentence_212 Securities and Exchange Commission investigation resulted in convictions against the McDougals for their role in the Whitewater project, but the Clintons themselves were never charged, and Clinton maintains his and his wife's innocence in the affair. Bill Clinton_sentence_213

On November 30, 1993, Clinton signed into law the Brady Bill, which mandated federal background checks on people who purchase firearms in the United States. Bill Clinton_sentence_214

The law also imposed a five-day waiting period on purchases, until the NICS system was implemented in 1998. Bill Clinton_sentence_215

He also expanded the Earned Income Tax Credit, a subsidy for low-income workers. Bill Clinton_sentence_216

In December of the same year, allegations by Arkansas state troopers Larry Patterson and Roger Perry were first reported by David Brock in The American Spectator. Bill Clinton_sentence_217

In the affair later known as "Troopergate", the officers alleged that they had arranged sexual liaisons for Clinton back when he was governor of Arkansas. Bill Clinton_sentence_218

The story mentioned a woman named Paula, a reference to Paula Jones. Bill Clinton_sentence_219

Brock later apologized to Clinton, saying the article was politically motivated "bad journalism", and that "the troopers were greedy and had slimy motives". Bill Clinton_sentence_220

That month, Clinton implemented a Department of Defense directive known as "Don't Ask, Don't Tell", which allowed gay men and women to serve in the armed services provided they kept their sexual preferences a secret. Bill Clinton_sentence_221

The Act forbade the military from inquiring about an individual's sexual orientation. Bill Clinton_sentence_222

The policy was developed as a compromise after Clinton's proposal to allow gays to serve openly in the military met staunch opposition from prominent Congressional Republicans and Democrats, including senators John McCain (R-AZ) and Sam Nunn (D-GA). Bill Clinton_sentence_223

According to David Mixner, Clinton's support for the compromise led to a heated dispute with Vice President Al Gore, who felt that "the President should lift the ban ... even though [his executive order] was sure to be overridden by the Congress". Bill Clinton_sentence_224

Some gay-rights advocates criticized Clinton for not going far enough and accused him of making his campaign promise to get votes and contributions. Bill Clinton_sentence_225

Their position was that Clinton should have integrated the military by executive order, noting that President Harry S. Truman used executive order to racially desegregate the armed forces. Bill Clinton_sentence_226

Clinton's defenders argued that an executive order might have prompted the Senate to write the exclusion of gays into law, potentially making it harder to integrate the military in the future. Bill Clinton_sentence_227

Later in his presidency, in 1999, Clinton criticized the way the policy was implemented, saying he did not think any serious person could say it was not "out of whack". Bill Clinton_sentence_228

The policy remained controversial, and was finally repealed in 2011, removing open sexual orientation as a reason for dismissal from the armed forces. Bill Clinton_sentence_229

On January 1, 1994, Clinton signed the North American Free Trade Agreement into law. Bill Clinton_sentence_230

Throughout his first year in office, Clinton consistently supported ratification of the treaty by the U.S. Senate. Bill Clinton_sentence_231

Clinton and most of his allies in the Democratic Leadership Committee strongly supported free trade measures; there remained, however, strong disagreement within the party. Bill Clinton_sentence_232

Opposition came chiefly from anti-trade Republicans, protectionist Democrats and supporters of Ross Perot. Bill Clinton_sentence_233

The bill passed the house with 234 votes against 200 opposed (132 Republicans and 102 Democrats voting in favor; 156 Democrats, 43 Republicans, and one independent against). Bill Clinton_sentence_234

The treaty was then ratified by the Senate and signed into law by the president. Bill Clinton_sentence_235

The Omnibus Crime Bill, which Clinton signed into law in September 1994, made many changes to U.S. crime and law enforcement legislation including the expansion of the death penalty to include crimes not resulting in death, such as running a large-scale drug enterprise. Bill Clinton_sentence_236

During Clinton's re-election campaign he said, "My 1994 crime bill expanded the death penalty for drug kingpins, murderers of federal law enforcement officers, and nearly 60 additional categories of violent felons." Bill Clinton_sentence_237

It also included a subsection of assault weapons ban for a ten-year period. Bill Clinton_sentence_238

On October 21, 1994, the Clinton administration launched the first official White House website, Bill Clinton_sentence_239

The site was followed with three more versions, resulting in the final edition launched in 2000. Bill Clinton_sentence_240

The White House website was part of a wider movement of the Clinton administration toward web-based communication. Bill Clinton_sentence_241

According to Robert Longley, "Clinton and Gore were responsible for pressing almost all federal agencies, the U.S. court system and the U.S. military onto the Internet, thus opening up America's government to more of America's citizens than ever before. Bill Clinton_sentence_242

On July 17, 1996, Clinton issued Executive Order 13011—Federal Information Technology, ordering the heads of all federal agencies to utilize information technology fully to make the information of the agency easily accessible to the public." Bill Clinton_sentence_243

After two years of Democratic Party control, the Democrats lost control of Congress to the Republicans in the mid-term elections in 1994, for the first time in forty years. Bill Clinton_sentence_244

A speech delivered by President Bill Clinton at the December 6, 1995 White House Conference on HIV/AIDS projected that a cure for AIDS and a vaccine to prevent further infection would be developed. Bill Clinton_sentence_245

The President focused on his administration's accomplishments and efforts related to the epidemic, including an accelerated drug-approval process. Bill Clinton_sentence_246

He also condemned homophobia and discrimination against people with HIV. Bill Clinton_sentence_247

Clinton announced three new initiatives: creating a special working group to coordinate AIDS research throughout the Federal government; convening public health experts to develop an action plan that integrates HIV prevention with substance abuse prevention; and launching a new effort by the Justice Department to ensure that health care facilities provide equal access to people with HIV and AIDS. Bill Clinton_sentence_248

The of June 1996 arose concerning improper access by the White House to FBI security-clearance documents. Bill Clinton_sentence_249

Craig Livingstone, head of the White House Office of Personnel Security, improperly requested, and received from the FBI, background report files without asking permission of the subject individuals; many of these were employees of former Republican administrations. Bill Clinton_sentence_250

In March 2000, Independent Counsel Robert Ray determined there was no credible evidence of any crime. Bill Clinton_sentence_251

Ray's report further stated, "there was no substantial and credible evidence that any senior White House official was involved" in seeking the files. Bill Clinton_sentence_252

On September 21, 1996, Clinton signed into law the Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA), which defined marriage for federal purposes as the legal union of one man and one woman; the legislation allowed individual states to refuse to recognize gay marriages that were performed in other states. Bill Clinton_sentence_253

Paul Yandura, speaking for the White House gay and lesbian liaison office, said Clinton's signing DOMA "was a political decision that they made at the time of a re-election". Bill Clinton_sentence_254

In defense of his actions, Clinton has said that DOMA was intended to "head off an attempt to send a constitutional amendment banning gay marriage to the states", a possibility he described as highly likely in the context of a "very reactionary Congress". Bill Clinton_sentence_255

Administration spokesman Richard Socarides said, "the alternatives we knew were going to be far worse, and it was time to move on and get the president re-elected." Bill Clinton_sentence_256

Clinton himself said DOMA was something "which the Republicans put on the ballot to try to get the base vote for Bush up, I think it's obvious that something had to be done to try to keep the Republican Congress from presenting that". Bill Clinton_sentence_257

Others were more critical. Bill Clinton_sentence_258

The veteran gay rights and gay marriage activist Evan Wolfson has called these claims "historic revisionism". Bill Clinton_sentence_259

In a July 2, 2011, editorial The New York Times opined, "The Defense of Marriage Act was enacted in 1996 as an election-year wedge issue, signed by President Bill Clinton in one of his worst policy moments." Bill Clinton_sentence_260

Ultimately, in United States v. Windsor, the U.S. Supreme Court struck down DOMA in June 2013. Bill Clinton_sentence_261

Despite DOMA, Clinton was the first president to select openly gay persons for administrative positions, and he is generally credited as being the first president to publicly champion gay rights. Bill Clinton_sentence_262

During his presidency, Clinton issued two substantially controversial executive orders on behalf of gay rights, the first lifting the ban on security clearances for LGBT federal employees and the second outlawing discrimination based on sexual orientation in the federal civilian workforce. Bill Clinton_sentence_263

Under Clinton's leadership, federal funding for HIV/AIDS research, prevention and treatment more than doubled. Bill Clinton_sentence_264

Clinton also pushed for passing hate crimes laws for gays and for the private sector Employment Non-Discrimination Act, which, buoyed by his lobbying, failed to pass the Senate by a single vote in 1996. Bill Clinton_sentence_265

Advocacy for these issues, paired with the politically unpopular nature of the gay rights movement at the time, led to enthusiastic support for Clinton's election and reelection by the Human Rights Campaign. Bill Clinton_sentence_266

Clinton came out for gay marriage in July 2009 and urged the Supreme Court to overturn DOMA in 2013. Bill Clinton_sentence_267

He was later honored by GLAAD for his prior pro-gay stances and his reversal on DOMA. Bill Clinton_sentence_268

The 1996 United States campaign finance controversy was an alleged effort by China to influence the domestic policies of the United States, before and during the Clinton administration, and involved the fundraising practices of the administration itself. Bill Clinton_sentence_269

Despite the evidence, the Chinese government denied all accusations. Bill Clinton_sentence_270

As part of a 1996 initiative to curb illegal immigration, Clinton signed the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act (IIRIRA) on September 30, 1996. Bill Clinton_sentence_271

Appointed by Clinton, the U.S. Bill Clinton_sentence_272 Commission on Immigration Reform recommended reducing legal immigration from about 800,000 people a year to about 550,000. Bill Clinton_sentence_273

Ken Gormley, author of The Death of American Virtue: Clinton vs. Starr, reveals in his book that Clinton narrowly escaped possible assassination in the Philippines in November 1996. Bill Clinton_sentence_274

During his visit to the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) forum in Manila, while he was on his way to meet with a senior member of the Philippine government, Clinton was saved from danger minutes before his motorcade was scheduled to drive over a bridge charged with a timed improvised explosive device (IED). Bill Clinton_sentence_275

According to officials, the IED was large enough to "blow up the entire presidential motorcade". Bill Clinton_sentence_276

Details of the plot were revealed to Gormley by Lewis C. Merletti, former member of the presidential protection detail and Director of the Secret Service. Bill Clinton_sentence_277

Intelligence officers intercepted a radio transmission indicating there was a wedding cake under a bridge. Bill Clinton_sentence_278

This alerted Merletti and others as Clinton's motorcade was scheduled to drive over a major bridge in downtown Manila. Bill Clinton_sentence_279

Once more, the word "wedding" was the code name used by a terrorist group for a past assassination attempt. Bill Clinton_sentence_280

Merletti wanted to reroute the motorcade, but the alternate route would add forty-five minutes to the drive time. Bill Clinton_sentence_281

Clinton was very angry, as he was already late for the meeting, but following the advice of the secret service possibly saved his life. Bill Clinton_sentence_282

Two other bombs had been discovered in Manila earlier in the week so the threat level that day was high. Bill Clinton_sentence_283

Security personnel at the Manila International Airport uncovered several grenades and a timing device in a travel bag. Bill Clinton_sentence_284

Officials also discovered a bomb near a major U.S. naval base. Bill Clinton_sentence_285

The president was scheduled to visit both these locations later in the week. Bill Clinton_sentence_286

An intense investigation took place into the events in Manila and it was discovered that the group behind the bridge bomb was a Saudi terrorist group in Afghanistan known as al-Qaeda and the plot was masterminded by Osama bin Laden. Bill Clinton_sentence_287

Until recently, this thwarted assassination attempt was never made public and remained top secret. Bill Clinton_sentence_288

Only top members of the U.S. intelligence community were aware of these events. Bill Clinton_sentence_289

1996 presidential election Bill Clinton_section_11

In the 1996 presidential election, Clinton was re-elected, receiving 49.2 percent of the popular vote over Republican Bob Dole (40.7 percent of the popular vote) and Reform candidate Ross Perot (8.4 percent of the popular vote). Bill Clinton_sentence_290

Clinton received 379 of the Electoral College votes, with Dole receiving 159 electoral votes. Bill Clinton_sentence_291

He became the first Democratic incumbent since Lyndon B. Johnson to be elected to a second term and the first Democrat since Franklin D. Roosevelt to be elected president more than once. Bill Clinton_sentence_292

Second term (1997–2001) Bill Clinton_section_12

In the January 1997, State of the Union address, Clinton proposed a new initiative to provide health coverage to up to five million children. Bill Clinton_sentence_293

Senators Ted Kennedy—a Democrat—and Orrin Hatch—a Republican—teamed up with Hillary Rodham Clinton and her staff in 1997, and succeeded in passing legislation forming the State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP), the largest (successful) health care reform in the years of the Clinton Presidency. Bill Clinton_sentence_294

That year, Hillary Clinton shepherded through Congress the Adoption and Safe Families Act and two years later she succeeded in helping pass the Foster Care Independence Act. Bill Clinton_sentence_295

Bill Clinton negotiated the passage of the Balanced Budget Act of 1997 by the Republican Congress. Bill Clinton_sentence_296

In October 1997, he announced he was getting hearing aids, due to hearing loss attributed to his age, and his time spent as a musician in his youth. Bill Clinton_sentence_297

In 1999, he signed into law the Financial Services Modernization Act also known as the Gramm–Leach–Bliley Act, which repealed the part of the Glass–Steagall Act that had prohibited a bank from offering a full range of investment, commercial banking, and insurance services since its enactment in 1933. Bill Clinton_sentence_298

Impeachment and acquittal Bill Clinton_section_13

Main article: Impeachment of Bill Clinton Bill Clinton_sentence_299

Clinton was impeached on December 19, 1998 by the House of Representatives. Bill Clinton_sentence_300

The House voted 228–206 to impeach him for perjury to a grand jury and voted 221–212 to impeach him for obstruction of justice. Bill Clinton_sentence_301

Clinton was only the second U.S. president (after Andrew Johnson) to be impeached. Bill Clinton_sentence_302

Impeachment proceedings were based on allegations that Clinton had illegally lied about and covered up his relationship with 22-year-old White House (and later Department of Defense) employee Monica Lewinsky. Bill Clinton_sentence_303

After the Starr Report was submitted to the House providing what it termed "substantial and credible information that President Clinton Committed Acts that May Constitute Grounds for an Impeachment", the House began impeachment hearings against Clinton before the mid-term elections. Bill Clinton_sentence_304

To hold impeachment proceedings, the Republican leadership called a lame-duck session in December 1998. Bill Clinton_sentence_305

While the House Judiciary Committee hearings ended in a straight party-line vote, there was lively debate on the House floor. Bill Clinton_sentence_306

The two charges passed in the House (largely with Republican support, but with a handful of Democratic votes as well) were for perjury and obstruction of justice. Bill Clinton_sentence_307

The perjury charge arose from Clinton's testimony before a grand jury that had been convened to investigate perjury he may have committed in his sworn deposition during Jones v. Clinton, Paula Jones's sexual harassment lawsuit. Bill Clinton_sentence_308

The obstruction charge was based on his actions to conceal his relationship with Lewinsky before and after that deposition. Bill Clinton_sentence_309

The Senate later acquitted Clinton of both charges. Bill Clinton_sentence_310

The Senate refused to meet to hold an impeachment trial before the end of the old term, so the trial was held over until the next Congress. Bill Clinton_sentence_311

Clinton was represented by Washington law firm Williams & Connolly. Bill Clinton_sentence_312

The Senate finished a twenty-one-day trial on February 12, 1999, with the vote of 55 not guilty/45 guilty on the perjury charge and 50 not guilty/50 guilty on the obstruction of justice charge. Bill Clinton_sentence_313

Both votes fell short of the constitutional two-thirds majority requirement to convict and remove an officeholder. Bill Clinton_sentence_314

The final vote was generally along party lines, with no Democrats voting guilty, and only a handful of Republicans voting not guilty. Bill Clinton_sentence_315

On January 19, 2001, Clinton's law license was suspended for five years after he acknowledged to an Arkansas circuit court that he had engaged in conduct prejudicial to the administration of justice in the Jones case. Bill Clinton_sentence_316

Pardons and commutations Bill Clinton_section_14

Clinton controversially issued 141 pardons and 36 commutations on his last day in office on January 20, 2001. Bill Clinton_sentence_317

Most of the controversy surrounded Marc Rich and allegations that Hillary Clinton's brother, Hugh Rodham, accepted payments in return for influencing the president's decision-making regarding the pardons. Bill Clinton_sentence_318

Federal prosecutor Mary Jo White was appointed to investigate the pardon of Rich. Bill Clinton_sentence_319

She was later replaced by then-Republican James Comey, who found no wrongdoing on Clinton's part. Bill Clinton_sentence_320

Some of Clinton's pardons remain a point of controversy. Bill Clinton_sentence_321

Military and foreign affairs Bill Clinton_section_15

Further information: Foreign policy of the Bill Clinton administration Bill Clinton_sentence_322

Somalia Bill Clinton_section_16

The Battle of Mogadishu occurred in Somalia in 1993. Bill Clinton_sentence_323

During the operation, two U.S. helicopters were shot down by rocket-propelled grenade attacks to their tail rotors, trapping soldiers behind enemy lines. Bill Clinton_sentence_324

This resulted in an urban battle that killed 18 American soldiers, wounded 73 others, and one was taken prisoner. Bill Clinton_sentence_325

There were many more Somali casualties. Bill Clinton_sentence_326

Some of the American bodies were dragged through the streets—a spectacle broadcast on television news programs. Bill Clinton_sentence_327

In response, U.S. forces were withdrawn from Somalia and later conflicts were approached with fewer soldiers on the ground. Bill Clinton_sentence_328

Rwanda Bill Clinton_section_17

In April 1994, genocide broke out in Rwanda. Bill Clinton_sentence_329

Intelligence reports indicate that Clinton was aware a "final solution to eliminate all Tutsis" was underway, long before the administration publicly used the word "genocide". Bill Clinton_sentence_330

Fearing a reprisal of the events in Somalia the previous year, Clinton chose not to intervene. Bill Clinton_sentence_331

President Clinton has referred to the failure of the U.S. government to intervene in the genocide as one of his main foreign policy failings, saying "I don't think we could have ended the violence, but I think we could have cut it down. Bill Clinton_sentence_332

And I regret it." Bill Clinton_sentence_333

Bosnia and Herzegovina Bill Clinton_section_18

In 1995, U.S. and NATO aircraft bombed Bosnian Serb targets to halt attacks on U.N. safe zones and pressure them into a peace accord that would end the Bosnian war. Bill Clinton_sentence_334

Clinton deployed U.S. peacekeepers to Bosnia in late 1995, to uphold the subsequent Dayton Agreement. Bill Clinton_sentence_335

Irish peace talks Bill Clinton_section_19

In 1992, before his presidency, Clinton proposed sending a peace envoy to Northern Ireland, but this was dropped to avoid tensions with the UK government. Bill Clinton_sentence_336

In 1994 Clinton angered London by granting a visa to Gerry Adams, leader of Sinn Féin, the IRA's political arm. Bill Clinton_sentence_337

In November 1995, Clinton became the first U.S. president to visit Northern Ireland, seeing both the divided communities of Belfast and later famously shaking Adams' hand, 14 months into an IRA ceasefire during the Troubles. Bill Clinton_sentence_338

Despite unionist criticism, Clinton used this as a way to negotiate an end to the violent conflict with London, Dublin, the paramilitaries and the other groups. Bill Clinton_sentence_339

Clinton went on to play a key role in the peace talks, which eventually led to the Good Friday Agreement in 1998. Bill Clinton_sentence_340

Iran Bill Clinton_section_20

In February 1996, the Clinton administration agreed to pay Iran US$131.8 million (equivalent to $214.86 million in 2019) in settlement to discontinue a case brought by Iran in 1989 against the U.S. in the International Court of Justice after the shooting down of Iran Air Flight 655 by the U.S. Navy guided missile cruiser. Bill Clinton_sentence_341

Osama bin Laden Bill Clinton_section_21

Capturing Osama bin Laden had been an objective of the U.S. government during the presidency of Bill Clinton (and continued to be until bin Laden's death in 2011). Bill Clinton_sentence_342

Despite claims by Mansoor Ijaz and Sudanese officials that the Sudanese government had offered to arrest and extradite bin Laden, and that U.S. authorities rejected each offer, the 9/11 Commission Report stated that "we have not found any reliable evidence to support the Sudanese claim". Bill Clinton_sentence_343

In response to a 1996 State Department warning about bin Laden and the 1998 bombings of U.S. embassies in East Africa by al-Qaeda (which killed 224 people, including 12 Americans), Clinton ordered several military missions to capture or kill bin Laden, all of which were unsuccessful. Bill Clinton_sentence_344

In August 1998, Clinton ordered cruise missile strikes on terrorist targets in Afghanistan and Sudan, targeting the Al-Shifa pharmaceutical factory in Sudan, which was suspected of assisting bin Laden in making chemical weapons, and bin Laden's terrorist training camps in Afghanistan. Bill Clinton_sentence_345

Kosovo Bill Clinton_section_22

In the midst of a brutal crackdown on ethnic Albanian separatists in the province of Kosovo by the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Clinton authorized the use of U.S. Armed Forces in a NATO bombing campaign against Yugoslavia in 1999, named Operation Allied Force. Bill Clinton_sentence_346

The stated reasoning behind the intervention was to stop the ethnic cleansing (and what the Clinton administration labeled genocide) of Albanians by Yugoslav anti-guerilla military units. Bill Clinton_sentence_347

General Wesley Clark was Supreme Allied Commander of NATO and oversaw the mission. Bill Clinton_sentence_348

With United Nations Security Council Resolution 1244, the bombing campaign ended on June 10, 1999. Bill Clinton_sentence_349

The resolution placed Kosovo under UN administration and authorized a peacekeeping force to be deployed to the region. Bill Clinton_sentence_350

NATO announced its soldiers all survived combat, though two died in an Apache helicopter crash. Bill Clinton_sentence_351

Journalists in the popular press criticized genocide statements by the Clinton administration as false and greatly exaggerated. Bill Clinton_sentence_352

Prior to the bombing campaign on March 24, 1999, common estimates showed that the number of civilians killed in the over year long conflict in Kosovo had approximately been 1,800, of which were primarily Albanians but also Serbs and that there was no evidence of genocide or ethnic cleansing. Bill Clinton_sentence_353

In a post-war inquiry, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe noted "the patterns of the expulsions and the vast increase in lootings, killings, rape, kidnappings and pillage once the NATO air war began on March 24". Bill Clinton_sentence_354

In 2001, the U.N.-supervised Supreme Court of Kosovo ruled that genocide (the intent to destroy a people) did not take place, but recognized "a systematic campaign of terror, including murders, rapes, arsons and severe maltreatments" with the intention being the forceful departure of the Albanian population. Bill Clinton_sentence_355

The term "ethnic cleansing" was used as an alternative to "genocide" to denote not just ethnically motivated murder but also displacement, though critics charge there is little difference. Bill Clinton_sentence_356

Slobodan Milošević, the president of Yugoslavia at the time of the atrocities, was eventually brought to trial before the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia in the Hague on charges including crimes against humanity and war crimes for his role in the war. Bill Clinton_sentence_357

He died in 2006, before the completion of the trial. Bill Clinton_sentence_358

Iraq Bill Clinton_section_23

In Clinton's 1998 State of the Union Address, he warned Congress that Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein was building an arsenal of chemical, biological and nuclear weapons: Bill Clinton_sentence_359

Seeking to weaken Hussein's grip on power, Clinton signed the Iraq Liberation Act of 1998 into law on October 31, 1998, which instituted a policy of "regime change" against Iraq, though it explicitly stated it did not provide for direct intervention on the part of American military forces. Bill Clinton_sentence_360

The administration then launched a four-day bombing campaign named Operation Desert Fox, lasting from December 16 to 19, 1998. Bill Clinton_sentence_361

At the end of this operation Clinton announced that "So long as Saddam remains in power, he will remain a threat to his people, his region, and the world. Bill Clinton_sentence_362

With our allies, we must pursue a strategy to contain him and to constrain his weapons of mass destruction program, while working toward the day Iraq has a government willing to live at peace with its people and with its neighbors." Bill Clinton_sentence_363

American and British aircraft in the Iraq no-fly zones attacked hostile Iraqi air defenses 166 times in 1999 and 78 times in 2000. Bill Clinton_sentence_364

Vietnam Bill Clinton_section_24

Clinton's November 2000 visit to Vietnam was the first by a U.S. president since the end of the Vietnam War. Bill Clinton_sentence_365

China Bill Clinton_section_25

See also: Chinagate Bill Clinton_sentence_366

On October 10, 2000, Clinton signed into law the U.S.–China Relations Act of 2000, which granted permanent normal trade relations (PNTR) trade status to China. Bill Clinton_sentence_367

The president asserted that free trade would gradually open China to democratic reform. Bill Clinton_sentence_368

Clinton also oversaw a boom of the U.S. economy. Bill Clinton_sentence_369

Under Clinton, the United States had a projected federal budget surplus for the first time since 1969. Bill Clinton_sentence_370

Relations were damaged for a time by the U.S. Bill Clinton_sentence_371 bombing of the Chinese embassy in Belgrade in May 1999. Bill Clinton_sentence_372

President Clinton later apologized for the bombing, stating it was accidental. Bill Clinton_sentence_373

The U.S.–China Relations Act of 2000 granted China permanent normal trade relations (NTR) status (previously called most favoured nation (MFN)) when China becomes a full member of the World Trade Organization (WTO), ending annual review and approval of NTR. Bill Clinton_sentence_374

The Act was signed into law on October 10, 2000 by Clinton. Bill Clinton_sentence_375

President Clinton in 2000 pushed Congress to approve the U.S.-China trade agreement and China's accession to the WTO, saying that more trade with China would advance America's economic interests: "Economically, this agreement is the equivalent of a one-way street. Bill Clinton_sentence_376

It requires China to open its markets—with a fifth of the world's population, potentially the biggest markets in the world—to both our products and services in unprecedented new ways," said Clinton. Bill Clinton_sentence_377

U.S. manufacturing jobs have decreased by almost five million since 2000. Bill Clinton_sentence_378

Since the entry of China into the WTO in 2001, the decline in manufacturing jobs has accelerated. Bill Clinton_sentence_379

Israeli-Palestinian conflict Bill Clinton_section_26

After initial successes such as the Oslo Accords of the early 1990s, which also led to the Israel–Jordan peace treaty in 1994 and the Wye River Memorandum in October 1998, Clinton attempted an effort to end the Israeli–Palestinian conflict. Bill Clinton_sentence_380

He brought Israeli prime minister Ehud Barak and Palestinian Authority chairman Yasser Arafat together at Camp David for the Camp David Summit in July 2000, which lasted 14 days. Bill Clinton_sentence_381

Following the failures of the peace talks, Clinton said Arafat had "missed the opportunity" to facilitate a "just and lasting peace". Bill Clinton_sentence_382

In his autobiography, Clinton blames Arafat for the collapse of the summit. Bill Clinton_sentence_383

Following another attempt in December 2000 at Bolling Air Force Base, in which the president offered the Clinton Parameters, the situation broke down completely after the end of the Taba Summit and with the start of the Second Intifada. Bill Clinton_sentence_384

Judicial appointments Bill Clinton_section_27

Main articles: Bill Clinton Supreme Court candidates and List of federal judges appointed by Bill Clinton Bill Clinton_sentence_385

Clinton appointed two justices to the Supreme Court: Ruth Bader Ginsburg in 1993 and Stephen Breyer in 1994. Bill Clinton_sentence_386

Along with his two Supreme Court appointments, Clinton appointed 66 judges to the United States courts of appeals and 305 judges to the United States district courts. Bill Clinton_sentence_387

His 373 judicial appointments are the second most in American history behind those of Ronald Reagan. Bill Clinton_sentence_388

Clinton also experienced a number of judicial appointment controversies, as 69 nominees to federal judgeships did not receive a vote in the Republican-controlled Senate Judiciary Committee. Bill Clinton_sentence_389

In all, 84 percent of his nominees were confirmed. Bill Clinton_sentence_390

Sonia Sotomayor was one of the judges who Clinton appointed to the Court of Appeals. Bill Clinton_sentence_391

She was nominated by Clinton in 1997, to the Second Circuit. Bill Clinton_sentence_392

Sotomayor was confirmed in 1998, following a delay of more than a year that was caused by Republican opposition. Bill Clinton_sentence_393

Clinton was the first president in history to appoint more women and minority judges than white male judges to the federal courts. Bill Clinton_sentence_394

In his eight years in office, 11.6% of Clinton's court of appeals nominees and 17.4% of his district court nominees were black; 32.8% of his court of appeals nominees and 28.5% of his district court nominees were women. Bill Clinton_sentence_395

Clinton appointed the first African American judges to the Fourth Circuit (Roger Gregory) and the Seventh Circuit (Ann Claire Williams). Bill Clinton_sentence_396

Clinton also appointed the nation's first openly gay or lesbian federal judge when he named Deborah Batts to the U.S. Bill Clinton_sentence_397 District Court for the Southern District of New York. Bill Clinton_sentence_398

Batts was confirmed by the Senate in a voice vote in 1994. Bill Clinton_sentence_399

Public opinion Bill Clinton_section_28

Throughout Clinton's first term, his job approval rating fluctuated in the 40s and 50s. Bill Clinton_sentence_400

In his second term, his rating consistently ranged from the high-50s to the high-60s. Bill Clinton_sentence_401

After his impeachment proceedings in 1998 and 1999, Clinton's rating reached its highest point. Bill Clinton_sentence_402

According to a CBS News/New York Times poll, Clinton left office with an approval rating of 68 percent, which matched those of Ronald Reagan and Franklin D. Roosevelt as the highest ratings for departing presidents in the modern era. Bill Clinton_sentence_403

Clinton's average Gallup poll approval rating for his last quarter in office was 61%, the highest final quarter rating any president has received for fifty years. Bill Clinton_sentence_404

Forty-seven percent of the respondents identified themselves as being Clinton supporters. Bill Clinton_sentence_405

As he was leaving office, a CNN/USA Today/Gallup poll revealed that 45 percent of Americans said they would miss him; 55 percent thought he "would have something worthwhile to contribute and should remain active in public life"; 68 percent thought he would be remembered more for his "involvement in personal scandal" than for "his accomplishments"; and 58 percent answered "No" to the question "Do you generally think Bill Clinton is honest and trustworthy?" Bill Clinton_sentence_406

The same percentage said he would be remembered as either "outstanding" or "above average" as a president, while 22 percent said he would be remembered as "below average" or "poor". Bill Clinton_sentence_407

ABC News characterized public consensus on Clinton as, "You can't trust him, he's got weak morals and ethics—and he's done a heck of a good job." Bill Clinton_sentence_408

In May 2006, a CNN poll comparing Clinton's job performance with that of his successor, George W. Bush, found that a strong majority of respondents said Clinton outperformed Bush in six different areas questioned. Bill Clinton_sentence_409

Gallup polls in 2007 and 2011 showed that Clinton was regarded by 13 percent of Americans as the greatest president in U.S. history. Bill Clinton_sentence_410

In 2014, 18 percent of respondents in a Quinnipiac University Polling Institute poll of American voters regarded Clinton as the best president since World War II, making him the third most popular among postwar presidents, behind John F. Kennedy and Ronald Reagan. Bill Clinton_sentence_411

The same poll showed that just 3% of American voters regarded Clinton as the worst president since World War II. Bill Clinton_sentence_412

A 2015 poll by The Washington Post asked 162 scholars of the American Political Science Association to rank all the U.S. presidents in order of greatness. Bill Clinton_sentence_413

According to their findings, Clinton ranked eighth overall, with a rating of 70 percent. Bill Clinton_sentence_414

Public image Bill Clinton_section_29

Main article: Public image of Bill Clinton Bill Clinton_sentence_415

As the first baby boomer president, Clinton was the first chief executive since Calvin Coolidge who was not alive during World War II. Bill Clinton_sentence_416

Authors Martin Walker and Bob Woodward stated that Clinton's innovative use of sound bite-ready dialogue, personal charisma, and public perception-oriented campaigning were a major factor in his high public approval ratings. Bill Clinton_sentence_417

When Clinton played the saxophone on The Arsenio Hall Show, he was described by some religious conservatives as "the MTV president". Bill Clinton_sentence_418

Opponents sometimes referred to him as "Slick Willie", a nickname which was first applied to him in 1980 by Pine Bluff Commercial journalist Paul Greenberg; Greenberg believed that Clinton was abandoning the progressive policies of previous Arkansas Governors such as Winthrop Rockefeller, Dale Bumpers and David Pryor. Bill Clinton_sentence_419

The claim "Slick Willie" would last throughout his presidency. Bill Clinton_sentence_420

Standing at a height of 6 ft 2 in (1.88 m), Clinton is tied with four others as the fifth-tallest president in the nation's history. Bill Clinton_sentence_421

His folksy manner led him to be nicknamed Bubba, especially in the South. Bill Clinton_sentence_422

Since 2000, he has frequently been referred to as "The Big Dog" or "Big Dog". Bill Clinton_sentence_423

His prominent role in campaigning for President Obama during the 2012 presidential election and his widely publicized speech at the 2012 Democratic National Convention, where he officially nominated Obama and criticized Republican nominee Mitt Romney and Republican policies in detail, earned him the nickname "Explainer-in-Chief". Bill Clinton_sentence_424

Clinton drew strong support from the African American community and insisted that the improvement of race relations would be a major theme of his presidency. Bill Clinton_sentence_425

In 1998, Nobel laureate Toni Morrison called Clinton "the first Black president", saying, "Clinton displays almost every trope of blackness: single-parent household, born poor, working-class, saxophone-playing, McDonald's-and-junk-food-loving boy from Arkansas". Bill Clinton_sentence_426

Morrison noted that Clinton's sex life was scrutinized more than his career accomplishments, and she compared this to the stereotyping and double standards that, she said, blacks typically endure. Bill Clinton_sentence_427

Many viewed this comparison as unfair and disparaging both to Clinton and to the African-American community at large. Bill Clinton_sentence_428

Clinton, a Baptist, has been open about his faith. Bill Clinton_sentence_429

Shortly after Clinton took office, Richard Mellon Scaife, a conservative newspaper owner, began to underwrite investigations into Clinton's past, reportedly with the hope of discovering a scandal which would cost him his presidency. Bill Clinton_sentence_430

Leading the Arkansas Project, Scaife and other associates sought to find sources in Clinton's home state of Arkansas who would be able to reveal hidden misconduct of the president. Bill Clinton_sentence_431

Clinton was a friend of billionaire financier and convicted sex offender Jeffrey Epstein. Bill Clinton_sentence_432

Sexual misconduct and sexual assault allegations Bill Clinton_section_30

Main article: Bill Clinton sexual misconduct allegations Bill Clinton_sentence_433

Several women have publicly accused Bill Clinton of sexual misconduct, including rape, harassment, and sexual assault. Bill Clinton_sentence_434

Additionally, some commentators have characterized Clinton's sexual relationship with former White House intern Monica Lewinsky as predatory or non-consensual, despite the fact that Lewinsky called the relationship consensual at the time, because of the vast power differential between a 22-year old intern and the president of the United States. Bill Clinton_sentence_435

These allegations have been revisited and lent more credence in 2018, in light of the #MeToo movement, with many commentators and Democratic leaders now saying Clinton should have been compelled to resign after the Lewinsky affair. Bill Clinton_sentence_436

In 1994, Paula Jones initiated a sexual harassment lawsuit against Clinton, claiming he had made unwanted advances towards her in 1991; Clinton denied the allegations. Bill Clinton_sentence_437

In April 1998, the case was initially dismissed by Judge Susan Webber Wright on the grounds that it lacked legal merit. Bill Clinton_sentence_438

Jones appealed Webber Wright's ruling, and her suit gained traction following Clinton's admission to having an affair with Monica Lewinsky in August 1998. Bill Clinton_sentence_439

In 1998, lawyers for Paula Jones released court documents that alleged a pattern of sexual harassment by Clinton when he was Governor of Arkansas. Bill Clinton_sentence_440

Robert S. Bennett, Clinton's main lawyer for the case, called the filing "a pack of lies" and "an organized campaign to smear the President of the United States" funded by Clinton's political enemies. Bill Clinton_sentence_441

Clinton later agreed to an out-of-court settlement and paid Jones $850,000. Bill Clinton_sentence_442

Bennett said the president made the settlement only so he could end the lawsuit for good and move on with his life. Bill Clinton_sentence_443

During the deposition for the Jones lawsuit, which was held at the White House, Clinton denied having sexual relations with Monica Lewinsky—a denial that became the basis for an impeachment charge of perjury. Bill Clinton_sentence_444

In 1998, Kathleen Willey alleged that Clinton had groped her in a hallway in 1993. Bill Clinton_sentence_445

An independent counsel determined Willey gave "false information" to the FBI, inconsistent with sworn testimony related to the Jones allegation. Bill Clinton_sentence_446

On March 19, 1998, Julie Hiatt Steele, a friend of Willey, released an affidavit, accusing the former White House aide of asking her to lie to corroborate Ms. Willey's account of being sexually groped by Clinton in the Oval Office. Bill Clinton_sentence_447

An attempt by Kenneth Starr to prosecute Steele for making false statements and obstructing justice ended in a mistrial and Starr declined to seek a retrial after Steele sought an investigation against the former Independent Counsel for prosecutorial misconduct. Bill Clinton_sentence_448

Linda Tripp's grand jury testimony also differed from Willey's claims regarding inappropriate sexual advances. Bill Clinton_sentence_449

Also in 1998, Juanita Broaddrick alleged that Clinton had raped her in the spring of 1978, although she said she did not remember the exact date. Bill Clinton_sentence_450

To support her charge, Broaddrick notes that she told multiple witnesses in 1978 she had been raped by Clinton, something these witnesses also state in interviews to the press. Bill Clinton_sentence_451

Broaddrick had earlier filed an affidavit denying any "unwelcome sexual advances" and later repeated the denial in a sworn deposition. Bill Clinton_sentence_452

In a 1998 NBC interview wherein she detailed the alleged rape, Broaddrick said she had denied (under oath) being raped only to avoid testifying about the ordeal publicly. Bill Clinton_sentence_453

The Lewinsky scandal has had an enduring impact on Clinton's legacy, beyond his impeachment in 1998. Bill Clinton_sentence_454

In the wake of the #MeToo movement (which shed light on the widespread prevalence of sexual assault and harassment, especially in the workplace), various commentators and Democratic political leaders, as well as Lewinsky herself, have revisited their view that the Lewinsky affair was consensual, and instead characterized it as an abuse of power or harassment, in light of the power differential between a president and a 22-year old intern. Bill Clinton_sentence_455

In 2018, Clinton was asked in several interviews about whether he should have resigned, and he said he had made the right decision in not resigning. Bill Clinton_sentence_456

During the 2018 Congressional elections, no Democratic candidate for office asked Clinton to campaign with him or her, a change that The New York Times attributed to the revised understanding of the Lewinsky scandal. Bill Clinton_sentence_457

Post-presidency (2001–present) Bill Clinton_section_31

Main article: Post-presidency of Bill Clinton Bill Clinton_sentence_458

Bill Clinton has continued to be active in public life since leaving office in 2001, giving speeches, fundraising, and founding charitable organizations, and has spoken in prime time at every Democratic National Convention. Bill Clinton_sentence_459

Activities until 2008 campaign Bill Clinton_section_32

In 2002, Clinton warned that pre-emptive military action against Iraq would have unwelcome consequences, and later claimed to have opposed the Iraq War from the start (though some dispute this). Bill Clinton_sentence_460

In 2005, Clinton criticized the Bush administration for its handling of emissions control, while speaking at the United Nations Climate Change conference in Montreal. Bill Clinton_sentence_461

The William J. Clinton Presidential Center and Park in Little Rock, Arkansas, was dedicated in 2004. Bill Clinton_sentence_462

Clinton released a best-selling autobiography, My Life, in 2004. Bill Clinton_sentence_463

In 2007, he released Giving: How Each of Us Can Change the World, which also became a New York Times Best Seller and garnered positive reviews. Bill Clinton_sentence_464

In the aftermath of the 2004 Asian tsunami, U.N. Bill Clinton_sentence_465 secretary-general Kofi Annan appointed Clinton to head a relief effort. Bill Clinton_sentence_466

After Hurricane Katrina, Clinton joined with fellow former president George H. W. Bush to establish the Bush-Clinton Tsunami Fund in January 2005, and the Bush-Clinton Katrina Fund in October of that year. Bill Clinton_sentence_467

As part of the tsunami effort, these two ex-presidents appeared in a Super Bowl XXXIX pre-game show, and traveled to the affected areas. Bill Clinton_sentence_468

They also spoke together at the funeral of Boris Yeltsin in April 2007. Bill Clinton_sentence_469

Based on his philanthropic worldview, Clinton created the William J. Clinton Foundation to address issues of global importance. Bill Clinton_sentence_470

This foundation includes the Clinton Foundation HIV and AIDS Initiative (CHAI), which strives to combat that disease, and has worked with the Australian government toward that end. Bill Clinton_sentence_471

The Clinton Global Initiative (CGI), begun by the Clinton Foundation in 2005, attempts to address world problems such as global public health, poverty alleviation and religious and ethnic conflict. Bill Clinton_sentence_472

In 2005, Clinton announced through his foundation an agreement with manufacturers to stop selling sugared drinks in schools. Bill Clinton_sentence_473

Clinton's foundation joined with the Large Cities Climate Leadership Group in 2006 to improve cooperation among those cities, and he met with foreign leaders to promote this initiative. Bill Clinton_sentence_474

The foundation has received donations from a number of governments all over the world, including Asia and the Middle East. Bill Clinton_sentence_475

In 2008, Foundation director Inder Singh announced deals to reduce the price of anti-malaria drugs by 30 percent in developing nations. Bill Clinton_sentence_476

Clinton also spoke in favor of California Proposition 87 on alternative energy, which was voted down. Bill Clinton_sentence_477

In the early 2000s, Clinton took flights on Jeffrey Epstein's private jet in connection with Clinton Foundation work. Bill Clinton_sentence_478

Years later, Epstein was convicted on sex trafficking charges. Bill Clinton_sentence_479

Clinton's office released a statement in 2019 saying, "President Clinton knows nothing about the terrible crimes Jeffrey Epstein pleaded guilty to in Florida some years ago, or those with which he has been recently charged in New York. Bill Clinton_sentence_480

In 2002 and 2003, President Clinton took a total of four trips on Jeffrey Epstein's airplane: one to Europe, one to Asia, and two to Africa, which included stops in connection with the work of the Clinton Foundation. Bill Clinton_sentence_481

Staff, supporters of the Foundation, and his Secret Service detail traveled on every leg of every trip. Bill Clinton_sentence_482

... Bill Clinton_sentence_483

He's not spoken to Epstein in well over a decade." Bill Clinton_sentence_484

2008 presidential election Bill Clinton_section_33

During the 2008 Democratic presidential primary campaign, Clinton vigorously advocated on behalf of his wife, Hillary. Bill Clinton_sentence_485

Through speaking engagements and fundraisers, he was able to raise $10 million toward her campaign. Bill Clinton_sentence_486

Some worried that as an ex-president, he was too active on the trail, too negative to Clinton rival Barack Obama, and alienating his supporters at home and abroad. Bill Clinton_sentence_487

Many were especially critical of him following his remarks in the South Carolina primary, which Obama won. Bill Clinton_sentence_488

Later in the 2008 primaries, there was some infighting between Bill and Hillary's staffs, especially in Pennsylvania. Bill Clinton_sentence_489

Considering Bill's remarks, many thought he could not rally Hillary supporters behind Obama after Obama won the primary. Bill Clinton_sentence_490

Such remarks lead to apprehension that the party would be split to the detriment of Obama's election. Bill Clinton_sentence_491

Fears were allayed August 27, 2008, when Clinton enthusiastically endorsed Obama at the 2008 Democratic National Convention, saying all his experience as president assures him that Obama is "ready to lead". Bill Clinton_sentence_492

After Hillary Clinton's presidential campaign was over, Bill Clinton continued to raise funds to help pay off her campaign debt. Bill Clinton_sentence_493

After the 2008 election Bill Clinton_section_34

Bill Clinton_unordered_list_0

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In 2009, Clinton travelled to North Korea on behalf of two American journalists imprisoned there. Bill Clinton_sentence_494

Euna Lee and Laura Ling had been imprisoned for illegally entering the country from China. Bill Clinton_sentence_495

Jimmy Carter had made a similar visit in 1994. Bill Clinton_sentence_496

After Clinton met with North Korean leader Kim Jong-il, Kim issued a pardon. Bill Clinton_sentence_497

Since then, Clinton has been assigned a number of other diplomatic missions. Bill Clinton_sentence_498

He was named United Nations Special Envoy to Haiti in 2009 following a series of hurricanes which caused $1 billion in damages. Bill Clinton_sentence_499

Clinton organized a conference with the Inter-American Development Bank, where a new industrial park was discussed in an effort to "build back better". Bill Clinton_sentence_500

In response to the 2010 Haiti earthquake, U.S. president Barack Obama announced that Clinton and George W. Bush would coordinate efforts to raise funds for Haiti's recovery. Bill Clinton_sentence_501

Funds began pouring into Haiti, which led to funding becoming available for Caracol Industrial Park in a part of the country unaffected by the earthquake. Bill Clinton_sentence_502

While Hillary Clinton was in South Korea, she and Cheryl Mills worked to convince SAE-A, a large apparel subcontractor, to invest in Haiti despite the company's deep concerns about plans to raise the minimum wage. Bill Clinton_sentence_503

In the summer of 2010, the South Korean company signed a contract at the U.S. State Department, ensuring that the new industrial park would have a key tenant. Bill Clinton_sentence_504

In 2010, Clinton announced support of, and delivered the keynote address for, the inauguration of NTR, Ireland's first environmental foundation. Bill Clinton_sentence_505

At the 2012 Democratic National Convention, Clinton gave a widely praised speech nominating Barack Obama. Bill Clinton_sentence_506

2016 presidential election Bill Clinton_section_35

Bill Clinton_unordered_list_1

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During the 2016 presidential election, Clinton again encouraged voters to support Hillary, and made appearances speaking on the campaign trail. Bill Clinton_sentence_507

In a series of tweets, then-President-elect Donald Trump criticized his ability to get people out to vote. Bill Clinton_sentence_508

Clinton served as a member of the electoral college for the state of New York. Bill Clinton_sentence_509

He voted for the democratic ticket consisting of his wife Hillary and her running-mate Tim Kaine. Bill Clinton_sentence_510

After the 2016 election Bill Clinton_section_36

On September 7, 2017, Clinton partnered with former presidents Jimmy Carter, George H. W. Bush, George W. Bush, and Barack Obama to work with One America Appeal to help the victims of Hurricane Harvey and Hurricane Irma in the Gulf Coast and Texas communities. Bill Clinton_sentence_511

Post-presidential health concerns Bill Clinton_section_37

In September 2004, Clinton underwent quadruple bypass surgery. Bill Clinton_sentence_512

In March 2005, he again underwent surgery, this time for a partially collapsed lung. Bill Clinton_sentence_513

On February 11, 2010, he was rushed to New York-Presbyterian/Columbia Hospital in Manhattan after complaining of chest pains, and he had two coronary stents implanted in his heart. Bill Clinton_sentence_514

After this procedure, Clinton adopted a plant-based whole foods (vegan) diet, which had been recommended by doctors Dean Ornish and Caldwell Esselstyn. Bill Clinton_sentence_515

Wealth Bill Clinton_section_38

The Clintons incurred several million dollars in legal bills during his presidency, which were paid off four years after he left office. Bill Clinton_sentence_516

Bill and Hillary Clinton have each earned millions of dollars from book publishing. Bill Clinton_sentence_517

In 2016, Forbes reported Bill and Hillary Clinton made about $240 million in the 15 years from January 2001, to December 2015, (mostly from paid speeches, business consulting and book-writing). Bill Clinton_sentence_518

Also in 2016, CNN reported the Clintons combined to receive more than $153 million in paid speeches from 2001 until spring 2015. Bill Clinton_sentence_519

In May 2015, The Hill reported that Bill and Hillary Clinton have made more than $25 million in speaking fees since the start of 2014, and that Hillary Clinton also made $5 million or more from her book, Hard Choices, during the same time period. Bill Clinton_sentence_520

In July 2014, The Wall Street Journal reported that at the end of 2012, the Clintons were worth between $5 million and $25.5 million, and that in 2012 (the last year they were required to disclose the information) the Clintons made between $16 and $17 million, mostly from speaking fees earned by the former president. Bill Clinton_sentence_521

Clinton earned more than $104 million from paid speeches between 2001 and 2012. Bill Clinton_sentence_522

In June 2014, ABC News and The Washington Post reported that Bill Clinton has made more than $100 million giving paid speeches since leaving public office, and in 2008, The New York Times reported that the Clintons' income tax returns show they made $109 million in the eight years from January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2007, including almost $92 million from his speaking and book-writing. Bill Clinton_sentence_523

Bill Clinton has given dozens of paid speeches each year since leaving office in 2001, mostly to corporations and philanthropic groups in North America and Europe; he often earned $100,000 to $300,000 per speech. Bill Clinton_sentence_524

Russian investment bank with ties to the Kremlin paid Bill Clinton $500,000 for a speech in Moscow. Bill Clinton_sentence_525

Hillary Clinton said she and Bill came out of the White House financially "broke" and in debt, especially due to large legal fees incurred during their years in the White House. Bill Clinton_sentence_526

"We had no money when we got there, and we struggled to, you know, piece together the resources for mortgages, for houses, for Chelsea's education." Bill Clinton_sentence_527

She added, "Bill has worked really hard ... we had to pay off all our debts ... he had to make double the money because of, obviously, taxes; and then pay off the debts, and get us houses, and take care of family members." Bill Clinton_sentence_528

Honors and recognition Bill Clinton_section_39

Main article: List of honors and awards received by Bill Clinton Bill Clinton_sentence_529

Various colleges and universities have awarded Clinton honorary degrees, including Doctorate of Law degrees and Doctor of Humane Letters degrees. Bill Clinton_sentence_530

He is an honorary fellow of University College, Oxford, which he attended as a Rhodes Scholar, although he did not complete his studies there. Bill Clinton_sentence_531

Schools have been named for Clinton, and statues have been built to pay him homage. Bill Clinton_sentence_532

U.S. states where he has been honored include Missouri, Arkansas, Kentucky, and New York. Bill Clinton_sentence_533

He was presented with the Medal for Distinguished Public Service by Secretary of Defense William Cohen in 2001. Bill Clinton_sentence_534

The Clinton Presidential Center was opened in Little Rock, Arkansas, in his honor on December 5, 2001. Bill Clinton_sentence_535

He has been honored in various other ways, in countries that include the Czech Republic, Papua New Guinea, Germany, and Kosovo. Bill Clinton_sentence_536

The Republic of Kosovo, in gratitude for his help during the Kosovo War, renamed a major street in the capital city of Pristina as Bill Clinton Boulevard and added a monumental Clinton statue. Bill Clinton_sentence_537

Clinton was selected as Time's "Man of the Year" in 1992, and again in 1998, along with Ken Starr. Bill Clinton_sentence_538

From a poll conducted of the American people in December 1999, Clinton was among eighteen included in Gallup's List of Widely Admired People of the 20th century. Bill Clinton_sentence_539

He was honored with a Grammy Award for Best Spoken Word Album for Children, a J. William Fulbright Prize for International Understanding, a TED Prize (named for the confluence of technology, entertainment and design), and was named as an Honorary GLAAD Media Award recipient for his work as an advocate for the LGBT community. Bill Clinton_sentence_540

Bill Clinton accepted an honorary membership into the Golden Key International Honour Society, along with other notables such as Bill Ford, Desmond Tutu, and Elie Wiesel. Bill Clinton_sentence_541

Golden Key International Honour Society is the world’s largest international collegiate honor society for graduate and undergraduate students, and has strong relationships with over 400 universities around the world. Bill Clinton_sentence_542

In 2011, President Michel Martelly of Haiti awarded Clinton with the National Order of Honour and Merit to the rank of Grand Cross "for his various initiatives in Haiti and especially his high contribution to the reconstruction of the country after the earthquake of January 12, 2010". Bill Clinton_sentence_543

Clinton declared at the ceremony that "in the United States of America, I really don't believe former American presidents need awards anymore, but I am very honored by this one, I love Haiti, and I believe in its promise". Bill Clinton_sentence_544

U.S. president Barack Obama awarded Clinton the Presidential Medal of Freedom on November 20, 2013. Bill Clinton_sentence_545

Bill Clinton_unordered_list_2

  • Bill Clinton_item_2_4
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Electoral history Bill Clinton_section_40

Main article: Electoral history of Bill Clinton Bill Clinton_sentence_546

Bill Clinton_table_general_1

YearBill Clinton_header_cell_1_0_0 OfficeBill Clinton_header_cell_1_0_1 DistrictBill Clinton_header_cell_1_0_2 DemocraticBill Clinton_header_cell_1_0_3 RepublicanBill Clinton_header_cell_1_0_5 OtherBill Clinton_header_cell_1_0_7
1974Bill Clinton_cell_1_1_0 Arkansas 3rd congressional districtBill Clinton_cell_1_1_1 ArkansasBill Clinton_cell_1_1_2 Bill ClintonBill Clinton_cell_1_1_3 48.17%Bill Clinton_cell_1_1_4 John Paul HammerschmidtBill Clinton_cell_1_1_5 51.83%Bill Clinton_cell_1_1_6 Bill Clinton_cell_1_1_7 Bill Clinton_cell_1_1_8
1976Bill Clinton_cell_1_2_0 Arkansas Attorney GeneralBill Clinton_cell_1_2_1 ArkansasBill Clinton_cell_1_2_2 Bill ClintonBill Clinton_cell_1_2_3 Bill Clinton_cell_1_2_4 UnopposedBill Clinton_cell_1_2_5 Bill Clinton_cell_1_2_6 Bill Clinton_cell_1_2_7 Bill Clinton_cell_1_2_8
1978Bill Clinton_cell_1_3_0 Governor of ArkansasBill Clinton_cell_1_3_1 ArkansasBill Clinton_cell_1_3_2 Bill ClintonBill Clinton_cell_1_3_3 63%Bill Clinton_cell_1_3_4 Lynn LoweBill Clinton_cell_1_3_5 37%Bill Clinton_cell_1_3_6 Bill Clinton_cell_1_3_7 Bill Clinton_cell_1_3_8
1980Bill Clinton_cell_1_4_0 Governor of ArkansasBill Clinton_cell_1_4_1 ArkansasBill Clinton_cell_1_4_2 Bill ClintonBill Clinton_cell_1_4_3 48%Bill Clinton_cell_1_4_4 Frank WhiteBill Clinton_cell_1_4_5 52%Bill Clinton_cell_1_4_6 Bill Clinton_cell_1_4_7 Bill Clinton_cell_1_4_8
1982Bill Clinton_cell_1_5_0 Governor of ArkansasBill Clinton_cell_1_5_1 ArkansasBill Clinton_cell_1_5_2 Bill ClintonBill Clinton_cell_1_5_3 55%Bill Clinton_cell_1_5_4 Frank WhiteBill Clinton_cell_1_5_5 45%Bill Clinton_cell_1_5_6 Bill Clinton_cell_1_5_7 Bill Clinton_cell_1_5_8
1984Bill Clinton_cell_1_6_0 Governor of ArkansasBill Clinton_cell_1_6_1 ArkansasBill Clinton_cell_1_6_2 Bill ClintonBill Clinton_cell_1_6_3 63%Bill Clinton_cell_1_6_4 Woody FreemanBill Clinton_cell_1_6_5 37%Bill Clinton_cell_1_6_6 Bill Clinton_cell_1_6_7 Bill Clinton_cell_1_6_8
1986Bill Clinton_cell_1_7_0 Governor of ArkansasBill Clinton_cell_1_7_1 ArkansasBill Clinton_cell_1_7_2 Bill ClintonBill Clinton_cell_1_7_3 64%Bill Clinton_cell_1_7_4 Frank WhiteBill Clinton_cell_1_7_5 36%Bill Clinton_cell_1_7_6 Bill Clinton_cell_1_7_7 Bill Clinton_cell_1_7_8
1990Bill Clinton_cell_1_8_0 Governor of ArkansasBill Clinton_cell_1_8_1 ArkansasBill Clinton_cell_1_8_2 Bill ClintonBill Clinton_cell_1_8_3 57%Bill Clinton_cell_1_8_4 Sheffield NelsonBill Clinton_cell_1_8_5 42%Bill Clinton_cell_1_8_6 Bill Clinton_cell_1_8_7 Bill Clinton_cell_1_8_8
1992Bill Clinton_cell_1_9_0 President of the United StatesBill Clinton_cell_1_9_1 United States of AmericaBill Clinton_cell_1_9_2 Bill ClintonBill Clinton_cell_1_9_3 43%Bill Clinton_cell_1_9_4 George H. W. BushBill Clinton_cell_1_9_5 37%Bill Clinton_cell_1_9_6 Ross Perot (I)Bill Clinton_cell_1_9_7 19%Bill Clinton_cell_1_9_8
1996Bill Clinton_cell_1_10_0 President of the United StatesBill Clinton_cell_1_10_1 United States of AmericaBill Clinton_cell_1_10_2 Bill ClintonBill Clinton_cell_1_10_3 49%Bill Clinton_cell_1_10_4 Bob DoleBill Clinton_cell_1_10_5 41%Bill Clinton_cell_1_10_6 Ross Perot (Reform)Bill Clinton_cell_1_10_7 8%Bill Clinton_cell_1_10_8

Authored books Bill Clinton_section_41

Bill Clinton_unordered_list_3

Recordings Bill Clinton_section_42

Bill Clinton is one of the narrators on Wolf Tracks and Peter and the Wolf, a 2003 recording of Sergei Prokofiev's Peter and the Wolf performed by the Russian National Orchestra, on Pentatone, together with Mikhail Gorbachev and Sophia Loren. Bill Clinton_sentence_547

This garnered Clinton the 2003 Grammy Award for Best Spoken Word Album for Children. Bill Clinton_sentence_548

The audiobook edition of his autobiography, My Life, read by Clinton himself, won the 2005 Grammy Award for Best Spoken Word Album as well as the Audie Award as the Audiobook of the Year. Bill Clinton_sentence_549

Clinton has two more Grammy nominations for his audiobooks: Giving: How Each of Us Can Change the World in 2007 and Back to Work in 2012. Bill Clinton_sentence_550

See also Bill Clinton_section_43

Bill Clinton_unordered_list_4

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: Clinton.