Black Lives Matter

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Black Lives Matter_table_infobox_0

Black Lives MatterBlack Lives Matter_table_caption_0
FormationBlack Lives Matter_header_cell_0_0_0 July 13, 2013; 7 years ago (2013-07-13)Black Lives Matter_cell_0_0_1
FoundersBlack Lives Matter_header_cell_0_1_0 Black Lives Matter_cell_0_1_1
TypeBlack Lives Matter_header_cell_0_2_0 Social movementBlack Lives Matter_cell_0_2_1
PurposeBlack Lives Matter_header_cell_0_3_0 Advocacy and protests against racial discriminationBlack Lives Matter_cell_0_3_1
LocationBlack Lives Matter_header_cell_0_4_0 Black Lives Matter_cell_0_4_1
Key peopleBlack Lives Matter_header_cell_0_5_0 Black Lives Matter_cell_0_5_1

Black Lives Matter (BLM) is a decentralized political and social movement advocating for non-violent civil disobedience in protest against incidents of police brutality and all racially motivated violence against black people. Black Lives Matter_sentence_0

While there are specific organizations like the Black Lives Matter Global Network that label themselves simply as "Black Lives Matter", the Black Lives Matter movement comprises a broad array of people and organizations. Black Lives Matter_sentence_1

The slogan "Black Lives Matter" itself remains untrademarked by any group. Black Lives Matter_sentence_2

The broader movement and its related organizations typically advocate against police violence towards black people as well as for various other policy changes considered to be related to black liberation. Black Lives Matter_sentence_3

In July 2013, the movement began with the use of the hashtag #BlackLivesMatter on social media after the acquittal of George Zimmerman in the shooting death of African-American teen Trayvon Martin 17 months earlier in February 2012. Black Lives Matter_sentence_4

The movement became nationally recognized for street demonstrations following the 2014 deaths of two African Americans, that of Michael Brown—resulting in protests and unrest in Ferguson, Missouri, a city near St. Black Lives Matter_sentence_5 Louis—and Eric Garner in New York City. Black Lives Matter_sentence_6

Since the Ferguson protests, participants in the movement have demonstrated against the deaths of numerous other African Americans by police actions or while in police custody. Black Lives Matter_sentence_7

In the summer of 2015, Black Lives Matter activists became involved in the 2016 United States presidential election. Black Lives Matter_sentence_8

The originators of the hashtag and call to action, Alicia Garza, Patrisse Cullors, and Opal Tometi, expanded their project into a national network of over 30 local chapters between 2014 and 2016. Black Lives Matter_sentence_9

The overall Black Lives Matter movement is a decentralized network of activists with no formal hierarchy. Black Lives Matter_sentence_10

The movement returned to national headlines and gained further international attention during the global George Floyd protests in 2020 following the killing of George Floyd by Minneapolis police officer Derek Chauvin. Black Lives Matter_sentence_11

An estimated 15 million to 26 million people, although not all are members or part of the organization, participated in the 2020 Black Lives Matter protests in the United States, making Black Lives Matter one of the largest movements in United States history. Black Lives Matter_sentence_12

The movement has advocated to defund the police and invest directly into black communities and alternative emergency response models. Black Lives Matter_sentence_13

The popularity of Black Lives Matter has rapidly shifted over time. Black Lives Matter_sentence_14

Whereas public opinion on Black Lives Matter was net negative in 2018, it grew increasingly popular through 2019 and 2020. Black Lives Matter_sentence_15

A June 2020 Pew Research Center poll found that 67% of adult Americans, across all racial and ethnic groups, expressed some support for the Black Lives Matter movement. Black Lives Matter_sentence_16

Another poll was conducted in September 2020 and 55% of adult Americans expressed some support for Black Lives Matter, indicating that support for the movement decreased. Black Lives Matter_sentence_17

Structure and organization Black Lives Matter_section_0

Loose structure Black Lives Matter_section_1

The phrase "Black Lives Matter" can refer to a Twitter hashtag, a slogan, a social movement, a political action committee, or a loose confederation of groups advocating for racial justice. Black Lives Matter_sentence_18

As a movement, Black Lives Matter is grassroots and decentralized, and leaders have emphasized the importance of local organizing over national leadership. Black Lives Matter_sentence_19

The structure differs from previous black movements, like the Civil Rights Movement. Black Lives Matter_sentence_20

Such differences have been the subject of scholarly literature. Black Lives Matter_sentence_21

Activist DeRay McKesson has commented that the movement "encompasses all who publicly declare that black lives matter and devote their time and energy accordingly." Black Lives Matter_sentence_22

In 2013, Patrisse Cullors, Alicia Garza, and Opal Tometi formed the Black Lives Matter Network. Black Lives Matter_sentence_23

Garza described the network as an online platform that existed to provide activists with a shared set of principles and goals. Black Lives Matter_sentence_24

Local Black Lives Matter chapters are asked to commit to the organization's list of guiding principles but operate without a central structure or hierarchy. Black Lives Matter_sentence_25

Garza has commented that the Network was not interested in "policing who is and who is not part of the movement." Black Lives Matter_sentence_26

The loose structure of Black Lives Matter has contributed to confusion in the press and among activists, as actions or statements from chapters or individuals are sometimes attributed to "Black Lives Matter" as a whole. Black Lives Matter_sentence_27

Matt Pearce, writing for the Los Angeles Times, commented that "the words could be serving as a political rallying cry or referring to the activist organization. Black Lives Matter_sentence_28

Or it could be the fuzzily applied label used to describe a wide range of protests and conversations focused on racial inequality." Black Lives Matter_sentence_29

On at least one occasion, a person represented as Managing Director of BLM Global Network has released a statement represented to be on behalf of that organization. Black Lives Matter_sentence_30

Broader movement Black Lives Matter_section_2

Concurrently, a broader movement involving several other organizations and activists emerged under the banner of "Black Lives Matter", as well. Black Lives Matter_sentence_31

In 2015, Johnetta Elzie, DeRay Mckesson, Brittany Packnett, and Samuel Sinyangwe initiated Campaign Zero, aimed at promoting policy reforms to end police brutality. Black Lives Matter_sentence_32

The campaign released a ten-point plan for reforms to policing, with recommendations including: ending broken windows policing, increasing community oversight of police departments, and creating stricter guidelines for the use of force. Black Lives Matter_sentence_33

The New York Times reporter, John Eligon, wrote that some activists had expressed concerns that the campaign was overly focused on legislative remedies for police violence. Black Lives Matter_sentence_34

Black Lives Matter also voices support for movements and causes outside the reach of black police brutality, including LGBTQ activism, feminism, immigration reform and economic justice. Black Lives Matter_sentence_35

Movement For Black Lives Black Lives Matter_section_3

Main article: Movement for Black Lives Black Lives Matter_sentence_36

The Movement for Black Lives (M4BL) is a coalition of more than 50 groups representing the interests of black communities across the United States. Black Lives Matter_sentence_37

Members include the Black Lives Matter Network, the National Conference of Black Lawyers, and the Ella Baker Center for Human Rights. Black Lives Matter_sentence_38

Endorsed by groups such as Color of Change, Race Forward, Brooklyn Movement Center, PolicyLink, Million Women March Cleveland, and ONE DC, the coalition receives communications and tactical support from an organization named Blackbird. Black Lives Matter_sentence_39

Following the killing of George Floyd, M4BL released the BREATHE Act, which called for sweeping legislative changes surrounding policing; the policy bill included calls to divest from policing and reinvest funds directly in community resources and alternative emergency response models. Black Lives Matter_sentence_40

On July 24, 2015 the movement initially convened at Cleveland State University where between 1,500 and 2,000 activists gathered to participate in open discussions and demonstrations. Black Lives Matter_sentence_41

The conference in Cleveland, Ohio initially attempted to "strategize ways for the Movement for Black Lives to hold law enforcement accountable for their actions on a national level". Black Lives Matter_sentence_42

However, the conference resulted in the formation of a much more significant social movement. Black Lives Matter_sentence_43

At the end of the three day conference, on July 26, the Movement for Black Lives initiated a year long "process of convening local and national groups to create a United Front". Black Lives Matter_sentence_44

This year long process ultimately resulted in the establishment of an organizational platform that articulates the goals, demands, and policies which the Movement for Black Lives supports in order to achieve the "liberation" of black communities across America. Black Lives Matter_sentence_45

In 2016, the Ford Foundation announced plans to fund the M4BL Movement For Black Lives in a "six-year investments" plan, further partnering up with others to found the Black-led Movement Fund. Black Lives Matter_sentence_46

The sum donated by the Ford Foundation and the other donors to M4BL was reported as $100 million by The Washington Times in 2016; another donation of $33 million to M4BL was reportedly issued by the Open Society Foundations. Black Lives Matter_sentence_47

In 2016, M4BL called for decarceration in the United States, reparations for harms related to slavery, and more recently, specific remedies for redlining in housing, education policy, mass incarceration and food insecurity. Black Lives Matter_sentence_48

It also called for an end to mass surveillance, investment in public education, not incarceration, and community control of the police: empowering residents in communities of color to hire and fire police officers and issue subpoenas, decide disciplinary consequences and exercise control over city funding of police. Black Lives Matter_sentence_49

Funding Black Lives Matter_section_4

Politico reported in 2015 that the Democracy Alliance, a gathering of Democratic-Party donors, planned to meet with leaders of several groups who were endorsing the Black Lives Matter movement. Black Lives Matter_sentence_50

According to Politico, Solidaire, the donor coalition focusing on "movement building" and led by Texas oil fortune heir Leah Hunt-Hendrix, a member of the Democracy Alliance, had donated more than $200,000 to the BLM movement by 2015. Black Lives Matter_sentence_51

According to The Economist, between May 2020 and December 2020, donations to Black Lives Matter related causes amounted to 10.6 billion dollars. Black Lives Matter_sentence_52

Strategies and tactics Black Lives Matter_section_5

Black Lives Matter originally used various social media platforms—including hashtag activism—to reach thousands of people rapidly. Black Lives Matter_sentence_53

Since then, Black Lives Matter has embraced a diversity of tactics. Black Lives Matter_sentence_54

Black Lives Matter protests have been overwhelmingly peaceful; when violence does occur, it is often committed by police or by counter-protestors. Black Lives Matter_sentence_55

Despite this, opponents have falsely portrayed the movement as violent. Black Lives Matter_sentence_56

Internet and social media Black Lives Matter_section_6

In 2014, the American Dialect Society chose #BlackLivesMatter as their word of the year. Black Lives Matter_sentence_57

Yes! Black Lives Matter_sentence_58 Magazine picked #BlackLivesMatter as one of the twelve hashtags that changed the world in 2014. Black Lives Matter_sentence_59

From July 2013 through May 1, 2018, the hashtag "#Black Lives Matter" had been tweeted over 30 million times, an average of 17,002 times per day. Black Lives Matter_sentence_60

By June 10, 2020, it had been tweeted roughly 47.8 million times, with the period of July 7–17, 2016 having the highest usage, at nearly 500,000 tweets a day. Black Lives Matter_sentence_61

This period also saw an increase in tweets using the hashtags "#Blue Lives Matter" and "#All Lives Matter". Black Lives Matter_sentence_62

On May 28, 2020, there were nearly 8.8 million tweets with the hashtag, and the average had increased to 3.7 million a day. Black Lives Matter_sentence_63

The 2016 shooting of Dallas police officers saw the online tone of the movement become more negative than before, with 39% of tweets using the hastag #BlackLivesMatter expressing opposition to the movement. Black Lives Matter_sentence_64

Nearly half in opposition tied the group to violence, with many describing the group as terrorist. Black Lives Matter_sentence_65

Khadijah White, a professor at Rutgers University, argues that BLM has ushered in a new era of black university student movements. Black Lives Matter_sentence_66

The ease with which bystanders can record graphic videos of police violence and post them onto social media has driven activism all over the world. Black Lives Matter_sentence_67

The hashtag's usage has gained the attention of high-ranking politicians and has sometimes encouraged them to support the movement. Black Lives Matter_sentence_68

On Wikipedia, a WikiProject dedicated to coverage of the Black Lives Matter movement was created in June 2020. Black Lives Matter_sentence_69

Direct action Black Lives Matter_section_7

BLM generally engages in direct action tactics that make people uncomfortable enough that they must address the issue. Black Lives Matter_sentence_70

BLM has been known to build power through protest and rallies. Black Lives Matter_sentence_71

BLM has also staged die-ins and held one during the 2015 Twin Cities Marathon. Black Lives Matter_sentence_72

Political slogans used during demonstrations include the "Black Lives Matter", "Hands up, don't shoot" (a later discredited reference attributed to Michael Brown), "I can't breathe" (referring to Eric Garner), "White silence is violence", "No justice, no peace", and "Is my son next? Black Lives Matter_sentence_73

", among others. Black Lives Matter_sentence_74

According to a 2018 study, "Black Lives Matter protests are more likely to occur in localities where more black people have previously been killed by police." Black Lives Matter_sentence_75

Media, music and other cultural impacts Black Lives Matter_section_8

Main articles: Black Lives Matter art and Black Lives Matter movement in popular culture Black Lives Matter_sentence_76

Since the beginning of the Black Lives Matter movement in 2013, with the hashtag #BlackLivesMatter, the movement has been depicted and documented in film, song, television, literature, and the visual arts. Black Lives Matter_sentence_77

A number of media outlets are providing material related to racial injustice and the Black Lives Matter movement. Black Lives Matter_sentence_78

Published books, novels, and TV shows have increased in popularity in 2020. Black Lives Matter_sentence_79

Songs, such as Michael Jackson's "They Don't Care About Us" and Kendrick Lamar's "Alright", have been widely used as a rallying call at demonstrations. Black Lives Matter_sentence_80

The short documentary film, Bars4justice, features brief appearances by various activists and recording artists affiliated with the Black Lives Matter movement. Black Lives Matter_sentence_81

The film is an official selection of the 24th Annual Pan African Film Festival. Black Lives Matter_sentence_82

Stay Woke: The Black Lives Matter Movement is a 2016 American television documentary film, starring Jesse Williams, about the Black Lives Matter movement. Black Lives Matter_sentence_83

The February 2015 issue of Essence magazine and the cover was devoted to Black Lives Matter. Black Lives Matter_sentence_84

In December 2015, BLM was a contender for the Time magazine Person of the Year award, coming in fourth of the eight candidates. Black Lives Matter_sentence_85

A number of cities have painted murals of "Black Lives Matter" in large letters on their streets. Black Lives Matter_sentence_86

The cities include Washington, D.C., Dallas, Denver, Charlotte, Seattle, Brooklyn, Los Angeles, and Birmingham, Alabama. Black Lives Matter_sentence_87

On May 9, 2016, Delrish Moss was sworn in as the first African-American police chief in Ferguson, Missouri. Black Lives Matter_sentence_88

He acknowledged that he faces such challenges as diversifying the police force, improving community relations, and addressing issues that catalyzed the Black Lives Matter movement. Black Lives Matter_sentence_89

Policing use of excessive force Black Lives Matter_section_9

Further information: Police brutality in the United States and Race in the United States criminal justice system Black Lives Matter_sentence_90

According to a study from the Bureau of Justice Statistics from 2002 to 2011, among those who had contact with the police, "blacks (2.8%) were more likely than whites (1.0%) and Hispanics (1.4%) to perceive the threat or use of nonfatal force was excessive." Black Lives Matter_sentence_91

According to The Washington Post, police officers shot and killed 1,001 people in the United States in 2019. Black Lives Matter_sentence_92

About half of those killed were white, and one quarter were black, making the rate of deaths for black Americans (31 fatal shootings per million) more than twice as high as the rate for white Americans (13 fatal shootings per million). Black Lives Matter_sentence_93

The Washington Post also counts 13 unarmed black Americans shot dead by police in 2019. Black Lives Matter_sentence_94

A 2019 study by Cesario et al. Black Lives Matter_sentence_95

published in Social Psychological and Personality Science found that after adjusting for crime, there was "no systematic evidence of anti-black disparities in fatal shootings, fatal shootings of unarmed citizens, or fatal shootings involving misidentification of harmless objects". Black Lives Matter_sentence_96

However, a 2020 study by Ross et al. Black Lives Matter_sentence_97

criticizes the data analysis used in the Cesario et al. Black Lives Matter_sentence_98

study. Black Lives Matter_sentence_99

Using the same data set, Ross et al. Black Lives Matter_sentence_100

conclude that there is significant racial bias in police shooting cases involving unarmed black suspects. Black Lives Matter_sentence_101

This bias is not seen when suspects were armed. Black Lives Matter_sentence_102

A study by Harvard economist Roland Fryer found that blacks and Hispanics were 50% more likely to experience non-lethal force in police interactions, but for officer-involved shootings there were "no racial differences in either the raw data or when contextual factors are taken into account". Black Lives Matter_sentence_103

A study in PLOS One found "significant bias in the killing of unarmed black Americans relative to unarmed white Americans" by police. Black Lives Matter_sentence_104

The average bias measure was that unarmed African Americans had 3.49 times the probability of being shot compared to unarmed whites, although in some jurisdictions the risk could be as much as 20 times higher. Black Lives Matter_sentence_105

The study also found that the documented racial bias in police shootings could not be explained by differences in local crime rates. Black Lives Matter_sentence_106

A since retracted study in PNAS claimed that black people were actually less likely than white people to be killed by police, based on the death rates in police encounters. Black Lives Matter_sentence_107

A study published in the journal Nature that found such conclusions were erroneous due to Simpson's paradox. Black Lives Matter_sentence_108

The Nature paper showed that it was true that white people were more likely to be killed in a police encounter, overall black people were still being discriminated against because they had far more interactions with the police due to structural racism. Black Lives Matter_sentence_109

The paper noted that black people have far more interactions with the police per capita than white people, and that black people tend to get stopped for more petty crimes or for no crime at all. Black Lives Matter_sentence_110

Conversely, white people tend to interact with police in situations more rarely, and often in more serious crimes such as shootings, where police are more likely to use force. Black Lives Matter_sentence_111

Thus while it appears that white people are killed at a higher rate, the datasets are not comparable in such a simple fashion. Black Lives Matter_sentence_112

The Nature paper also backed up the findings of Ross and Fryer, and concluded that overall rate of death was a much more useful statistic than the rate of death in encounters. Black Lives Matter_sentence_113

Timeline of notable events and demonstrations in the United States Black Lives Matter_section_10

See also: Lists of killings by law enforcement officers in the United States Black Lives Matter_sentence_114

2014 Black Lives Matter_section_11

In 2014, Black Lives Matter demonstrated against the deaths of numerous African Americans by police actions, including those of Dontre Hamilton, Eric Garner, John Crawford III, Michael Brown, Ezell Ford, Laquan McDonald, Akai Gurley, Tamir Rice, Antonio Martin, and Jerame Reid, among others. Black Lives Matter_sentence_115

In July, Eric Garner died in New York City, after a New York City Police Department officer put him in a banned chokehold while arresting him. Black Lives Matter_sentence_116

Garner's death has been cited as one of several police killings of African Americans that sparked the Black Lives Matter movement. Black Lives Matter_sentence_117

During the Labor Day weekend in August, Black Lives Matter organized a "Freedom Ride", that brought more than 500 African-Americans from across the United States into Ferguson, Missouri, to support the work being done on the ground by local organizations. Black Lives Matter_sentence_118

The movement continued to be involved in the Ferguson unrest, following the death of Michael Brown. Black Lives Matter_sentence_119

The protests at times came into conflict with local and state police departments, who typically responded in an armed manner. Black Lives Matter_sentence_120

At one point the National Guard was called in and a state of emergency was declared. Black Lives Matter_sentence_121

Also in August, Los Angeles Police Department officers shot and killed Ezell Ford; BLM protested his death in Los Angeles into 2015. Black Lives Matter_sentence_122

In November, a New York City Police Department officer shot and killed, Akai Gurley, a 28-year-old African-American man. Black Lives Matter_sentence_123

Gurley's death was later protested by Black Lives Matter in New York City. Black Lives Matter_sentence_124

In Oakland, California, fourteen Black Lives Matter activists were arrested after they stopped a Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) train for more than an hour on Black Friday, one of the biggest shopping days of the year. Black Lives Matter_sentence_125

The protest, led by Black Lives Matter co-founder Alicia Garza, was organized in response to the grand jury decision not to indict Darren Wilson for the death of Mike Brown. Black Lives Matter_sentence_126

Also in November, Tamir Rice, a 12-year-old African-American boy was shot and killed by a Cleveland police officer. Black Lives Matter_sentence_127

Rice's death has also been cited as contributing to "sparking" the Black Lives Matter movement. Black Lives Matter_sentence_128

In December, two to three thousand people gathered at the Mall of America in Bloomington, Minnesota, to protest the killings of unarmed black men by police. Black Lives Matter_sentence_129

The police at the mall were equipped with riot gear and bomb-sniffing dogs; at least twenty members of the protest were arrested. Black Lives Matter_sentence_130

In Milwaukee, Wisconsin, BLM protested the police shooting of Dontre Hamilton, who died in April. Black Lives Matter_sentence_131

Black Lives Matter protested the shooting of John Crawford III. Black Lives Matter_sentence_132

The shooting of Renisha McBride was protested by Black Lives Matter. Black Lives Matter_sentence_133

Also in December, in response to the decision by the grand jury not to indict Darren Wilson on any charges related to the death of Michael Brown, a protest march was held in Berkeley, California. Black Lives Matter_sentence_134

Later, in 2015, protesters and journalists who participated in that rally filed a lawsuit alleging "unconstitutional police attacks" on attendees. Black Lives Matter_sentence_135

A week after the Michael Brown verdict, two police officers were killed in New York City by Ismaaiyl Brinsley, who expressed a desire to kill police officers in retribution for the deaths of Garner and Brown. Black Lives Matter_sentence_136

Black Lives Matter condemned the shooting, though some right-wing media attempted to connect the group to it, with the Patrolman's Benevolent Association president claiming that there was "blood on [the] hands [of] those that incited violence on the street under the guise of protests". Black Lives Matter_sentence_137

A conservative television commentator also attempted to connect Black Lives Matter to protesters chanting that they wanted to see "dead cops," at the December "Millions March" which was organized by different groups. Black Lives Matter_sentence_138

2015 Black Lives Matter_section_12

In 2015, Black Lives Matter demonstrated against the deaths of numerous African Americans by police actions, including those of Charley Leundeu Keunang, Tony Robinson, Anthony Hill, Meagan Hockaday, Eric Harris, Walter Scott, Freddie Gray, William Chapman, Jonathan Sanders, Sandra Bland, Samuel DuBose, Jeremy McDole, Corey Jones, and Jamar Clark as well Dylan Roof's murder of The Charleston Nine. Black Lives Matter_sentence_139

In March, BLM protested at Chicago Mayor Rahm Emanuel's office, demanding reforms within the Chicago Police Department. Black Lives Matter_sentence_140

Charley Leundeu Keunang, a 43-year-old Cameroonian national, was fatally shot by Los Angeles Police Department officers. Black Lives Matter_sentence_141

The LAPD arrested fourteen following BLM demonstrations. Black Lives Matter_sentence_142

In April, Black Lives Matter across the United States protested over the death of Freddie Gray which included the 2015 Baltimore protests. Black Lives Matter_sentence_143

The National Guard was called in. Black Lives Matter_sentence_144

After the shooting of Walter Scott in North Charleston, South Carolina, Black Lives Matter protested Scott's death and called for citizen oversight of police. Black Lives Matter_sentence_145

In May, a protest by BLM in San Francisco was part of a nationwide protest, Say Her Name, decrying the police killing of black women and girls, which included the deaths of Meagan Hockaday, Aiyana Jones, Rekia Boyd, and others. Black Lives Matter_sentence_146

In Cleveland, Ohio, after an officer was acquitted at trial in the shooting of Timothy Russell and Malissa Williams, BLM protested. Black Lives Matter_sentence_147

In Madison, Wisconsin, BLM protested after the officer was not charged in the shooting of Tony Robinson. Black Lives Matter_sentence_148

In June, after Dylann Roof's shooting in a historically black church in Charleston, South Carolina, BLM issued a statement and condemned the shooting as an act of terror. Black Lives Matter_sentence_149

BLM across the country marched, protested and held vigil for several days after the shooting. Black Lives Matter_sentence_150

BLM was part of a march for peace on the Arthur Ravenel Jr. Bridge in South Carolina. Black Lives Matter_sentence_151

After the Charleston shooting, a number of memorials to the Confederate States of America were graffitied with "Black Lives Matter" or otherwise vandalized. Black Lives Matter_sentence_152

Around 800 people protested in McKinney, Texas after a video was released showing an officer pinning a girl—at a pool party in McKinney, Texas—to the ground with his knees. Black Lives Matter_sentence_153

In July, BLM activists across the United States began protests over the death of Sandra Bland, an African-American woman, who was allegedly found hanged in a jail cell in Waller County, Texas. Black Lives Matter_sentence_154

In Cincinnati, Ohio, BLM rallied and protested the death of Samuel DuBose after he was shot and killed by a University of Cincinnati police officer. Black Lives Matter_sentence_155

In Newark, New Jersey, over a thousand BLM activists marched against police brutality, racial injustice, and economic inequality. Black Lives Matter_sentence_156

Also in July, BLM protested the death of Jonathan Sanders who died while being arrested by police in Mississippi. Black Lives Matter_sentence_157

In August, BLM organizers held a rally in Washington, D.C., calling for a stop to violence against transgender women. Black Lives Matter_sentence_158

In Charlotte, North Carolina, after a judge declared a mistrial in the trial of a white Charlotte police officer who killed an unarmed black man, Jonathan Ferrell, BLM protested and staged die-ins. Black Lives Matter_sentence_159

In Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Janelle Monáe, Jidenna, and other BLM activists marched through North Philadelphia to bring awareness to police brutality and Black Lives Matter. Black Lives Matter_sentence_160

Around August 9, the first anniversary of Michael Brown's death, BLM rallied, held vigil and marched in St. Black Lives Matter_sentence_161 Louis and across the country. Black Lives Matter_sentence_162

In September, over five hundred BLM protesters in Austin, Texas rallied against police brutality, and several briefly carried protest banners onto Interstate 35. Black Lives Matter_sentence_163

In Baltimore, Maryland, BLM activists marched and protested as hearings began in the Freddie Gray police brutality case. Black Lives Matter_sentence_164

In Sacramento, California, about eight hundred BLM protesters rallied to support a California Senate bill that would increase police oversight. Black Lives Matter_sentence_165

BLM protested the shooting of Jeremy McDole. Black Lives Matter_sentence_166

In October, Black Lives Matter activists were arrested during a protest of a police chiefs conference in Chicago. Black Lives Matter_sentence_167

"Rise Up October" straddled the Black Lives Matter Campaign, and brought several protests. Black Lives Matter_sentence_168

Quentin Tarantino and Cornel West, participating in "Rise Up October", decried police violence. Black Lives Matter_sentence_169

In November, BLM activists protested after Jamar Clark was shot by Minneapolis Police Department. Black Lives Matter_sentence_170

A continuous protest was organized at the Minneapolis 4th Precinct Police. Black Lives Matter_sentence_171

During the encamped protest, protesters, and outside agitators clashed with police, vandalized the station and attempted to ram the station with an SUV. Black Lives Matter_sentence_172

Later that month a march was organized to honor Jamar Clark, from the 4th Precinct to downtown Minneapolis. Black Lives Matter_sentence_173

After the march, a group of men carrying firearms and body armor appeared and began calling the protesters racial slurs according to a spokesperson for Black Lives Matter. Black Lives Matter_sentence_174

After protesters asked the armed men to leave, the men opened fire, shooting five protesters. Black Lives Matter_sentence_175

All injuries required hospitalization, but were not life-threatening. Black Lives Matter_sentence_176

The men fled the scene only to be found later and arrested. Black Lives Matter_sentence_177

The three men arrested were young and white, and observers called them white supremacists. Black Lives Matter_sentence_178

In February 2017, one of the men arrested, Allen Scarsella, was convicted of a dozen felony counts of assault and riot in connection with the shooting. Black Lives Matter_sentence_179

Based in part on months of racist messages Scarsella had sent his friends before the shooting, the judge rejected arguments by his defense that Scarsella was "naïve" and sentenced him in April 2017 to 15 years out of a maximum 20-year sentence. Black Lives Matter_sentence_180

From November into 2016, BLM protested the shooting death of Laquan McDonald, calling for the resignation of numerous Chicago officials in the wake of the shooting and its handling. Black Lives Matter_sentence_181

McDonald was shot 16 times by Chicago Police Officer Jason Van Dyke. Black Lives Matter_sentence_182

2016 Black Lives Matter_section_13

In 2016, Black Lives Matter demonstrated against the deaths of numerous African Americans by police actions, including those of Bruce Kelley Jr., Alton Sterling, Philando Castile, Joseph Mann, Abdirahman Abdi, Paul O'Neal, Korryn Gaines, Sylville Smith, Terence Crutcher, Keith Lamont Scott, Alfred Olango, and Deborah Danner, among others. Black Lives Matter_sentence_183

In January, hundreds of BLM protesters marched in San Francisco to protest the December 2, 2015, shooting death of Mario Woods, who was shot by San Francisco Police officers. Black Lives Matter_sentence_184

The march was held during a Super Bowl event. Black Lives Matter_sentence_185

BLM held protests, community meetings, teach-ins, and direct actions across the country with the goal of "reclaim[ing] the radical legacy of Martin Luther King Jr." Black Lives Matter_sentence_186

In February, Abdullahi Omar Mohamed, a 17-year-old Somali refugee, was shot and injured by Salt Lake City, Utah, police after allegedly being involved in a confrontation with another person. Black Lives Matter_sentence_187

The shooting led to BLM protests. Black Lives Matter_sentence_188

In June, members of BLM and Color of Change protested the California conviction and sentencing of Jasmine Richards for a 2015 incident in which she attempted to stop a police officer from arresting another woman. Black Lives Matter_sentence_189

Richards was convicted of "attempting to unlawfully take a person from the lawful custody of a peace officer", a charge that the state penal code had designated as "lynching" until that word was removed two months prior to the incident. Black Lives Matter_sentence_190

On July 5, Alton Sterling, a 37-year-old black man, was shot several times at point-blank range while pinned to the ground by two white Baton Rouge Police Department officers in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Black Lives Matter_sentence_191

On the night of July 5, more than 100 demonstrators in Baton Rouge shouted "no justice, no peace," set off fireworks, and blocked an intersection to protest Sterling's death. Black Lives Matter_sentence_192

On July 6, Black Lives Matter held a candlelight vigil in Baton Rouge, with chants of "We love Baton Rouge" and calls for justice. Black Lives Matter_sentence_193

On July 6, Philando Castile was fatally shot by Jeronimo Yanez, a St. Black Lives Matter_sentence_194 Anthony, Minnesota police officer, after being pulled over in Falcon Heights, a suburb of St. Black Lives Matter_sentence_195 Paul. Black Lives Matter_sentence_196

Castile was driving a car with his girlfriend and her 4-year-old daughter as passengers when he was pulled over by Yanez and another officer. Black Lives Matter_sentence_197

According to his girlfriend, after being asked for his license and registration, Castile told the officer he was licensed to carry a weapon and had one in the car. Black Lives Matter_sentence_198

She stated: "The officer said don't move. Black Lives Matter_sentence_199

As he was putting his hands back up, the officer shot him in the arm four or five times." Black Lives Matter_sentence_200

She live-streamed a video on Facebook in the immediate aftermath of the shooting. Black Lives Matter_sentence_201

Following the fatal shooting of Castile, BLM protested throughout Minnesota and the United States. Black Lives Matter_sentence_202

On July 7, a BLM protest was held in Dallas, Texas that was organized to protest the deaths of Alton Sterling and Philando Castile. Black Lives Matter_sentence_203

At the end of the peaceful protest, Micah Xavier Johnson opened fire in an ambush, killing five police officers and wounding seven others and two civilians. Black Lives Matter_sentence_204

The gunman was then killed by a robot-delivered bomb. Black Lives Matter_sentence_205

Before he died, according to police, Johnson said that "he was upset about Black Lives Matter", and that "he wanted to kill white people, especially white officers." Black Lives Matter_sentence_206

Texas Lt. Black Lives Matter_sentence_207

Governor Dan Patrick and other conservative lawmakers blamed the shootings on the Black Lives Matter movement. Black Lives Matter_sentence_208

The Black Lives Matter network released a statement denouncing the shootings. Black Lives Matter_sentence_209

On July 8, more than 100 people were arrested at Black Lives Matter protests across the United States. Black Lives Matter_sentence_210

In the first half of July, there were at least 112 protests in 88 American cities. Black Lives Matter_sentence_211

On July 13, NBA stars LeBron James, Carmelo Anthony, Chris Paul, and Dwyane Wade opened the 2016 ESPY Awards with a Black Lives Matter message. Black Lives Matter_sentence_212

On July 26, Black Lives Matter held a protest in Austin, Texas, to mark the third anniversary of the shooting death of Larry Jackson Jr. On July 28, Chicago Police Department officers shot Paul O'Neal in the back and killed him following a car chase. Black Lives Matter_sentence_213

After the shooting, hundreds marched in Chicago, Illinois. Black Lives Matter_sentence_214

In Randallstown, Maryland, near Baltimore, on August 1, police officers shot and killed Korryn Gaines, a 23-year-old African-American woman, also shooting and injuring her son. Black Lives Matter_sentence_215

Gaines' death was protested in Baltimore. Black Lives Matter_sentence_216

In August, Black Lives Matter protested in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania the death of Bruce Kelley Jr., who was shot after fatally stabbing a police dog while trying to escape from police the previous January. Black Lives Matter_sentence_217

In August, several professional athletes began participating in National Anthem protests. Black Lives Matter_sentence_218

The protests began in the National Football League (NFL) after Colin Kaepernick of the San Francisco 49ers sat during the anthem, as opposed to the tradition of standing, before his team's third preseason game of 2016. Black Lives Matter_sentence_219

During a post-game interview he explained his position stating, "I am not going to stand up to show pride in a flag for a country that oppresses black people and people of color. Black Lives Matter_sentence_220

To me, this is bigger than football and it would be selfish on my part to look the other way. Black Lives Matter_sentence_221

There are bodies in the street and people getting paid leave and getting away with murder," a protest widely interpreted as in solidarity with the Black Lives Matter movement. Black Lives Matter_sentence_222

The protests have generated mixed reactions, and have since spread to other U.S. sports leagues. Black Lives Matter_sentence_223

In September, BLM protested the shooting deaths by police officers of Terence Crutcher in Tulsa, Oklahoma, and Keith Lamont Scott in Charlotte, North Carolina. Black Lives Matter_sentence_224

The Charlotte Observer reported "The protesters began to gather as night fell, hours after the shooting. Black Lives Matter_sentence_225

They held signs that said 'Stop Killing Us' and 'Black Lives Matter,' and they chanted 'No justice, no peace.' Black Lives Matter_sentence_226

The scene was sometimes chaotic and tense, with water bottles and stones chucked at police lines, but many protesters called for peace and implored their fellow demonstrators not to act violently." Black Lives Matter_sentence_227

Multiple nights of protests in September and October were held in El Cajon, California, following the shooting of Alfred Olango. Black Lives Matter_sentence_228

2017 Black Lives Matter_section_14

During the 2017 Black History Month, a month-long "Black Lives Matter" art exhibition was organized by three Richmond, Virginia artists at the First Unitarian Universalist Church of Richmond in the Byrd Park area of the city. Black Lives Matter_sentence_229

The show featured more than 30 diverse multicultural artists on a theme exploring racial equality and justice. Black Lives Matter_sentence_230

In the same month Virginia Commonwealth University's James Branch Cabell Library focused on a month-long schedule of events relating to African-American history and showed photos from the church's "Black Lives Matter" exhibition on its outdoor screen. Black Lives Matter_sentence_231

The VCU schedule of events also included: the Real Life Film Series The Angry Heart: The Impact of Racism on Heart Disease among African-Americans; Keith Knight presented the 14th Annual VCU Libraries Black History Month lecture; Lawrence Ross, author of the book Blackballed: The Black and White Politics of Race on America's Campuses talked about how his book related to the "Black Lives Matter" movement; and Velma P. Scantlebury, M.D., the first black female transplant surgeon in the United States, discussed "Health Equity in Kidney Transplantation: Experiences from a surgeon's perspective." Black Lives Matter_sentence_232

Black Lives Matter protested the shooting of Jocques Clemmons which occurred in Nashville, Tennessee on February 10, 2017. Black Lives Matter_sentence_233

On May 12, 2017, a day after Glenn Funk, the district attorney of Davidson County decided not to prosecute police officer Joshua Lippert, the Nashville chapter of BLM held a demonstration near the Vanderbilt University campus all the way to the residence of Nashville mayor Megan Barry. Black Lives Matter_sentence_234

On September 27 at the College of William & Mary, students associated with Black Lives Matter protested an ACLU event because the ACLU had fought for the right of Unite the Right rally to be held in Charlottesville, Virginia. Black Lives Matter_sentence_235

William & Mary's president Taylor Reveley responded with a statement defending the college's commitment to open debate. Black Lives Matter_sentence_236

2018 Black Lives Matter_section_15

In February and March 2018, as part of its social justice focus, First Unitarian Church Church of Richmond, Virginia in Richmond, Virginia presented its Second Annual Black Lives Matter Art Exhibition. Black Lives Matter_sentence_237

Works of art in the exhibition were projected at scheduled hours on the large exterior screen (jumbotron) at Virginia Commonwealth University's Cabell Library. Black Lives Matter_sentence_238

Artists with art in the exhibition were invited to discuss their work in the Black Lives Matter show as it was projected at an evening forum in a small amphitheater at VCU's Hibbs Hall. Black Lives Matter_sentence_239

They were also invited to exhibit afterward at a local showing of the film A Raisin in the Sun. Black Lives Matter_sentence_240

In April, CNN reported that the largest Facebook account claiming to be a part of the "Black Lives Matter" movement was a "scam" tied to a white man in Australia. Black Lives Matter_sentence_241

The account, with 700,000 followers, linked to fundraisers that raised $100,000 or more, purportedly for U.S. Black Lives Matter causes; however, some of the money was instead transferred to Australian banks accounts, according to CNN. Black Lives Matter_sentence_242

Facebook has suspended the offending page. Black Lives Matter_sentence_243

2020 Black Lives Matter_section_16

Further information: 2020 United States racial unrest Black Lives Matter_sentence_244

On February 23, 2020, Ahmaud Arbery, an unarmed 25-year-old African-American man, was fatally shot while jogging in Glynn County, Georgia. Black Lives Matter_sentence_245

Arbery had been pursued and confronted by three white residents driving two vehicles, including a father and son who were armed. Black Lives Matter_sentence_246

All three men have been indicted on nine counts, including felony murder. Black Lives Matter_sentence_247

On March 13, Louisville police officers knocked down the apartment door of 26-year-old African American Breonna Taylor, serving a no-knock search warrant for drug suspicions. Black Lives Matter_sentence_248

Police fired several shots during the encounter which led to her death. Black Lives Matter_sentence_249

Her boyfriend who was present at the time had called 911 and said, "someone kicked in the door and shot my girlfriend". Black Lives Matter_sentence_250

Protests were held in Louisville with calls for police reform. Black Lives Matter_sentence_251

On May 25, Christian Cooper, a black bird-watcher at New York's Central Park experienced a confrontation with a white woman after he asked her to put her dog on a leash in the Ramble, a no-dogs-off-leash area. Black Lives Matter_sentence_252

The interaction escalated when the white woman called the police to say that an African American man was threatening her. Black Lives Matter_sentence_253

On July 6, the Manhattan District Attorney's office announced that the woman would be charged with falsely reporting an incident in the third degree. Black Lives Matter_sentence_254

George Floyd protests Black Lives Matter_section_17

Main articles: Defund the police and George Floyd protests Black Lives Matter_sentence_255

At the end of May, spurred on by a rash of racially charged events including those above, over 450 major protests were held in cities and towns across the United States and three continents. Black Lives Matter_sentence_256

The breaking point was due primarily to the killing of George Floyd by Minneapolis police officer Derek Chauvin, eventually charged with second degree murder after a video circulated showing Chauvin kneeling on Floyd's neck for nearly nine minutes while Floyd pleaded for his life, repeating, "I can't breathe." Black Lives Matter_sentence_257

Following protesters' demands for additional prosecutions, three other officers were charged with aiding and abetting second degree murder. Black Lives Matter_sentence_258

Black Lives Matter organized rallies in the United States and worldwide from May 30 onwards, with protesters enacting Floyd's final moments, many lying down in streets and on bridges, yelling "I can't breathe," while others marched by the thousands, some carrying signs that read, "Tell your brother in blue, don't shoot"—"Who do you call when the murderer wears a badge?" Black Lives Matter_sentence_259

and "Justice for George Floyd." Black Lives Matter_sentence_260

While global in nature and supported by several unassociated organizations, the Black Lives Matter movement has been inextricably linked to these monumental protests. Black Lives Matter_sentence_261

Black Lives Matter called to "defund the police", a slogan with varying interpretations from police abolition to divestment from police and prisons to reinvestment in social services in communities of color. Black Lives Matter_sentence_262

In 2020, NPR reported that the Washington D.C. Black Lives Matter chapter's demands were defunding the police, halting the construction of new jails, decriminalizing sex work, removing police from schools, exonerating protesters and abolishing cash bail in Maryland. Black Lives Matter_sentence_263

On June 5, Washington, D.C.'s Mayor Muriel Bowser announced that part of the street outside of the White House had been officially renamed to Black Lives Matter Plaza posted with a street sign. Black Lives Matter_sentence_264

On June 7, in the wake of global George Floyd protests and Black Lives Matter's call to "defund the police", the Minneapolis City Council voted to "disband its police department" to shift funding to social programs in communities of color. Black Lives Matter_sentence_265

City Council President Lisa Bender said, "Our efforts at incremental reform have failed. Black Lives Matter_sentence_266

Period." Black Lives Matter_sentence_267

The council vote came after the Minneapolis Public Schools, the University of Minnesota and Minneapolis Parks and Recreation cut ties with the Minneapolis Police Department. Black Lives Matter_sentence_268

On July 20, the Strike for Black Lives, organized in part by Black Lives Matter, featured thousands of workers across the United States performing a walkout to raise awareness of systemic racism following Floyd's death. Black Lives Matter_sentence_269

From 22 May to 22 August, there were more than 10,600 BLM protest events in the United States. Black Lives Matter_sentence_270

International movement Black Lives Matter_section_18

In 2015, after the death of Freddie Gray in Baltimore, Maryland, black activists around the world modeled efforts for reform on Black Lives Matter and the Arab Spring. Black Lives Matter_sentence_271

This international movement has been referred to as the "Black Spring". Black Lives Matter_sentence_272

Connections have also been forged with parallel international efforts such as the Dalit rights movement. Black Lives Matter_sentence_273

Australia Black Lives Matter_section_19

Following the death of Ms Dhu in police custody in August 2014, protests often made reference to the BLM movement. Black Lives Matter_sentence_274

In July 2016, a BLM rally was organized in Melbourne, Australia, which 3,500 people attended. Black Lives Matter_sentence_275

The protest also emphasized the issues of mistreatment of Aboriginal Australians by the Australian police and government. Black Lives Matter_sentence_276

In May 2017, Black Lives Matter was awarded the Sydney Peace Prize, which "honours a nominee who has promoted 'peace with justice', human rights and non-violence". Black Lives Matter_sentence_277

In early June 2020, following the recent George Floyd protests in the US, there were protests across Australia, with many of them focusing on the local issue of Aboriginal deaths in custody, racism in Australia and other injustices faced by Indigenous Australians. Black Lives Matter_sentence_278

Cricketer Michael Holding critiqued Australia, as well as England, for refusing to take a knee in support of Black Lives Matter during cricket matches. Black Lives Matter_sentence_279

Canada Black Lives Matter_section_20

In July 2015, BLM protesters shut down Allen Road in Toronto, Ontario, protesting the shooting deaths of two black men in the metropolitan area—Andrew Loku and Jermaine Carby—at the hands of police. Black Lives Matter_sentence_280

In September, BLM activists shut down streets in Toronto, citing police brutality and solidarity with "marginalized black lives" as reason for the shutdown. Black Lives Matter_sentence_281

Black Lives Matter was a featured part of the Take Back the Night event in Toronto. Black Lives Matter_sentence_282

In June 2016, Black Lives Matter was selected by Pride Toronto as the honored group in that year's Pride parade, during which they staged a sit-in to block the parade from moving forward for approximately half an hour. Black Lives Matter_sentence_283

They issued several demands for Pride to adjust its relationship with LGBTQ people of color, including stable funding and a suitable venue for the established Blockorama event, improved diversity in the organization's staff and volunteer base, and that Toronto Police officers be banned from marching in the parade in uniform. Black Lives Matter_sentence_284

Pride executive director Mathieu Chantelois signed BLM's statement of demand, but later asserted that he had signed it only to end the sit-in and get the parade moving, and had not agreed to honor the demands. Black Lives Matter_sentence_285

In late August 2016, the Toronto chapter protested outside the Special Investigations Unit in Mississauga in response to the death of Abdirahman Abdi, who died during an arrest in Ottawa. Black Lives Matter_sentence_286

The other focal point of the Black Lives Matter movement in Canada is addressing issues, racism and other injustices faced by Indigenous Canadians. Black Lives Matter_sentence_287

Denmark Black Lives Matter_section_21

In Denmark, an organization named Black Lives Matter Denmark was founded in 2016 by Bwalya Sørensen [], a woman from Zambia that came to Denmark when she was 19 years old. Black Lives Matter_sentence_288

The organization is centered around Sørensen and mainly focuses on rejected asylum seekers and criminal foreigners, sentenced to expulsion from Denmark. Black Lives Matter_sentence_289

The connection to the US organization is unclear, but Sørensen has said she was encouraged by someone in the US to start a Danish chapter, and that she, in 2017, was visited by the US co-founder, Opal Tometi. Black Lives Matter_sentence_290

In June 2020, following the death of George Floyd, Black Lives Matter Denmark held a demonstration in Copenhagen that attracted 15,000 participants. Black Lives Matter_sentence_291

Following the demonstration, the organization and Sørensen, in particular, received much criticism because rules separated people by ethnicity: at the demonstration, only black people could be in front, and white people were disallowed to participate in some chants. Black Lives Matter_sentence_292

Other controversies included Sørensen refusing to co-host a demonstration with Amnesty International because their employees were white, and illegally raising money, while calling the missing fundraising permit peaceful "civil disobedience". Black Lives Matter_sentence_293

Sørensen herself has been criticized for splitting the movement with her confrontational style. Black Lives Matter_sentence_294

A new organization, named Afro Danish Collective, was announced in June 2020, with Roger Matthisen [], former member of the Folketing for The Alternative, as spokesperson. Black Lives Matter_sentence_295

The organization has similar goals as Black Lives Matter Denmark, but will take a more moderate approach, including not distinguishing between people at demonstrations based on their skin color. Black Lives Matter_sentence_296

Matthisen said Afro Danish Collective was in part established because the leadership of Black Lives Matter Denmark had not been professional enough. Black Lives Matter_sentence_297

France Black Lives Matter_section_22

On July 18, 2020, thousands of protesters marched near Paris to commemorate the fourth anniversary of the death of Adama Traoré. Black Lives Matter_sentence_298

Traoré, a black man, was arrested in July 2016 and fainted after being pinned to the ground by police officers. Black Lives Matter_sentence_299

He later died at a police station; the circumstances of his death are unclear. Black Lives Matter_sentence_300

Germany Black Lives Matter_section_23

On June 6, 2020, tens of thousands of people gathered across Germany to support the Black Lives Matter movement. Black Lives Matter_sentence_301

On July 18, 2020, more than 1,500 protesters participated in an anti-racism march in Berlin to condemn police brutality. Black Lives Matter_sentence_302

Japan Black Lives Matter_section_24

In the wake of the killing of George Floyd, several demonstrations took place in Japan, including a 1,000-person demonstration in Osaka on June 7, 2020, and a 3,500-person march through the streets of Shibuya and Harajuku areas of Tokyo on June 14, 2020. Black Lives Matter_sentence_303

The movement has been met with some backlash in the country, notably on the internet, where some users criticized tennis player Naomi Osaka after she encouraged people to join a Black Lives Matter march in the city of Osaka. Black Lives Matter_sentence_304

New Zealand Black Lives Matter_section_25

On June 1, 2020, several BLM solidarity protests in response to the death of George Floyd were held in several New Zealand cities including Auckland, Wellington, Christchurch, Dunedin, Tauranga, Palmerston North and Hamilton. Black Lives Matter_sentence_305

The Auckland event, which attracted between 2,000 and 4,000 participants, was organized by several members of New Zealand's African community. Black Lives Matter_sentence_306

Auckland organizer Mahlete Tekeste, African-American expatriate Kainee Simone, and sportsperson Israel Adesanya compared racism, mass incarceration, and police violence against African Americans to the over-representation of Māori and Pacific Islanders in New Zealand prisons, the controversial armed police response squad trials, and existing racism against minorities in New Zealand including the 2019 Christchurch mosque shootings. Black Lives Matter_sentence_307

Hip hop artist and music producer Mazbou Q also called on Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern to condemn violence against black Americans. Black Lives Matter_sentence_308

The left-wing Green Party, a member of the Labour-led coalition government, has also expressed support for the Black Lives Matter movement, linking the plight of African Americans to the racism, inequality, and higher incarceration rate experienced by the Māori and Pasifika communities. Black Lives Matter_sentence_309

The BLM protests in New Zealand attracted criticism from Deputy Prime Minister Winston Peters for violating the country's COVID-19 pandemic social distancing regulations banning mass gatherings of over 100 people. Black Lives Matter_sentence_310

United Kingdom Black Lives Matter_section_26

On August 4, 2016, BLM protesters blocked London City Airport in London, England. Black Lives Matter_sentence_311

Several demonstrators chained themselves together on the airport's runway. Black Lives Matter_sentence_312

Nine people were arrested in connection with the incident. Black Lives Matter_sentence_313

There were also BLM-themed protests in other English cities including Birmingham and Nottingham. Black Lives Matter_sentence_314

The UK-held protests marked the fifth anniversary of the shooting death of Mark Duggan. Black Lives Matter_sentence_315

On June 25, 2017, BLM supporters protested in Stratford, London over the death of Edson Da Costa, who died in police custody. Black Lives Matter_sentence_316

There were no arrests made at the protest. Black Lives Matter_sentence_317

In December 2019, Black Lives Matter UK has worked with the coalition Wretched of the Earth to represent the voices of indigenous people and people of color in the climate justice movement. Black Lives Matter_sentence_318

In 2020, Black Lives Matter UK held protests in support of the Black Lives Matter protests in the US. Black Lives Matter_sentence_319

Following the killing of George Floyd, London protests took place in Trafalgar Square on May 31, Hyde Park on June 3, Parliament Square on June 6, and outside the US Embassy on June 7. Black Lives Matter_sentence_320

Similar protests took place in Manchester, Bristol, and Cardiff. Black Lives Matter_sentence_321

The UK protests not only showed solidarity with US protesters, but also commemorated black people who have died in the UK, with protesters chanting, carrying signs, and sharing social media posts with names of victims including Julian Cole, Belly Mujinga, Nuno Cardoso, and Sarah Reed. Black Lives Matter_sentence_322

On June 7, protests continued in many towns and cities. Black Lives Matter_sentence_323

During a Black Lives Matter protest in Bristol, the city center statue of Edward Colston, a late 17th early 18th-century philanthropist, politician and slave trader, was pulled down by protesters, rolled along the road and pushed into Bristol Harbour. Black Lives Matter_sentence_324

The act was later condemned by Home Secretary Priti Patel who said "This hooliganism is utterly indefensible." Black Lives Matter_sentence_325

In London, after it was defaced a few days earlier, protesters defaced the statue of Winston Churchill, Parliament Square, Westminster with graffiti for a second time. Black Lives Matter_sentence_326

Black spray paint was sprayed over his name and the words "was a racist" were sprayed underneath. Black Lives Matter_sentence_327

A protester also attempted to burn the Union Jack flag flying at the Cenotaph, a memorial to Britain's war dead. Black Lives Matter_sentence_328

Later in the evening violence broke out between protesters and police. Black Lives Matter_sentence_329

A total of 49 police officers were injured after demonstrators threw bottles and fireworks at them. Black Lives Matter_sentence_330

Over the weekend, a total of 135 arrests were made by police. Black Lives Matter_sentence_331

British Prime Minister Boris Johnson commented on the events, saying "those who attack public property or the police – who injure the police officers who are trying to keep us all safe – those people will face the full force of the law; not just because of the hurt and damage they are causing, but because of the damage they are doing to the cause they claim to represent." Black Lives Matter_sentence_332

Peaceful protests took place in Leeds' Millennium Square on June 14, 2020 organized by a coalition of organizations: Black Voices Matter', which included Black Lives Matter Leeds. Black Lives Matter_sentence_333

A second protest was held on Woodhouse Moor on June 21, organized by Black Lives Matter Leeds. Black Lives Matter_sentence_334

On June 18, Foreign Secretary Dominic Raab aroused controversy when he said in a radio interview that the "taking the knee" gesture associated with Black Lives Matter "feels to me like a symbol of subjugation and subordination, rather than one of liberation and emancipation", and suggested that it had originated in the TV series Game of Thrones. Black Lives Matter_sentence_335

On June 28, Black Lives Matter UK faced criticism for making a series of tweets from their verified Twitter account regarding Israel, including one that claims "mainstream British politics is gagged of the right to critique Zionism". Black Lives Matter_sentence_336

The Premier League, who are carrying the Black Lives Matter logo on their football shirts for the rest of the 2019–20 season, subsequently said that attempts by groups to hijack the cause to suit their own political ends are entirely unwelcome. Black Lives Matter_sentence_337

The BBC banned presenters and guests from wearing Black Lives Matter badges on air to avoid showing "visual symbols of support" for Black Lives Matter on screen. Black Lives Matter_sentence_338

According to Patrick Vernon, its start in 2016 was not met with respect. Black Lives Matter_sentence_339

From 2018 onwards, after events like Grenfell and the Windrush scandal, the movement was viewed more favourably by black Britons, in particular senior black Britions. Black Lives Matter_sentence_340

In September 2020, Black Lives Matter UK changed their official name to Black Liberation Movement UK and became legally registered as a community benefit society. Black Lives Matter_sentence_341

However, the group still uses the Black Lives Matter name in its global cooperative efforts with the group. Black Lives Matter_sentence_342

BLM activists Charles Gordon and Sasha Johnson founded the Taking The Initiative Party (TTIP) in the summer of 2020, and in October 2020 'Black Lives Matter' – and other similar variations of the movement's name – had applied to register as a political party through the Electoral Commission; however, BLM UK said "BLM UK has no intention to set up a political party. Black Lives Matter_sentence_343

This person or group is not affiliated with us." Black Lives Matter_sentence_344

In December 2020, following completion of a month-long lockdown in England to help prevent the spread of Covid-19, a limited number of football supporters were allowed back into some stadiums for the first time since March 2020. Black Lives Matter_sentence_345

Players taking the knee was impeccably observed by fans at every stadium – which included applause such as at Anfield and Tottenham Hotspur Stadium – with the sole exception of The Den, where some Millwall fans booed the gesture by their own players and those of the visitors Derby County. Black Lives Matter_sentence_346

This was construed as a racist act and condemned by Derby manager, Wayne Rooney, government minister, James Cleverly, and TV pundits, Gary Lineker and Micah Richards. Black Lives Matter_sentence_347

2016 United States presidential election Black Lives Matter_section_27

Main article: 2016 United States presidential election Black Lives Matter_sentence_348

Primaries Black Lives Matter_section_28

Democrats Black Lives Matter_section_29

At the Netroots Nation Conference in July 2015, dozens of Black Lives Matter activists took over the stage at an event featuring Martin O'Malley and Bernie Sanders. Black Lives Matter_sentence_349

Activists, including Black Lives Matter co-founder Patrisse Cullors, asked both candidates for specific policy proposals to address deaths in police custody. Black Lives Matter_sentence_350

The protesters chanted several slogans, including "if I die in police custody, burn everything down" and "Shut this crap down". Black Lives Matter_sentence_351

The expression "Shut it down" would go on to become a popular phrase in Black Lives Matter protests and on social media. Black Lives Matter_sentence_352

After conference organizers pleaded with the protesters for several minutes, O'Malley responded by pledging to release a wide-ranging plan for criminal justice reform. Black Lives Matter_sentence_353

Protesters later booed O'Malley when he stated "Black lives matter. Black Lives Matter_sentence_354

White lives matter. Black Lives Matter_sentence_355

All lives matter." Black Lives Matter_sentence_356

O'Malley later apologized for his remarks, saying that he did not mean to disrespect the black community. Black Lives Matter_sentence_357

On August 8, 2015, a speech by Democratic presidential candidate and civil rights activist Bernie Sanders was disrupted by a group who would go on to found the Seattle Chapter of Black Lives Matter including chapter co-founder Marissa Johnson who walked onstage, seized the microphone from him and called his supporters racists and white supremacists. Black Lives Matter_sentence_358

Sanders issued a platform in response. Black Lives Matter_sentence_359

Nikki Stephens, the operator of a Facebook page called "Black Lives Matter: Seattle" issued an apology to Sanders' supporters, claiming these actions did not represent her understanding of BLM. Black Lives Matter_sentence_360

She was then sent messages by members of the Seattle Chapter which she described as threatening, and was forced to change the name of her group to "Black in Seattle". Black Lives Matter_sentence_361

The founders of Black Lives Matter stated that they had not issued an apology. Black Lives Matter_sentence_362

In August 2015, the Democratic National Committee passed a resolution supporting Black Lives Matter. Black Lives Matter_sentence_363

In the first Democratic primary debate, the presidential candidates were asked whether black lives matter or all lives matter. Black Lives Matter_sentence_364

In reply, Bernie Sanders stated, "Black lives matter." Black Lives Matter_sentence_365

Martin O'Malley said, "Black lives matter," and that the "movement is making is a very, very legitimate and serious point, and that is that as a nation we have undervalued the lives of black lives, people of color." Black Lives Matter_sentence_366

In response, Hillary Clinton pushed for criminal justice reform, and said, "We need a new New Deal for communities of color." Black Lives Matter_sentence_367

Jim Webb, on the other hand, replied: "As the president of the United States, every life in this country matters." Black Lives Matter_sentence_368

Hillary Clinton was not directly asked the same question, but was instead asked: "What would you do for African Americans in this country that President Obama couldn't?" Black Lives Matter_sentence_369

Clinton had already met with Black Lives Matter representatives, and emphasized what she described as a more pragmatic approach to enacting change, stating "Look, I don't believe you change hearts. Black Lives Matter_sentence_370

I believe you change laws". Black Lives Matter_sentence_371

Without policy change, she felt "we'll be back here in 10 years having the same conversation." Black Lives Matter_sentence_372

In June 2015, Clinton used the phrase "all lives matter" in a speech about the opportunities of young people of color, prompting backlash that she may misunderstand the message of "Black Lives Matter." Black Lives Matter_sentence_373

A week after the first Democratic primary debate was held in Las Vegas, BLM launched a petition targeted at the DNC and its chairwoman Debbie Wasserman Schultz demanding more debates, and "specifically for a #BlackLivesMatter themed Presidential debate." Black Lives Matter_sentence_374

The petition received over 10,000 signatures within 24 hours of being launched, and had over 33,000 signatures as of October 27, 2015. Black Lives Matter_sentence_375

The DNC said that it would permit presidential candidates to attend a presidential town hall organized by activists, but that it would not add another debate to its official schedule. Black Lives Matter_sentence_376

In response, the organization released a press statement on its Facebook page stating that "[i]n consultation with our chapters, our communities, allies, and supporters, we remain unequivocal that a Presidential Town Hall with support from the DNC does not sufficiently respond to the concerns raised by our members", continuing to demand a full additional debate. Black Lives Matter_sentence_377

After the first debate, in October 2015, a speech by Hillary Clinton on criminal justice reform and race at Atlanta University Center was interrupted by BLM activists. Black Lives Matter_sentence_378

In February 2016, two Black Lives Matter activists protested at a private fundraiser for Clinton about statements she made in 1996 in which she referred to young people as "super-predators". Black Lives Matter_sentence_379

One of the activists wanted Clinton to apologize for "mass incarceration" in connection with her support for her husband, then-President Bill Clinton's 1994 criminal reform law. Black Lives Matter_sentence_380

Republicans Black Lives Matter_section_30

Republican candidates have been mostly critical of BLM. Black Lives Matter_sentence_381

In August 2015, Ben Carson, the only African American vying for the Republican nomination for the presidency, called the movement "silly". Black Lives Matter_sentence_382

Carson also said that BLM should care for all black lives, not just a few. Black Lives Matter_sentence_383

In the first Republican presidential debate, which took place in Cleveland, one question referenced Black Lives Matter. Black Lives Matter_sentence_384

In response to the question, Scott Walker advocated for the proper training of law enforcement and blamed the movement for rising anti-police sentiment, while Marco Rubio was the first candidate to publicly sympathize with the movement's point of view. Black Lives Matter_sentence_385

In August 2015, activists chanting "Black Lives Matter" interrupted the Las Vegas rally of Republican presidential candidate Jeb Bush. Black Lives Matter_sentence_386

As Bush exited early, some of his supporters started responding to the protesters by chanting "white lives matter" or "all lives matter". Black Lives Matter_sentence_387

Several conservative pundits have labeled the movement a "hate group". Black Lives Matter_sentence_388

Candidate Chris Christie, the New Jersey Governor, criticized President Obama for supporting BLM, stating that the movement calls for the murder of police officers. Black Lives Matter_sentence_389

Christie's statement was condemned by New Jersey chapters of the NAACP and ACLU. Black Lives Matter_sentence_390

BLM activists also called on the Republican National Committee to have a presidential debate focused on issues of racial justice. Black Lives Matter_sentence_391

The RNC, however, declined to alter their debate schedule, and instead also supported a townhall or forum. Black Lives Matter_sentence_392

In November 2015, a BLM protester was physically assaulted at a Donald Trump rally in Birmingham, Alabama. Black Lives Matter_sentence_393

In response, Trump said, "maybe he should have been roughed up because it was absolutely disgusting what he was doing." Black Lives Matter_sentence_394

Trump had previously threatened to fight any Black Lives Matter protesters if they attempted to speak at one of his events. Black Lives Matter_sentence_395

In March 2016, Black Lives Matter helped organize the 2016 Donald Trump Chicago rally protest that forced Trump to cancel the event. Black Lives Matter_sentence_396

Four individuals were arrested and charged in the incident. Black Lives Matter_sentence_397

Two were "charged with felony aggravated battery to a police officer and resisting arrest", one was "charged with two misdemeanor counts of resisting and obstructing a peace officer", and the fourth "was charged with one misdemeanor count of resisting and obstructing a peace officer". Black Lives Matter_sentence_398

A CBS reporter was one of those arrested outside the rally. Black Lives Matter_sentence_399

He was charged with resisting arrest. Black Lives Matter_sentence_400

General election Black Lives Matter_section_31

A group called Mothers of the Movement, which includes the mothers of Michael Brown, Sandra Bland, Eric Garner, and other mothers whose "unarmed African-American children have been killed by law enforcement or due to gun violence," addressed the 2016 Democratic National Convention on July 26. Black Lives Matter_sentence_401

Commenting on the first of 2016 presidential debates between Hillary Clinton and Donald Trump, some media outlets characterized Clinton's references to implicit bias and systemic racism as speaking "the language of the Black Lives Matter movement," while others pointed out neither Clinton nor Trump used the words "Black Lives Matter." Black Lives Matter_sentence_402

In a The Washington Post op-ed, DeRay Mckesson endorsed Hillary Clinton, because her "platform on racial justice is strong". Black Lives Matter_sentence_403

He articulated that voting alone is not the only way to bring about "transformational change". Black Lives Matter_sentence_404

He said that "I voted my entire life, and I was still tear-gassed in the streets of St. Louis and Baltimore. Black Lives Matter_sentence_405

I voted my entire life, and those votes did not convict the killers of Sandra Bland, Freddie Gray or Michael Brown". Black Lives Matter_sentence_406

Reactions Black Lives Matter_section_32

The United States population's perception of Black Lives Matter varies considerably by race; however, the majority of Americans, across all racial and ethnic groups, have expressed support for the movement. Black Lives Matter_sentence_407

A 2020 Pew Research Center poll found that 60% of white, 77% of Hispanic, 75% of Asian and 86% of African-Americans either "strongly support" or "somewhat support" BLM. Black Lives Matter_sentence_408

The phrase "All Lives Matter" sprang up as a response to the Black Lives Matter movement, but has been criticized for dismissing or misunderstanding the message of "Black Lives Matter". Black Lives Matter_sentence_409

Following the shooting of two police officers in Ferguson, the hashtag Blue Lives Matter was created by supporters of the police. Black Lives Matter_sentence_410

A few civil rights leaders have disagreed with tactics used by Black Lives Matter activists. Black Lives Matter_sentence_411

Public and academic debate at large has arisen over the structure and tactics used. Black Lives Matter_sentence_412

In the weeks following the death of George Floyd, many corporations came out in support of the movement, donating and enacting policy changes in accordance with group's ethos. Black Lives Matter_sentence_413

"All Lives Matter" Black Lives Matter_section_33

Main article: All Lives Matter Black Lives Matter_sentence_414

The phrase "All Lives Matter" sprang up as response to the Black Lives Matter movement, shortly after the movement gained national attention. Black Lives Matter_sentence_415

Several notable individuals have supported All Lives Matter. Black Lives Matter_sentence_416

Its proponents include Senator Tim Scott. Black Lives Matter_sentence_417

NFL cornerback Richard Sherman supports the All Lives Matter message, saying "I stand by what I said that All Lives Matter and that we are human beings." Black Lives Matter_sentence_418

According to an August 2015 telephone poll, 78% of likely American voters said that the statement "all lives matter" was closest to their own personal views when compared to "black lives matter" or neither. Black Lives Matter_sentence_419

Only 11% said that the statement "black lives matter" was closest. Black Lives Matter_sentence_420

Nine percent said that neither statement reflected their own personal point of view. Black Lives Matter_sentence_421

According to professor David Theo Goldberg, "All Lives Matter" reflects a view of "racial dismissal, ignoring, and denial". Black Lives Matter_sentence_422

Professor Charles "Chip" Linscott said that "All Lives Matter" promotes the "erasure of structural anti-black racism and black social death in the name of formal and ideological equality and post-racial colorblindness". Black Lives Matter_sentence_423

Black Lives Matter_table_infobox_1

External imageBlack Lives Matter_header_cell_1_0_0

Founders have responded to criticism of the movement's exclusivity, saying, "#BlackLivesMatter doesn't mean your life isn't important – it means that Black lives, which are seen without value within White supremacy, are important to your liberation." Black Lives Matter_sentence_424

President Barack Obama spoke to the debate between Black Lives Matter and All Lives Matter. Black Lives Matter_sentence_425

Obama said, "I think that the reason that the organizers used the phrase Black Lives Matter was not because they were suggesting that no one else's lives matter ... rather what they were suggesting was there is a specific problem that is happening in the African American community that's not happening in other communities." Black Lives Matter_sentence_426

He also said "that is a legitimate issue that we've got to address." Black Lives Matter_sentence_427

"Blue Lives Matter" Black Lives Matter_section_34

Main article: Blue Lives Matter Black Lives Matter_sentence_428

Blue Lives Matter is a countermovement in the United States advocating that those who are prosecuted and convicted of killing law enforcement officers should be sentenced under hate crime statutes. Black Lives Matter_sentence_429

It was started in response to Black Lives Matter after the homicides of NYPD officers Rafael Ramos and Wenjian Liu in Brooklyn, New York on December 20, 2014. Black Lives Matter_sentence_430

Following the shooting of two police officers in Ferguson and in response to BLM, the hashtag #BlueLivesMatter was created by supporters of the police. Black Lives Matter_sentence_431

Following this, Blue Lives Matter became a pro-police officer movement in the United States. Black Lives Matter_sentence_432

It expanded after the killings of American police officers. Black Lives Matter_sentence_433

Criticized by the ACLU and others, the movement inspired a state law in Louisiana that made it a hate crime to target police officers, firefighters, and emergency medical service personnel. Black Lives Matter_sentence_434

"White Student Union" Facebook groups Black Lives Matter_section_35

In response to BLM, Facebook pages emerged purporting to represent "White Student Unions" on college campuses in the United States. Black Lives Matter_sentence_435

The pages often promise a "safe space" for white students and condemn alleged anti-white racism on campus. Black Lives Matter_sentence_436

The New York Times reported in 2015: "Whether the Facebook groups were started by students at the universities or by an outside group seeking to stir up debate is unclear." Black Lives Matter_sentence_437

Representatives of the schools as well as some students have said that the groups do not represent their values. Black Lives Matter_sentence_438

Other students complained that attempts by the universities to remove these pages are a violation of free speech. Black Lives Matter_sentence_439

"White Lives Matter" Black Lives Matter_section_36

Main article: White Lives Matter Black Lives Matter_sentence_440

White Lives Matter is an activist group created in response to Black Lives Matter. Black Lives Matter_sentence_441

In August 2016, the Southern Poverty Law Center added "White Lives Matter" to its list of hate groups. Black Lives Matter_sentence_442

The group has also been active in the United Kingdom. Black Lives Matter_sentence_443

The "White Lives Matter" slogan was chanted by torch-wielding alt-right protesters during the 2017 Unite the Right rally in Charlottesville, Virginia. Black Lives Matter_sentence_444

On October 28, 2017, numerous "White Lives Matter" rallies broke out in Tennessee. Black Lives Matter_sentence_445

Dominated in Shelbyville particularly, protesters justified their movement in response to the increasing number of immigrants and refugees to Middle Tennessee. Black Lives Matter_sentence_446

"White Lives Matter" movements have also been present in European football, with instances of corresponding banners being raised at stadiums in the Czech Republic, Ukraine, Hungary, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom. Black Lives Matter_sentence_447

Disinformation Black Lives Matter_section_37

The Anti-Defamation League reports numerous attempts to spread disinformation about BLM, citing as examples mid-June 2020 posts "featuring a sticker instructing people to 'kill a white on sight' spread on Facebook and Twitter. Black Lives Matter_sentence_448

The sticker included the hashtags #BlackLivesMatter and #Antifa." Black Lives Matter_sentence_449

On Telegram, a "white supremacist channel encouraged members to distribute the propaganda." Black Lives Matter_sentence_450

Another disinformation campaign, originating in June 2020 on 4chan, had the "goal of getting the hashtags #AllWhitesAreNazis (#AWAN) trending on Twitter. Black Lives Matter_sentence_451

Organizers hoped to commandeer hashtags like #BlackLivesMatter and #BLM with a high volume of tweets—purportedly from Black activist accounts—containing the #AWAN hashtag." Black Lives Matter_sentence_452

According to experts, the campaign's supporters hoped to sow tension and promote white supremacist accelerationism. Black Lives Matter_sentence_453

According to scholars, Russian operatives associated with the Internet Research Agency have engaged in a sustained campaign to simultaneously promote the Black Lives Matter movement as well as to oppose it. Black Lives Matter_sentence_454

In some cases, Russian operatives encouraged antagonism and violence toward BLM members (see Russia and Black Lives Matter). Black Lives Matter_sentence_455

Fake manifesto Black Lives Matter_section_38

In June 2020, an unknown party created a website at BLMManifesto.com purporting to be the manifesto of the BLM movement. Black Lives Matter_sentence_456

The text mimics a 1919 Italian Fascist Manifesto, modified to relate to racial injustice. Black Lives Matter_sentence_457

According to Snopes, the website appears intended to discredit the BLM movement. Black Lives Matter_sentence_458

Statistics Black Lives Matter_section_39

The United States population's perception of Black Lives Matter varies considerably by race. Black Lives Matter_sentence_459

According to a September 2015 poll on race relations, nearly two-thirds of African Americans mostly agree with Black Lives Matter, while 42% of white Americans are unsure or do not have an opinion about Black Lives Matter. Black Lives Matter_sentence_460

Of white people surveyed, 41% thought that Black Lives Matter advocated violence, and 59% of whites thought that Black Lives Matter distracted attention from the real issues of racial discrimination. Black Lives Matter_sentence_461

By comparison, 84% of black people polled thought that Black Lives Matter was a nonviolent movement, and 26% of blacks thought that Black Lives Matter distracted attention from the real issues of racial discrimination. Black Lives Matter_sentence_462

On the question of whether "Black Lives Matter" was mostly a movement or mostly a slogan, 46% of whites and 67% of blacks thought that it is mostly a movement. Black Lives Matter_sentence_463

A nationally representative internet survey conducted by the Center for the Study of Diversity and Democracy at Northwestern University found that 82 percent of African Americans believe that the movement is at least moderately effective at achieving its stated goals, although 64 percent of the respondents believed that the movement would be more effective if it had a more centralized leadership structure. Black Lives Matter_sentence_464

A poll in June 2016 found that 65% of black American adults supported Black Lives Matter and 40% of white American adults support it. Black Lives Matter_sentence_465

Fifty-nine percent of black Americans thought that Black Lives Matter would "be effective, in the long run, in helping blacks achieve equality" and 34% of white Americans thought so. Black Lives Matter_sentence_466

A 2017 Harvard-Harris survey found that 35% of whites and 83% of blacks have a favorable view of the movement. Black Lives Matter_sentence_467

2020 Black Lives Matter_section_40

With the resurgence of Black Lives Matter in national headlines amid global protests, the movement has seen an increase in support in 2020. Black Lives Matter_sentence_468

Although they began from different perspectives, as per the New York Times' The Upshot, "all kinds of voters moved sharply in the direction of supporting the movement" just within the two weeks between late May and early June "as much as [they] had in the preceding two years." Black Lives Matter_sentence_469

Similarly, the Pew Research Center reports that "[m]ost Americans express support for the Black Lives Matter movement." Black Lives Matter_sentence_470

According to Terrance Woodbury, a researcher of attitudes among young adults, "[the] movement has evolved from Black people vs. the police to young people vs. Black Lives Matter_sentence_471

racism." Black Lives Matter_sentence_472

An online survey of people aged from 18-34 by the Global Strategy Group found broad support from the participants, except by those who identified as pro-Trump Republicans. Black Lives Matter_sentence_473

Opal Tometi theorizes that increased support was the result of economic anxiety and contempt for the American government's handling of the COVID-19 pandemic. Black Lives Matter_sentence_474

Protests led by Black Lives Matter eventually developed into a larger movement, with some crediting the organization as starting the early 21st-century civil rights movement and possibly "the largest movement in U.S. history". Black Lives Matter_sentence_475

Criticism Black Lives Matter_section_41

Tactics Black Lives Matter_section_42

Some black civil rights leaders such as Cecil "Chip" Murray, Najee Ali and Earl Ofari Hutchinson have criticized the tactics of BLM as disrespectful and ineffective, with Ali claiming "all they can do is disrupt and make noise." Black Lives Matter_sentence_476

Author and minister Barbara Ann Reynolds has criticized the confrontational tactics of BLM. Black Lives Matter_sentence_477

Economist Glenn Loury, while supportive of the fundamentals of the movement, has criticized public retribution against "White politicians who state All Lives Matter" and the apparent polarizing effects of the movement. Black Lives Matter_sentence_478

Disagreement over racial bias Black Lives Matter_section_43

David French, in a 2015 piece in the National Review, disagreed with Black Lives Matter's assertions of racial bias in police violence. Black Lives Matter_sentence_479

French later recanted this view, noting that since 2015 it had become clear that police violence was often underreported and describing his previous commentary on the subject as "contributing more to a particular partisan narrative than to a tough, clear-eyed search for truth". Black Lives Matter_sentence_480

A 2019 study in PNAS looked at fatal police shooting statistics from 2015 and concluded there was no racial disparity. Black Lives Matter_sentence_481

The study was used by right-wing commentators to attack the Black Lives Matter movement, starting with an opinion column written by Heather Mac Donald in June 2020. Black Lives Matter_sentence_482

The authors of the study retracted it one month later, saying that its "careless" conclusions had been misinterpreted by the media, and its methodology was too narrow to draw wide inferences. Black Lives Matter_sentence_483

Views on law enforcement Black Lives Matter_section_44

Some critics accuse Black Lives Matter of being anti-police. Black Lives Matter_sentence_484

Sgt. Demetrick Pennie of the Dallas Police Department filed an unsuccessful lawsuit against Black Lives Matter in September 2016, which accused the group of inciting a "race war." Black Lives Matter_sentence_485

Marchers using a BLM banner were recorded in a video chanting, "Pigs in a blanket, fry 'em like bacon" at the Minnesota State Fair. Black Lives Matter_sentence_486

Law enforcement groups said that the chant promotes death to police. Black Lives Matter_sentence_487

The protest organizer disputed that interpretation, saying "What we are promoting is that if black people who kill police officers are going to fry, then we want police officers to face the same treatment that we face as civilians for killing officers." Black Lives Matter_sentence_488

A North Carolina police chief retired after calling BLM a terrorist group. Black Lives Matter_sentence_489

A police officer in Oregon was removed from street duty following a social media post in which he said he would have to "babysit these fools", in reference to a planned BLM event. Black Lives Matter_sentence_490

Ferguson effect Black Lives Matter_section_45

See also: Ferguson effect Black Lives Matter_sentence_491

Sam Dotson, chief of the St. Black Lives Matter_sentence_492 Louis Police Department, coined the term "Ferguson effect" to describe what he believed was a change in enforcement behavior following the shooting of Michael Brown and subsequent unrest. Black Lives Matter_sentence_493

According to Dotson, his officers were less active in enforcing the law because they were afraid they might be charged with breaking the law. Black Lives Matter_sentence_494

FBI Director James Comey suggested that the Black Lives Matter movement is partly leading to a national rise in crime rates because police officers have pulled back from doing their jobs. Black Lives Matter_sentence_495

A study published by the United States Department of Justice said there was an increase in homicides in 56 large cities over the course of 2015 and examined the "Ferguson effect" as one of three plausible explanations. Black Lives Matter_sentence_496

Other researchers have looked for this "Ferguson effect" in the rise in crime rates and failed to find evidence for it on a national level. Black Lives Matter_sentence_497

A report over the increased homicide rate in St. Louis concluded there was an "absence of credible and comprehensive evidence" for the Ferguson effect being responsible for that city's homicide increase. Black Lives Matter_sentence_498

Lack of focus on intraracial violence Black Lives Matter_section_46

John McWhorter wrote that the Black Lives Matter movement had "done the nation a service" by bringing national attention to police killings of unarmed African Americans, and he encouraged it to expand its focus to include "black-on-black crime". Black Lives Matter_sentence_499

One response noted that there are already many movements active against violence within the black community. Black Lives Matter_sentence_500

Others have commented that it is reasonable to hold sworn police officers to higher standards than criminals. Black Lives Matter_sentence_501

It has also been pointed out that considerable resources are already deployed to combat violence by civilians (including intraracial violence), with most such acts resulting in efforts to prosecute the perpetrator; in contrast, very few cases of police violence result in criminal accusations, let alone convictions. Black Lives Matter_sentence_502

Others criticize the term 'black-on-black violence' as it may imply that such violence is due to the black race itself, as opposed to various confounding factors. Black Lives Matter_sentence_503

In reality, the proportion of intraracial murders is almost the same among blacks and whites in the United States with less than ten percentage points of difference in one-on-one attacks where the races were reported. Black Lives Matter_sentence_504

Insufficient focus on women Black Lives Matter_section_47

Women from within the Black Lives Matter movement, including professor and civil rights advocate Treva B. Lindsey, have argued that BLM has sidelined black women's experiences in favor of black men's experiences. Black Lives Matter_sentence_505

For example, more demonstrations have been organized to protest the killings of Michael Brown and Trayvon Martin than the killings of Kayla Moore or Rekia Boyd. Black Lives Matter_sentence_506

In response, Say Her Name was founded to focus specifically on the killing of black women by police and to bring their names into the Black Lives Matter protest. Black Lives Matter_sentence_507

Their stated goal is to offer a more complete, but not competing, narrative with the overall Black Lives Matter movement. Black Lives Matter_sentence_508

Financial transparency issues Black Lives Matter_section_48

Some observers have stated that the Black Lives Matter nonprofit does not adequately disclose what their financial contributions are spent on. Black Lives Matter_sentence_509

Executives from Black Lives Matter have denied that it uses ActBlue to donate to the Democratic National Committee. Black Lives Matter_sentence_510

In an AskReddit thread, Black Lives Matter indicated that their expenditures include "… civic engagement, expansion of chapters, Arts & Culture, organizing and digital advocacy resources and tools." Black Lives Matter_sentence_511

See also Black Lives Matter_section_49

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black Lives Matter.