Billboard (magazine)

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Billboard (magazine)_table_infobox_0

BillboardBillboard (magazine)_table_caption_0
EditorBillboard (magazine)_header_cell_0_0_0 Hannah KarpBillboard (magazine)_cell_0_0_1
Former editorsBillboard (magazine)_header_cell_0_1_0 Tony Gervino, Bill Werde, Tamara ConniffBillboard (magazine)_cell_0_1_1
CategoriesBillboard (magazine)_header_cell_0_2_0 EntertainmentBillboard (magazine)_cell_0_2_1
FrequencyBillboard (magazine)_header_cell_0_3_0 WeeklyBillboard (magazine)_cell_0_3_1
PublisherBillboard (magazine)_header_cell_0_4_0 Lynne SegallBillboard (magazine)_cell_0_4_1
Total circulationBillboard (magazine)_header_cell_0_5_0 17,000 magazines per week

15.2 million unique visitors per monthBillboard (magazine)_cell_0_5_1

FounderBillboard (magazine)_header_cell_0_6_0 William Donaldson and James HenneganBillboard (magazine)_cell_0_6_1
Year foundedBillboard (magazine)_header_cell_0_7_0 November 1, 1894; 126 years ago (1894-11-01) (as Billboard Advertising)Billboard (magazine)_cell_0_7_1
CompanyBillboard (magazine)_header_cell_0_8_0 Eldridge IndustriesBillboard (magazine)_cell_0_8_1
CountryBillboard (magazine)_header_cell_0_9_0 United StatesBillboard (magazine)_cell_0_9_1
Based inBillboard (magazine)_header_cell_0_10_0 New York CityBillboard (magazine)_cell_0_10_1
LanguageBillboard (magazine)_header_cell_0_11_0 EnglishBillboard (magazine)_cell_0_11_1
WebsiteBillboard (magazine)_header_cell_0_12_0 Billboard (magazine)_cell_0_12_1
ISSNBillboard (magazine)_header_cell_0_13_0 Billboard (magazine)_cell_0_13_1

Billboard (stylized in all lowercase) is an American entertainment media brand owned by the Billboard-Hollywood Reporter Media Group, a division of MRC Media & Info. Billboard (magazine)_sentence_0

It publishes pieces involving news, video, opinion, reviews, events, and style, and is also known for its music charts, including the Hot 100, Billboard 200 and Global 200, tracking the most popular songs and albums in different genres. Billboard (magazine)_sentence_1

It also hosts events, owns a publishing firm, and operates several TV shows. Billboard (magazine)_sentence_2

Billboard was founded in 1894 by William Donaldson and James Hennegan as a trade publication for bill posters. Billboard (magazine)_sentence_3

Donaldson later acquired Hennegan's interest in 1900 for $500. Billboard (magazine)_sentence_4

In the early years of the 20th century, it covered the entertainment industry, such as circuses, fairs, and burlesque shows, and also created a mail service for travelling entertainers. Billboard (magazine)_sentence_5

Billboard began focusing more on the music industry as the jukebox, phonograph, and radio became commonplace. Billboard (magazine)_sentence_6

Many topics it covered were spun-off into different magazines, including Amusement Business in 1961 to cover outdoor entertainment, so that it could focus on music. Billboard (magazine)_sentence_7

After Donaldson died in 1925, Billboard was passed down to his children and Hennegan's children, until it was sold to private investors in 1985, and has since been owned by various parties. Billboard (magazine)_sentence_8

History Billboard (magazine)_section_0

Early history Billboard (magazine)_section_1

The first issue of Billboard was published in Cincinnati, Ohio by William Donaldson and James Hennegan on November 1, 1894. Billboard (magazine)_sentence_9

Initially, it covered the advertising and bill posting industry, and was known as Billboard Advertising. Billboard (magazine)_sentence_10

At the time, billboards, posters, and paper advertisements placed in public spaces were the primary means of advertising. Billboard (magazine)_sentence_11

Donaldson handled editorial and advertising, while Hennegan, who owned Hennegan Printing Co., managed magazine production. Billboard (magazine)_sentence_12

The first issues were just eight pages long. Billboard (magazine)_sentence_13

The paper had columns like "The Bill Room Gossip" and "The Indefatigable and Tireless Industry of the Bill Poster". Billboard (magazine)_sentence_14

A department for agricultural fairs was established in 1896. Billboard (magazine)_sentence_15

The title was changed to The Billboard in 1897. Billboard (magazine)_sentence_16

After a brief departure over editorial differences, Donaldson purchased Hennegan's interest in the business in 1900 for $500 (equal to $15,400 today) to save it from bankruptcy. Billboard (magazine)_sentence_17

That May, Donaldson changed it from a monthly to a weekly paper with a greater emphasis on breaking news. Billboard (magazine)_sentence_18

He improved editorial quality and opened new offices in New York, Chicago, San Francisco, London, and Paris, and also re-focused the magazine on outdoor entertainment such as fairs, carnivals, circuses, vaudeville, and burlesque shows. Billboard (magazine)_sentence_19

A section devoted to circuses was introduced in 1900, followed by more prominent coverage of outdoor events in 1901. Billboard (magazine)_sentence_20

Billboard also covered topics including regulation, a lack of professionalism, economics, and new shows. Billboard (magazine)_sentence_21

It had a "stage gossip" column covering the private lives of entertainers, a "tent show" section covering traveling shows, and a sub-section called "Freaks to order". Billboard (magazine)_sentence_22

According to The Seattle Times, Donaldson also published news articles "attacking censorship, praising productions exhibiting 'good taste' and fighting yellow journalism". Billboard (magazine)_sentence_23

As railroads became more developed, Billboard set up a mail forwarding system for traveling entertainers. Billboard (magazine)_sentence_24

The location of an entertainer was tracked in the paper's Routes Ahead column, then Billboard would receive mail on the star's behalf and publish a notice in its "Letter-Box" column that it has mail for them. Billboard (magazine)_sentence_25

This service was first introduced in 1904, and became one of Billboard's largest sources of profit and celebrity connections. Billboard (magazine)_sentence_26

By 1914, there were 42,000 people using the service. Billboard (magazine)_sentence_27

It was also used as the official address of traveling entertainers for draft letters during World War I. Billboard (magazine)_sentence_28

In the 1960s, when it was discontinued, Billboard was still processing 1,500 letters per week. Billboard (magazine)_sentence_29

In 1920, Donaldson made a controversial move by hiring African-American journalist James Albert Jackson to write a weekly column devoted to African-American performers. Billboard (magazine)_sentence_30

According to The Business of Culture: Strategic Perspectives on Entertainment and Media, the column identified discrimination against black performers and helped validate their careers. Billboard (magazine)_sentence_31

Jackson was the first black critic at a national magazine with a predominantly white audience. Billboard (magazine)_sentence_32

According to his grandson, Donaldson also established a policy against identifying performers by their race. Billboard (magazine)_sentence_33

Donaldson died in 1925. Billboard (magazine)_sentence_34

Focus on music Billboard (magazine)_section_2

Billboard's editorial changed focus as technology in recording and playback developed, covering "marvels of modern technology" such as the phonograph, record players, and wireless radios. Billboard (magazine)_sentence_35

It began covering coin-operated entertainment machines in 1899, and created a dedicated section for them called "Amusement Machines" in March 1932. Billboard (magazine)_sentence_36

Billboard began covering the motion picture industry in 1907, but ended up focusing on music due to competition from Variety. Billboard (magazine)_sentence_37

It created a radio broadcasting station in the 1920s. Billboard (magazine)_sentence_38

The jukebox industry continued to grow through the Great Depression, and was advertised heavily in Billboard, which led to even more editorial focus on music. Billboard (magazine)_sentence_39

The proliferation of the phonograph and radio also contributed to its growing music emphasis. Billboard (magazine)_sentence_40

Billboard published the first music hit parade on January 4, 1936, and introduced a "Record Buying Guide" in January 1939. Billboard (magazine)_sentence_41

In 1940, it introduced "Chart Line", which tracked the best-selling records, and was followed by a chart for jukebox records in 1944 called Music Box Machine charts. Billboard (magazine)_sentence_42

By the 1940s, Billboard was more of a music industry specialist publication. Billboard (magazine)_sentence_43

The number of charts it published grew after World War II, due to a growing variety of music interests and genres. Billboard (magazine)_sentence_44

It had eight charts by 1987, covering different genres and formats, and 28 charts by 1994. Billboard (magazine)_sentence_45

By 1943, Billboard had about 100 employees. Billboard (magazine)_sentence_46

The magazine's offices moved to Brighton, Ohio in 1946, then to New York City in 1948. Billboard (magazine)_sentence_47

A five-column tabloid format was adopted in November 1950 and coated paper was first used in Billboard's print issues in January 1963, allowing for photojournalism. Billboard (magazine)_sentence_48

Billboard Publications Inc. acquired a monthly trade magazine for candy and cigarette machine vendors called Vend, and, in the 1950s, acquired an advertising trade publication called Tide. Billboard (magazine)_sentence_49

By 1969, Billboard Publications Inc. owned eleven trade and consumer publications, a publisher called Watson-Guptill Publications, a set of self-study cassette tapes, and four television franchises. Billboard (magazine)_sentence_50

It also acquired Photo Weekly that year. Billboard (magazine)_sentence_51

Over time, subjects that Billboard still covered outside of music were spun-off into separate publications: Funspot magazine was created in 1957 to cover amusement parks, and Amusement Business was created in 1961 to cover outdoor entertainment. Billboard (magazine)_sentence_52

In January 1961, Billboard was renamed as Billboard Music Week to emphasize its new exclusive interest in music. Billboard (magazine)_sentence_53

Two years later, it was renamed to just Billboard. Billboard (magazine)_sentence_54

According to The New Business Journalism, by 1984, Billboard Publications was a "prosperous" conglomerate of trade magazines, and Billboard had become the "undisputed leader" in music industry news. Billboard (magazine)_sentence_55

In the early 1990s, Billboard introduced Billboard Airplay Monitors, a publication for disc jockeys and music programmers. Billboard (magazine)_sentence_56

By the end of the 1990s, Billboard dubbed itself the "bible" of the recording industry. Billboard (magazine)_sentence_57

Changes in ownership Billboard (magazine)_section_3

Billboard struggled after its founder William Donaldson died in 1925, and, within three years, was once again heading towards bankruptcy. Billboard (magazine)_sentence_58

Donaldson's son-in-law Roger Littleford took over in 1928 and "nursed the publication back to health". Billboard (magazine)_sentence_59

His sons Bill and Roger became co-publishers in 1946 and inherited the publication in the late 1970s after Roger Littleford's death. Billboard (magazine)_sentence_60

They sold it to private investors in 1985 for an estimated $40 million. Billboard (magazine)_sentence_61

The investors cut costs and acquired a trade publication for the Broadway theatre industry called Backstage. Billboard (magazine)_sentence_62

In 1987, Billboard was sold again to Affiliated Publications for $100 million. Billboard (magazine)_sentence_63

Billboard Publications Inc. became a subsidiary of Affiliated Publications called BPI Communications. Billboard (magazine)_sentence_64

As BPI Communications, it acquired The Hollywood Reporter, Adweek, Marketing Week, and Mediaweek, and also purchased Broadcast Data Systems, a high-tech firm for tracking music airtime. Billboard (magazine)_sentence_65

Private investors from Boston Ventures and BPI executives re-purchased a two-thirds interest in Billboard Publications for $100 million, and more acquisitions followed. Billboard (magazine)_sentence_66

In 1993, it created a division known as Billboard Music Group for music-related publications. Billboard (magazine)_sentence_67

In 1994, Billboard Publications was sold to Dutch media conglomerate Verenigde Nederlandse Uitgeverijen for $220 million. Billboard (magazine)_sentence_68

VNU acquired the Clio Awards in advertising and the National Research Group in 1997, as well as Editor & Publisher in 1999. Billboard (magazine)_sentence_69

In July 2000, it paid $650 million for the publisher Miller Freeman. Billboard (magazine)_sentence_70

BPI was combined with other entities in VNU in 2000 to form Bill Communications Inc. By the time CEO Gerald Hobbs retired in 2003, VNU had grown substantially larger, but had a large amount of debt from the acquisitions. Billboard (magazine)_sentence_71

An attempted $7 billion acquisition of IMS Health in 2005 prompted protests from shareholders that halted the deal; it eventually agreed to an $11 billion takeover bid from investors in 2006. Billboard (magazine)_sentence_72

VNU then changed its name to Nielsen in 2007, the namesake of a company it acquired for $2.5 billion in 1999. Billboard (magazine)_sentence_73

New CEO Robert Krakoff divested some of the previously owned publications, restructured the organization, and planned some acquisitions before dying suddenly in 2007; he was subsequently replaced by Greg Farrar. Billboard (magazine)_sentence_74

Nielsen owned Billboard until 2009, when it was one of eight publications sold to e5 Global Media Holdings. Billboard (magazine)_sentence_75

e5 was formed by investment firms Pluribus Capital Management and Guggenheim Partners for the purpose of the acquisition. Billboard (magazine)_sentence_76

The following year, the new parent company was renamed as Prometheus Global Media. Billboard (magazine)_sentence_77

Three years later, Guggenheim Partners acquired Pluribus' share of Prometheus and became the sole owner of Billboard. Billboard (magazine)_sentence_78

In December 2015, Guggenheim Digital Media spun out several media brands, including Billboard, to its own executive Todd Boehly. Billboard (magazine)_sentence_79

The assets operate under the Hollywood Reporter-Billboard Media Group, a unit of the holding company Eldridge Industries. Billboard (magazine)_sentence_80

1990s–present Billboard (magazine)_section_4

Timothy White was appointed editor-in-chief in 1991, a position he held until his unexpected death in 2002. Billboard (magazine)_sentence_81

White wrote a weekly column promoting music with "artistic merit", while criticizing music with violent or misogynistic themes, and also reworked the publication's music charts. Billboard (magazine)_sentence_82

Rather than relying on data from music retailers, new charts used data from store checkout scanners obtained from Nielsen SoundScan. Billboard (magazine)_sentence_83

White also wrote in-depth profiles on musicians, but was replaced by Keith Girard, who was subsequently fired in May 2004. Billboard (magazine)_sentence_84

He and a female employee filed a $29 million lawsuit alleging that Billboard fired them unfairly with an intent to damage their reputations. Billboard (magazine)_sentence_85

The lawsuit claimed that they experienced sexual harassment, a hostile work environment, and a financially motivated lack of editorial integrity. Billboard (magazine)_sentence_86

Email evidence suggested that human resources were given special instructions to watch minority employees. Billboard (magazine)_sentence_87

The case was settled out-of-court in 2006 for a non-disclosed sum. Billboard (magazine)_sentence_88

In the 2000s, economic decline in the music industry dramatically reduced readership and advertising from Billboard's traditional audience. Billboard (magazine)_sentence_89

Circulation declined from 40,000 in circulation in the 1990s to less than 17,000 by 2014. Billboard (magazine)_sentence_90

The publication's staff and ownership were also undergoing frequent changes. Billboard (magazine)_sentence_91

In 2004, Tamara Conniff became the first female and youngest-ever executive editor at Billboard, and led its first major redesign since the 1960s, by Daniel Stark and Stark Design. Billboard (magazine)_sentence_92

During her tenure, Billboard newsstand sales jumped 10%, ad pages climbed 22%, and conference registrations rose 76%. Billboard (magazine)_sentence_93

In 2005, Billboard expanded its editorial outside the music industry into other areas of digital and mobile entertainment. Billboard (magazine)_sentence_94

In 2006, after leading Billboard's radio publication, former ABC News and CNN journalist, Scott McKenzie, was named editorial director across all Billboard properties. Billboard (magazine)_sentence_95

Conniff launched the Billboard Women in Music event in 2007. Billboard (magazine)_sentence_96

Bill Werde was named editorial director in 2008, and was followed by Janice Min in January 2014, also responsible for editorial content at The Hollywood Reporter. Billboard (magazine)_sentence_97

The magazine has since been making changes to make it more of a general interest music news source as opposed to solely an industry trade, branching out into covering more celebrity, fashion, and gossip. Billboard (magazine)_sentence_98

Min hired Tony Gervino as the publication's editor, which was unusual, in that he did not have a background in the music industry. Billboard (magazine)_sentence_99

Tony Gervino was appointed editor-in-chief in April 2014. Billboard (magazine)_sentence_100

An item on NPR covered a leaked version of Billboard's annual survey, which it said had more gossip and focused on less professional topics than prior surveys. Billboard (magazine)_sentence_101

For example, it polled readers on a lawsuit that singer Kesha filed against her producer alleging sexual abuse. Billboard (magazine)_sentence_102

Gervino was let go in May 2016. Billboard (magazine)_sentence_103

A note from Min to the editorial staff indicated that Senior Vice President of Digital Content Mike Bruno would serve as the head of editorial moving forward. Billboard (magazine)_sentence_104

On June 15, 2016, BillboardPH, the first Billboard chart company in Southeast Asia, mainly in the Philippines, was announced. Billboard (magazine)_sentence_105

On September 12, 2016, Billboard expanded into China by launching Billboard China in a partnership with Vision Music Ltd. Billboard (magazine)_sentence_106

On September 23, 2020, it was announced that Penske Media Corporation would assume operations of the MRC Media & Info publications under a joint venture with MRC known as PMRC. Billboard (magazine)_sentence_107

The joint venture includes management of Billboard. Billboard (magazine)_sentence_108

News publishing Billboard (magazine)_section_5

Billboard publishes a news website and weekly trade magazine that cover music, video and home entertainment. Billboard (magazine)_sentence_109

Most of the articles are written by staff writers, while some are written by industry experts. Billboard (magazine)_sentence_110

It covers news, gossip, opinion, and music reviews, but its "most enduring and influential creation" is the Billboard charts. Billboard (magazine)_sentence_111

The charts track music sales, radio airtime and other data about the most popular songs and albums. Billboard (magazine)_sentence_112

The Billboard Hot 100 chart of the top-selling songs was introduced in 1958. Billboard (magazine)_sentence_113

Since then, the Billboard 200, which tracks the top-selling albums, has become more popular as an indicator of commercial success. Billboard (magazine)_sentence_114

Billboard has also published books in collaboration with Watson-Guptill and a radio and television series called American Top 40, based on Billboard charts. Billboard (magazine)_sentence_115

A daily Billboard Bulletin was introduced in February 1997 and Billboard hosts about 20 industry events each year. Billboard (magazine)_sentence_116

Billboard is considered one of the most reputable sources of music industry news. Billboard (magazine)_sentence_117

It has a print circulation of 17,000 and an online readership of 1.2 million unique monthly views. Billboard (magazine)_sentence_118

The website includes the Billboard Charts, news separated by music genre, videos, and a separate website. Billboard (magazine)_sentence_119

It also compiles lists, hosts a fashion website called Pret-a-Reporter, and publishes eight different newsletters. Billboard (magazine)_sentence_120

The print magazine's regular sections include: Billboard (magazine)_sentence_121

Billboard (magazine)_unordered_list_0

  • Hot 100: A chart of the top 100 most popular songs that weekBillboard (magazine)_item_0_0
  • Topline: News from the weekBillboard (magazine)_item_0_1
  • The Beat: Hitmaker interviews, gossip and trends in the music industryBillboard (magazine)_item_0_2
  • Style: Fashion and accessoriesBillboard (magazine)_item_0_3
  • Features: In-depth interviews, profiles and photographyBillboard (magazine)_item_0_4
  • Reviews: Reviews of new albums and songsBillboard (magazine)_item_0_5
  • Backstage pass: information about events and concertsBillboard (magazine)_item_0_6
  • Charts and CODA: More information about current and historical Billboard ChartsBillboard (magazine)_item_0_7

Listicles Billboard (magazine)_section_6

Billboard is known for publishing several annual listicles on its website, which recognizes the most influential executives, artists and companies in the music industry, such as the following: Billboard (magazine)_sentence_122

Billboard (magazine)_unordered_list_1

  • 21 Under 21Billboard (magazine)_item_1_8
  • 40 Under 40Billboard (magazine)_item_1_9
  • Women in MusicBillboard (magazine)_item_1_10
  • Billboard Dance 100Billboard (magazine)_item_1_11
  • Billboard Power 100Billboard (magazine)_item_1_12
  • Dance Power PlayersBillboard (magazine)_item_1_13
  • Digital Power PlayersBillboard (magazine)_item_1_14
  • Hip-Hop Power PlayersBillboard (magazine)_item_1_15
  • Indie Power PlayersBillboard (magazine)_item_1_16
  • Latin Power PlayersBillboard (magazine)_item_1_17

See also Billboard (magazine)_section_7

Billboard (magazine)_unordered_list_2

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: (magazine).