Bisexuality

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"Bisexual" redirects here. Bisexuality_sentence_0

For other uses, see Bisexual (disambiguation). Bisexuality_sentence_1

Bisexuality is romantic attraction, sexual attraction, or sexual behavior toward both males and females, or to more than one sex or gender. Bisexuality_sentence_2

It may also be defined as romantic or sexual attraction to people of any sex or gender identity, which is also known as pansexuality. Bisexuality_sentence_3

The term bisexuality is mainly used in the context of human attraction to denote romantic or sexual feelings toward both men and women, and the concept is one of the three main classifications of sexual orientation along with heterosexuality and homosexuality, all of which exist on the heterosexual–homosexual continuum. Bisexuality_sentence_4

A bisexual identity does not necessarily equate to equal sexual attraction to both sexes; commonly, people who have a distinct but not exclusive sexual preference for one sex over the other also identify themselves as bisexual. Bisexuality_sentence_5

Scientists do not know the exact cause of sexual orientation, but they theorize that it is caused by a complex interplay of genetic, hormonal, and environmental influences, and do not view it as a choice. Bisexuality_sentence_6

Although no single theory on the cause of sexual orientation has yet gained widespread support, scientists favor biologically-based theories. Bisexuality_sentence_7

There is considerably more evidence supporting nonsocial, biological causes of sexual orientation than social ones, especially for males. Bisexuality_sentence_8

Bisexuality has been observed in various human societies and elsewhere in the animal kingdom throughout recorded history. Bisexuality_sentence_9

The term bisexuality, however, like the terms hetero- and homosexuality, was coined in the 19th century. Bisexuality_sentence_10

Definitions Bisexuality_section_0

Sexual orientation, identity, and behavior Bisexuality_section_1

Main articles: Sexual orientation, Sexual identity, and Human sexual activity Bisexuality_sentence_11

Bisexuality is romantic or sexual attraction to both males and females. Bisexuality_sentence_12

The American Psychological Association states that "sexual orientation falls along a continuum. Bisexuality_sentence_13

In other words, someone does not have to be exclusively homosexual or heterosexual, but can feel varying degrees of both. Bisexuality_sentence_14

Sexual orientation develops across a person's lifetime–different people realize at different points in their lives that they are heterosexual, bisexual or homosexual." Bisexuality_sentence_15

Sexual attraction, behavior, and identity may also be incongruent, as sexual attraction or behavior may not necessarily be consistent with identity. Bisexuality_sentence_16

Some individuals identify themselves as heterosexual, homosexual, or bisexual without having had any sexual experience. Bisexuality_sentence_17

Others have had homosexual experiences but do not consider themselves to be gay, lesbian, or bisexual. Bisexuality_sentence_18

Likewise, self-identified gay or lesbian individuals may occasionally sexually interact with members of the opposite sex but do not identify as bisexual. Bisexuality_sentence_19

The terms queer, polysexual, heteroflexible, homoflexible, men who have sex with men and women who have sex with women may also be used to describe sexual identity or identify sexual behavior. Bisexuality_sentence_20

Some sources state that bisexuality encompasses romantic or sexual attraction to all gender identities or that it is romantic or sexual attraction to a person irrespective of that person's biological sex or gender, equating it to or rendering it interchangeable with pansexuality. Bisexuality_sentence_21

The concept of pansexuality deliberately rejects the gender binary, the "notion of two genders and indeed of specific sexual orientations", as pansexual people are open to relationships with people who do not identify as strictly men or women. Bisexuality_sentence_22

Sometimes the phrase "bisexual umbrella" is used to describe any nonmonosexual behaviors, attractions, and identities, usually for purposes of collective action and challenging monosexist cultural assumptions. Bisexuality_sentence_23

The bisexual activist Robyn Ochs defines bisexuality as "the potential to be attracted—romantically and/or sexually—to people of more than one sex and/or gender, not necessarily at the same time, not necessarily in the same way, and not necessarily to the same degree." Bisexuality_sentence_24

According to Rosario, Schrimshaw, Hunter, Braun (2006): Bisexuality_sentence_25

Bisexuality as a transitional identity has also been examined. Bisexuality_sentence_26

In a longitudinal study about sexual identity development among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youths, Rosario et al. Bisexuality_sentence_27

"found evidence of both considerable consistency and change in LGB sexual identity over time". Bisexuality_sentence_28

Youths who had identified as both gay/lesbian and bisexual prior to baseline were approximately three times more likely to identify as gay/lesbian than as bisexual at subsequent assessments. Bisexuality_sentence_29

Of youths who had identified only as bisexual at earlier assessments, 60 to 70 percent continued to thus identify, while approximately 30 to 40 percent assumed a gay/lesbian identity over time. Bisexuality_sentence_30

Rosario et al. Bisexuality_sentence_31

suggested that "although there were youths who consistently self-identified as bisexual throughout the study, for other youths, a bisexual identity served as a transitional identity to a subsequent gay/lesbian identity." Bisexuality_sentence_32

By contrast, a longitudinal study by Lisa M. Diamond, which followed women identifying as lesbian, bisexual, or unlabeled, found that "more women adopted bisexual/unlabeled identities than relinquished these identities," over a ten-year period. Bisexuality_sentence_33

The study also found that "bisexual/unlabeled women had stable overall distributions of same-sex/other-sex attractions." Bisexuality_sentence_34

Diamond has also studied male bisexuality, noting that survey research found "almost as many men transitioned at some point from a gay identity to a bisexual, queer or unlabeled one, as did from a bisexual identity to a gay identity." Bisexuality_sentence_35

Kinsey scale Bisexuality_section_2

Main article: Kinsey scale Bisexuality_sentence_36

In the 1940s, the zoologist Alfred Kinsey created a scale to measure the continuum of sexual orientation from heterosexuality to homosexuality. Bisexuality_sentence_37

Kinsey studied human sexuality and argued that people have the capability of being hetero- or homosexual even if this trait does not present itself in the current circumstances. Bisexuality_sentence_38

The Kinsey scale is used to describe a person's sexual experience or response at a given time. Bisexuality_sentence_39

It ranges from 0, meaning exclusively heterosexual, to 6, meaning exclusively homosexual. Bisexuality_sentence_40

People who rank anywhere from 2 to 4 are often considered bisexual; they are often not fully one extreme or the other. Bisexuality_sentence_41

The sociologists Martin S. Weinberg and Colin J. Williams write that, in principle, people who rank anywhere from 1 to 5 could be considered bisexual. Bisexuality_sentence_42

The psychologist Jim McKnight writes that while the idea that bisexuality is a form of sexual orientation intermediate between homosexuality and heterosexuality is implicit in the Kinsey scale, that conception has been "severely challenged" since the publication of Homosexualities (1978), by Weinberg and the psychologist Alan P. Bell. Bisexuality_sentence_43

Demographics and prevalence Bisexuality_section_3

Main article: Demographics of sexual orientation Bisexuality_sentence_44

Scientific estimates as to the prevalence of bisexuality have varied from 0.7% to 8%. Bisexuality_sentence_45

The Janus Report on Sexual Behavior, published in 1993, concluded that 5 percent of men and 3 percent of women considered themselves bisexual, while 4 percent of men and 2 percent of women considered themselves homosexual. Bisexuality_sentence_46

A 2002 survey in the United States by National Center for Health Statistics found that 1.8 percent of men ages 18–44 considered themselves bisexual, 2.3 percent homosexual, and 3.9 percent as "something else". Bisexuality_sentence_47

The same study found that 2.8 percent of women ages 18–44 considered themselves bisexual, 1.3 percent homosexual, and 3.8 percent as "something else". Bisexuality_sentence_48

In 2007, an article in the 'Health' section of The New York Times stated that "1.5 percent of American women and 1.7 percent of American men identify themselves [as] bisexual." Bisexuality_sentence_49

Also in 2007, it was reported that 14.4 percent of young US women identified themselves as "not strictly heterosexual", with 5.6 percent of the men identifying as gay or bisexual. Bisexuality_sentence_50

A study in the journal Biological Psychology in 2011 reported that there were men who identify themselves as bisexuals and who were aroused by both men and women. Bisexuality_sentence_51

In the first large-scale government survey measuring Americans' sexual orientation, the NHIS reported in July 2014 that only 0.7 percent of Americans identify as bisexual. Bisexuality_sentence_52

A collection of recent Western surveys finds that about 10% of women and 4% of men identify as mostly heterosexual, 1% of women and 0.5% of men as bisexual, and 0.4% of women and 0.5% of men as mostly homosexual. Bisexuality_sentence_53

Across cultures, there is some variance in the prevalence of bisexual behavior, but there is no persuasive evidence that there is much variance in the rate of same-sex attraction. Bisexuality_sentence_54

The World Health Organization estimates a worldwide prevalence of men who have sex with men between 3 and 16%, many of whom have sex with women as well. Bisexuality_sentence_55

Studies, theories and social responses Bisexuality_section_4

Main articles: Biology and sexual orientation and Environment and sexual orientation Bisexuality_sentence_56

Further information: Prenatal hormones and sexual orientation and Fraternal birth order and sexual orientation Bisexuality_sentence_57

There is no consensus among scientists about the exact reasons that an individual develops a heterosexual, bisexual or homosexual orientation. Bisexuality_sentence_58

Although scientists favor biological models for the cause of sexual orientation, they do not believe that the development of sexual orientation is the result of any one factor. Bisexuality_sentence_59

They generally believe that it is determined by a complex interplay of biological and environmental factors, and is shaped at an early age. Bisexuality_sentence_60

There is considerably more evidence supporting nonsocial, biological causes of sexual orientation than social ones, especially for males. Bisexuality_sentence_61

There is no substantive evidence which suggests parenting or early childhood experiences play a role with regard to sexual orientation. Bisexuality_sentence_62

Scientists do not believe that sexual orientation is a choice. Bisexuality_sentence_63

The American Psychiatric Association stated: "To date there are no replicated scientific studies supporting any specific biological etiology for homosexuality. Bisexuality_sentence_64

Similarly, no specific psychosocial or family dynamic cause for homosexuality has been identified, including histories of childhood sexual abuse." Bisexuality_sentence_65

Research into how sexual orientation may be determined by genetic or other prenatal factors plays a role in political and social debates about homosexuality, and also raises fears about genetic profiling and prenatal testing. Bisexuality_sentence_66

Magnus Hirschfeld argued that adult sexual orientation can be explained in terms of the bisexual nature of the developing fetus: he believed that in every embryo there is one rudimentary neutral center for attraction to males and another for attraction to females. Bisexuality_sentence_67

In most fetuses, the center for attraction to the opposite sex developed while the center for attraction to the same sex regressed, but in fetuses that became homosexual, the reverse occurred. Bisexuality_sentence_68

Simon LeVay has criticized Hirschfeld's theory of an early bisexual stage of development, calling it confusing; LeVay maintains that Hirschfeld failed to distinguish between saying that the brain is sexually undifferentiated at an early stage of development and saying that an individual actually experiences sexual attraction to both men and women. Bisexuality_sentence_69

According to LeVay, Hirschfeld believed that in most bisexual people the strength of attraction to the same sex was relatively low, and that it was therefore possible to restrain its development in young people, something Hirschfeld supported. Bisexuality_sentence_70

Hirschfeld created a ten-point scale to measure the strength of sexual desire, with the direction of desire being represented by the letters A (for heterosexuality), B (for homosexuality), and A + B (for bisexuality). Bisexuality_sentence_71

On this scale, someone who was A3, B9 would be weakly attracted to the opposite sex and very strongly attracted to the same sex, an A0, B0 would be asexual, and an A10, B10 would be very attracted to both sexes. Bisexuality_sentence_72

LeVay compares Hirschfeld's scale to that developed by Kinsey decades later. Bisexuality_sentence_73

Sigmund Freud, the founder of psychoanalysis, believed that every human being is bisexual in the sense of incorporating general attributes of both sexes. Bisexuality_sentence_74

In his view, this was true anatomically and therefore also psychologically, with sexual attraction to both sexes being an aspect of this psychological bisexuality. Bisexuality_sentence_75

Freud believed that in the course of sexual development the masculine side of this bisexual disposition would normally become dominant in men and the feminine side in women, but that all adults still have desires derived from both the masculine and the feminine sides of their natures. Bisexuality_sentence_76

Freud did not claim that everyone is bisexual in the sense of feeling the same level of sexual attraction to both genders. Bisexuality_sentence_77

Freud's belief in innate bisexuality was rejected by Sándor Radó in 1940 and, following Radó, by many later psychoanalysts. Bisexuality_sentence_78

Radó argued that there is no biological bisexuality in humans. Bisexuality_sentence_79

The psychoanalyst Edmund Bergler argued in Homosexuality: Disease or Way of Life? Bisexuality_sentence_80

(1956) that bisexuality does not exist and that all supposed bisexuals are homosexuals. Bisexuality_sentence_81

Alan P. Bell, Martin S. Weinberg, and Sue Kiefer Hammersmith reported in Sexual Preference (1981) that sexual preference was much less strongly connected with pre-adult sexual feelings among bisexuals than it was among heterosexuals and homosexuals. Bisexuality_sentence_82

Based on this and other findings, they suggested that bisexuality is more influenced by social and sexual learning than is exclusive homosexuality. Bisexuality_sentence_83

Letitia Anne Peplau et al. Bisexuality_sentence_84

wrote that while Bell et al. Bisexuality_sentence_85

's view that biological factors may be more influential on homosexuality than on bisexuality might seem plausible, it has not been directly tested and appears to conflict with available evidence, such as that concerning prenatal hormone exposure. Bisexuality_sentence_86

Human bisexuality has mainly been studied alongside homosexuality. Bisexuality_sentence_87

Van Wyk and Geist argue that this is a problem for sexuality research because the few studies that have observed bisexuals separately have found that bisexuals are often different from both heterosexuals and homosexuals. Bisexuality_sentence_88

Furthermore, bisexuality does not always represent a halfway point between the dichotomy. Bisexuality_sentence_89

Research indicates that bisexuality is influenced by biological, cognitive and cultural variables in interaction, and this leads to different types of bisexuality. Bisexuality_sentence_90

In the current debate around influences on sexual orientation, biological explanations have been questioned by social scientists, particularly by feminists who encourage women to make conscious decisions about their life and sexuality. Bisexuality_sentence_91

A difference in attitude between homosexual men and women has also been reported, with men more likely to regard their sexuality as biological, "reflecting the universal male experience in this culture, not the complexities of the lesbian world." Bisexuality_sentence_92

There is also evidence that women's sexuality may be more strongly affected by cultural and contextual factors. Bisexuality_sentence_93

The critic Camille Paglia has promoted bisexuality as an ideal. Bisexuality_sentence_94

Harvard Shakespeare professor Marjorie Garber made an academic case for bisexuality with her 1995 book Vice Versa: Bisexuality and the Eroticism of Everyday Life, in which she argued that most people would be bisexual if not for repression and other factors such as lack of sexual opportunity. Bisexuality_sentence_95

Brain structure and chromosomes Bisexuality_section_5

LeVay's (1991) examination at autopsy of 18 homosexual men, 1 bisexual man, 16 presumably heterosexual men and 6 presumably heterosexual women found that the INAH 3 nucleus of the anterior hypothalamus of homosexual men was smaller than that of heterosexual men and closer in size of heterosexual women. Bisexuality_sentence_96

Although grouped with homosexuals, the INAH 3 size of the one bisexual subject was similar to that of the heterosexual men. Bisexuality_sentence_97

Some evidence supports the concept of biological precursors of bisexual orientation in genetic males. Bisexuality_sentence_98

According to Money (1988), genetic males with an extra Y chromosome are more likely to be bisexual, paraphilic and impulsive. Bisexuality_sentence_99

Evolutionary theory Bisexuality_section_6

Some evolutionary psychologists have argued that same-sex attraction does not have adaptive value because it has no association with potential reproductive success. Bisexuality_sentence_100

Instead, bisexuality can be due to normal variation in brain plasticity. Bisexuality_sentence_101

More recently, it has been suggested that same-sex alliances may have helped males climb the social hierarchy giving access to females and reproductive opportunities. Bisexuality_sentence_102

Same-sex allies could have helped females to move to the safer and resource richer center of the group, which increased their chances of raising their offspring successfully. Bisexuality_sentence_103

Brendan Zietsch of the Queensland Institute of Medical Research proposes the alternative theory that men exhibiting female traits become more attractive to females and are thus more likely to mate, provided the genes involved do not drive them to complete rejection of heterosexuality. Bisexuality_sentence_104

Also, in a 2008 study, its authors stated that "There is considerable evidence that human sexual orientation is genetically influenced, so it is not known how homosexuality, which tends to lower reproductive success, is maintained in the population at a relatively high frequency." Bisexuality_sentence_105

They hypothesized that "while genes predisposing to homosexuality reduce homosexuals' reproductive success, they may confer some advantage in heterosexuals who carry them" and their results suggested that "genes predisposing to homosexuality may confer a mating advantage in heterosexuals, which could help explain the evolution and maintenance of homosexuality in the population." Bisexuality_sentence_106

In Scientific American Mind, the scientist Emily V. Driscoll stated that homosexual and bisexual behavior is quite common in several species and that it fosters bonding: "The more homosexuality, the more peaceful the species". Bisexuality_sentence_107

The article also stated: "Unlike most humans, however, individual animals generally cannot be classified as gay or straight: an animal that engages in a same-sex flirtation or partnership does not necessarily shun heterosexual encounters. Bisexuality_sentence_108

Rather, many species seem to have ingrained homosexual tendencies that are a regular part of their society. Bisexuality_sentence_109

That is, there are probably no strictly gay critters, just bisexual ones. Bisexuality_sentence_110

Animals don't do sexual identity. Bisexuality_sentence_111

They just do sex." Bisexuality_sentence_112

Masculinization Bisexuality_section_7

Masculinization of women and hypermasculinization of men has been a central theme in sexual orientation research. Bisexuality_sentence_113

There are several studies suggesting that bisexuals have a high degree of masculinization. Bisexuality_sentence_114

LaTorre and Wendenberg (1983) found differing personality characteristics for bisexual, heterosexual and homosexual women. Bisexuality_sentence_115

Bisexuals were found to have fewer personal insecurities than heterosexuals and homosexuals. Bisexuality_sentence_116

This finding defined bisexuals as self-assured and less likely to suffer from mental instabilities. Bisexuality_sentence_117

The confidence of a secure identity consistently translated to more masculinity than other subjects. Bisexuality_sentence_118

This study did not explore societal norms, prejudices, or the feminization of homosexual males. Bisexuality_sentence_119

In a research comparison, published in the Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology, women usually have a better hearing sensitivity than males, assumed by researchers as a genetic disposition connected to child bearing. Bisexuality_sentence_120

Homosexual and bisexual women have been found to have a hypersensitivity to sound in comparison to heterosexual women, suggesting a genetic disposition to not tolerate high pitched tones. Bisexuality_sentence_121

While heterosexual, homosexual and bisexual men have been found to exhibit similar patterns of hearing, there was a notable differential in a sub-group of males identified as hyperfeminized homosexual males who exhibited test results similar to heterosexual women. Bisexuality_sentence_122

Prenatal hormones Bisexuality_section_8

The prenatal hormonal theory of sexual orientation suggests that people who are exposed to excess levels of sex hormones have masculinized brains and show increased homosexuality or bisexuality. Bisexuality_sentence_123

Studies providing evidence for the masculinization of the brain have, however, not been conducted to date. Bisexuality_sentence_124

Research on special conditions such as congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) and exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) indicate that prenatal exposure to, respectively, excess testosterone and estrogens are associated with female–female sex fantasies in adults. Bisexuality_sentence_125

Both effects are associated with bisexuality rather than homosexuality. Bisexuality_sentence_126

There is research evidence that the digit ratio of the length of the 2nd and 4th digits (index finger and ring finger) is somewhat negatively related to prenatal testosterone and positively to estrogen. Bisexuality_sentence_127

Studies measuring the fingers found a statistically significant skew in the 2D:4D ratio (long ring finger) towards homosexuality with an even lower ratio in bisexuals. Bisexuality_sentence_128

It is suggested that exposure to high prenatal testosterone and low prenatal estrogen concentrations is one cause of homosexuality whereas exposure to very high testosterone levels may be associated with bisexuality. Bisexuality_sentence_129

Because testosterone in general is important for sexual differentiation, this view offers an alternative to the suggestion that male homosexuality is genetic. Bisexuality_sentence_130

The prenatal hormonal theory suggests that a homosexual orientation results from exposure to excessive testosterone causing an over-masculinized brain. Bisexuality_sentence_131

This is contradictory to another hypothesis that homosexual preferences may be due to a feminized brain in males. Bisexuality_sentence_132

However, it has also been suggested that homosexuality may be due to high prenatal levels of unbound testosterone that results from a lack of receptors at particular brain sites. Bisexuality_sentence_133

Therefore, the brain could be feminized while other features, such as the 2D:4D ratio could be over-masculinized. Bisexuality_sentence_134

Sex drive Bisexuality_section_9

Van Wyk and Geist summarized several studies comparing bisexuals with hetero- or homosexuals that have indicated that bisexuals have higher rates of sexual activity, fantasy, or erotic interest. Bisexuality_sentence_135

These studies found that male and female bisexuals had more heterosexual fantasy than heterosexuals or homosexuals; that bisexual men had more sexual activities with women than did heterosexual men, and that they masturbated more but had fewer happy marriages than heterosexuals; that bisexual women had more orgasms per week and they described them as stronger than those of hetero- or homosexual women; and that bisexual women became heterosexually active earlier, masturbated and enjoyed masturbation more, and were more experienced in different types of heterosexual contact. Bisexuality_sentence_136

Research suggests that, for most women, high sex drive is associated with increased sexual attraction to both women and men. Bisexuality_sentence_137

For men, however, high sex drive is associated with increased attraction to one sex or the other, but not to both, depending on sexual orientation. Bisexuality_sentence_138

Similarly for most bisexual women, high sex drive is associated with increased sexual attraction to both women and men; while for bisexual men, high sex drive is associated with increased attraction to one sex, and weakened attraction to the other. Bisexuality_sentence_139

Community Bisexuality_section_10

Main article: Bisexual community Bisexuality_sentence_140

General social impacts Bisexuality_section_11

The bisexual community (also known as the bisexual/pansexual, bi/pan/fluid, or non-monosexual community) includes members of the LGBT community who identify as bisexual, pansexual or fluid. Bisexuality_sentence_141

Because some bisexual people do not feel that they fit into either the gay or the heterosexual world, and because they have a tendency to be "invisible" in public, some bisexual persons are committed to forming their own communities, culture, and political movements. Bisexuality_sentence_142

Some who identify as bisexual may merge themselves into either homosexual or heterosexual society. Bisexuality_sentence_143

Other bisexual people see this merging as enforced rather than voluntary; bisexual people can face exclusion from both homosexual and heterosexual society on coming out. Bisexuality_sentence_144

Psychologist Beth Firestein states that bisexuals tend to internalize social tensions related to their choice of partners and feel pressured to label themselves as homosexuals instead of occupying the difficult middle ground where attraction to people of both sexes would defy society's value on monogamy. Bisexuality_sentence_145

These social tensions and pressure may affect bisexuals' mental health, and specific therapy methods have been developed for bisexuals to address this concern. Bisexuality_sentence_146

Bisexual behaviors are also associated in popular culture with men who engage in same-sex activity while otherwise presenting as heterosexual. Bisexuality_sentence_147

The majority of such men — said to be living on the down-low — do not self-identify as bisexual. Bisexuality_sentence_148

However, this may be a cultural misperception closely related to that of other LGBT individuals who hide their actual orientation due to societal pressures, a phenomenon colloquially called "being closeted". Bisexuality_sentence_149

In the U.S., a 2013 Pew survey showed that 28% of bisexuals said that "all or most of the important people in their life are aware that they are LGBT" vs. 77% of gay men and 71% of lesbians. Bisexuality_sentence_150

Furthermore, when broken down by gender, only 12% of bisexual men said that they were "out" vs. 33% of bisexual women. Bisexuality_sentence_151

Perceptions and discrimination Bisexuality_section_12

Main articles: Biphobia and Bisexual erasure Bisexuality_sentence_152

See also: Sapphobia Bisexuality_sentence_153

Like people of other LGBT sexualities, bisexuals often face discrimination. Bisexuality_sentence_154

In addition to the discrimination associated with homophobia, bisexuals frequently contend with discrimination from gay men, lesbians, and straight society around the word bisexual and bisexual identity itself. Bisexuality_sentence_155

The belief that everyone is bisexual (especially women as opposed to men), or that bisexuality does not exist as a unique identity, is common. Bisexuality_sentence_156

This stems from two views: In the heterosexist view, people are presumed to be sexually attracted to the opposite sex, and it is sometimes reasoned that a bisexual person is simply a heterosexual person who is sexually experimenting. Bisexuality_sentence_157

In the monosexist view, it is believed that people cannot be bisexual unless they are equally sexually attracted to both sexes, regulating sexual orientation to being about the sex or gender one prefers. Bisexuality_sentence_158

In this view, people are either exclusively homosexual (gay/lesbian) or exclusively heterosexual (straight), closeted homosexual people who wish to appear heterosexual, or heterosexuals who are experimenting with their sexuality. Bisexuality_sentence_159

Assertions that one cannot be bisexual unless equally sexually attracted to both sexes, however, are disputed by various researchers, who have reported bisexuality to fall on a continuum, like sexuality in general. Bisexuality_sentence_160

Male bisexuality is particularly presumed to be non-existent, with sexual fluidity studies adding to the debate. Bisexuality_sentence_161

In 2005, researchers Gerulf Rieger, Meredith L. Chivers, and J. Bisexuality_sentence_162 Michael Bailey used penile plethysmography to measure the arousal of self-identified bisexual men to pornography involving only men and pornography involving only women. Bisexuality_sentence_163

Participants were recruited via advertisements in gay-oriented magazines and an alternative paper. Bisexuality_sentence_164

They found that the self-identified bisexual men in their sample had genital arousal patterns similar to either homosexual or heterosexual men. Bisexuality_sentence_165

The authors concluded that "in terms of behavior and identity, bisexual men clearly exist", but that male bisexuality had not been shown to exist with respect to arousal or attraction. Bisexuality_sentence_166

The assertion of Bailey that "for men arousal is orientation" was criticized by Fairness and Accuracy in Reporting (FAIR) as a simplification which neglects to account for behavior and self-identification. Bisexuality_sentence_167

Further, some researchers hold that the technique used in the study to measure genital arousal is too crude to capture the richness (erotic sensations, affection, admiration) that constitutes sexual attraction. Bisexuality_sentence_168

The National Gay and Lesbian Task Force called the study and The New York Times coverage of it flawed and biphobic. Bisexuality_sentence_169

The American Institute of Bisexuality stated that Bailey's study was misinterpreted and misreported by both The New York Times and its critics. Bisexuality_sentence_170

In 2011, Bailey and other researchers reported that among men with a history of several romantic and sexual relationships with members of both sexes, high levels of sexual arousal were found in response to both male and female sexual imagery. Bisexuality_sentence_171

The subjects were recruited from a Craigslist group for men seeking intimacy with both members of a heterosexual couple. Bisexuality_sentence_172

The authors said that this change in recruitment strategy was an important difference, but it may not have been a representative sample of bisexual-identified men. Bisexuality_sentence_173

They concluded that "bisexual-identified men with bisexual arousal patterns do indeed exist", but could not establish whether such a pattern is typical of bisexual-identified men in general. Bisexuality_sentence_174

Bisexual erasure (or bisexual invisibility) is the tendency to ignore, remove, falsify, or reexplain evidence of bisexuality in culture, history, academia, news media and other primary sources. Bisexuality_sentence_175

In its most extreme form, bisexual erasure includes denying that bisexuality exists. Bisexuality_sentence_176

It is often a manifestation of biphobia, although it does not necessarily involve overt antagonism. Bisexuality_sentence_177

There is increasing inclusion and visibility of bisexuals, particularly in the LGBT community. Bisexuality_sentence_178

American psychologist Beth Firestone writes that since she wrote her first book on bisexuality, in 1996, "bisexuality has gained visibility, although progress is uneven and awareness of bisexuality is still minimal or absent in many of the more remote regions of our country and internationally." Bisexuality_sentence_179

Symbols Bisexuality_section_13

Main article: LGBT symbols Bisexuality_sentence_180

A common symbol of the bisexual community is the bisexual pride flag, which has a deep pink stripe at the top for homosexuality, a blue one on the bottom for heterosexuality, and a purple one – blending the pink and blue – in the middle to represent bisexuality. Bisexuality_sentence_181

Another symbol with a similarly symbolic color scheme is a pair of overlapping pink and blue triangles, forming purple or lavender where they intersect. Bisexuality_sentence_182

This design is an expansion on the pink triangle, a well-known symbol for the homosexual community. Bisexuality_sentence_183

Some bisexual individuals object to the use of a pink triangle, as it was the symbol that Adolf Hitler's regime use to tag and persecute homosexuals. Bisexuality_sentence_184

In response, a double crescent moon symbol was devised specifically to avoid the use of triangles. Bisexuality_sentence_185

This symbol is common in Germany and surrounding countries. Bisexuality_sentence_186

In BDSM Bisexuality_section_14

In Steve Lenius' original 2001 paper, he explored the acceptance of bisexuality in a supposedly pansexual BDSM community. Bisexuality_sentence_187

The reasoning behind this is that "coming-out" had become primarily the territory of the gay and lesbian, with bisexuals feeling the push to be one or the other (and being right only half the time either way). Bisexuality_sentence_188

What he found in 2001, was that people in BDSM were open to discussion about the topic of bisexuality and pansexuality and all controversies they bring to the table, but personal biases and issues stood in the way of actively using such labels. Bisexuality_sentence_189

A decade later, Lenius (2011) looked back on his study and considered if anything has changed. Bisexuality_sentence_190

He concluded that the standing of bisexuals in the BDSM and kink community was unchanged, and believed that positive shifts in attitude were moderated by society's changing views towards different sexualities and orientations. Bisexuality_sentence_191

But Lenius (2011) does emphasize that the pansexual promoting BDSM community helped advance greater acceptance of alternative sexualities. Bisexuality_sentence_192

Brandy Lin Simula (2012), on the other hand, argues that BDSM actively resists gender conforming and identified three different types of BDSM bisexuality: gender-switching, gender-based styles (taking on a different gendered style depending on gender of partner when playing), and rejection of gender (resisting the idea that gender matters in their play partners). Bisexuality_sentence_193

Simula (2012) explains that practitioners of BDSM routinely challenge our concepts of sexuality by pushing the limits on pre-existing ideas of sexual orientation and gender norms. Bisexuality_sentence_194

For some, BDSM and kink provides a platform in creating identities that are fluid, ever-changing. Bisexuality_sentence_195

In feminism Bisexuality_section_15

Feminist positions on bisexuality range greatly, from acceptance of bisexuality as a feminist issue to rejection of bisexuality as reactionary and anti-feminist backlash to lesbian feminism. Bisexuality_sentence_196

A number of women who were at one time involved in lesbian-feminist activism have since come out as bisexual after realizing their attractions to men. Bisexuality_sentence_197

A widely studied example of lesbian-bisexual conflict in feminism was the Northampton Pride March during the years between 1989 and 1993, where many feminists involved debated over whether bisexuals should be included and whether or not bisexuality was compatible with feminism. Bisexuality_sentence_198

Common lesbian-feminist critiques leveled at bisexuality were that bisexuality was anti-feminist, that bisexuality was a form of false consciousness, and that bisexual women who pursue relationships with men were "deluded and desperate." Bisexuality_sentence_199

Tensions between bisexual feminists and lesbian feminists have eased since the 1990s, as bisexual women have become more accepted in the feminist community, but some lesbian feminists such as Julie Bindel are still critical of bisexuality. Bisexuality_sentence_200

Bindel has described female bisexuality as a "fashionable trend" being promoted due to "sexual hedonism" and broached the question of whether bisexuality even exists. Bisexuality_sentence_201

She has also made tongue-in-cheek comparisons of bisexuals to cat fanciers and devil worshippers. Bisexuality_sentence_202

Sheila Jeffreys writes in The Lesbian Heresy that while many feminists are comfortable working alongside gay men, they are uncomfortable interacting with bisexual men. Bisexuality_sentence_203

Jeffreys states that while gay men are unlikely to sexually harass women, bisexual men are just as likely to be bothersome to women as heterosexual men. Bisexuality_sentence_204

Donna Haraway was the inspiration and genesis for cyberfeminism with her 1985 essay "A Cyborg Manifesto: Science, Technology, and Socialist-Feminism in the Late Twentieth Century" which was reprinted in Simians, Cyborgs and Women: The Reinvention of Nature (1991). Bisexuality_sentence_205

Haraway's essay states that the cyborg "has no truck with bisexuality, pre-oedipal symbiosis, unalienated labor, or other seductions to organic wholeness through a final appropriation of all powers of the parts into a higher unity." Bisexuality_sentence_206

A bisexual woman filed a lawsuit against the magazine Common Lives/Lesbian Lives, alleging discrimination against bisexuals when her submission was not published. Bisexuality_sentence_207

History Bisexuality_section_16

Main article: History of bisexuality Bisexuality_sentence_208

See also: Bisexuality in the United States, Homosexuality in ancient Greece, and Homosexuality in ancient Rome Bisexuality_sentence_209

Ancient Greeks and Romans did not associate sexual relations with well-defined labels, as modern Western society does. Bisexuality_sentence_210

Men who had male lovers were not identified as homosexual, and may have had wives or other female lovers. Bisexuality_sentence_211

Ancient Greek religious texts, reflecting cultural practices, incorporated bisexual themes. Bisexuality_sentence_212

The subtexts varied, from the mystical to the didactic. Bisexuality_sentence_213

Spartans thought that love and erotic relationships between experienced and novice soldiers would solidify combat loyalty and unit cohesion, and encourage heroic tactics as men vied to impress their lovers. Bisexuality_sentence_214

Once the younger soldiers reached maturity, the relationship was supposed to become non-sexual, but it is not clear how strictly this was followed. Bisexuality_sentence_215

There was some stigma attached to young men who continued their relationships with their mentors into adulthood. Bisexuality_sentence_216

For example, Aristophanes calls them euryprôktoi, meaning "wide arses", and depicts them like women. Bisexuality_sentence_217

Similarly, in ancient Rome, gender did not determine whether a sexual partner was acceptable, as long as a man's enjoyment did not encroach on another's man integrity. Bisexuality_sentence_218

It was socially acceptable for a freeborn Roman man to want sex with both female and male partners, as long as he took the penetrative role. Bisexuality_sentence_219

The morality of the behavior depended on the social standing of the partner, not gender per se. Bisexuality_sentence_220

Both women and young men were considered normal objects of desire, but outside marriage a man was supposed to act on his desires only with slaves, prostitutes (who were often slaves), and the infames. Bisexuality_sentence_221

It was immoral to have sex with another freeborn man's wife, his marriageable daughter, his underage son, or with the man himself; sexual use of another man's slave was subject to the owner's permission. Bisexuality_sentence_222

Lack of self-control, including in managing one's sex life, indicated that a man was incapable of governing others; too much indulgence in "low sensual pleasure" threatened to erode the elite male's identity as a cultured person. Bisexuality_sentence_223

Alfred Kinsey conducted the first large surveys of homosexual behavior in the United States during the 1940s. Bisexuality_sentence_224

The results shocked the readers of his day because they made same-sex behavior and attractions seem so common. Bisexuality_sentence_225

His 1948 work Sexual Behavior in the Human Male stated that among men "nearly half (46%) of the population engages in both heterosexual and homosexual activities, or reacts to persons of both sexes, in the course of their adult lives" and that "37% of the total male population has at least some overt homosexual experience to the point of orgasm since the onset of adolescence." Bisexuality_sentence_226

Kinsey himself disliked the use of the term bisexual to describe individuals who engage in sexual activity with both males and females, preferring to use bisexual in its original, biological sense as hermaphroditic, stating, "Until it is demonstrated [that] taste in a sexual relation is dependent upon the individual containing within his anatomy both male and female structures, or male and female physiological capacities, it is unfortunate to call such individuals bisexual." Bisexuality_sentence_227

Although more recent researchers believe that Kinsey overestimated the rate of same-sex attraction, his work is considered pioneering and some of the most well known sex research of all time. Bisexuality_sentence_228

Media Bisexuality_section_17

Main article: Media portrayals of bisexuality Bisexuality_sentence_229

Bisexuality tends to be associated with negative media portrayals; references are sometimes made to stereotypes or mental disorders. Bisexuality_sentence_230

In an article regarding the 2005 film Brokeback Mountain, sex educator Amy Andre argued that in films, bisexuals are often depicted negatively: Bisexuality_sentence_231

Using a content analysis of more than 170 articles written between 2001 and 2006, sociologist Richard N. Pitt, Jr. concluded that the media pathologized black bisexual men's behavior while either ignoring or sympathizing with white bisexual men's similar actions. Bisexuality_sentence_232

He argued that the black bisexual man is often described as a duplicitous heterosexual man spreading the HIV/AIDS virus. Bisexuality_sentence_233

Alternatively, the white bisexual man is often described in pitying language as a victimized homosexual man forced into the closet by the heterosexist society around him. Bisexuality_sentence_234

Film Bisexuality_section_18

In 1914 the first documented appearance of bisexual characters (female and male) in an American motion picture occurred in A Florida Enchantment, by Sidney Drew. Bisexuality_sentence_235

However, under the censorship required by the Hays Code, the word bisexual could not be mentioned, and almost no bisexual characters appeared in American film from 1934 until 1968. Bisexuality_sentence_236

Notable and varying portrayals of bisexuality can be found in mainstream movies such as Black Swan (2010), Frida (2002), Showgirls (1995), The Pillow Book (1996), Alexander (2004), The Rocky Horror Picture Show (1975), Henry & June (1990), Chasing Amy (1997), Velvet Goldmine (1998), Kissing Jessica Stein (2001), The Fourth Man (1993), Basic Instinct (1992), Mulholland Drive (2001), Sunday Bloody Sunday (1971), Something for Everyone (1970), The Rules of Attraction (2002), Brokeback Mountain (2005), and Call Me by Your Name (2017). Bisexuality_sentence_237

Literature Bisexuality_section_19

Virginia Woolf's Orlando: A Biography (1928) is an early example of bisexuality in literature. Bisexuality_sentence_238

The story, of a man who changes into a woman without a second thought, was based on the life of Woolf's lover Vita Sackville-West. Bisexuality_sentence_239

Woolf used the gender switch to avoid the book being banned for homosexual content. Bisexuality_sentence_240

The pronouns switch from male to female as Orlando's gender changes. Bisexuality_sentence_241

Woolf's lack of definite pronouns allows for ambiguity and lack of emphasis on gender labels. Bisexuality_sentence_242

Her 1925 book Mrs Dalloway focused on a bisexual man and a bisexual woman in sexually unfulfilled heterosexual marriages in later life. Bisexuality_sentence_243

Following Sackille-West's death, her son Nigel Nicolson published Portrait of a Marriage, one of her diaries recounting her affair with a woman during her marriage to Harold Nicolson. Bisexuality_sentence_244

Other early examples include works of D.H. Bisexuality_sentence_245 Lawrence, such as Women in Love (1920), and Colette's Claudine (1900–1903) series. Bisexuality_sentence_246

The main character in Patrick White's novel, The Twyborn Affair (1979), is bisexual. Bisexuality_sentence_247

Contemporary novelist Bret Easton Ellis' novels, such as Less Than Zero (1985) and The Rules of Attraction (1987) frequently feature bisexual male characters; this "casual approach" to bisexual characters recurs throughout Ellis' work. Bisexuality_sentence_248

Music Bisexuality_section_20

Rock musician David Bowie famously declared himself bisexual in an interview with Melody Maker in January 1972, a move coinciding with the first shots in his campaign for stardom as Ziggy Stardust. Bisexuality_sentence_249

In a September 1976 interview with Playboy, Bowie said, "It's true—I am a bisexual. Bisexuality_sentence_250

But I can't deny that I've used that fact very well. Bisexuality_sentence_251

I suppose it's the best thing that ever happened to me." Bisexuality_sentence_252

In a 1983 interview, he said it was "the biggest mistake I ever made", elaborating in 2002 he explained "I don't think it was a mistake in Europe, but it was a lot tougher in America. Bisexuality_sentence_253

I had no problem with people knowing I was bisexual. Bisexuality_sentence_254

But I had no inclination to hold any banners or be a representative of any group of people. Bisexuality_sentence_255

I knew what I wanted to be, which was a songwriter and a performer [...] America is a very puritanical place, and I think it stood in the way of so much I wanted to do." Bisexuality_sentence_256

Queen singer Freddie Mercury was also open about his bisexuality, though did not publicly discuss his relationships. Bisexuality_sentence_257

In 1995, Jill Sobule sang about bi-curiosity in her song "I Kissed a Girl", with a video that alternated images of Sobule and a boyfriend along with images of her with a girlfriend. Bisexuality_sentence_258

Another song with the same name by Katy Perry also hints at the same theme. Bisexuality_sentence_259

Some activists suggest the song merely reinforces the stereotype of bisexuals experimenting and of bisexuality not being a real sexual preference. Bisexuality_sentence_260

Lady Gaga has also stated that she is bisexual, and has acknowledged that her song "Poker Face" is about fantasizing about a woman while being with a man. Bisexuality_sentence_261

Brian Molko, lead singer of Placebo is openly bisexual. Bisexuality_sentence_262

Green Day frontman Billie Joe Armstrong has also identified himself as bisexual, saying in a 1995 interview with The Advocate, "I think I've always been bisexual. Bisexuality_sentence_263

I mean, it's something that I've always been interested in. Bisexuality_sentence_264

I think people are born bisexual, and it's just that our parents and society kind of veer us off into this feeling of 'Oh, I can't.' Bisexuality_sentence_265

They say it's taboo. Bisexuality_sentence_266

It's ingrained in our heads that it's bad, when it's not bad at all. Bisexuality_sentence_267

It's a very beautiful thing." Bisexuality_sentence_268

In 2014 Armstrong discussed songs such as "Coming Clean" stating, "It was a song about questioning myself. Bisexuality_sentence_269

There are these other feelings you may have about the same sex, the opposite sex, especially being in Berkeley and San Francisco then. Bisexuality_sentence_270

People are acting out what they're feeling: gay, bisexual, transgender, whatever. Bisexuality_sentence_271

And that opens up something in society that becomes more acceptable. Bisexuality_sentence_272

Now we have gay marriage becoming recognized... Bisexuality_sentence_273

I think it's a process of discovery. Bisexuality_sentence_274

I was willing to try anything." Bisexuality_sentence_275

Television Bisexuality_section_21

See also: List of LGBT characters in television and radio Bisexuality_sentence_276

In the Netflix original series Orange is the New Black the main character, Piper Chapman, played by actress Taylor Schilling, is a bisexual female inmate who is shown having relationships with both men and women. Bisexuality_sentence_277

In season one, before entering the prison, Piper is engaged to male fiancé Larry Bloom, played by actor Jason Biggs. Bisexuality_sentence_278

Then, upon entering the prison, she reconnects with former lover (and fellow inmate), Alex Vause, played by Laura Prepon. Bisexuality_sentence_279

Another character who is portrayed as bisexual in the show is an inmate named Lorna Morello, played by actress Yael Stone. Bisexuality_sentence_280

She has an intimate relationship with fellow inmate Nicky Nichols, played by Natasha Lyonne, while still yearning for her male "fiance", Christopher MacLaren, played by Stephen O'Reilly. Bisexuality_sentence_281

The FOX television series House features a bisexual female doctor, Remy "Thirteen" Hadley, played by Olivia Wilde, from season four onwards. Bisexuality_sentence_282

The same network had earlier aired the television series The O.C. Bisexuality_sentence_283 , which for a time featured bisexual [[Alex_Kelly_(The_O.C. Bisexuality_sentence_284

)|Alex Kelly]] (also played by Olivia Wilde), the local rebellious hangout spot's manager, as a love interest of Marissa Cooper. Bisexuality_sentence_285

In the HBO drama Oz, Chris Keller was a bisexual serial killer who tortured and raped various men and women. Bisexuality_sentence_286

Other films in which bisexual characters conceal murderous neuroses include Black Widow, Blue Velvet, Cruising, Single White Female, and Girl, Interrupted. Bisexuality_sentence_287

Beginning with the 2009 season, MTV's The Real World series featured two bisexual characters, Emily Schromm, and Mike Manning. Bisexuality_sentence_288

The Showcase supernatural crime drama, Lost Girl, about creatures called Fae who live secretly among humans, features a bisexual protagonist, Bo, played by Anna Silk. Bisexuality_sentence_289

In the story arc she is involved in a love triangle between Dyson, a wolf-shapeshifter (played by Kris Holden-Ried), and Lauren Lewis, a human doctor (played by Zoie Palmer) in servitude to the leader of the Light Fae clan. Bisexuality_sentence_290

In the BBC TV science fiction show Torchwood, several of the main characters appear to have fluid sexuality. Bisexuality_sentence_291

Most prominent among these is Captain Jack Harkness, a pansexual who is the lead character and an otherwise conventional science fiction action hero. Bisexuality_sentence_292

Within the logic of the show, where characters can also interact with alien species, producers sometimes use the term "omnisexual" to describe him. Bisexuality_sentence_293

Jack's ex, Captain John Hart is also bisexual. Bisexuality_sentence_294

Of his female exes, significantly at least one ex-wife and at least one woman with whom he has had a child have been indicated. Bisexuality_sentence_295

Some critics draw the conclusion that the series more often shows Jack with men than women. Bisexuality_sentence_296

Creator Russell T Davies says one of pitfalls of writing a bisexual character is you "fall into the trap" of "only having them sleep with men." Bisexuality_sentence_297

He describes of the show's fourth series, "You'll see the full range of his appetites, in a really properly done way." Bisexuality_sentence_298

The preoccupation with bisexuality has been seen by critics as complementary to other aspects of the show's themes. Bisexuality_sentence_299

For heterosexual character Gwen Cooper, for whom Jack harbors romantic feelings, the new experiences she confronts at Torchwood, in the form of "affairs and homosexuality and the threat of death", connote not only the Other but a "missing side" to the Self. Bisexuality_sentence_300

Under the influence of an alien pheromone, Gwen kisses a woman in Episode 2 of the series. Bisexuality_sentence_301

In Episode 1, heterosexual Owen Harper kisses a man to escape a fight when he is about to take the man's girlfriend. Bisexuality_sentence_302

Quiet Toshiko Sato is in love with Owen, but has also had brief romantic relationships with a female alien and a male human. Bisexuality_sentence_303

Webseries Bisexuality_section_22

In October 2009, "A Rose By Any Other Name" was released as a "webisode" series on YouTube. Bisexuality_sentence_304

Directed by bisexual rights advocate Kyle Schickner, the plot centers around a lesbian-identified woman who falls in love with a straight man and discovers she is actually bisexual. Bisexuality_sentence_305

Among other animals Bisexuality_section_23

Main article: Animal sexual behaviour Bisexuality_sentence_306

See also: Homosexual behavior in animals Bisexuality_sentence_307

Many non-human animal species exhibit bisexual behavior. Bisexuality_sentence_308

Examples of mammals that display such behavior include the bonobo (formerly known as the pygmy chimpanzee), orca, and the bottlenose dolphin. Bisexuality_sentence_309

Examples of birds include some species of gulls and Humboldt penguins. Bisexuality_sentence_310

Other examples of bisexual behavior occur among fish and flatworms. Bisexuality_sentence_311

Many species of animals are involved in the acts of forming sexual and non-sexual relationship bonds between the same sex; even when offered the opportunity to breed with members of the opposite sex, they pick the same sex. Bisexuality_sentence_312

Some of these species are gazelles, antelope, bison, and sage grouse. Bisexuality_sentence_313

In some cases, animals will choose to engage in sexual activity with different sexes at different times in their lives, and will sometimes engage in sexual activity with different sexes at random. Bisexuality_sentence_314

Same-sex sexual activity can also be seasonal in some animals, like male walruses who often engage in same-sex sexual activity with each other outside of the breeding season and will revert to heterosexual sexual activity during breeding season. Bisexuality_sentence_315

See also Bisexuality_section_24

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bisexuality.