Binomial nomenclature

From Wikipedia for FEVERv2
Jump to navigation Jump to search

"Latin name" redirects here. Binomial nomenclature_sentence_0

For personal names in the Roman Empire, see Roman naming conventions. Binomial nomenclature_sentence_1

Binomial nomenclature ("two-term naming system"), also called binominal nomenclature ("two-name naming system") or binary nomenclature, is a formal system of naming species of living things by giving each a name composed of two parts, both of which use Latin grammatical forms, although they can be based on words from other languages. Binomial nomenclature_sentence_2

Such a name is called a binomial name (which may be shortened to just "binomial"), a binomen, binominal name or a scientific name; more informally it is also called a Latin name. Binomial nomenclature_sentence_3

The first part of the name – the generic name – identifies the genus to which the species belongs, while the second part – the specific name or specific epithet – identifies the species within the genus. Binomial nomenclature_sentence_4

For example, modern humans belong to the genus Homo and within this genus to the species Homo sapiens. Binomial nomenclature_sentence_5

Tyrannosaurus rex is probably the most widely known binomial. Binomial nomenclature_sentence_6

The formal introduction of this system of naming species is credited to Carl Linnaeus, effectively beginning with his work Species Plantarum in 1753. Binomial nomenclature_sentence_7

But Gaspard Bauhin, in as early as 1622, had introduced in his book Pinax theatri botanici (English, Illustrated exposition of plants) many names of genera that were later adopted by Linnaeus. Binomial nomenclature_sentence_8

The application of binomial nomenclature is now governed by various internationally agreed codes of rules, of which the two most important are the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) for animals and the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICNafp). Binomial nomenclature_sentence_9

Although the general principles underlying binomial nomenclature are common to these two codes, there are some differences, both in the terminology they use and in their precise rules. Binomial nomenclature_sentence_10

In modern usage, the first letter of the first part of the name, the genus, is always capitalized in writing, while that of the second part is not, even when derived from a proper noun such as the name of a person or place. Binomial nomenclature_sentence_11

Similarly, both parts are italicized when a binomial name occurs in normal text (or underlined in handwriting). Binomial nomenclature_sentence_12

Thus the binomial name of the annual phlox (named after botanist Thomas Drummond) is now written as Phlox drummondii. Binomial nomenclature_sentence_13

In scientific works, the authority for a binomial name is usually given, at least when it is first mentioned, and the date of publication may be specified. Binomial nomenclature_sentence_14

Binomial nomenclature_unordered_list_0

  • In zoologyBinomial nomenclature_item_0_0
    • "Patella vulgata Linnaeus, 1758". The name "Linnaeus" tells the reader who it was that first published a description and name for this species of limpet; 1758 is the date of the publication in which the original description can be found (in this case the 10th edition of the book Systema Naturae).Binomial nomenclature_item_0_1
    • "Passer domesticus (Linnaeus, 1758)". The original name given by Linnaeus was Fringilla domestica; the parentheses indicate that the species is now considered to belong in a different genus. The ICZN does not require that the name of the person who changed the genus be given, nor the date on which the change was made, although nomenclatorial catalogs usually include such information.Binomial nomenclature_item_0_2
  • In botanyBinomial nomenclature_item_0_3
    • "Amaranthus retroflexus L." – "L." is the standard abbreviation used in botany for "Linnaeus".Binomial nomenclature_item_0_4
    • "Hyacinthoides italica (L.) Rothm." – Linnaeus first named this bluebell species Scilla italica; Rothmaler transferred it to the genus Hyacinthoides; the ICNafp does not require that the dates of either publication be specified.Binomial nomenclature_item_0_5

Origin Binomial nomenclature_section_0

The name is composed of two word-forming elements: (Latin prefix meaning 'two') and (literally 'name'). Binomial nomenclature_sentence_15

In Medieval Latin, the related word binomium was used to signify one term in a binomial expression in mathematics. Binomial nomenclature_sentence_16

History Binomial nomenclature_section_1

See also: Biological classification: Early systems Binomial nomenclature_sentence_17

Prior to the adoption of the modern binomial system of naming species, a scientific name consisted of a generic name combined with a specific name that was from one to several words long. Binomial nomenclature_sentence_18

Together they formed a system of polynomial nomenclature. Binomial nomenclature_sentence_19

These names had two separate functions. Binomial nomenclature_sentence_20

First, to designate or label the species, and second, to be a diagnosis or description; however these two goals were eventually found to be incompatible. Binomial nomenclature_sentence_21

In a simple genus, containing only two species, it was easy to tell them apart with a one-word genus and a one-word specific name; but as more species were discovered, the names necessarily became longer and unwieldy, for instance, Plantago foliis ovato-lanceolatus pubescentibus, spica cylindrica, scapo tereti ("plantain with pubescent ovate-lanceolate leaves, a cylindric spike and a terete scape"), which we know today as Plantago media. Binomial nomenclature_sentence_22

Such "polynomial names" may sometimes look like binomials, but are significantly different. Binomial nomenclature_sentence_23

For example, Gerard's herbal (as amended by Johnson) describes various kinds of spiderwort: "The first is called Phalangium ramosum, Branched Spiderwort; the second, Phalangium non ramosum, Unbranched Spiderwort. Binomial nomenclature_sentence_24

The other ... is aptly termed Phalangium Ephemerum Virginianum, Soon-Fading Spiderwort of Virginia". Binomial nomenclature_sentence_25

The Latin phrases are short descriptions, rather than identifying labels. Binomial nomenclature_sentence_26

The Bauhins, in particular Caspar Bauhin (1560–1624), took some important steps towards the binomial system, by pruning the Latin descriptions, in many cases to two words. Binomial nomenclature_sentence_27

The adoption by biologists of a system of strictly binomial nomenclature is due to Swedish botanist and physician Carl Linnaeus (1707–1778). Binomial nomenclature_sentence_28

It was in Linnaeus's 1753 Species Plantarum that he began consistently using a one-word "trivial name" (nomen triviale) after a generic name (genus name) in a system of binomial nomenclature. Binomial nomenclature_sentence_29

Trivial names had already appeared in his Critica Botanica (1737) and Philosophia Botanica (1751). Binomial nomenclature_sentence_30

This trivial name is what is now known as a specific epithet (ICNafp) or specific name (ICZN). Binomial nomenclature_sentence_31

The Bauhins' genus names were retained in many of these, but the descriptive part was reduced to a single word. Binomial nomenclature_sentence_32

Linnaeus's trivial names introduced an important new idea, namely that the function of a name could simply be to give a species a unique label. Binomial nomenclature_sentence_33

This meant that the name no longer need be descriptive; for example both parts could be derived from the names of people. Binomial nomenclature_sentence_34

Thus Gerard's Phalangium ephemerum virginianum became Tradescantia virginiana, where the genus name honoured John Tradescant the Younger, an English botanist and gardener. Binomial nomenclature_sentence_35

A bird in the parrot family was named Psittacus alexandri, meaning "Alexander's parrot", after Alexander the Great, whose armies introduced eastern parakeets to Greece. Binomial nomenclature_sentence_36

Linnaeus's trivial names were much easier to remember and use than the parallel polynomial names and eventually replaced them. Binomial nomenclature_sentence_37

Value Binomial nomenclature_section_2

The value of the binomial nomenclature system derives primarily from its economy, its widespread use, and the uniqueness and stability of names it generally favors: Binomial nomenclature_sentence_38

Binomial nomenclature_unordered_list_1

  • Economy. Compared to the polynomial system which it replaced, a binomial name is shorter and easier to remember. It corresponds to the widespread system of family name plus given name(s) used to name people in many cultures.Binomial nomenclature_item_1_6
  • Widespread use. The binomial system of nomenclature is governed by international codes and is used by biologists worldwide. A few binomials have also entered common speech, such as Homo sapiens, E. coli, Boa constrictor, and Tyrannosaurus rex.Binomial nomenclature_item_1_7
  • Uniqueness. Provided that taxonomists agree as to the limits of a species, it can have only one name that is correct under the appropriate nomenclature code, generally the earliest published if two or more names are accidentally assigned to a species. However, establishing that two names actually refer to the same species and then determining which has priority can be difficult, particularly if the species was named by biologists from different countries. Therefore, a species may have more than one regularly used name; all but one of these names are "synonyms".Binomial nomenclature_item_1_8
  • Stability. Although stability is far from absolute, the procedures associated with establishing binomial names, such as the principle of priority, tend to favor stability. For example, when species are transferred between genera (as not uncommonly happens as a result of new knowledge), if possible the second part of the binomial is kept the same. Thus there is disagreement among botanists as to whether the genera Chionodoxa and Scilla are sufficiently different for them to be kept separate. Those who keep them separate give the plant commonly grown in gardens in Europe the name Chionodoxa siehei; those who do not give it the name Scilla siehei. The siehei element is constant. Similarly if what were previously thought to be two distinct species are demoted to a lower rank, such as subspecies, where possible the second part of the binomial name is retained as the third part of the new name. Thus the Tenerife robin may be treated as a different species from the European robin, in which case its name is Erithacus superbus, or as only a subspecies, in which case its name is Erithacus rubecula superbus. The superbus element of the name is constant.Binomial nomenclature_item_1_9

Problems Binomial nomenclature_section_3

Binomial nomenclature for species has the effect that when a species is moved from one genus to another, sometimes the specific name or epithet must be changed as well. Binomial nomenclature_sentence_39

This may happen because the specific name is already used in the new genus, or to agree in gender with the new genus. Binomial nomenclature_sentence_40

Some biologists have argued for the combination of the genus name and specific epithet into a single unambiguous name, or for the use of uninomials (as used in nomenclature of ranks above species). Binomial nomenclature_sentence_41

Because genus names are unique only within a nomenclature code, it is possible for two or more species to share the same genus name and even the same binomial if they occur in different kingdoms. Binomial nomenclature_sentence_42

At least 1240 instances of genus name duplication occur. Binomial nomenclature_sentence_43

Relationship to classification and taxonomy Binomial nomenclature_section_4

Nomenclature (including binomial nomenclature) is not the same as classification, although the two are related. Binomial nomenclature_sentence_44

Classification is the ordering of items into groups based on similarities or differences; in biological classification, species are one of the kinds of item to be classified. Binomial nomenclature_sentence_45

In principle, the names given to species could be completely independent of their classification. Binomial nomenclature_sentence_46

This is not the case for binomial names, since the first part of a binomial is the name of the genus into which the species is placed. Binomial nomenclature_sentence_47

Above the rank of genus, binomial nomenclature and classification are partly independent; for example, a species retains its binomial name if it is moved from one family to another or from one order to another, unless it better fits a different genus in the same or different family, or it is split from its old genus and placed in a newly created genus. Binomial nomenclature_sentence_48

The independence is only partial since the names of families and other higher taxa are usually based on genera. Binomial nomenclature_sentence_49

Taxonomy includes both nomenclature and classification. Binomial nomenclature_sentence_50

Its first stages (sometimes called "alpha taxonomy") are concerned with finding, describing and naming species of living or fossil organisms. Binomial nomenclature_sentence_51

Binomial nomenclature is thus an important part of taxonomy as it is the system by which species are named. Binomial nomenclature_sentence_52

Taxonomists are also concerned with classification, including its principles, procedures and rules. Binomial nomenclature_sentence_53

Derivation of binomial names Binomial nomenclature_section_5

See also: List of Latin and Greek words commonly used in systematic names Binomial nomenclature_sentence_54

A complete binomial name is always treated grammatically as if it were a phrase in the Latin language (hence the common use of the term "Latin name" for a binomial name). Binomial nomenclature_sentence_55

However, the two parts of a binomial name can each be derived from a number of sources, of which Latin is only one. Binomial nomenclature_sentence_56

These include: Binomial nomenclature_sentence_57

Binomial nomenclature_unordered_list_2

  • Latin, either classical or medieval. Thus, both parts of the binomial name Homo sapiens are Latin words, meaning "wise" (sapiens) "human/man" (Homo).Binomial nomenclature_item_2_10
  • Classical Greek. The genus Rhododendron was named by Linnaeus from the Greek word ῥοδόδενδρον, itself derived from rhodon, "rose", and dendron, "tree". Greek words are often converted to a Latinized form. Thus coca (the plant from which cocaine is obtained) has the name Erythroxylum coca. Erythroxylum is derived from the Greek words erythros, red, and xylon, wood. The Greek neuter ending -ον (-on) is often converted to the Latin neuter ending -um.Binomial nomenclature_item_2_11
  • Other languages. The second part of the name Erythroxylum coca is derived from kuka, the name of the plant in Aymara and Quechua. Since many dinosaur fossils were found in Mongolia, their names often use Mongolian words, e.g. Tarchia from tarkhi, meaning "brain", or Saichania meaning "beautiful one".Binomial nomenclature_item_2_12
  • Names of people (often naturalists or biologists). The name Magnolia campbellii commemorates two people: Pierre Magnol, a French botanist, and Archibald Campbell, a doctor in British India.Binomial nomenclature_item_2_13
  • Names of places. The lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum, is widespread in the United States.Binomial nomenclature_item_2_14
  • Other sources. Some binominal names have been constructed from taxonomic anagrams or other re-orderings of existing names. Thus the name of the genus Muilla is derived by reversing the name Allium. Names may also be derived from jokes or puns. For example, Ratcliffe described a number of species of rhinoceros beetle, including Cyclocephala nodanotherwon.Binomial nomenclature_item_2_15

The first part of the name, which identifies the genus, must be a word which can be treated as a Latin singular noun in the nominative case. Binomial nomenclature_sentence_58

It must be unique within each kingdom, but can be repeated between kingdoms. Binomial nomenclature_sentence_59

Thus Huia recurvata is an extinct species of plant, found as fossils in Yunnan, China, whereas Huia masonii is a species of frog found in Java, Indonesia. Binomial nomenclature_sentence_60

The second part of the name, which identifies the species within the genus, is also treated grammatically as a Latin word. Binomial nomenclature_sentence_61

It can have one of a number of forms: Binomial nomenclature_sentence_62

Binomial nomenclature_unordered_list_3

  • The second part of a binomial may be an adjective. The adjective must agree with the genus name in gender. Latin has three genders, masculine, feminine and neuter, shown by varying endings to nouns and adjectives. The house sparrow has the binomial name Passer domesticus. Here domesticus ("domestic") simply means "associated with the house". The sacred bamboo is Nandina domestica rather than Nandina domesticus, since Nandina is feminine whereas Passer is masculine. The tropical fruit langsat is a product of the plant Lansium parasiticum, since Lansium is neuter. Some common endings for Latin adjectives in the three genders (masculine, feminine, neuter) are -us, -a, -um (as in the previous example of domesticus); -is, -is, -e (e.g. tristis, meaning "sad"); and -or, -or, -us (e.g. minor, meaning "smaller"). For further information, see Latin declension: Adjectives.Binomial nomenclature_item_3_16
  • The second part of a binomial may be a noun in the nominative case. An example is the binomial name of the lion, which is Panthera leo. Grammatically the noun is said to be in apposition to the genus name and the two nouns do not have to agree in gender; in this case, Panthera is feminine and leo is masculine.Binomial nomenclature_item_3_17

Binomial nomenclature_unordered_list_4

  • The second part of a binomial may be a noun in the genitive (possessive) case. The genitive case is constructed in a number of ways in Latin, depending on the declension of the noun. Common endings for masculine and neuter nouns are -ii or -i in the singular and -orum in the plural, and for feminine nouns -ae in the singular and -arum in the plural. The noun may be part of a person's name, often the surname, as in the Tibetan antelope (Pantholops hodgsonii), the shrub Magnolia hodgsonii, or the olive-backed pipit (Anthus hodgsoni). The meaning is "of the person named", so that Magnolia hodgsonii means "Hodgson's magnolia". The -ii or -i endings show that in each case Hodgson was a man (not the same one); had Hodgson been a woman, hodgsonae would have been used. The person commemorated in the binomial name is not usually (if ever) the person who created the name; for example Anthus hodgsoni was named by Charles Wallace Richmond, in honour of Hodgson. Rather than a person, the noun may be related to a place, as with Latimeria chalumnae, meaning "of the Chalumna River". Another use of genitive nouns is in, for example, the name of the bacterium Escherichia coli, where coli means "of the colon". This formation is common in parasites, as in Xenos vesparum, where vesparum means "of the wasps", since Xenos vesparum is a parasite of wasps.Binomial nomenclature_item_4_18

Whereas the first part of a binomial name must be unique within a kingdom, the second part is quite commonly used in two or more genera (as is shown by examples of hodgsonii above). Binomial nomenclature_sentence_63

The full binomial name must be unique within a kingdom. Binomial nomenclature_sentence_64

Codes Binomial nomenclature_section_6

From the early 19th century onwards it became ever more apparent that a body of rules was necessary to govern scientific names. Binomial nomenclature_sentence_65

In the course of time these became nomenclature codes. Binomial nomenclature_sentence_66

The International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) governs the naming of animals, the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICNafp) that of plants (including cyanobacteria), and the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria (ICNB) that of bacteria (including Archaea). Binomial nomenclature_sentence_67

Virus names are governed by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV), a taxonomic code, which determines taxa as well as names. Binomial nomenclature_sentence_68

These codes differ in certain ways, e.g.: Binomial nomenclature_sentence_69

Binomial nomenclature_unordered_list_5

  • "Binomial nomenclature" is the correct term for botany, although it is also used by zoologists. Since 1953, "binominal nomenclature" is the technically correct term in zoology. A binominal name is also called a binomen (plural binomina).Binomial nomenclature_item_5_19
  • Both codes consider the first part of the two-part name for a species to be the "generic name". In the zoological code (ICZN), the second part of the name is a "specific name". In the botanical code (ICNafp), it is a "specific epithet". Together, these two parts are referred to as a "species name" or "binomen" in the zoological code; or "species name", "binomial", or "binary combination" in the botanical code. "Species name" is the only term common to the two codes.Binomial nomenclature_item_5_20
  • The ICNafp, the plant code, does not allow the two parts of a binomial name to be the same (such a name is called a tautonym), whereas the ICZN, the animal code, does. Thus the American bison has the binomial Bison bison; a name of this kind would not be allowed for a plant.Binomial nomenclature_item_5_21
  • The starting points, the time from which these codes are in effect (retroactively), vary from group to group. In botany the starting point will often be in 1753 (the year Carl Linnaeus first published Species Plantarum). In zoology the starting point is 1758 (1 January 1758 is considered the date of the publication of Linnaeus's Systema Naturae, 10th Edition, and also Clerck's Aranei Svecici). Bacteriology started anew, with a starting point on 1 January 1980.Binomial nomenclature_item_5_22

Binomial nomenclature_table_general_0

Summary of terminology for the names of species in the ICZN and ICNafpBinomial nomenclature_table_caption_0
CodeBinomial nomenclature_header_cell_0_0_0 Full nameBinomial nomenclature_header_cell_0_0_1 First partBinomial nomenclature_header_cell_0_0_2 Second partBinomial nomenclature_header_cell_0_0_3
ICZNBinomial nomenclature_cell_0_1_0 species name, binomen, binominal nameBinomial nomenclature_cell_0_1_1 generic name, genus nameBinomial nomenclature_cell_0_1_2 specific nameBinomial nomenclature_cell_0_1_3
ICNafpBinomial nomenclature_cell_0_2_0 species name, binary combination, binomial (name)Binomial nomenclature_cell_0_2_1 generic nameBinomial nomenclature_cell_0_2_2 specific epithetBinomial nomenclature_cell_0_2_3

Unifying the different codes into a single code, the "BioCode", has been suggested, although implementation is not in sight. Binomial nomenclature_sentence_70

(There is also a code in development for a different system of classification which does not use ranks, but instead names clades. Binomial nomenclature_sentence_71

This is called the PhyloCode.) Binomial nomenclature_sentence_72

Differences in handling personal names Binomial nomenclature_section_7

As noted above, there are some differences between the codes in the way in which binomials can be formed; for example the ICZN allows both parts to be the same, while the ICNafp does not. Binomial nomenclature_sentence_73

Another difference is in the way in which personal names are used in forming specific names or epithets. Binomial nomenclature_sentence_74

The ICNafp sets out precise rules by which a personal name is to be converted to a specific epithet. Binomial nomenclature_sentence_75

In particular, names ending in a consonant (but not "er") are treated as first being converted into Latin by adding "-ius" (for a man) or "-ia" (for a woman), and then being made genitive (i.e. meaning "of that person or persons"). Binomial nomenclature_sentence_76

This produces specific epithets like lecardii for Lecard (male), wilsoniae for Wilson (female), and brauniarum for the Braun sisters. Binomial nomenclature_sentence_77

By contrast the ICZN does not require the intermediate creation of a Latin form of a personal name, allowing the genitive ending to be added directly to the personal name. Binomial nomenclature_sentence_78

This explains the difference between the names of the plant Magnolia hodgsonii and the bird Anthus hodgsoni. Binomial nomenclature_sentence_79

Furthermore, the ICNafp requires names not published in the form required by the code to be corrected to conform to it, whereas the ICZN is more protective of the form used by the original author. Binomial nomenclature_sentence_80

Writing binomial names Binomial nomenclature_section_8

By tradition, the binomial names of species are usually typeset in italics; for example, Homo sapiens. Binomial nomenclature_sentence_81

Generally, the binomial should be printed in a font style different from that used in the normal text; for example, "Several more Homo sapiens fossils were discovered." Binomial nomenclature_sentence_82

When handwritten, a binomial name should be underlined; for example, Homo sapiens. Binomial nomenclature_sentence_83

The first part of the binomial, the genus name, is always written with an initial capital letter. Binomial nomenclature_sentence_84

In current usage, the second part is never written with an initial capital. Binomial nomenclature_sentence_85

Older sources, particularly botanical works published before the 1950s, use a different convention. Binomial nomenclature_sentence_86

If the second part of the name is derived from a proper noun, e.g. the name of a person or place, a capital letter was used. Binomial nomenclature_sentence_87

Thus the modern form Berberis darwinii was written as Berberis Darwinii. Binomial nomenclature_sentence_88

A capital was also used when the name is formed by two nouns in apposition, e.g. Panthera Leo or Centaurea Cyanus. Binomial nomenclature_sentence_89

When used with a common name, the scientific name often follows in parentheses, although this varies with publication. Binomial nomenclature_sentence_90

For example, "The house sparrow (Passer domesticus) is decreasing in Europe." Binomial nomenclature_sentence_91

The binomial name should generally be written in full. Binomial nomenclature_sentence_92

The exception to this is when several species from the same genus are being listed or discussed in the same paper or report, or the same species is mentioned repeatedly; in which case the genus is written in full when it is first used, but may then be abbreviated to an initial (and a period/full stop). Binomial nomenclature_sentence_93

For example, a list of members of the genus Canis might be written as "Canis lupus, C. aureus, C. simensis". Binomial nomenclature_sentence_94

In rare cases, this abbreviated form has spread to more general use; for example, the bacterium Escherichia coli is often referred to as just E. coli, and Tyrannosaurus rex is perhaps even better known simply as T. rex, these two both often appearing in this form in popular writing even where the full genus name has not already been given. Binomial nomenclature_sentence_95

The abbreviation "sp." is used when the actual specific name cannot or need not be specified. Binomial nomenclature_sentence_96

The abbreviation "spp." (plural) indicates "several species". Binomial nomenclature_sentence_97

These abbreviations are not italicised (or underlined). Binomial nomenclature_sentence_98

For example: "Canis sp." means "an unspecified species of the genus Canis", while "Canis spp." means "two or more species of the genus Canis" (the abbreviations "sp." and "spp." can easily be confused with the abbreviations "ssp." Binomial nomenclature_sentence_99

(zoology) or "subsp." Binomial nomenclature_sentence_100

(botany), plurals "sspp." Binomial nomenclature_sentence_101

or "subspp. Binomial nomenclature_sentence_102

", referring to one or more subspecies. Binomial nomenclature_sentence_103

See trinomen (zoology) and infraspecific name). Binomial nomenclature_sentence_104

The abbreviation "cf." Binomial nomenclature_sentence_105

(i.e. confer in Latin) is used to compare individuals/taxa with known/described species. Binomial nomenclature_sentence_106

Conventions for use of the "cf." Binomial nomenclature_sentence_107

qualifier vary. Binomial nomenclature_sentence_108

In paleontology, it is typically used when the identification is not confirmed. Binomial nomenclature_sentence_109

For example, "Corvus cf. Binomial nomenclature_sentence_110

nasicus" was used to indicate "a fossil bird similar to the Cuban crow but not certainly identified as this species". Binomial nomenclature_sentence_111

In molecular systematics papers, "cf." Binomial nomenclature_sentence_112

may be used to indicate one or more undescribed species assumed related to a described species. Binomial nomenclature_sentence_113

For example, in a paper describing the phylogeny of small benthic freshwater fish called darters, five undescribed putative species (Ozark, Sheltowee, Wildcat, Ihiyo, and Mamequit darters), notable for brightly colored nuptial males with distinctive color patterns, were referred to as "Etheostoma cf. Binomial nomenclature_sentence_114

spectabile" because they had been viewed as related to, but distinct from, Etheostoma spectabile (orangethroat darter). Binomial nomenclature_sentence_115

This view was supported in varying degrees by DNA analysis. Binomial nomenclature_sentence_116

The somewhat informal use of taxa names with qualifying abbreviations is referred to as open nomenclature and it is not subject to strict usage codes. Binomial nomenclature_sentence_117

In some contexts the dagger symbol ("†") may be used before or after the binomial name to indicate that the species is extinct. Binomial nomenclature_sentence_118

Authority Binomial nomenclature_section_9

Main articles: Author citation (zoology) and Author citation (botany) Binomial nomenclature_sentence_119

In scholarly texts, at least the first or main use of the binomial name is usually followed by the "authority" – a way of designating the scientist(s) who first published the name. Binomial nomenclature_sentence_120

The authority is written in slightly different ways in zoology and botany. Binomial nomenclature_sentence_121

For names governed by the ICZN the surname is usually written in full together with the date (normally only the year) of publication. Binomial nomenclature_sentence_122

The ICZN recommends that the "original author and date of a name should be cited at least once in each work dealing with the taxon denoted by that name." Binomial nomenclature_sentence_123

For names governed by the ICNafp the name is generally reduced to a standard abbreviation and the date omitted. Binomial nomenclature_sentence_124

The International Plant Names Index maintains an approved list of botanical author abbreviations. Binomial nomenclature_sentence_125

Historically, abbreviations were used in zoology too. Binomial nomenclature_sentence_126

When the original name is changed, e.g. the species is moved to a different genus, both codes use parentheses around the original authority; the ICNafp also requires the person who made the change to be given. Binomial nomenclature_sentence_127

In the ICNafp, the original name is then called the basionym. Binomial nomenclature_sentence_128

Some examples: Binomial nomenclature_sentence_129

Binomial nomenclature_unordered_list_6

  • (Plant) Amaranthus retroflexus L. – "L." is the standard abbreviation for "Linnaeus"; the absence of parentheses shows that this is his original name.Binomial nomenclature_item_6_23
  • (Plant) Hyacinthoides italica (L.) Rothm. – Linnaeus first named the Italian bluebell Scilla italica; that is the basionym. Rothmaler later transferred it to the genus Hyacinthoides.Binomial nomenclature_item_6_24
  • (Animal) Passer domesticus (Linnaeus, 1758) – the original name given by Linnaeus was Fringilla domestica; unlike the ICNafp, the ICZN does not require the name of the person who changed the genus to be given.Binomial nomenclature_item_6_25

Other ranks Binomial nomenclature_section_10

See also Binomial nomenclature_section_11

Binomial nomenclature_unordered_list_7


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Binomial nomenclature.