Bing Crosby

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Bing Crosby_table_infobox_0

Bing CrosbyBing Crosby_header_cell_0_0_0
BornBing Crosby_header_cell_0_1_0 Harry Lillis Crosby Jr.

(1903-05-03)May 3, 1903 Tacoma, Washington, U.S.Bing Crosby_cell_0_1_1

DiedBing Crosby_header_cell_0_2_0 October 14, 1977(1977-10-14) (aged 74)

Alcobendas, Madrid, SpainBing Crosby_cell_0_2_1

Resting placeBing Crosby_header_cell_0_3_0 Holy Cross Cemetery, Culver City, CaliforniaBing Crosby_cell_0_3_1
Alma materBing Crosby_header_cell_0_4_0 Gonzaga UniversityBing Crosby_cell_0_4_1
OccupationBing Crosby_header_cell_0_5_0 Bing Crosby_cell_0_5_1
Years activeBing Crosby_header_cell_0_6_0 1922–1977Bing Crosby_cell_0_6_1
Spouse(s)Bing Crosby_header_cell_0_7_0 Bing Crosby_cell_0_7_1
ChildrenBing Crosby_header_cell_0_8_0 Gary, Dennis, Phillip, Lindsay (with Dixie)

Harry III, Mary, Nathaniel (with Kathryn)Bing Crosby_cell_0_8_1

RelativesBing Crosby_header_cell_0_9_0 Bing Crosby_cell_0_9_1
GenresBing Crosby_header_cell_0_10_0 Bing Crosby_cell_0_10_1
LabelsBing Crosby_header_cell_0_11_0 Bing Crosby_cell_0_11_1
Associated actsBing Crosby_header_cell_0_12_0 Bing Crosby_cell_0_12_1
WebsiteBing Crosby_header_cell_0_13_0 Bing Crosby_cell_0_13_1

Harry Lillis "Bing" Crosby Jr. (May 3, 1903 – October 14, 1977) was an American singer, comedian and actor. Bing Crosby_sentence_0

The first multimedia star, Crosby was a leader in record sales, radio ratings, and motion picture grosses from 1930 to 1954. Bing Crosby_sentence_1

He made over seventy feature films and recorded more than 1,600 different songs. Bing Crosby_sentence_2

His early career coincided with recording innovations that allowed him to develop an intimate singing style that influenced many male singers who followed him, including Perry Como, Frank Sinatra, Dean Martin, Dick Haymes, Elvis Presley, and John Lennon. Bing Crosby_sentence_3

Yank magazine said that he was "the person who had done the most for the morale of overseas servicemen" during World War II. Bing Crosby_sentence_4

In 1948, American polls declared him the "most admired man alive," ahead of Jackie Robinson and Pope Pius XII. Bing Crosby_sentence_5

Also in 1948, Music Digest estimated that his recordings filled more than half of the 80,000 weekly hours allocated to recorded radio music. Bing Crosby_sentence_6

Crosby won the Academy Award for Best Actor for his performance in Going My Way (1944), and was nominated for its sequel The Bells of St. Mary's (1945) opposite Ingrid Bergman, becoming the first of six actors to be nominated twice for playing the same character. Bing Crosby_sentence_7

In 1963, Crosby received the first Grammy Global Achievement Award. Bing Crosby_sentence_8

He is one of 33 people to have three stars on the Hollywood Walk of Fame, in the categories of motion pictures, radio, and audio recording. Bing Crosby_sentence_9

He was also known for his collaborations with longtime friend Bob Hope, starring in the Road to... films from 1940 to 1962. Bing Crosby_sentence_10

Crosby influenced the development of the postwar recording industry. Bing Crosby_sentence_11

After seeing a demonstration of a German broadcast quality reel-to-reel tape recorder brought to America by John T. Mullin, he invested $50,000 in a California electronics company called Ampex to build copies. Bing Crosby_sentence_12

He then convinced ABC to allow him to tape his shows. Bing Crosby_sentence_13

He became the first performer to pre-record his radio shows and master his commercial recordings onto magnetic tape. Bing Crosby_sentence_14

Through the medium of recording, he constructed his radio programs with the same directorial tools and craftsmanship (editing, retaking, rehearsal, time shifting) used in motion picture production, a practice that became an industry standard. Bing Crosby_sentence_15

In addition to his work with early audio tape recording, he helped to finance the development of videotape, bought television stations, bred racehorses, and co-owned the Pittsburgh Pirates baseball team. Bing Crosby_sentence_16

Early life Bing Crosby_section_0

Crosby was born on May 3, 1903 in Tacoma, Washington, in a house his father built at 1112 North J Street. Bing Crosby_sentence_17

In 1906, his family moved to Spokane in Eastern Washington state, where he was raised. Bing Crosby_sentence_18

In 1913, his father built a house at 508 E. Sharp Avenue. Bing Crosby_sentence_19

The house sits on the campus of his alma mater, Gonzaga University. Bing Crosby_sentence_20

It functions today as a museum housing over 200 artifacts from his life and career, including his Oscar. Bing Crosby_sentence_21

He was the fourth of seven children: brothers Laurence Earl (Larry) (1895–1975), Everett Nathaniel (1896–1966), Edward John (Ted) (1900–1973), and George Robert (Bob) (1913–1993); and two sisters, Catherine Cordelia (1904–1974) and Mary Rose (1906–1990). Bing Crosby_sentence_22

His parents were Harry Lowe Crosby (1870–1950), a bookkeeper, and Catherine Helen "Kate" (née Harrigan; 1873–1964). Bing Crosby_sentence_23

His mother was a second generation Irish-American. Bing Crosby_sentence_24

His father was of Scottish and English descent; an ancestor, Simon Crosby, emigrated from Scotland to New England in the 1630s during the Puritan migration to New England. Bing Crosby_sentence_25

Through another line, also on his father's side, Crosby is descended from Mayflower passenger William Brewster (c. 1567 – April 10, 1644). Bing Crosby_sentence_26

On November 8, 1937, after Lux Radio Theatre's adaptation of She Loves Me Not, Joan Blondell asked Crosby how he got his nickname: Bing Crosby_sentence_27

Crosby: "Well, I'll tell you, back in the knee-britches day, when I was a wee little tyke, a mere broth of a lad, as we say in Spokane, I used to totter around the streets, with a gun on each hip, my favorite after school pastime was a game known as "Cops and Robbers", I didn't care which side I was on, when a cop or robber came into view, I would haul out my trusty six-shooters, made of wood, and loudly exclaim bing! Bing Crosby_sentence_28

bing!, as my luckless victim fell clutching his side, I would shout bing! Bing Crosby_sentence_29

bing!, and I would let him have it again, and then as his friends came to his rescue, shooting as they came, I would shout bing! Bing Crosby_sentence_30

bing! Bing Crosby_sentence_31

bing! Bing Crosby_sentence_32

bing! Bing Crosby_sentence_33

bing! Bing Crosby_sentence_34

bing! Bing Crosby_sentence_35

bing! Bing Crosby_sentence_36

bing!" Bing Crosby_sentence_37

Blondell: "I'm surprised they didn't call you "Killer" Crosby! Bing Crosby_sentence_38

Now tell me another story, Grandpa! Bing Crosby_sentence_39

Crosby: "No, so help me, it's the truth, ask Mister De Mille." Bing Crosby_sentence_40

De Mille: "I'll vouch for it, Bing." Bing Crosby_sentence_41

That story was pure whimsy for dramatic effect and the truth is that a neighbor – Valentine Hobart – named him "Bingo from Bingville" after a comic feature in the local paper called "The Bingville Bugle" which the young Harry liked. Bing Crosby_sentence_42

In time, Bingo got shortened to Bing. Bing Crosby_sentence_43

In 1917, Crosby took a summer job as property boy at Spokane's "Auditorium," where he witnessed some of the finest acts of the day, including Al Jolson, who held him spellbound with ad libbing and parodies of Hawaiian songs. Bing Crosby_sentence_44

He later described Jolson's delivery as "electric." Bing Crosby_sentence_45

Crosby graduated from Gonzaga High School (today's Gonzaga Prep) in 1920 and enrolled at Gonzaga University. Bing Crosby_sentence_46

He attended Gonzaga for three years but did not earn a degree. Bing Crosby_sentence_47

As a freshman, he played on the university's baseball team. Bing Crosby_sentence_48

The university granted him an honorary doctorate in 1937. Bing Crosby_sentence_49

Today, Gonzaga University houses a large collection of photographs, correspondence, and other material related to Crosby. Bing Crosby_sentence_50

Performance career Bing Crosby_section_1

Early years Bing Crosby_section_2

In 1923 Crosby was invited to join a new band composed of high-school students a few years younger than himself. Bing Crosby_sentence_51

Al and Miles Rinker (brothers of singer Mildred Bailey), James Heaton, Claire Pritchard and Robert Pritchard, along with drummer Crosby, formed the Musicaladers, who performed at dances both for high-school students and club-goers. Bing Crosby_sentence_52

The group performed on Spokane radio station KHQ, but disbanded after two years. Bing Crosby_sentence_53

Crosby and Al Rinker then obtained work at the Clemmer Theatre in Spokane (now known as the Bing Crosby Theater). Bing Crosby_sentence_54

Crosby was initially a member of a vocal trio called 'The Three Harmony Aces' with Al Rinker accompanying on piano from the pit, to entertain between the films. Bing Crosby_sentence_55

Bing and Al continued at the Clemmer Theatre for several months often with three other men – Wee Georgie Crittenden, Frank McBride and Lloyd Grinnell – and they were billed The Clemmer Trio or The Clemmer Entertainers depending who performed. Bing Crosby_sentence_56

In October 1925, Crosby and Rinker decided to seek fame in California. Bing Crosby_sentence_57

They traveled to Los Angeles, where Bailey introduced them to her show business contacts. Bing Crosby_sentence_58

The Fanchon and Marco Time Agency hired them for thirteen weeks for the revue The Syncopation Idea starting at the Boulevard Theater in Los Angeles and then on the Loew's circuit. Bing Crosby_sentence_59

They each earned $75 a week. Bing Crosby_sentence_60

As minor parts of The Syncopation Idea Crosby and Rinker started to develop as entertainers. Bing Crosby_sentence_61

They had a lively style that was popular with college students. Bing Crosby_sentence_62

After The Syncopation Idea closed, they worked in the Will Morrissey Music Hall Revue. Bing Crosby_sentence_63

They honed their skills with Morrissey. Bing Crosby_sentence_64

When they got a chance to present an independent act, they were spotted by a member of the Paul Whiteman organization. Bing Crosby_sentence_65

Whiteman needed something different to break up his musical selections, and Crosby and Rinker filled this requirement. Bing Crosby_sentence_66

After less than a year in show business, they were attached to one of the biggest names. Bing Crosby_sentence_67

Hired for $150 a week in 1926, they debuted with Whiteman on December 6 at the Tivoli Theatre in Chicago. Bing Crosby_sentence_68

Their first recording, in October 1926, was "I've Got the Girl" with Don Clark's Orchestra, but the Columbia-issued record was inadvertently recorded at a slow speed, which increased the singers' pitch when played at 78 rpm. Bing Crosby_sentence_69

Throughout his career, Crosby often credited Bailey for getting him his first important job in the entertainment business. Bing Crosby_sentence_70

The Rhythm Boys Bing Crosby_section_3

Success with Whiteman was followed by disaster when they reached New York. Bing Crosby_sentence_71

Whiteman considered letting them go. Bing Crosby_sentence_72

However, the addition of pianist and aspiring songwriter Harry Barris made the difference, and "The Rhythm Boys" were born. Bing Crosby_sentence_73

The additional voice meant they could be heard more easily in large New York theaters. Bing Crosby_sentence_74

Crosby gained valuable experience on tour for a year with Whiteman and performing and recording with Bix Beiderbecke, Jack Teagarden, Tommy Dorsey, Jimmy Dorsey, Eddie Lang, and Hoagy Carmichael. Bing Crosby_sentence_75

He matured as a performer and was in demand as a solo singer. Bing Crosby_sentence_76

Crosby became the star attraction of the Rhythm Boys. Bing Crosby_sentence_77

In 1928 he had his first number one hit, a jazz-influenced rendition of "Ol' Man River." Bing Crosby_sentence_78

In 1929, the Rhythm Boys appeared in the film King of Jazz with Whiteman, but Crosby's growing dissatisfaction with Whiteman led to the Rhythm Boys leaving his organization. Bing Crosby_sentence_79

They joined the Gus Arnheim Orchestra, performing nightly in the Coconut Grove of the Ambassador Hotel. Bing Crosby_sentence_80

Singing with the Arnheim Orchestra, Crosby's solos began to steal the show while the Rhythm Boys‘ act gradually became redundant. Bing Crosby_sentence_81

Harry Barris wrote several of Crosby's hits, including "At Your Command," "I Surrender Dear," and "Wrap Your Troubles in Dreams." Bing Crosby_sentence_82

When Mack Sennett signed Crosby to a solo recording contract in 1931, a break with the Rhythm Boys became almost inevitable. Bing Crosby_sentence_83

Crosby married Dixie Lee in September 1930. Bing Crosby_sentence_84

After a threat of divorce in March 1931, he applied himself to his career. Bing Crosby_sentence_85

Success as a solo singer Bing Crosby_section_4

On September 2, 1931, Crosby made his nationwide solo radio debut. Bing Crosby_sentence_86

Before the end of the year, he signed with both Brunswick and CBS Radio. Bing Crosby_sentence_87

Doing a weekly 15-minute radio broadcast, Crosby became a hit. Bing Crosby_sentence_88

"Out of Nowhere," "Just One More Chance," "At Your Command" and "I Found a Million Dollar Baby (in a Five and Ten Cent Store)" were among the best selling songs of 1931. Bing Crosby_sentence_89

Ten of the top 50 songs of 1931 included Crosby with others or as a solo act. Bing Crosby_sentence_90

A "Battle of the Baritones" with singer Russ Columbo proved short-lived, replaced with the slogan "Bing Was King." Bing Crosby_sentence_91

Crosby played the lead in a series of musical comedy short films for Mack Sennett, signed with Paramount, and starred in his first full-length film 1932's The Big Broadcast (1932), the first of 55 films in which he received top billing. Bing Crosby_sentence_92

He would appear in 79 pictures. Bing Crosby_sentence_93

He signed a contract with Jack Kapp's new record company, Decca, in late 1934. Bing Crosby_sentence_94

His first commercial sponsor on radio was Cremo Cigars and his fame spread nationwide. Bing Crosby_sentence_95

After a long run in New York, he went back to Hollywood to film The Big Broadcast. Bing Crosby_sentence_96

His appearances, records, and radio work substantially increased his impact. Bing Crosby_sentence_97

The success of his first film brought him a contract with Paramount, and he began a pattern of making three films a year. Bing Crosby_sentence_98

He led his radio show for Woodbury Soap for two seasons while his live appearances dwindled. Bing Crosby_sentence_99

His records produced hits during the Depression when sales were down. Bing Crosby_sentence_100

Audio engineer Steve Hoffman stated, "By the way, Bing actually saved the record business in 1934 when he agreed to support Decca founder Jack Kapp's crazy idea of lowering the price of singles from a dollar to 35 cents and getting a royalty for records sold instead of a flat fee. Bing Crosby_sentence_101

Bing's name and his artistry saved the recording industry. Bing Crosby_sentence_102

All the other artists signed to Decca after Bing did. Bing Crosby_sentence_103

Without him, Jack Kapp wouldn't have had a chance in hell of making Decca work and the Great Depression would have wiped out phonograph records for good." Bing Crosby_sentence_104

His social life was frantic. Bing Crosby_sentence_105

His first son Gary was born in 1933 with twin boys following in 1934. Bing Crosby_sentence_106

By 1936, he replaced his former boss, Paul Whiteman, as host of the weekly NBC radio program Kraft Music Hall, where he remained for the next ten years. Bing Crosby_sentence_107

"Where the Blue of the Night (Meets the Gold of the Day)," with his trademark whistling, became his theme song and signature tune. Bing Crosby_sentence_108

Crosby's vocal style helped take popular singing beyond the "belting" associated with Al Jolson and Billy Murray, who had been obligated to reach the back seats in New York theaters without the aid of the microphone. Bing Crosby_sentence_109

As music critic Henry Pleasants noted in The Great American Popular Singers, something new had entered American music, a style that might be called "singing in American" with conversational ease. Bing Crosby_sentence_110

This new sound led to the popular epithet "crooner". Bing Crosby_sentence_111

Crosby admired Louis Armstrong for his musical ability, and the trumpet maestro was a formative influence on Crosby's singing style. Bing Crosby_sentence_112

When the two met, they immediately became friends. Bing Crosby_sentence_113

In 1936, Crosby exercised an option in his Paramount contract to regularly star in an out-of-house film. Bing Crosby_sentence_114

Signing an agreement with Columbia for a single motion picture, Crosby wanted Armstrong to appear in a screen adaptation of The Peacock Feather that eventually became Pennies from Heaven. Bing Crosby_sentence_115

Crosby asked Harry Cohn, but Cohn had no desire to pay for the flight or to meet Armstrong's "crude, mob-linked but devoted manager, Joe Glaser." Bing Crosby_sentence_116

Crosby threatened to leave the film and refused to discuss the matter. Bing Crosby_sentence_117

Cohn gave in; Armstrong's musical scenes and comic dialogue extended his influence to the silver screen, creating more opportunities for him and other African Americans to appear in future films. Bing Crosby_sentence_118

Crosby also ensured behind the scenes that Armstrong received equal billing with his white co-stars. Bing Crosby_sentence_119

Armstrong appreciated Crosby's progressive attitudes on race, and often expressed gratitude for the role in later years. Bing Crosby_sentence_120

During the Second World War, Crosby made live appearances before American troops who had been fighting in the European Theater. Bing Crosby_sentence_121

He learned how to pronounce German from written scripts and read propaganda broadcasts intended for German forces. Bing Crosby_sentence_122

The nickname "Der Bingle" was common among Crosby's German listeners and came to be used by his English-speaking fans. Bing Crosby_sentence_123

In a poll of U.S. troops at the close of World War II, Crosby topped the list as the person who had done the most for G.I. Bing Crosby_sentence_124

morale, ahead of President Franklin Delano Roosevelt, General Dwight Eisenhower, and Bob Hope. Bing Crosby_sentence_125

The June 18, 1945 issue of Life magazine stated, "America's number one star, Bing Crosby, has won more fans, made more money than any entertainer in history. Bing Crosby_sentence_126

Today he is a kind of national institution." Bing Crosby_sentence_127

"In all, 60,000,000 Crosby discs have been marketed since he made his first record in 1931. Bing Crosby_sentence_128

His biggest best seller is 'White Christmas,' 2,000,000 impressions of which have been sold in the U.S. and 250,000 in Great Britain." Bing Crosby_sentence_129

"Nine out of ten singers and bandleaders listen to Crosby's broadcasts each Thursday night and follow his lead. Bing Crosby_sentence_130

The day after he sings a song over the air – any song – some 50,000 copies of it are sold throughout the U.S. Time and again Crosby has taken some new or unknown ballad, has given it what is known in trade circles as the 'big goose' and made it a hit single-handed and overnight...Precisely what the future holds for Crosby neither his family nor his friends can conjecture. Bing Crosby_sentence_131

He has achieved greater popularity, made more money, attracted vaster audiences than any other entertainer in history. Bing Crosby_sentence_132

And his star is still in the ascendant. Bing Crosby_sentence_133

His contract with Decca runs until 1955. Bing Crosby_sentence_134

His contract with Paramount runs until 1954. Bing Crosby_sentence_135

Records which he made ten years ago are selling better than ever before. Bing Crosby_sentence_136

The nation's appetite for Crosby's voice and personality appears insatiable. Bing Crosby_sentence_137

To soldiers overseas and to foreigners he has become a kind of symbol of America, of the amiable, humorous citizen of a free land. Bing Crosby_sentence_138

Crosby, however, seldom bothers to contemplate his future. Bing Crosby_sentence_139

For one thing, he enjoys hearing himself sing, and if ever a day should dawn when the public wearies of him, he will complacently go right on singing—to himself." Bing Crosby_sentence_140

"White Christmas" Bing Crosby_section_5

Main article: White Christmas (song) Bing Crosby_sentence_141

The biggest hit song of Crosby's career was his recording of Irving Berlin's "White Christmas," which he introduced on a Christmas Day radio broadcast in 1941. Bing Crosby_sentence_142

(A copy of the recording from the radio program is owned by the estate of Bing Crosby and was loaned to CBS Sunday Morning for their December 25, 2011, program.) Bing Crosby_sentence_143

The song then appeared in his movie Holiday Inn (1942). Bing Crosby_sentence_144

His record hit the charts on October 3, 1942, and rose to No. Bing Crosby_sentence_145

1 on October 31, where it stayed for 11 weeks. Bing Crosby_sentence_146

A holiday perennial, the song was repeatedly re-released by Decca, charting another sixteen times. Bing Crosby_sentence_147

It topped the charts again in 1945 and a third time in January 1947. Bing Crosby_sentence_148

The song remains the bestselling single of all time. Bing Crosby_sentence_149

According to Guinness World Records, his recording of "White Christmas," has sold over 50 million copies around the world. Bing Crosby_sentence_150

His recording was so popular that he was obliged to re-record it in 1947 using the same musicians and backup singers; the original 1942 master had become damaged due to its frequent use in pressing additional singles. Bing Crosby_sentence_151

Although the two versions are similar, the 1947 recording is more familiar today. Bing Crosby_sentence_152

In 1977, after Crosby died, the song was re-released and reached No. Bing Crosby_sentence_153

5 in the UK Singles Chart. Bing Crosby_sentence_154

Crosby was dismissive of his role in the song's success, saying "a jackdaw with a cleft palate could have sung it successfully." Bing Crosby_sentence_155

Motion pictures Bing Crosby_section_6

Main article: Bing Crosby filmography Bing Crosby_sentence_156

In the wake of a solid decade of headlining mainly smash hit musical comedy films in the 1930s, Crosby starred with Bob Hope and Dorothy Lamour in six of the seven Road to musical comedies between 1940 and 1962 (Lamour was replaced with Joan Collins in The Road to Hong Kong and limited to a lengthy cameo), cementing Crosby and Hope as an on-and-off duo, despite never officially declaring themselves a "team" in the sense that Laurel and Hardy or Martin and Lewis (Dean Martin and Jerry Lewis) were teams. Bing Crosby_sentence_157

The series consists of Road to Singapore (1940), Road to Zanzibar (1941), Road to Morocco (1942), Road to Utopia (1946), Road to Rio (1947), Road to Bali (1952), and The Road to Hong Kong (1962). Bing Crosby_sentence_158

When they appeared solo, Crosby and Hope frequently made note of the other in a comically insulting fashion. Bing Crosby_sentence_159

They performed together countless times on stage, radio, film, and television, and made numerous brief and not so brief appearances together in movies aside from the "Road" pictures, Variety Girl (1947) being an example of lengthy scenes and songs together along with billing. Bing Crosby_sentence_160

In the 1949 Disney animated film The Adventures of Ichabod and Mr. Toad, Crosby provided the narration and song vocals for The Legend of Sleepy Hollow segment. Bing Crosby_sentence_161

In 1960, he starred in High Time, a collegiate comedy with Fabian Forte and Tuesday Weld that predicted the emerging gap between him and the new young generation of musicians and actors who had begun their careers after WWII. Bing Crosby_sentence_162

The following year, Crosby and Hope reunited for one more Road movie, The Road to Hong Kong, which teamed them up with the much younger Joan Collins and Peter Sellers. Bing Crosby_sentence_163

Collins was used in place of their longtime partner Dorothy Lamour, whom Crosby felt was getting too old for the role, though Hope refused to do the movie without her, and she instead made a lengthy and elaborate cameo appearance. Bing Crosby_sentence_164

Shortly before his death in 1977, he had planned another Road film in which he, Hope, and Lamour search for the Fountain of Youth. Bing Crosby_sentence_165

He won an Academy Award for Best Actor for Going My Way in 1944 and was nominated for the 1945 sequel, The Bells of St. Mary's. Bing Crosby_sentence_166

He received critical acclaim for his performance as an alcoholic entertainer in The Country Girl and received his third Academy Award nomination. Bing Crosby_sentence_167

Television Bing Crosby_section_7

Main article: Bing Crosby TV appearances listing Bing Crosby_sentence_168

The Fireside Theater (1950) was his first television production. Bing Crosby_sentence_169

The series of 26-minute shows was filmed at Hal Roach Studios rather than performed live on the air. Bing Crosby_sentence_170

The "telefilms" were syndicated to individual television stations. Bing Crosby_sentence_171

He was a frequent guest on the musical variety shows of the 1950s and 1960s, appearing literally countless times on various variety shows as well as numerous late-night talk shows and his own highly rated specials. Bing Crosby_sentence_172

Bob Hope memorably devoted one of his monthly NBC specials to his long intermittent partnership with Crosby titled "On the Road With Bing." Bing Crosby_sentence_173

Crosby was associated with ABC's The Hollywood Palace as the show's first and most frequent guest host and appeared annually on its Christmas edition with his wife Kathryn and his younger children, and continued after The Hollywood Palace was eventually canceled. Bing Crosby_sentence_174

In the early 1970s, he made two late appearances on the Flip Wilson Show, singing duets with the comedian. Bing Crosby_sentence_175

His last TV appearance was a Christmas special taped in London in September 1977 and aired weeks after his death. Bing Crosby_sentence_176

It was on this special that he recorded a duet of "The Little Drummer Boy" and "Peace on Earth" with rock star David Bowie. Bing Crosby_sentence_177

Their duet was released in 1982 as a single 45-rpm record and reached No. Bing Crosby_sentence_178

3 in the UK singles charts. Bing Crosby_sentence_179

It has since become a staple of holiday radio and the final popular hit of Crosby's career. Bing Crosby_sentence_180

At the end of the 20th century, TV Guide listed the Crosby-Bowie duet one of the 25 most memorable musical moments of 20th-century television. Bing Crosby_sentence_181

Bing Crosby Productions, affiliated with Desilu Studios and later CBS Television Studios, produced a number of television series, including Crosby's own unsuccessful ABC sitcom The Bing Crosby Show in the 1964–1965 season (with co-stars Beverly Garland and Frank McHugh). Bing Crosby_sentence_182

The company produced two ABC medical dramas, Ben Casey (1961–1966) and Breaking Point (1963–1964), the popular Hogan's Heroes (1965–1971) military comedy on CBS, as well as the lesser-known show Slattery's People (1964–1965). Bing Crosby_sentence_183

Singing style and vocal characteristics Bing Crosby_section_8

Crosby was one of the first singers to exploit the intimacy of the microphone rather than use the deep, loud vaudeville style associated with Al Jolson. Bing Crosby_sentence_184

He was, by his own definition, a "phraser," a singer who placed equal emphasis on both the lyrics and the music. Bing Crosby_sentence_185

Paul Whiteman's hiring of Crosby, with phrasing that echoed jazz, particularly his bandmate Bix Beiderbecke's trumpet, helped bring the genre to a wider audience. Bing Crosby_sentence_186

In the framework of the novelty-singing style of the Rhythm Boys, he bent notes and added off-tune phrasing, an approach that was rooted in jazz. Bing Crosby_sentence_187

He had already been introduced to Louis Armstrong and Bessie Smith before his first appearance on record. Bing Crosby_sentence_188

Crosby and Armstrong remained warm acquaintances for decades, occasionally singing together in later years, e.g. "Now You Has Jazz" in the film High Society (1956). Bing Crosby_sentence_189

During the early portion of his solo career (about 1931–1934), Crosby's emotional, often pleading style of crooning was popular. Bing Crosby_sentence_190

But Jack Kapp, manager of Brunswick and later Decca, talked him into dropping many of his jazzier mannerisms in favor of a clear vocal style. Bing Crosby_sentence_191

Crosby credited Kapp for choosing hit songs, working with many other musicians, and most important, diversifying his repertoire into several styles and genres. Bing Crosby_sentence_192

Kapp helped Crosby have number one hits in Christmas music, Hawaiian music, and country music, and top-thirty hits in Irish music, French music, rhythm and blues, and ballads. Bing Crosby_sentence_193

Crosby elaborated on an idea of Al Jolson's: phrasing, or the art of making a song's lyric ring true. Bing Crosby_sentence_194

"I used to tell Sinatra over and over," said Tommy Dorsey, "there's only one singer you ought to listen to and his name is Crosby. Bing Crosby_sentence_195

All that matters to him is the words, and that's the only thing that ought to for you, too." Bing Crosby_sentence_196

Critic Henry Pleasants wrote: Bing Crosby_sentence_197

Career statistics Bing Crosby_section_9

Crosby's was among the most popular and successful musical acts of the 20th century. Bing Crosby_sentence_198

Billboard magazine used different methodologies during his career. Bing Crosby_sentence_199

But his chart success remains impressive: 396 chart singles, including roughly 25 No. Bing Crosby_sentence_200

1 hits. Bing Crosby_sentence_201

Crosby had separate charting singles every year between 1931 and 1954; the annual re-release of "White Christmas" extended that streak to 1957. Bing Crosby_sentence_202

He had 24 separate popular singles in 1939 alone. Bing Crosby_sentence_203

Statistician Joel Whitburn at Billboard determined that Crosby was America's most successful recording act of the 1930s and again in the 1940s. Bing Crosby_sentence_204

In 1960 Crosby was honored as "First Citzen of Record Industry" based on having sold 200 million discs. Bing Crosby_sentence_205

According to different sources he sold 300 million, 500 million or even 1 billion worldwide. Bing Crosby_sentence_206

The single “White Christmas" sold over 50 million copies according to Guinness World Records. Bing Crosby_sentence_207

For fifteen years (1934, 1937, 1940, 1943–1954), Crosby was among the top ten acts in box-office sales, and for five of those years (1944–1948) he topped the world. Bing Crosby_sentence_208

He sang four Academy Award-winning songs – "Sweet Leilani" (1937), "White Christmas" (1942), "Swinging on a Star" (1944), "In the Cool, Cool, Cool of the Evening" (1951) – and won the Academy Award for Best Actor for his role in Going My Way (1944). Bing Crosby_sentence_209

A survey in 2000 found that with 1,077,900,000 movie tickets sold, Crosby was the third most popular actor of all time, behind Clark Gable (1,168,300,000) and John Wayne (1,114,000,000). Bing Crosby_sentence_210

The International Motion Picture Almanac lists him in a tie for second-most years at number one on the All Time Number One Stars List with Clint Eastwood, Tom Hanks, and Burt Reynolds. Bing Crosby_sentence_211

His most popular film, White Christmas, grossed $30 million in 1954 ($286 million in current value). Bing Crosby_sentence_212

He received 23 gold and platinum records, according to the book Million Selling Records. Bing Crosby_sentence_213

The Recording Industry Association of America did not institute its gold record certification program until 1958 when Crosby's record sales were low. Bing Crosby_sentence_214

Before 1958, gold records were awarded by record companies. Bing Crosby_sentence_215

Crosby charted 23 Billboard hits from 47 recorded songs with the Andrews Sisters, whose Decca record sales were second only to Crosby's throughout the 1940s. Bing Crosby_sentence_216

They were his most frequent collaborators on disc from 1939 to 1952, a partnership that produced four million-selling singles: "Pistol Packin' Mama," "Jingle Bells," "Don't Fence Me In," and "South America, Take it Away." Bing Crosby_sentence_217

They made one film appearance together in Road to Rio singing "You Don't Have to Know the Language," and sang together on radio throughout the 1940s and 1950s. Bing Crosby_sentence_218

They appeared as guests on each other's shows and on Armed Forces Radio Service during and after World War II. Bing Crosby_sentence_219

The quartet's Top-10 Billboard hits from 1943 to 1945 include "The Vict'ry Polka," "There'll Be a Hot Time in the Town of Berlin (When the Yanks Go Marching In)," and "Is You Is or Is You Ain't (Ma' Baby?)" Bing Crosby_sentence_220

and helped morale of the American public. Bing Crosby_sentence_221

In 1962, Crosby was given the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award. Bing Crosby_sentence_222

He has been inducted into the halls of fame for both radio and popular music. Bing Crosby_sentence_223

In 2007, he was inducted into the Hit Parade Hall of Fame and in 2008 the Western Music Hall of Fame. Bing Crosby_sentence_224

Popularity and Influence Bing Crosby_section_10

His popularity around the world was such that in an interview with Dorothy Masuka, the best-selling African record label in Africa, he stated "Only Bing Crosby the famous American crooner sold more records than me in Africa." Bing Crosby_sentence_225

His great popularity throughout Africa led other African singers to emulate him, including: Dolly Rathebe, Dorothy Masuka or Míriam Makeba, known locally as "The Bing Crosby of Africa" but a female version . Bing Crosby_sentence_226

Presenter Michael Douglas commented in a 1975 interview "During my days in the navy in WWII, I remember walking the streets of Calcutta, India, on the coast, it was a lonely night, so far from my home and from my new wife, Gen. Bing Crosby_sentence_227

I needed something to lift my spirits. Bing Crosby_sentence_228

As I passed a Hindu sitting on the corner of a street, I heard something surprisingly familiar, I came back to see the man playing one of those old Vitrolas, like those of RCA with the horn speaker, the man was listening to Bing Crosby sing “Ac-Cent-Tchu-Ate The Positive.” I stopped and smiled in grateful acknowledgment. Bing Crosby_sentence_229

The Hindu nodded and smiled back. Bing Crosby_sentence_230

The whole world knew and loved to Bing Crosby. " Bing Crosby_sentence_231

His enormous popularity in India led many Hindu singers to imitate and emulate him, notably KISI'IDRE KUMAR considered" The Bing Crosby of India ". Bing Crosby_sentence_232

Entrepreneurship Bing Crosby_section_11

According to Shoshana Klebanoff: Bing Crosby_sentence_233

Bing Crosby_description_list_0

  • Crosby became one of the richest men in the history of show business. He had investments in real estate, mines, oil wells, cattle ranches, race horses, music publishing, baseball teams, and television. He made a fabulous fortune from the Minute Maid Orange Juice Corporation, in which he was a principal stockholder.Bing Crosby_item_0_0

Role in early tape recording Bing Crosby_section_12

During the Golden Age of Radio, performers had to create their shows live, sometimes even redoing the program a second time for the west coast time zone. Bing Crosby_sentence_234

Crosby had to do two live radio shows on the same day, three hours apart, for the East and West Coasts. Bing Crosby_sentence_235

Crosby's radio career took a significant turn in 1945, when he clashed with NBC over his insistence that he be allowed to pre-record his radio shows. Bing Crosby_sentence_236

(The live production of radio shows was also reinforced by the musicians' union and ASCAP, which wanted to ensure continued work for their members.) Bing Crosby_sentence_237

In On the Air: The Encyclopedia of Old-Time Radio, John Dunning wrote about German engineers having developed a tape recorder with a near-professional broadcast quality standard: Bing Crosby_sentence_238

Crosby's insistence eventually factored into the further development of magnetic tape sound recording and the radio industry's widespread adoption of it. Bing Crosby_sentence_239

He used his clout, both professional and financial, for innovations in audio. Bing Crosby_sentence_240

But NBC and CBS refused to broadcast prerecorded radio programs. Bing Crosby_sentence_241

Crosby left the network and remained off the air for seven months, creating a legal battle with his sponsor Kraft that was settled out of court. Bing Crosby_sentence_242

He returned to broadcasting for the last 13 weeks of the 1945–1946 season. Bing Crosby_sentence_243

The Mutual network, on the other hand, pre-recorded some of its programs as early as 1938 for The Shadow with Orson Welles. Bing Crosby_sentence_244

ABC was formed from the sale of the NBC Blue Network in 1943 after a federal antitrust suit and was willing to join Mutual in breaking the tradition. Bing Crosby_sentence_245

ABC offered Crosby $30,000 per week to produce a recorded show every Wednesday that would be sponsored by Philco. Bing Crosby_sentence_246

He would get an additional $40,000 from 400 independent stations for the rights to broadcast the 30-minute show, which was sent to them every Monday on three 16-inch (40-cm) lacquer discs that played ten minutes per side at 331/3 rpm. Bing Crosby_sentence_247

Crosby wanted to change to recorded production for several reasons. Bing Crosby_sentence_248

The legend that has been most often told is that it would give him more time for golf. Bing Crosby_sentence_249

He did record his first Philco Radio Time program in August 1947 so he could enter the Jasper National Park Invitational Golf Tournament in September when the radio season was to start. Bing Crosby_sentence_250

But golf was not the most important reason. Bing Crosby_sentence_251

He wanted better quality recording, the ability to eliminate mistakes and the need to perform a second live show for the West Coast, and to control the timing of his performances. Bing Crosby_sentence_252

Because Bing Crosby Enterprises produced the show, he could purchase the best audio equipment and arrange the microphones his way; microphone placement had been debated in studios since the beginning of the electrical era. Bing Crosby_sentence_253

He would no longer have to wear the toupee that CBS and NBC required for his live audience shows—he preferred a hat. Bing Crosby_sentence_254

He could also record short promotions for his latest investment, the world's first frozen orange juice, sold under the brand name Minute Maid. Bing Crosby_sentence_255

This investment allowed him to make more money by finding a loophole where the IRS couldn't tax him at a 77% rate. Bing Crosby_sentence_256

Murdo MacKenzie of Bing Crosby Enterprises had seen a demonstration of the German Magnetophon in June 1947—the same device that Jack Mullin had brought back from Radio Frankfurt with 50 reels of tape, at the end of the war. Bing Crosby_sentence_257

It was one of the magnetic tape recorders that BASF and AEG had built in Germany starting in 1935. Bing Crosby_sentence_258

The 6.5mm ferric-oxide-coated tape could record 20 minutes per reel of high-quality sound. Bing Crosby_sentence_259

Alexander M. Poniatoff ordered Ampex, which he founded in 1944, to manufacture an improved version of the Magnetophone. Bing Crosby_sentence_260

Crosby hired Mullin to start recording his Philco Radio Time show on his German-made machine in August 1947 using the same 50 reels of I.G. Bing Crosby_sentence_261

Farben magnetic tape that Mullin had found at a radio station at Bad Nauheim near Frankfurt while working for the U.S. Army Signal Corps. Bing Crosby_sentence_262

The advantage was editing. Bing Crosby_sentence_263

As Crosby wrote in his autobiography: Bing Crosby_sentence_264

Mullin's 1976 memoir of these early days of experimental recording agrees with Crosby's account: Bing Crosby_sentence_265

Crosby invested US$50,000 in Ampex with the intent to produce more machines. Bing Crosby_sentence_266

In 1948, the second season of Philco shows was recorded with the Ampex Model 200A and Scotch 111 tape from 3M. Bing Crosby_sentence_267

Mullin explained how one new broadcasting technique was invented on the Crosby show with these machines: Bing Crosby_sentence_268

Crosby started the tape recorder revolution in America. Bing Crosby_sentence_269

In his 1950 film Mr. Bing Crosby_sentence_270 Music, he is seen singing into an Ampex tape recorder that reproduced his voice better than anything else. Bing Crosby_sentence_271

Also quick to adopt tape recording was his friend Bob Hope. Bing Crosby_sentence_272

He gave one of the first Ampex Model 300 recorders to his friend, guitarist Les Paul, which led to Paul's invention of multitrack recording. Bing Crosby_sentence_273

His organization, the Crosby Research Foundation, held tape recording patents and developed equipment and recording techniques such as the laugh track that are still in use today. Bing Crosby_sentence_274

With Frank Sinatra, Crosby was one of the principal backers for the United Western Recorders studio complex in Los Angeles. Bing Crosby_sentence_275

Videotape development Bing Crosby_section_13

Mullin continued to work for Crosby to develop a videotape recorder (VTR). Bing Crosby_sentence_276

Television production was mostly live television in its early years, but Crosby wanted the same ability to record that he had achieved in radio. Bing Crosby_sentence_277

The Fireside Theater (1950) sponsored by Procter & Gamble, was his first television production. Bing Crosby_sentence_278

Mullin had not yet succeeded with videotape, so Crosby filmed the series of 26-minute shows at the Hal Roach Studios, and the "telefilms" were syndicated to individual television stations. Bing Crosby_sentence_279

Crosby continued to finance the development of videotape. Bing Crosby_sentence_280

Bing Crosby Enterprises gave the world's first demonstration of videotape recording in Los Angeles on November 11, 1951. Bing Crosby_sentence_281

Developed by John T. Mullin and Wayne R. Johnson since 1950, the device aired what were described as "blurred and indistinct" images, using a modified Ampex 200 tape recorder and standard quarter-inch (6.3 mm) audio tape moving at 360 inches (9.1 m) per second. Bing Crosby_sentence_282

Television station ownership Bing Crosby_section_14

A Crosby-led group purchased station KCOP-TV, in Los Angeles, California, in 1954. Bing Crosby_sentence_283

NAFI Corporation and Crosby purchased television station KPTV in Portland, Oregon, for $4 million on September 1, 1959. Bing Crosby_sentence_284

In 1960, NAFI purchased KCOP from Crosby's group. Bing Crosby_sentence_285

In the early 1950s, Crosby helped establish the CBS television affiliate in his hometown of Spokane, Washington. Bing Crosby_sentence_286

He partnered with Ed Craney, who owned the CBS radio affiliate KXLY (AM) and built a television studio west of Crosby's alma mater, Gonzaga University. Bing Crosby_sentence_287

After it began broadcasting, the station was sold within a year to Northern Pacific Radio and Television Corporation. Bing Crosby_sentence_288

Thoroughbred horse racing Bing Crosby_section_15

Crosby was a fan of thoroughbred horse racing and bought his first racehorse in 1935. Bing Crosby_sentence_289

In 1937, he became a founding partner of the Del Mar Thoroughbred Club and a member of its board of directors. Bing Crosby_sentence_290

Operating from the Del Mar Racetrack at Del Mar, California, the group included millionaire businessman Charles S. Howard, who owned a successful racing stable that included Seabiscuit. Bing Crosby_sentence_291

Charles' son, Lindsay C. Howard, became one of Crosby's closest friends; Crosby named his son Lindsay after him, and would purchase his 40-room Hillsborough, California estate from Lindsay in 1965. Bing Crosby_sentence_292

Crosby and Lindsay Howard formed Binglin Stable to race and breed thoroughbred horses at a ranch in Moorpark in Ventura County, California. Bing Crosby_sentence_293

They also established the Binglin stock farm in Argentina, where they raced horses at Hipódromo de Palermo in Palermo, Buenos Aires. Bing Crosby_sentence_294

A number of Argentine-bred horses were purchased and shipped to race in the United States. Bing Crosby_sentence_295

On August 12, 1938, the Del Mar Thoroughbred Club hosted a $25,000 winner-take-all match race won by Charles S. Howard's Seabiscuit over Binglin's horse Ligaroti. Bing Crosby_sentence_296

In 1943, Binglin's horse Don Bingo won the Suburban Handicap at Belmont Park in Elmont, New York. Bing Crosby_sentence_297

The Binglin Stable partnership came to an end in 1953 as a result of a liquidation of assets by Crosby, who needed to raise enough funds to pay the hefty federal and state inheritance taxes on his deceased wife's estate. Bing Crosby_sentence_298

The Bing Crosby Breeders' Cup Handicap at Del Mar Racetrack is named in his honor. Bing Crosby_sentence_299

Sports Bing Crosby_section_16

Crosby had an interest in sports. Bing Crosby_sentence_300

In the 1930s, his friend and former college classmate, Gonzaga head coach Mike Pecarovich appointed Crosby as an assistant football coach. Bing Crosby_sentence_301

From 1946 until his death, he owned a 25% share of the Pittsburgh Pirates. Bing Crosby_sentence_302

Although he was passionate about the team, he was too nervous to watch the deciding Game 7 of the 1960 World Series, choosing to go to Paris with Kathryn and listen to its radio broadcast. Bing Crosby_sentence_303

Crosby had arranged for Ampex, another of his financial investments, to record the NBC telecast on kinescope. Bing Crosby_sentence_304

The game was one of the most famous in baseball history, capped off by Bill Mazeroski's walk-off home run. Bing Crosby_sentence_305

He apparently viewed the complete film just once, and then stored it in his wine cellar, where it remained undisturbed until it was discovered in December 2009. Bing Crosby_sentence_306

The restored broadcast was shown on MLB Network in December 2010. Bing Crosby_sentence_307

Crosby was also an avid golfer, and in 1978, he and Bob Hope were voted the Bob Jones Award, the highest honor given by the United States Golf Association in recognition of distinguished sportsmanship. Bing Crosby_sentence_308

He is a member of the World Golf Hall of Fame, having been inducted in 1978. Bing Crosby_sentence_309

In 1937, Crosby hosted the first 'Crosby Clambake' as it was popularly known, at Rancho Santa Fe Golf Club in Rancho Santa Fe, California, the event's location prior to World War II. Bing Crosby_sentence_310

Sam Snead won the first tournament, in which the first place check was for $500. Bing Crosby_sentence_311

After the war, the event resumed play in 1947 on golf courses in Pebble Beach, where it has been played ever since. Bing Crosby_sentence_312

Now the AT&T Pebble Beach Pro-Am, it has been a leading event in the world of professional golf. Bing Crosby_sentence_313

In 1950, he became the third person to win the William D. Richardson award, which is given to a non-professional golfer "who has consistently made an outstanding contribution to golf." Bing Crosby_sentence_314

Crosby first took up golf at 12 as a caddy, dropped it, and started again in 1930 with some fellow cast members in Hollywood during the filming of The King of Jazz. Bing Crosby_sentence_315

Crosby was accomplished at the sport, with a two handicap. Bing Crosby_sentence_316

He competed in both the British and U.S. Bing Crosby_sentence_317 Amateur championships, was a five-time club champion at Lakeside Golf Club in Hollywood, and once made a hole-in-one on the 16th at Cypress Point. Bing Crosby_sentence_318

Crosby was a keen fisherman especially in his younger days but it was a pastime that he enjoyed throughout his life. Bing Crosby_sentence_319

In the summer of 1966 he spent a week as the guest of Lord Egremont, staying in Cockermouth and fishing on the River Derwent. Bing Crosby_sentence_320

His trip was filmed for The American Sportsman on ABC, although all did not go well at first as the salmon were not running. Bing Crosby_sentence_321

He did make up for it at the end of the week by catching a number of sea trout. Bing Crosby_sentence_322

Personal life Bing Crosby_section_17

Crosby was married twice. Bing Crosby_sentence_323

His first wife was actress and nightclub singer Dixie Lee to whom he was married from 1930 until her death from ovarian cancer in 1952. Bing Crosby_sentence_324

They had four sons: Gary, twins Dennis and Phillip, and Lindsay. Bing Crosby_sentence_325

The Smash-Up: The Story of a Woman (1947) is based on Lee's life. Bing Crosby_sentence_326

The Crosby family lived at 10500 Camarillo Street in North Hollywood for over five years. Bing Crosby_sentence_327

After his wife died, Crosby had relationships with model Pat Sheehan (who married his son Dennis in 1958) and actresses Inger Stevens and Grace Kelly before marrying actress Kathryn Grant, who converted to Catholicism, in 1957. Bing Crosby_sentence_328

They had three children: Harry Lillis III (who played Bill in Friday the 13th), Mary (best known for portraying Kristin Shepard on TV's Dallas), and Nathaniel (the 1981 U.S. Bing Crosby_sentence_329

Amateur champion in golf). Bing Crosby_sentence_330

Crosby had numerous affairs with other women. Bing Crosby_sentence_331

Actress Patricia Neal stated in her 1988 autobiography As I Am that Crosby's Blue Skies co-star Joan Caulfield was in fact one of his mistresses and that she and her then-lover Gary Cooper shared a ship with Crosby and Caulfield in 1948. Bing Crosby_sentence_332

In his 1993 book "The Secret Life of Bob Hope," Groucho Marx's son Arthur stated that Crosby and Hope would trade girlfriends. Bing Crosby_sentence_333

Crosby reportedly had an alcohol problem in his youth, and may have been dismissed from Paul Whiteman's orchestra because of it, but he later got a handle on his drinking. Bing Crosby_sentence_334

According to Giddins, Crosby told his son Gary to stay away from alcohol, adding, "It killed your mother" and suggesting he smoke marijuana instead. Bing Crosby_sentence_335

Crosby told Barbara Walters in a 1977 televised interview that he thought marijuana should be legalized. Bing Crosby_sentence_336

In later years, it was revealed that Crosby had ties with figures in the Mafia since his youth. Bing Crosby_sentence_337

Unlike Frank Sinatra, however, Crosby was less willing to hint his Mafia ties publicly. Bing Crosby_sentence_338

FBI documents which were made public in December 1999 revealed that FBI deputy director Clyde Tolson discovered that Crosby liked to gamble at gambling dens which were operating illegally. Bing Crosby_sentence_339

As early as 1930, Crosby had a gambling addiction which resulted in him at times owing mobsters thousands in gambling debts. Bing Crosby_sentence_340

In retaliation for not paying his gambling debts, Crosby received death threats and was forced to ask people, including Sinatra, for money so he could avoid being killed. Bing Crosby_sentence_341

The FBI documents also revealed that Jack “Machine Gun" McGurn, an alleged gunman in the St. Valentine's Day Massacre, was one of Crosby's golfing partners and that Crosby was friends with high-profile mobsters such as Bugsy Siegel and Frank Nitti as well. Bing Crosby_sentence_342

Irish Independent journalist George Gordon stated that Crosby "was so addicted to gambling and golf that he did not care who he consorted with." Bing Crosby_sentence_343

After Crosby's death, his eldest son, Gary, wrote a highly critical memoir, Going My Own Way, depicting his father as cruel, cold, remote, and physically and psychologically abusive. Bing Crosby_sentence_344

Crosby's younger son Phillip vociferously disputed his brother Gary's claims about their father. Bing Crosby_sentence_345

Around the time Gary made his claims, Phillip stated to the press that "Gary is a whining, bitching crybaby, walking around with a two-by-four on his shoulder and just daring people to nudge it off." Bing Crosby_sentence_346

Nevertheless, Phillip did not deny that Crosby believed in corporal punishment. Bing Crosby_sentence_347

In an interview with People, Phillip stated that "we never got an extra whack or a cuff we didn't deserve." Bing Crosby_sentence_348

During an interview in 1999 by the Globe, Phillip said: Bing Crosby_sentence_349

However, Dennis and Lindsay Crosby confirmed that Bing sometimes subjected his sons to harsh physical discipline and verbal put-downs. Bing Crosby_sentence_350

Regarding the writing of Gary's memoir, Lindsay said, "I'm glad [Gary] did it. Bing Crosby_sentence_351

I hope it clears up a lot of the old lies and rumors." Bing Crosby_sentence_352

Unlike Gary, though, Lindsay stated that he preferred to remember "all the good things I did with my dad and forget the times that were rough." Bing Crosby_sentence_353

When the book was published, Dennis distanced himself by calling it "Gary's business" but did not publicly deny its claims. Bing Crosby_sentence_354

Bing's younger brother, singer and jazz bandleader Bob Crosby, recalled at the time of Gary's revelations that Bing was a "disciplinarian," as their mother and father had been. Bing Crosby_sentence_355

He added, "We were brought up that way." Bing Crosby_sentence_356

In an interview for the same article, Gary clarified that Bing "was like a lot of fathers of that time. Bing Crosby_sentence_357

He was not out to be vicious, to beat children for his kicks." Bing Crosby_sentence_358

Crosby's will established a blind trust in which none of the sons received an inheritance until they reached the age of 65. Bing Crosby_sentence_359

Lindsay Crosby died in 1989 at age 51, and Dennis Crosby died in 1991 at age 56, both by suicide from self-inflicted gunshot wounds. Bing Crosby_sentence_360

Gary Crosby died of lung cancer in 1995 at age 62, and Phillip Crosby died of a heart attack in 2004 at age 69. Bing Crosby_sentence_361

Widow Kathryn Crosby dabbled in local theater productions intermittently and appeared in television tributes to her late husband. Bing Crosby_sentence_362

Nathaniel Crosby, Crosby's younger son from his second marriage, is a former high-level golfer who won the U.S. Bing Crosby_sentence_363 Amateur in 1981 at age 19, becoming the youngest winner in the history of that event at the time. Bing Crosby_sentence_364

Harry Crosby is an investment banker who occasionally makes singing appearances. Bing Crosby_sentence_365

Denise Crosby, Dennis Crosby's daughter, is also an actress and is known for her role as Tasha Yar on Star Trek: The Next Generation and for the recurring role of the Romulan Sela after her withdrawal from the series as a regular cast member. Bing Crosby_sentence_366

She also appeared in the film adaptation of Stephen King's novel Pet Sematary. Bing Crosby_sentence_367

In 2006, Crosby's niece through his sister Mary Rose, Carolyn Schneider, published the laudatory book Me and Uncle Bing. Bing Crosby_sentence_368

There have been disputes between Crosby's two families beginning in the late 1990s. Bing Crosby_sentence_369

When Dixie died in 1952, her will provided that her share of the community property be distributed in trust to her sons. Bing Crosby_sentence_370

After Crosby's death in 1977, he left the residue of his estate to a marital trust for the benefit of his widow, Kathryn, and HLC Properties, Ltd., was formed for the purpose of managing his interests, including his right of publicity. Bing Crosby_sentence_371

In 1996, Dixie's trust sued HLC and Kathryn for declaratory relief as to the trust's entitlement to interest, dividends, royalties, and other income derived from the community property of Crosby and Dixie. Bing Crosby_sentence_372

In 1999, the parties settled for approximately $1.5 million. Bing Crosby_sentence_373

Relying on a retroactive amendment to the California Civil Code, Dixie's trust brought suit again, in 2010, alleging that Crosby's right of publicity was community property, and that Dixie's trust was entitled to a share of the revenue it produced. Bing Crosby_sentence_374

The trial court granted Dixie's trust's claim. Bing Crosby_sentence_375

The California Court of Appeal reversed, however, holding that the 1999 settlement barred the claim. Bing Crosby_sentence_376

In light of the court's ruling, it was unnecessary for the court to decide whether a right of publicity can be characterized as community property under California law. Bing Crosby_sentence_377

Illness and death Bing Crosby_section_18

Following his recovery from a life-threatening fungal infection of his right lung in January 1974, Crosby emerged from semi-retirement to start a new spate of albums and concerts. Bing Crosby_sentence_378

In March 1977, after videotaping a concert at the Ambassador Auditorium in Pasadena for CBS to commemorate his 50th anniversary in show business, and with Bob Hope looking on, Crosby fell off the stage into an orchestra pit, rupturing a disc in his back requiring a month in the hospital. Bing Crosby_sentence_379

His first performance after the accident was his last American concert, on August 16, 1977 (the day singer Elvis Presley died) at the Concord Pavilion in Concord, California. Bing Crosby_sentence_380

When the electric power failed during his performance, he continued singing without amplification. Bing Crosby_sentence_381

In September, Crosby, his family and singer Rosemary Clooney began a concert tour of Britain that included two weeks at the London Palladium. Bing Crosby_sentence_382

While in the UK, Crosby recorded his final album, Seasons, and his final TV Christmas special with guest David Bowie on September 11 (which aired a little over a month after Crosby's death). Bing Crosby_sentence_383

His last concert was in the Brighton Centre on October 10, four days before his death, with British entertainer Dame Gracie Fields in attendance. Bing Crosby_sentence_384

The following day he made his final appearance in a recording studio and sang eight songs at the BBC Maida Vale studios for a radio program, which also included an interview with Alan Dell. Bing Crosby_sentence_385

Accompanied by the Gordon Rose Orchestra, Crosby's last recorded performance was of the song "Once in a While." Bing Crosby_sentence_386

Later that afternoon, he met with Chris Harding to take photographs for the Seasons album jacket. Bing Crosby_sentence_387

On October 13, 1977, Crosby flew alone to Spain to play golf and hunt partridge. Bing Crosby_sentence_388

On October 14, at the La Moraleja Golf Course near Madrid, Crosby played 18 holes of golf. Bing Crosby_sentence_389

His partner was World Cup champion Manuel Piñero; their opponents were club president César de Zulueta and Valentín Barrios. Bing Crosby_sentence_390

According to Barrios, Crosby was in good spirits throughout the day, and was photographed several times during the round. Bing Crosby_sentence_391

At the ninth hole, construction workers building a house nearby recognized him, and when asked for a song, Crosby sang "Strangers in the Night." Bing Crosby_sentence_392

Crosby, who had a 13 handicap, lost to his partner by one stroke. Bing Crosby_sentence_393

At about 6:30 pm, as Crosby and his party headed back to the clubhouse, Crosby said, "That was a great game of golf, fellas. Bing Crosby_sentence_394

Let's get a Coke." Bing Crosby_sentence_395

About 20 yards from the clubhouse entrance Crosby collapsed and died instantly from a massive heart attack. Bing Crosby_sentence_396

At the clubhouse and later in the ambulance, house physician Dr. Laiseca tried to revive him, but was unsuccessful. Bing Crosby_sentence_397

At Reina Victoria Hospital he was administered the last rites of the Catholic Church and was pronounced dead. Bing Crosby_sentence_398

On October 18, following a private funeral Mass at St. Paul's Catholic Church in Westwood, Crosby was buried at Holy Cross Cemetery in Culver City, California; his tombstone incorrectly identified his year of birth as 1904 instead of 1903. Bing Crosby_sentence_399

A plaque was placed at the golf course in his memory. Bing Crosby_sentence_400

Legacy Bing Crosby_section_19

He is a member of the National Association of Broadcasters Hall of Fame in the radio division. Bing Crosby_sentence_401

The family created an official website on October 14, 2007, the 30th anniversary of Crosby's death. Bing Crosby_sentence_402

In his autobiography Don't Shoot, It's Only Me! Bing Crosby_sentence_403

(1990), Bob Hope wrote, "Dear old Bing. Bing Crosby_sentence_404

As we called him, the Economy-sized Sinatra. Bing Crosby_sentence_405

And what a voice. Bing Crosby_sentence_406

God I miss that voice. Bing Crosby_sentence_407

I can't even turn on the radio around Christmas time without crying anymore." Bing Crosby_sentence_408

Calypso musician Roaring Lion wrote a tribute song in 1939 titled "Bing Crosby," in which he wrote: "Bing has a way of singing with his very heart and soul / Which captivates the world / His millions of listeners never fail to rejoice / At his golden voice ..." Bing Crosby_sentence_409

Bing Crosby Stadium in Front Royal, Virginia, was named after Crosby in honor of his fundraising and cash contributions for its construction from 1948 to 1950. Bing Crosby_sentence_410

In 2006, the former Metropolitan Theater of Performing Arts ('The Met') in Spokane, Washington, was renamed to The Bing Crosby Theater. Bing Crosby_sentence_411

On June 25, 2019, The New York Times Magazine listed Bing Crosby among hundreds of artists whose material was reportedly destroyed in the 2008 Universal fire. Bing Crosby_sentence_412

Compositions Bing Crosby_section_20

Crosby wrote or co-wrote lyrics to 22 songs. Bing Crosby_sentence_413

His composition "At Your Command" was no. Bing Crosby_sentence_414

1 for three weeks on the U.S. pop singles chart beginning on August 8, 1931. Bing Crosby_sentence_415

"I Don't Stand a Ghost of a Chance With You" was his most successful composition, recorded by Duke Ellington, Frank Sinatra, Thelonious Monk, Billie Holiday, and Mildred Bailey, among others. Bing Crosby_sentence_416

Songs co-written by Crosby include: Bing Crosby_sentence_417

Bing Crosby_ordered_list_1

  1. "That's Grandma" (1927), with Harry Barris and James CavanaughBing Crosby_item_1_1
  2. "From Monday On" (1928), with Harry Barris and recorded with the Paul Whiteman Orchestra featuring Bix Beiderbecke on cornet, no. 14 on US pop singles chartsBing Crosby_item_1_2
  3. "What Price Lyrics?" (1928), with Harry Barris and Matty MalneckBing Crosby_item_1_3
  4. "Ev'rything's Agreed Upon" (1930), with Harry BarrisBing Crosby_item_1_4
  5. "At Your Command" (1931), with Harry Barris and Harry Tobias, US, no. 1 (3 weeks)Bing Crosby_item_1_5
  6. "Believe Me" (1931), with James Cavanaugh and Frank WeldonBing Crosby_item_1_6
  7. "Where the Blue of the Night (Meets the Gold of the Day)" (1931), with Roy Turk and Fred Ahlert, US, no. 4; US, 1940 re-recording, no. 27Bing Crosby_item_1_7
  8. "You Taught Me How to Love" (1931), with H. C. LeBlang and Don HermanBing Crosby_item_1_8
  9. "I Don't Stand a Ghost of a Chance with You" (1932), with Victor Young and Ned Washington, US, no. 5Bing Crosby_item_1_9
  10. "My Woman" (1932), with Irving Wallman and Max WartellBing Crosby_item_1_10
  11. "Cutesie Pie" (1932), with Red Standex and Chummy MacGregorBing Crosby_item_1_11
  12. "I Was So Alone, Suddenly You Were There (1932), with Leigh Harline, Jack Stern and George HamiltonBing Crosby_item_1_12
  13. "Love Me Tonight" (1932), with Victor Young and Ned Washington, US, no. 4Bing Crosby_item_1_13
  14. "Waltzing in a Dream" (1932), with Victor Young and Ned Washington, US, no.6Bing Crosby_item_1_14
  15. "You're Just a Beautiful Melody of Love" (1932), lyrics by Bing Crosby, music by Babe GoldbergBing Crosby_item_1_15
  16. "Where Are You, Girl of My Dreams?" (1932), written by Bing Crosby, Irving Bibo, and Paul McVey, featured in the 1932 Universal film The Cohens and Kellys in HollywoodBing Crosby_item_1_16
  17. "I Would If I Could But I Can't" (1933), with Mitchell Parish and Alan GreyBing Crosby_item_1_17
  18. "Where the Turf Meets the Surf" (1941) with Johnny Burke and James V. Monaco.Bing Crosby_item_1_18
  19. "Tenderfoot" (1953) with Bob Bowen and Perry Botkin, originally issued using the pseudonym of "Bill Brill" for Bing Crosby.Bing Crosby_item_1_19
  20. "Domenica" (1961) with Pietro Garinei / Gorni Kramer / Sandro GiovanniniBing Crosby_item_1_20
  21. "That's What Life is All About" (1975), with Ken Barnes, Peter Dacre, and Les Reed, US, AC chart, no. 35; UK, no. 41Bing Crosby_item_1_21
  22. "Sail Away from Norway" (1977) – Crosby wrote lyrics to go with a traditional song.Bing Crosby_item_1_22

Grammy Hall of Fame Bing Crosby_section_21

Four performances by Bing Crosby have been inducted into the Grammy Hall of Fame, which is a special Grammy award established in 1973 to honor recordings that are at least 25 years old and that have "qualitative or historical significance." Bing Crosby_sentence_418

Bing Crosby_table_general_1

Bing Crosby: Grammy Hall of FameBing Crosby_cell_1_0_0
Year RecordedBing Crosby_header_cell_1_1_0 TitleBing Crosby_header_cell_1_1_1 GenreBing Crosby_header_cell_1_1_2 LabelBing Crosby_header_cell_1_1_3 Year InductedBing Crosby_header_cell_1_1_4 NotesBing Crosby_header_cell_1_1_5
1942Bing Crosby_cell_1_2_0 "White Christmas"Bing Crosby_cell_1_2_1 Traditional Pop (single)Bing Crosby_cell_1_2_2 DeccaBing Crosby_cell_1_2_3 1974Bing Crosby_cell_1_2_4 With the Ken Darby SingersBing Crosby_cell_1_2_5
1944Bing Crosby_cell_1_3_0 "Swinging on a Star"Bing Crosby_cell_1_3_1 Traditional Pop (single)Bing Crosby_cell_1_3_2 DeccaBing Crosby_cell_1_3_3 2002Bing Crosby_cell_1_3_4 With the Williams Brothers QuartetBing Crosby_cell_1_3_5
1936Bing Crosby_cell_1_4_0 "Pennies from Heaven"Bing Crosby_cell_1_4_1 Traditional Pop (single)Bing Crosby_cell_1_4_2 DeccaBing Crosby_cell_1_4_3 2004Bing Crosby_cell_1_4_4 With the Jimmy Dorsey OrchestraBing Crosby_cell_1_4_5
1944Bing Crosby_cell_1_5_0 "Don't Fence Me In"Bing Crosby_cell_1_5_1 Traditional Pop (single)Bing Crosby_cell_1_5_2 DeccaBing Crosby_cell_1_5_3 1998Bing Crosby_cell_1_5_4 With the Andrews SistersBing Crosby_cell_1_5_5

Filmography Bing Crosby_section_22

Main article: Bing Crosby filmography Bing Crosby_sentence_419

Discography Bing Crosby_section_23

Main article: Bing Crosby discography Bing Crosby_sentence_420

TV appearances Bing Crosby_section_24

Main article: List of Bing Crosby TV appearances Bing Crosby_sentence_421

Radio Bing Crosby_section_25

Bing Crosby_unordered_list_2

RIAA certification Bing Crosby_section_26

Awards and nominations Bing Crosby_section_27

Bing Crosby_table_general_2

YearBing Crosby_header_cell_2_0_0 AwardBing Crosby_header_cell_2_0_1 CategoryBing Crosby_header_cell_2_0_2 ProjectBing Crosby_header_cell_2_0_3 ResultBing Crosby_header_cell_2_0_4
1944Bing Crosby_cell_2_1_0 New York Film Critics Circle AwardsBing Crosby_cell_2_1_1 Best ActorBing Crosby_cell_2_1_2 Going My WayBing Crosby_cell_2_1_3 WonBing Crosby_cell_2_1_4
1944Bing Crosby_cell_2_2_0 Photoplay AwardsBing Crosby_cell_2_2_1 Most Popular Male StarBing Crosby_cell_2_2_2 Bing Crosby_cell_2_2_3 WonBing Crosby_cell_2_2_4
1945Bing Crosby_cell_2_3_0 Photoplay AwardsBing Crosby_cell_2_3_1 Most Popular Male StarBing Crosby_cell_2_3_2 Bing Crosby_cell_2_3_3 WonBing Crosby_cell_2_3_4
1945Bing Crosby_cell_2_4_0 Academy AwardsBing Crosby_cell_2_4_1 Best Actor in a Leading RoleBing Crosby_cell_2_4_2 Going My WayBing Crosby_cell_2_4_3 WonBing Crosby_cell_2_4_4
1946Bing Crosby_cell_2_5_0 Photoplay AwardsBing Crosby_cell_2_5_1 Most Popular Male StarBing Crosby_cell_2_5_2 Bing Crosby_cell_2_5_3 WonBing Crosby_cell_2_5_4
1946Bing Crosby_cell_2_6_0 Academy AwardsBing Crosby_cell_2_6_1 Best Actor in a Leading RoleBing Crosby_cell_2_6_2 The Bells of St. Mary'sBing Crosby_cell_2_6_3 NominatedBing Crosby_cell_2_6_4
1947Bing Crosby_cell_2_7_0 Photoplay AwardsBing Crosby_cell_2_7_1 Most Popular Male StarBing Crosby_cell_2_7_2 Bing Crosby_cell_2_7_3 WonBing Crosby_cell_2_7_4
1948Bing Crosby_cell_2_8_0 Photoplay AwardsBing Crosby_cell_2_8_1 Most Popular Male StarBing Crosby_cell_2_8_2 Bing Crosby_cell_2_8_3 WonBing Crosby_cell_2_8_4
1952Bing Crosby_cell_2_9_0 Golden GlobesBing Crosby_cell_2_9_1 Best Motion Picture ActorBing Crosby_cell_2_9_2 Here Comes the GroomBing Crosby_cell_2_9_3 NominatedBing Crosby_cell_2_9_4
1954Bing Crosby_cell_2_10_0 National Board of ReviewBing Crosby_cell_2_10_1 Best ActorBing Crosby_cell_2_10_2 The Country GirlBing Crosby_cell_2_10_3 WonBing Crosby_cell_2_10_4
1955Bing Crosby_cell_2_11_0 Academy AwardsBing Crosby_cell_2_11_1 Best Actor in a Leading RoleBing Crosby_cell_2_11_2 The Country GirlBing Crosby_cell_2_11_3 NominatedBing Crosby_cell_2_11_4
1958Bing Crosby_cell_2_12_0 Laurel AwardsBing Crosby_cell_2_12_1 Golden Laurel Top Male StarBing Crosby_cell_2_12_2 Bing Crosby_cell_2_12_3 NominatedBing Crosby_cell_2_12_4
1959Bing Crosby_cell_2_13_0 Laurel AwardsBing Crosby_cell_2_13_1 Golden Laurel Top Male StarBing Crosby_cell_2_13_2 Bing Crosby_cell_2_13_3 NominatedBing Crosby_cell_2_13_4
1960Bing Crosby_cell_2_14_0 Laurel AwardsBing Crosby_cell_2_14_1 Golden Laurel Top Male PerformanceBing Crosby_cell_2_14_2 Say One for MeBing Crosby_cell_2_14_3 NominatedBing Crosby_cell_2_14_4
1960Bing Crosby_cell_2_15_0 Golden GlobesBing Crosby_cell_2_15_1 Golden Globe Cecil B. DeMille AwardBing Crosby_cell_2_15_2 Bing Crosby_cell_2_15_3 WonBing Crosby_cell_2_15_4
1960Bing Crosby_cell_2_16_0 Hollywood Walk of FameBing Crosby_cell_2_16_1 RadioBing Crosby_cell_2_16_2 6769 Hollywood Blvd.Bing Crosby_cell_2_16_3 InductedBing Crosby_cell_2_16_4
1960Bing Crosby_cell_2_17_0 Hollywood Walk of FameBing Crosby_cell_2_17_1 RecordingBing Crosby_cell_2_17_2 6751 Hollywood Blvd.Bing Crosby_cell_2_17_3 InductedBing Crosby_cell_2_17_4
1960Bing Crosby_cell_2_18_0 Hollywood Walk of FameBing Crosby_cell_2_18_1 Motion PictureBing Crosby_cell_2_18_2 1611 Vine Street.Bing Crosby_cell_2_18_3 InductedBing Crosby_cell_2_18_4
1961Bing Crosby_cell_2_19_0 Laurel AwardsBing Crosby_cell_2_19_1 Golden Laurel Top Male StarBing Crosby_cell_2_19_2 Bing Crosby_cell_2_19_3 NominatedBing Crosby_cell_2_19_4
1962Bing Crosby_cell_2_20_0 Laurel AwardsBing Crosby_cell_2_20_1 Golden Laurel Special AwardBing Crosby_cell_2_20_2 Bing Crosby_cell_2_20_3 WonBing Crosby_cell_2_20_4
1963Bing Crosby_cell_2_21_0 Grammy Lifetime Achievement AwardBing Crosby_cell_2_21_1 Bing Crosby_cell_2_21_2 Bing Crosby_cell_2_21_3 WonBing Crosby_cell_2_21_4
1970Bing Crosby_cell_2_22_0 Peabody AwardsBing Crosby_cell_2_22_1 Personal AwardBing Crosby_cell_2_22_2 Bing Crosby_cell_2_22_3 WonBing Crosby_cell_2_22_4

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: Crosby.