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This article is about the music genre. Blues_sentence_0

For other uses, see Blues (disambiguation). Blues_sentence_1


Stylistic originsBlues_header_cell_0_1_0 Blues_cell_0_1_1
Cultural originsBlues_header_cell_0_2_0 1860s, Deep South, U.S.Blues_cell_0_2_1
Derivative formsBlues_header_cell_0_3_0 Blues_cell_0_3_1
Fusion genresBlues_header_cell_0_5_0
Regional scenesBlues_header_cell_0_6_0
Other topicsBlues_header_cell_0_7_0

Blues is a music genre and musical form which was originated in the Deep South of the United States around the 1860s by African-Americans from roots in African musical traditions, African-American work songs, and spirituals. Blues_sentence_2

Blues incorporated spirituals, work songs, field hollers, shouts, chants, and rhymed simple narrative ballads. Blues_sentence_3

The blues form, ubiquitous in jazz, rhythm and blues and rock and roll, is characterized by the call-and-response pattern, the blues scale and specific chord progressions, of which the twelve-bar blues is the most common. Blues_sentence_4

Blue notes (or "worried notes"), usually thirds, fifths or sevenths flattened in pitch are also an essential part of the sound. Blues_sentence_5

Blues shuffles or walking bass reinforce the trance-like rhythm and form a repetitive effect known as the groove. Blues_sentence_6

Blues as a genre is also characterized by its lyrics, bass lines, and instrumentation. Blues_sentence_7

Early traditional blues verses consisted of a single line repeated four times. Blues_sentence_8

It was only in the first decades of the 20th century that the most common current structure became standard: the AAB pattern, consisting of a line sung over the four first bars, its repetition over the next four, and then a longer concluding line over the last bars. Blues_sentence_9

Early blues frequently took the form of a loose narrative, often relating the racial discrimination and other challenges experienced by African-Americans. Blues_sentence_10

Many elements, such as the call-and-response format and the use of blue notes, can be traced back to the music of Africa. Blues_sentence_11

The origins of the blues are also closely related to the religious music of the Afro-American community, the spirituals. Blues_sentence_12

The first appearance of the blues is often dated to after the ending of slavery and, later, the development of juke joints. Blues_sentence_13

It is associated with the newly acquired freedom of the former slaves. Blues_sentence_14

Chroniclers began to report about blues music at the dawn of the 20th century. Blues_sentence_15

The first publication of blues sheet music was in 1908. Blues_sentence_16

Blues has since evolved from unaccompanied vocal music and oral traditions of slaves into a wide variety of styles and subgenres. Blues_sentence_17

Blues subgenres include country blues, such as Delta blues and Piedmont blues, as well as urban blues styles such as Chicago blues and West Coast blues. Blues_sentence_18

World War II marked the transition from acoustic to electric blues and the progressive opening of blues music to a wider audience, especially white listeners. Blues_sentence_19

In the 1960s and 1970s, a hybrid form called blues rock developed, which blended blues styles with rock music. Blues_sentence_20

Etymology Blues_section_0

The term Blues may have come from "blue devils", meaning melancholy and sadness; an early use of the term in this sense is in George Colman's one-act farce Blue Devils (1798). Blues_sentence_21

The phrase blue devils may also have been derived from Britain in the 1600s, when the term referred to the "intense visual hallucinations that can accompany severe alcohol withdrawal". Blues_sentence_22

As time went on, the phrase lost the reference to devils, and "it came to mean a state of agitation or depression." Blues_sentence_23

By the 1800s in the United States, the term blues was associated with drinking alcohol, a meaning which survives in the phrase blue law, which prohibits the sale of alcohol on Sunday. Blues_sentence_24

Though the use of the phrase in African-American music may be older, it has been attested to in print since 1912, when Hart Wand's "Dallas Blues" became the first copyrighted blues composition. Blues_sentence_25

In lyrics the phrase is often used to describe a depressed mood. Blues_sentence_26

It is in this sense of a sad state of mind that one of the earliest recorded references to "the blues" was written by Charlotte Forten, then aged 25, in her diary on December 14, 1862. Blues_sentence_27

She was a free-born black from Pennsylvania who was working as a schoolteacher in South Carolina, instructing both slaves and freedmen, and wrote that she "came home with the blues" because she felt lonesome and pitied herself. Blues_sentence_28

She overcame her depression and later noted a number of songs, such as Poor Rosy, that were popular among the slaves. Blues_sentence_29

Although she admitted being unable to describe the manner of singing she heard, Forten wrote that the songs "can't be sung without a full heart and a troubled spirit", conditions that have inspired countless blues songs. Blues_sentence_30

Lyrics Blues_section_1

The lyrics of early traditional blues verses probably often consisted of a single line repeated four times. Blues_sentence_31

It was only in the first decades of the 20th century that the most common current structure became standard: the so-called "AAB" pattern, consisting of a line sung over the four first bars, its repetition over the next four, and then a longer concluding line over the last bars. Blues_sentence_32

Two of the first published blues songs, "Dallas Blues" (1912) and "Saint Louis Blues" (1914), were 12-bar blues with the AAB lyric structure. Blues_sentence_33

W.C. Blues_sentence_34 Handy wrote that he adopted this convention to avoid the monotony of lines repeated three times. Blues_sentence_35

The lines are often sung following a pattern closer to rhythmic talk than to a melody. Blues_sentence_36

Early blues frequently took the form of a loose narrative. Blues_sentence_37

African-American singers voiced his or her "personal woes in a world of harsh reality: a lost love, the cruelty of police officers, oppression at the hands of white folk, [and] hard times". Blues_sentence_38

This melancholy has led to the suggestion of an Igbo origin for blues because of the reputation the Igbo had throughout plantations in the Americas for their melancholic music and outlook on life when they were enslaved. Blues_sentence_39

The lyrics often relate troubles experienced within African American society. Blues_sentence_40

For instance Blind Lemon Jefferson's "Rising High Water Blues" (1927) tells of the Great Mississippi Flood of 1927: Blues_sentence_41

Although the blues gained an association with misery and oppression, the lyrics could also be humorous and raunchy: Blues_sentence_42

Hokum blues celebrated both comedic lyrical content and a boisterous, farcical performance style. Blues_sentence_43

Tampa Red's classic "Tight Like That" (1928) is a sly wordplay with the double meaning of being "tight" with someone coupled with a more salacious physical familiarity. Blues_sentence_44

Blues songs with sexually explicit lyrics were known as dirty blues. Blues_sentence_45

The lyrical content became slightly simpler in postwar blues, which tended to focus on relationship woes or sexual worries. Blues_sentence_46

Lyrical themes that frequently appeared in prewar blues, such as economic depression, farming, devils, gambling, magic, floods and drought, were less common in postwar blues. Blues_sentence_47

The writer Ed Morales claimed that Yoruba mythology played a part in early blues, citing Robert Johnson's "Cross Road Blues" as a "thinly veiled reference to Eleggua, the orisha in charge of the crossroads". Blues_sentence_48

However, the Christian influence was far more obvious. Blues_sentence_49

The repertoires of many seminal blues artists, such as Charley Patton and Skip James, included religious songs or spirituals. Blues_sentence_50

Reverend Gary Davis and Blind Willie Johnson are examples of artists often categorized as blues musicians for their music, although their lyrics clearly belong to spirituals. Blues_sentence_51

Form Blues_section_2

The blues form is a cyclic musical form in which a repeating progression of chords mirrors the call and response scheme commonly found in African and African-American music. Blues_sentence_52

During the first decades of the 20th century blues music was not clearly defined in terms of a particular chord progression. Blues_sentence_53

With the popularity of early performers, such as Bessie Smith, use of the twelve-bar blues spread across the music industry during the 1920s and 30s. Blues_sentence_54

Other chord progressions, such as 8-bar forms, are still considered blues; examples include "How Long Blues", "Trouble in Mind", and Big Bill Broonzy's "Key to the Highway". Blues_sentence_55

There are also 16-bar blues, such as Ray Charles's instrumental "Sweet 16 Bars" and Herbie Hancock's "Watermelon Man". Blues_sentence_56

Idiosyncratic numbers of bars are occasionally used, such as the 9-bar progression in "Sitting on Top of the World", by Walter Vinson. Blues_sentence_57

The basic 12-bar lyric framework of a blues composition is reflected by a standard harmonic progression of 12 bars in a 4/4 time signature. Blues_sentence_58

The blues chords associated to a twelve-bar blues are typically a set of three different chords played over a 12-bar scheme. Blues_sentence_59

They are labeled by Roman numbers referring to the degrees of the progression. Blues_sentence_60

For instance, for a blues in the key of C, C is the tonic chord (I) and F is the subdominant (IV). Blues_sentence_61

The last chord is the dominant (V) turnaround, marking the transition to the beginning of the next progression. Blues_sentence_62

The lyrics generally end on the last beat of the tenth bar or the first beat of the 11th bar, and the final two bars are given to the instrumentalist as a break; the harmony of this two-bar break, the turnaround, can be extremely complex, sometimes consisting of single notes that defy analysis in terms of chords. Blues_sentence_63

Much of the time, some or all of these chords are played in the harmonic seventh (7th) form. Blues_sentence_64

The use of the harmonic seventh interval is characteristic of blues and is popularly called the "blues seven". Blues_sentence_65

Blues seven chords add to the harmonic chord a note with a frequency in a 7:4 ratio to the fundamental note. Blues_sentence_66

At a 7:4 ratio, it is not close to any interval on the conventional Western diatonic scale. Blues_sentence_67

For convenience or by necessity it is often approximated by a minor seventh interval or a dominant seventh chord. Blues_sentence_68

In melody, blues is distinguished by the use of the flattened third, fifth and seventh of the associated major scale. Blues_sentence_69

Blues shuffles or walking bass reinforce the trance-like rhythm and call-and-response, and they form a repetitive effect called a groove. Blues_sentence_70

Characteristic of the blues since its Afro-American origins, the shuffles played a central role in swing music. Blues_sentence_71

The simplest shuffles, which were the clearest signature of the R&B wave that started in the mid-1940s, were a three-note riff on the bass strings of the guitar. Blues_sentence_72

When this riff was played over the bass and the drums, the groove "feel" was created. Blues_sentence_73

Shuffle rhythm is often vocalized as "dow, da dow, da dow, da" or "dump, da dump, da dump, da": it consists of uneven, or "swung", eighth notes. Blues_sentence_74

On a guitar this may be played as a simple steady bass or it may add to that stepwise quarter note motion from the fifth to the sixth of the chord and back. Blues_sentence_75

History Blues_section_3

Origins Blues_section_4

Main article: Origins of the blues Blues_sentence_76

The first publication of blues sheet music may have been "I Got the Blues", published by New Orleans musician Antonio Maggio in 1908 and described as "the earliest published composition known to link the condition of having the blues to the musical form that would become popularly known as 'the blues.'" Blues_sentence_77

Hart Wand's "Dallas Blues" was published in 1912; W.C. Blues_sentence_78 Handy's "The Memphis Blues" followed in the same year. Blues_sentence_79

The first recording by an African American singer was Mamie Smith's 1920 rendition of Perry Bradford's "Crazy Blues". Blues_sentence_80

But the origins of the blues were some decades earlier, probably around 1890. Blues_sentence_81

This music is poorly documented, partly because of racial discrimination in U.S. society, including academic circles, and partly because of the low rate of literacy among rural African Americans at the time. Blues_sentence_82

Reports of blues music in southern Texas and the Deep South were written at the dawn of the 20th century. Blues_sentence_83

Charles Peabody mentioned the appearance of blues music at Clarksdale, Mississippi, and Gate Thomas reported similar songs in southern Texas around 1901–1902. Blues_sentence_84

These observations coincide more or less with the recollections of Jelly Roll Morton, who said he first heard blues music in New Orleans in 1902; Ma Rainey, who remembered first hearing the blues in the same year in Missouri; and W.C. Blues_sentence_85 Handy, who first heard the blues in Tutwiler, Mississippi, in 1903. Blues_sentence_86

The first extensive research in the field was performed by Howard W. Odum, who published an anthology of folk songs from Lafayette County, Mississippi, and Newton County, Georgia, between 1905 and 1908. Blues_sentence_87

The first noncommercial recordings of blues music, termed proto-blues by Paul Oliver, were made by Odum for research purposes at the very beginning of the 20th century. Blues_sentence_88

They are now lost. Blues_sentence_89

Other recordings that are still available were made in 1924 by Lawrence Gellert. Blues_sentence_90

Later, several recordings were made by Robert W. Gordon, who became head of the Archive of American Folk Songs of the Library of Congress. Blues_sentence_91

Gordon's successor at the library was John Lomax. Blues_sentence_92

In the 1930s, Lomax and his son Alan made a large number of non-commercial blues recordings that testify to the huge variety of proto-blues styles, such as field hollers and ring shouts. Blues_sentence_93

A record of blues music as it existed before 1920 can also be found in the recordings of artists such as Lead Belly and Henry Thomas. Blues_sentence_94

All these sources show the existence of many different structures distinct from twelve-, eight-, or sixteen-bar. Blues_sentence_95

The social and economic reasons for the appearance of the blues are not fully known. Blues_sentence_96

The first appearance of the blues is usually dated after the Emancipation Act of 1863, between 1860s and 1890s, a period that coincides with post-emancipation and later, the establishment of juke joints as places where blacks went to listen to music, dance, or gamble after a hard day's work. Blues_sentence_97

This period corresponds to the transition from slavery to sharecropping, small-scale agricultural production, and the expansion of railroads in the southern United States. Blues_sentence_98

Several scholars characterize the development of blues music in the early 1900s as a move from group performance to individualized performance. Blues_sentence_99

They argue that the development of the blues is associated with the newly acquired freedom of the enslaved people. Blues_sentence_100

According to Lawrence Levine, "there was a direct relationship between the national ideological emphasis upon the individual, the popularity of Booker T. Washington's teachings, and the rise of the blues." Blues_sentence_101

Levine stated that "psychologically, socially, and economically, African-Americans were being acculturated in a way that would have been impossible during slavery, and it is hardly surprising that their secular music reflected this as much as their religious music did." Blues_sentence_102

There are few characteristics common to all blues music, because the genre took its shape from the idiosyncrasies of individual performers. Blues_sentence_103

However, there are some characteristics that were present long before the creation of the modern blues. Blues_sentence_104

Call-and-response shouts were an early form of blues-like music; they were a "functional expression ... style without accompaniment or harmony and unbounded by the formality of any particular musical structure". Blues_sentence_105

A form of this pre-blues was heard in slave ring shouts and field hollers, expanded into "simple solo songs laden with emotional content". Blues_sentence_106

Blues has evolved from the unaccompanied vocal music and oral traditions of slaves imported from West Africa and rural blacks into a wide variety of styles and subgenres, with regional variations across the United States. Blues_sentence_107

Although blues (as it is now known) can be seen as a musical style based on both European harmonic structure and the African call-and-response tradition that transformed into an interplay of voice and guitar, the blues form itself bears no resemblance to the melodic styles of the West African griots. Blues_sentence_108

Additionally, there are theories that the four-beats-per-measure structure of the blues might have its origins in the Native American tradition of pow wow drumming. Blues_sentence_109

No specific African musical form can be identified as the single direct ancestor of the blues. Blues_sentence_110

However the call-and-response format can be traced back to the music of Africa. Blues_sentence_111

That blue notes predate their use in blues and have an African origin is attested to by "A Negro Love Song", by the English composer Samuel Coleridge-Taylor, from his African Suite for Piano, written in 1898, which contains blue third and seventh notes. Blues_sentence_112

The Diddley bow (a homemade one-stringed instrument found in parts of the American South in the early twentieth century) and the banjo are African-derived instruments that may have helped in the transfer of African performance techniques into the early blues instrumental vocabulary. Blues_sentence_113

The banjo seems to be directly imported from West African music. Blues_sentence_114

It is similar to the musical instrument that griots and other Africans such as the Igbo played (called halam or akonting by African peoples such as the Wolof, Fula and Mandinka). Blues_sentence_115

However, in the 1920s, when country blues began to be recorded, the use of the banjo in blues music was quite marginal and limited to individuals such as Papa Charlie Jackson and later Gus Cannon. Blues_sentence_116

Blues music also adopted elements from the "Ethiopian airs", minstrel shows and Negro spirituals, including instrumental and harmonic accompaniment. Blues_sentence_117

The style also was closely related to ragtime, which developed at about the same time, though the blues better preserved "the original melodic patterns of African music". Blues_sentence_118

The musical forms and styles that are now considered the blues as well as modern country music arose in the same regions of the southern United States during the 19th century. Blues_sentence_119

Recorded blues and country music can be found as far back as the 1920s, when the record industry created the marketing categories "race music" and "hillbilly music" to sell music by blacks for blacks and by whites for whites, respectively. Blues_sentence_120

At the time, there was no clear musical division between "blues" and "country", except for the ethnicity of the performer, and even that was sometimes documented incorrectly by record companies. Blues_sentence_121

Though musicologists can now attempt to define the blues narrowly in terms of certain chord structures and lyric forms thought to have originated in West Africa, audiences originally heard the music in a far more general way: it was simply the music of the rural south, notably the Mississippi Delta. Blues_sentence_122

Black and white musicians shared the same repertoire and thought of themselves as "songsters" rather than blues musicians. Blues_sentence_123

The notion of blues as a separate genre arose during the black migration from the countryside to urban areas in the 1920s and the simultaneous development of the recording industry. Blues_sentence_124

Blues became a code word for a record designed to sell to black listeners. Blues_sentence_125

The origins of the blues are closely related to the religious music of Afro-American community, the spirituals. Blues_sentence_126

The origins of spirituals go back much further than the blues, usually dating back to the middle of the 18th century, when the slaves were Christianized and began to sing and play Christian hymns, in particular those of Isaac Watts, which were very popular. Blues_sentence_127

Before the blues gained its formal definition in terms of chord progressions, it was defined as the secular counterpart of spirituals. Blues_sentence_128

It was the low-down music played by rural blacks. Blues_sentence_129

Depending on the religious community a musician belonged to, it was more or less considered a sin to play this low-down music: blues was the devil's music. Blues_sentence_130

Musicians were therefore segregated into two categories: gospel singers and blues singers, guitar preachers and songsters. Blues_sentence_131

However, when rural black music began to be recorded in the 1920s, both categories of musicians used similar techniques: call-and-response patterns, blue notes, and slide guitars. Blues_sentence_132

Gospel music was nevertheless using musical forms that were compatible with Christian hymns and therefore less marked by the blues form than its secular counterpart. Blues_sentence_133

Prewar blues Blues_section_5

The American sheet music publishing industry produced a great deal of ragtime music. Blues_sentence_134

By 1912, the sheet music industry had published three popular blues-like compositions, precipitating the Tin Pan Alley adoption of blues elements: "Baby Seals' Blues", by "Baby" Franklin Seals (arranged by Artie Matthews); "Dallas Blues", by Hart Wand; and "The Memphis Blues", by W.C. Blues_sentence_135 Handy. Blues_sentence_136

Handy was a formally trained musician, composer and arranger who helped to popularize the blues by transcribing and orchestrating blues in an almost symphonic style, with bands and singers. Blues_sentence_137

He became a popular and prolific composer, and billed himself as the "Father of the Blues"; however, his compositions can be described as a fusion of blues with ragtime and jazz, a merger facilitated using the Cuban habanera rhythm that had long been a part of ragtime; Handy's signature work was the "Saint Louis Blues". Blues_sentence_138

In the 1920s, the blues became a major element of African American and American popular music, reaching white audiences via Handy's arrangements and the classic female blues performers. Blues_sentence_139

The blues evolved from informal performances in bars to entertainment in theaters. Blues_sentence_140

Blues performances were organized by the Theater Owners Bookers Association in nightclubs such as the Cotton Club and juke joints such as the bars along Beale Street in Memphis. Blues_sentence_141

Several record companies, such as the American Record Corporation, Okeh Records, and Paramount Records, began to record African-American music. Blues_sentence_142

As the recording industry grew, country blues performers like Bo Carter, Jimmie Rodgers (country singer), Blind Lemon Jefferson, Lonnie Johnson, Tampa Red and Blind Blake became more popular in the African American community. Blues_sentence_143

Kentucky-born Sylvester Weaver was in 1923 the first to record the slide guitar style, in which a guitar is fretted with a knife blade or the sawed-off neck of a bottle. Blues_sentence_144

The slide guitar became an important part of the Delta blues. Blues_sentence_145

The first blues recordings from the 1920s are categorized as a traditional, rural country blues and a more polished city or urban blues. Blues_sentence_146

Country blues performers often improvised, either without accompaniment or with only a banjo or guitar. Blues_sentence_147

Regional styles of country blues varied widely in the early 20th century. Blues_sentence_148

The (Mississippi) Delta blues was a rootsy sparse style with passionate vocals accompanied by slide guitar. Blues_sentence_149

The little-recorded Robert Johnson combined elements of urban and rural blues. Blues_sentence_150

In addition to Robert Johnson, influential performers of this style included his predecessors Charley Patton and Son House. Blues_sentence_151

Singers such as Blind Willie McTell and Blind Boy Fuller performed in the southeastern "delicate and lyrical" Piedmont blues tradition, which used an elaborate ragtime-based fingerpicking guitar technique. Blues_sentence_152

Georgia also had an early slide tradition, with Curley Weaver, Tampa Red, "Barbecue Bob" Hicks and James "Kokomo" Arnold as representatives of this style. Blues_sentence_153

The lively Memphis blues style, which developed in the 1920s and 1930s near Memphis, Tennessee, was influenced by jug bands such as the Memphis Jug Band or the Gus Cannon's Jug Stompers. Blues_sentence_154

Performers such as Frank Stokes, Sleepy John Estes, Robert Wilkins, Joe McCoy, Casey Bill Weldon and Memphis Minnie used a variety of unusual instruments such as washboard, fiddle, kazoo or mandolin. Blues_sentence_155

Memphis Minnie was famous for her virtuoso guitar style. Blues_sentence_156

Pianist Memphis Slim began his career in Memphis, but his distinct style was smoother and had some swing elements. Blues_sentence_157

Many blues musicians based in Memphis moved to Chicago in the late 1930s or early 1940s and became part of the urban blues movement. Blues_sentence_158

Urban blues Blues_section_6

City or urban blues styles were more codified and elaborate, as a performer was no longer within their local, immediate community, and had to adapt to a larger, more varied audience's aesthetic. Blues_sentence_159

Classic female urban and vaudeville blues singers were popular in the 1920s, among them "the big three"—Gertrude "Ma" Rainey, Bessie Smith, and Lucille Bogan. Blues_sentence_160

Mamie Smith, more a vaudeville performer than a blues artist, was the first African American to record a blues song in 1920; her second record, "Crazy Blues", sold 75,000 copies in its first month. Blues_sentence_161

Ma Rainey, the "Mother of Blues", and Bessie Smith each "[sang] around center tones, perhaps in order to project her voice more easily to the back of a room". Blues_sentence_162

Smith would "sing a song in an unusual key, and her artistry in bending and stretching notes with her beautiful, powerful contralto to accommodate her own interpretation was unsurpassed". Blues_sentence_163

In 1920 the vaudeville singer Lucille Hegamin became the second black woman to record blues when she recorded "The Jazz Me Blues", and Victoria Spivey, sometimes called Queen Victoria or Za Zu Girl, had a recording career that began in 1926 and spanned forty years. Blues_sentence_164

These recordings were typically labeled "race records" to distinguish them from records sold to white audiences. Blues_sentence_165

Nonetheless, the recordings of some of the classic female blues singers were purchased by white buyers as well. Blues_sentence_166

These blueswomen's contributions to the genre included "increased improvisation on melodic lines, unusual phrasing which altered the emphasis and impact of the lyrics, and vocal dramatics using shouts, groans, moans, and wails. Blues_sentence_167

The blues women thus effected changes in other types of popular singing that had spin-offs in jazz, Broadway musicals, torch songs of the 1930s and 1940s, gospel, rhythm and blues, and eventually rock and roll." Blues_sentence_168

Urban male performers included popular black musicians of the era, such as Tampa Red, Big Bill Broonzy and Leroy Carr. Blues_sentence_169

An important label of this era was the Chicago-based Bluebird Records. Blues_sentence_170

Before World War II, Tampa Red was sometimes referred to as "the Guitar Wizard". Blues_sentence_171

Carr accompanied himself on the piano with Scrapper Blackwell on guitar, a format that continued well into the 1950s with artists such as Charles Brown and even Nat "King" Cole. Blues_sentence_172

Boogie-woogie was another important style of 1930s and early 1940s urban blues. Blues_sentence_173

While the style is often associated with solo piano, boogie-woogie was also used to accompany singers and, as a solo part, in bands and small combos. Blues_sentence_174

Boogie-Woogie style was characterized by a regular bass figure, an ostinato or riff and shifts of level in the left hand, elaborating each chord and trills and decorations in the right hand. Blues_sentence_175

Boogie-woogie was pioneered by the Chicago-based Jimmy Yancey and the Boogie-Woogie Trio (Albert Ammons, Pete Johnson and Meade Lux Lewis). Blues_sentence_176

Chicago boogie-woogie performers included Clarence "Pine Top" Smith and Earl Hines, who "linked the propulsive left-hand rhythms of the ragtime pianists with melodic figures similar to those of Armstrong's trumpet in the right hand". Blues_sentence_177

The smooth Louisiana style of Professor Longhair and, more recently, Dr. Blues_sentence_178 John blends classic rhythm and blues with blues styles. Blues_sentence_179

Another development in this period was big band blues. Blues_sentence_180

The "territory bands" operating out of Kansas City, the Bennie Moten orchestra, Jay McShann, and the Count Basie Orchestra were also concentrating on the blues, with 12-bar blues instrumentals such as Basie's "One O'Clock Jump" and "Jumpin' at the Woodside" and boisterous "blues shouting" by Jimmy Rushing on songs such as "Going to Chicago" and "Sent for You Yesterday". Blues_sentence_181

A well-known big band blues tune is Glenn Miller's "In the Mood". Blues_sentence_182

In the 1940s, the jump blues style developed. Blues_sentence_183

Jump blues grew up from the boogie woogie wave and was strongly influenced by big band music. Blues_sentence_184

It uses saxophone or other brass instruments and the guitar in the rhythm section to create a jazzy, up-tempo sound with declamatory vocals. Blues_sentence_185

Jump blues tunes by Louis Jordan and Big Joe Turner, based in Kansas City, Missouri, influenced the development of later styles such as rock and roll and rhythm and blues. Blues_sentence_186

Dallas-born T-Bone Walker, who is often associated with the California blues style, performed a successful transition from the early urban blues à la Lonnie Johnson and Leroy Carr to the jump blues style and dominated the blues-jazz scene at Los Angeles during the 1940s. Blues_sentence_187

1950s Blues_section_7

The transition from country blues to urban blues that began in the 1920s was driven by the successive waves of economic crisis and booms that led many rural blacks to move to urban areas, in a movement known as the Great Migration. Blues_sentence_188

The long boom following World War II induced another massive migration of the African-American population, the Second Great Migration, which was accompanied by a significant increase of the real income of the urban blacks. Blues_sentence_189

The new migrants constituted a new market for the music industry. Blues_sentence_190

The term race record, initially used by the music industry for African-American music, was replaced by the term rhythm and blues. Blues_sentence_191

This rapidly evolving market was mirrored by Billboard magazine's Rhythm and Blues chart. Blues_sentence_192

This marketing strategy reinforced trends in urban blues music such as the use of electric instruments and amplification and the generalization of the blues beat, the blues shuffle, which became ubiquitous in rhythm and blues (R&B). Blues_sentence_193

This commercial stream had important consequences for blues music, which, together with jazz and gospel music, became a component of R&B. Blues_sentence_194

After World War II, new styles of electric blues became popular in cities such as Chicago, Memphis, Detroit and St. Blues_sentence_195 Louis. Blues_sentence_196

Electric blues used electric guitars, double bass (gradually replaced by bass guitar), drums, and harmonica (or "blues harp") played through a microphone and a PA system or an overdriven guitar amplifier. Blues_sentence_197

Chicago became a center for electric blues from 1948 on, when Muddy Waters recorded his first success, "I Can't Be Satisfied". Blues_sentence_198

Chicago blues is influenced to a large extent by Delta blues, because many performers had migrated from the Mississippi region. Blues_sentence_199

Howlin' Wolf, Muddy Waters, Willie Dixon and Jimmy Reed were all born in Mississippi and moved to Chicago during the Great Migration. Blues_sentence_200

Their style is characterized by the use of electric guitar, sometimes slide guitar, harmonica, and a rhythm section of bass and drums. Blues_sentence_201

The saxophonist J. Blues_sentence_202 T. Brown played in bands led by Elmore James and by J. Blues_sentence_203 B. Lenoir, but the saxophone was used as a backing instrument for rhythmic support more than as a lead instrument. Blues_sentence_204

Little Walter, Sonny Boy Williamson (Rice Miller) and Sonny Terry are well known harmonica (called "harp" by blues musicians) players of the early Chicago blues scene. Blues_sentence_205

Other harp players such as Big Walter Horton were also influential. Blues_sentence_206

Muddy Waters and Elmore James were known for their innovative use of slide electric guitar. Blues_sentence_207

Howlin' Wolf and Muddy Waters were known for their deep, "gravelly" voices. Blues_sentence_208

The bassist and prolific songwriter and composer Willie Dixon played a major role on the Chicago blues scene. Blues_sentence_209

He composed and wrote many standard blues songs of the period, such as "Hoochie Coochie Man", "I Just Want to Make Love to You" (both penned for Muddy Waters) and, "Wang Dang Doodle" and "Back Door Man" for Howlin' Wolf. Blues_sentence_210

Most artists of the Chicago blues style recorded for the Chicago-based Chess Records and Checker Records labels. Blues_sentence_211

Smaller blues labels of this era included Vee-Jay Records and J.O.B. Blues_sentence_212 Records. Blues_sentence_213

During the early 1950s, the dominating Chicago labels were challenged by Sam Phillips' Sun Records company in Memphis, which recorded B. Blues_sentence_214 B. Blues_sentence_215 King and Howlin' Wolf before he moved to Chicago in 1960. Blues_sentence_216

After Phillips discovered Elvis Presley in 1954, the Sun label turned to the rapidly expanding white audience and started recording mostly rock 'n' roll. Blues_sentence_217

In the 1950s, blues had a huge influence on mainstream American popular music. Blues_sentence_218

While popular musicians like Bo Diddley and Chuck Berry, both recording for Chess, were influenced by the Chicago blues, their enthusiastic playing styles departed from the melancholy aspects of blues. Blues_sentence_219

Chicago blues also influenced Louisiana's zydeco music, with Clifton Chenier using blues accents. Blues_sentence_220

Zydeco musicians used electric solo guitar and cajun arrangements of blues standards. Blues_sentence_221

In England, electric blues took root there during a much acclaimed Muddy Waters tour in 1958. Blues_sentence_222

Waters, unsuspecting of his audience's tendency towards skiffle, an acoustic, softer brand of blues, turned up his amp and started to play his Chicago brand of electric blues. Blues_sentence_223

Although the audience was largely jolted by the performance, the performance influenced local musicians such as Alexis Korner and Cyril Davies to emulate this louder style, inspiring the British invasion of the Rolling Stones and the Yardbirds. Blues_sentence_224

In the late 1950s, a new blues style emerged on Chicago's West Side pioneered by Magic Sam, Buddy Guy and Otis Rush on Cobra Records. Blues_sentence_225

The "West Side sound" had strong rhythmic support from a rhythm guitar, bass guitar and drums and as perfected by Guy, Freddie King, Magic Slim and Luther Allison was dominated by amplified electric lead guitar. Blues_sentence_226

Expressive guitar solos were a key feature of this music. Blues_sentence_227

Other blues artists, such as John Lee Hooker had influences not directly related to the Chicago style. Blues_sentence_228

John Lee Hooker's blues is more "personal", based on Hooker's deep rough voice accompanied by a single electric guitar. Blues_sentence_229

Though not directly influenced by boogie woogie, his "groovy" style is sometimes called "guitar boogie". Blues_sentence_230

His first hit, "Boogie Chillen", reached number 1 on the R&B charts in 1949. Blues_sentence_231

By the late 1950s, the swamp blues genre developed near Baton Rouge, with performers such as Lightnin' Slim, Slim Harpo, Sam Myers and Jerry McCain around the producer J. Blues_sentence_232 D. "Jay" Miller and the Excello label. Blues_sentence_233

Strongly influenced by Jimmy Reed, swamp blues has a slower pace and a simpler use of the harmonica than the Chicago blues style performers such as Little Walter or Muddy Waters. Blues_sentence_234

Songs from this genre include "Scratch my Back", "She's Tough" and "I'm a King Bee". Blues_sentence_235

Alan Lomax's recordings of Mississippi Fred McDowell would eventually bring him wider attention on both the blues and folk circuit, with McDowell's droning style influencing North Mississippi hill country blues musicians. Blues_sentence_236

1960s and 1970s Blues_section_8

By the beginning of the 1960s, genres influenced by African American music such as rock and roll and soul were part of mainstream popular music. Blues_sentence_237

White performers such as the Beatles had brought African-American music to new audiences, both within the U.S. and abroad. Blues_sentence_238

However, the blues wave that brought artists such as Muddy Waters to the foreground had stopped. Blues_sentence_239

Bluesmen such as Big Bill Broonzy and Willie Dixon started looking for new markets in Europe. Blues_sentence_240

Dick Waterman and the blues festivals he organized in Europe played a major role in propagating blues music abroad. Blues_sentence_241

In the UK, bands emulated U.S. blues legends, and UK blues rock-based bands had an influential role throughout the 1960s. Blues_sentence_242

Blues performers such as John Lee Hooker and Muddy Waters continued to perform to enthusiastic audiences, inspiring new artists steeped in traditional blues, such as New York–born Taj Mahal. Blues_sentence_243

John Lee Hooker blended his blues style with rock elements and playing with younger white musicians, creating a musical style that can be heard on the 1971 album Endless Boogie. Blues_sentence_244

B. Blues_sentence_245 B. Blues_sentence_246 King's singing and virtuoso guitar technique earned him the eponymous title "king of the blues". Blues_sentence_247

King introduced a sophisticated style of guitar soloing based on fluid string bending and shimmering vibrato that influenced many later electric blues guitarists. Blues_sentence_248

In contrast to the Chicago style, King's band used strong brass support from a saxophone, trumpet, and trombone, instead of using slide guitar or harp. Blues_sentence_249

Tennessee-born Bobby "Blue" Bland, like B. Blues_sentence_250

B. Blues_sentence_251

King, also straddled the blues and R&B genres. Blues_sentence_252

During this period, Freddie King and Albert King often played with rock and soul musicians (Eric Clapton and Booker T & the MGs) and had a major influence on those styles of music. Blues_sentence_253

The music of the civil rights movement and Free Speech Movement in the U.S. prompted a resurgence of interest in American roots music and early African American music. Blues_sentence_254

As well festivals such as the Newport Folk Festival brought traditional blues to a new audience, which helped to revive interest in prewar acoustic blues and performers such as Son House, Mississippi John Hurt, Skip James, and Reverend Gary Davis. Blues_sentence_255

Many compilations of classic prewar blues were republished by the Yazoo Records. Blues_sentence_256

J. Blues_sentence_257 B. Lenoir from the Chicago blues movement in the 1950s recorded several LPs using acoustic guitar, sometimes accompanied by Willie Dixon on the acoustic bass or drums. Blues_sentence_258

His songs, originally distributed only in Europe, commented on political issues such as racism or Vietnam War issues, which was unusual for this period. Blues_sentence_259

His album Alabama Blues contained a song with the following lyric: Blues_sentence_260

White audiences' interest in the blues during the 1960s increased due to the Chicago-based Paul Butterfield Blues Band featuring guitarist Michael Bloomfield, and the British blues movement. Blues_sentence_261

The style of British blues developed in the UK, when bands such as the Animals, Fleetwood Mac, John Mayall & the Bluesbreakers, the Rolling Stones, the Yardbirds, the supergroup Cream and the Irish musician Rory Gallagher performed classic blues songs from the Delta or Chicago blues traditions. Blues_sentence_262

In 1963, LeRoi Jones, later known as Amiri Baraka, was the first to write a book on the social history of the blues in Blues People: The Negro Music in White America. Blues_sentence_263

The British and blues musicians of the early 1960s inspired a number of American blues rock fusion performers, including the Doors, Canned Heat, the early Jefferson Airplane, Janis Joplin, Johnny Winter, The J. Geils Band, Ry Cooder, and the Allman Brothers Band. Blues_sentence_264

One blues rock performer, Jimi Hendrix, was a rarity in his field at the time: a black man who played psychedelic rock. Blues_sentence_265

Hendrix was a skilled guitarist, and a pioneer in the innovative use of distortion and audio feedback in his music. Blues_sentence_266

Through these artists and others, blues music influenced the development of rock music. Blues_sentence_267

In the early 1970s, the Texas rock-blues style emerged, which used guitars in both solo and rhythm roles. Blues_sentence_268

In contrast with the West Side blues, the Texas style is strongly influenced by the British rock-blues movement. Blues_sentence_269

Major artists of the Texas style are Johnny Winter, Stevie Ray Vaughan, the Fabulous Thunderbirds (led by harmonica player and singer-songwriter Kim Wilson), and ZZ Top. Blues_sentence_270

These artists all began their musical careers in the 1970s but they did not achieve international success until the next decade. Blues_sentence_271

1980s to the present Blues_section_9

Since the 1980s there has been a resurgence of interest in the blues among a certain part of the African-American population, particularly around Jackson, Mississippi and other deep South regions. Blues_sentence_272

Often termed "soul blues" or "Southern soul", the music at the heart of this movement was given new life by the unexpected success of two particular recordings on the Jackson-based Malaco label: Z. Blues_sentence_273 Z. Hill's Down Home Blues (1982) and Little Milton's The Blues is Alright (1984). Blues_sentence_274

Contemporary African-American performers who work in this style of the blues include Bobby Rush, Denise LaSalle, Sir Charles Jones, Bettye LaVette, Marvin Sease, Peggy Scott-Adams, Mel Waiters, Clarence Carter, Dr. "Feelgood" Potts, O.B. Buchana, Ms. Jody, Shirley Brown, and dozens of others. Blues_sentence_275

During the 1980s blues also continued in both traditional and new forms. Blues_sentence_276

In 1986 the album Strong Persuader announced Robert Cray as a major blues artist. Blues_sentence_277

The first Stevie Ray Vaughan recording Texas Flood was released in 1983, and the Texas-based guitarist exploded onto the international stage. Blues_sentence_278

John Lee Hooker's popularity was revived with the album The Healer in 1989. Blues_sentence_279

Eric Clapton, known for his performances with the Blues Breakers and Cream, made a comeback in the 1990s with his album Unplugged, in which he played some standard blues numbers on acoustic guitar. Blues_sentence_280

However, beginning in the 1990s, digital multitrack recording and other technological advances and new marketing strategies including video clip production increased costs, challenging the spontaneity and improvisation that are an important component of blues music. Blues_sentence_281

In the 1980s and 1990s, blues publications such as Living Blues and Blues Revue were launched, major cities began forming blues societies, outdoor blues festivals became more common, and more nightclubs and venues for blues emerged. Blues_sentence_282

In the 1990s, the largely ignored hill country blues gained minor recognition in both blues and alternative rock music circles with northern Mississippi artists R. Blues_sentence_283 L. Burnside and Junior Kimbrough. Blues_sentence_284

Blues performers explored a range of musical genres, as can be seen, for example, from the broad array of nominees of the yearly Blues Music Awards, previously named W.C. Blues_sentence_285

Handy Awards or of the Grammy Awards for Best Contemporary and Traditional Blues Album. Blues_sentence_286

The Billboard Blues Album chart provides an overview of current blues hits. Blues_sentence_287

Contemporary blues music is nurtured by several blues labels such as: Alligator Records, Ruf Records, Severn Records, Chess Records (MCA), Delmark Records, NorthernBlues Music, Fat Possum Records and Vanguard Records (Artemis Records). Blues_sentence_288

Some labels are famous for rediscovering and remastering blues rarities, including Arhoolie Records, Smithsonian Folkways Recordings (heir of Folkways Records), and Yazoo Records (Shanachie Records). Blues_sentence_289

Musical impact Blues_section_10

Blues musical styles, forms (12-bar blues), melodies, and the blues scale have influenced many other genres of music, such as rock and roll, jazz, and popular music. Blues_sentence_290

Prominent jazz, folk or rock performers, such as Louis Armstrong, Duke Ellington, Miles Davis, and Bob Dylan have performed significant blues recordings. Blues_sentence_291

The blues scale is often used in popular songs like Harold Arlen's "Blues in the Night", blues ballads like "Since I Fell for You" and "Please Send Me Someone to Love", and even in orchestral works such as George Gershwin's "Rhapsody in Blue" and "Concerto in F". Blues_sentence_292

Gershwin's second "Prelude" for solo piano is an interesting example of a classical blues, maintaining the form with academic strictness. Blues_sentence_293

The blues scale is ubiquitous in modern popular music and informs many modal frames, especially the ladder of thirds used in rock music (for example, in "A Hard Day's Night"). Blues_sentence_294

Blues forms are used in the theme to the televised Batman, teen idol Fabian Forte's hit, "Turn Me Loose", country music star Jimmie Rodgers' music, and guitarist/vocalist Tracy Chapman's hit "Give Me One Reason". Blues_sentence_295

Early country bluesmen such as Skip James, Charley Patton, Georgia Tom Dorsey played country and urban blues and had influences from spiritual singing. Blues_sentence_296

Dorsey helped to popularize Gospel music. Blues_sentence_297

Gospel music developed in the 1930s, with the Golden Gate Quartet. Blues_sentence_298

In the 1950s, soul music by Sam Cooke, Ray Charles and James Brown used gospel and blues music elements. Blues_sentence_299

In the 1960s and 1970s, gospel and blues were merged in soul blues music. Blues_sentence_300

Funk music of the 1970s was influenced by soul; funk can be seen as an antecedent of hip-hop and contemporary R&B. Blues_sentence_301

R&B music can be traced back to spirituals and blues. Blues_sentence_302

Musically, spirituals were a descendant of New England choral traditions, and in particular of Isaac Watts's hymns, mixed with African rhythms and call-and-response forms. Blues_sentence_303

Spirituals or religious chants in the African-American community are much better documented than the "low-down" blues. Blues_sentence_304

Spiritual singing developed because African-American communities could gather for mass or worship gatherings, which were called camp meetings. Blues_sentence_305

Edward P. Comentale has noted how the blues was often used as a medium for art or self-expression, stating: "As heard from Delta shacks to Chicago tenements to Harlem cabarets, the blues proved—despite its pained origins—a remarkably flexible medium and a new arena for the shaping of identity and community." Blues_sentence_306

Before World War II, the boundaries between blues and jazz were less clear. Blues_sentence_307

Usually jazz had harmonic structures stemming from brass bands, whereas blues had blues forms such as the 12-bar blues. Blues_sentence_308

However, the jump blues of the 1940s mixed both styles. Blues_sentence_309

After WWII, blues had a substantial influence on jazz. Blues_sentence_310

Bebop classics, such as Charlie Parker's "Now's the Time", used the blues form with the pentatonic scale and blue notes. Blues_sentence_311

Bebop marked a major shift in the role of jazz, from a popular style of music for dancing, to a "high-art", less-accessible, cerebral "musician's music". Blues_sentence_312

The audience for both blues and jazz split, and the border between blues and jazz became more defined. Blues_sentence_313

The blues' 12-bar structure and the blues scale was a major influence on rock and roll music. Blues_sentence_314

Rock and roll has been called "blues with a backbeat"; Carl Perkins called rockabilly "blues with a country beat". Blues_sentence_315

Rockabillies were also said to be 12-bar blues played with a bluegrass beat. Blues_sentence_316

"Hound Dog", with its unmodified 12-bar structure (in both harmony and lyrics) and a melody centered on flatted third of the tonic (and flatted seventh of the subdominant), is a blues song transformed into a rock and roll song. Blues_sentence_317

Jerry Lee Lewis's style of rock and roll was heavily influenced by the blues and its derivative boogie woogie. Blues_sentence_318

His style of music was not exactly rockabilly but it has been often called real rock and roll (this is a label he shares with several African American rock and roll performers). Blues_sentence_319

Many early rock and roll songs are based on blues: "That's All Right Mama", "Johnny B. Goode", "Blue Suede Shoes", "Whole Lotta Shakin' Goin On", "Shake, Rattle, and Roll", and "Long Tall Sally". Blues_sentence_320

The early African American rock musicians retained the sexual themes and innuendos of blues music: "Got a gal named Sue, knows just what to do" ("Tutti Frutti", Little Richard) or "See the girl with the red dress on, She can do the Birdland all night long" ("What'd I Say", Ray Charles). Blues_sentence_321

The 12-bar blues structure can be found even in novelty pop songs, such as Bob Dylan's "Obviously Five Believers" and Esther and Abi Ofarim's "Cinderella Rockefella". Blues_sentence_322

Early country music was infused with the blues. Blues_sentence_323

Jimmie Rodgers, Moon Mullican, Bob Wills, Bill Monroe and Hank Williams have all described themselves as blues singers and their music has a blues feel that is different, at first glance at least, from the later country pop of artists like Eddy Arnold. Blues_sentence_324

Yet, if one looks back further, Arnold also started out singing bluesy songs like 'I'll Hold You in My Heart'. Blues_sentence_325

A lot of the 1970s-era "outlaw" country music by Willie Nelson and Waylon Jennings also borrowed from the blues. Blues_sentence_326

When Jerry Lee Lewis returned to country after the decline of 1950s style rock and roll, he sang his country with a blues feel and often included blues standards on his albums. Blues_sentence_327

In popular culture Blues_section_11

Like jazz, rock and roll, heavy metal music, hip hop music, reggae, rap, country music, and pop music, blues has been accused of being the "devil's music" and of inciting violence and other poor behavior. Blues_sentence_328

In the early 20th century, the blues was considered disreputable, especially as white audiences began listening to the blues during the 1920s. Blues_sentence_329

In the early twentieth century, W.C. Blues_sentence_330 Handy was the first to popularize blues-influenced music among non-black Americans. Blues_sentence_331

During the blues revival of the 1960s and '70s, acoustic blues artist Taj Mahal and legendary Texas bluesman Lightnin' Hopkins wrote and performed music that figured prominently in the popularly and critically acclaimed film Sounder (1972). Blues_sentence_332

The film earned Mahal a Grammy nomination for Best Original Score Written for a Motion Picture and a BAFTA nomination. Blues_sentence_333

Almost 30 years later, Mahal wrote blues for, and performed a banjo composition, claw-hammer style, in the 2001 movie release Songcatcher, which focused on the story of the preservation of the roots music of Appalachia. Blues_sentence_334

Perhaps the most visible example of the blues style of music in the late 20th century came in 1980, when Dan Aykroyd and John Belushi released the film The Blues Brothers. Blues_sentence_335

The film drew many of the biggest living influencers of the rhythm and blues genre together, such as Ray Charles, James Brown, Cab Calloway, Aretha Franklin, and John Lee Hooker. Blues_sentence_336

The band formed also began a successful tour under the Blues Brothers marquee. Blues_sentence_337

1998 brought a sequel, Blues Brothers 2000 that, while not holding as great a critical and financial success, featured a much larger number of blues artists, such as B.B. Blues_sentence_338 King, Bo Diddley, Erykah Badu, Eric Clapton, Steve Winwood, Charlie Musselwhite, Blues Traveler, Jimmie Vaughan, and Jeff Baxter. Blues_sentence_339

In 2003, Martin Scorsese made significant efforts to promote the blues to a larger audience. Blues_sentence_340

He asked several famous directors such as Clint Eastwood and Wim Wenders to participate in a series of documentary films for PBS called The Blues. Blues_sentence_341

He also participated in the rendition of compilations of major blues artists in a series of high-quality CDs. Blues_sentence_342

Blues guitarist and vocalist Keb' Mo' performed his blues rendition of "America, the Beautiful" in 2006 to close out the final season of the television series The West Wing. Blues_sentence_343

The blues was highlighted in Season 2012, Episode 1 of "In Performance at The White House", entitled "Red, White and Blues". Blues_sentence_344

Hosted by President Obama and Mrs. Blues_sentence_345 Obama, the show featured performances by B.B. Blues_sentence_346 King, Buddy Guy, Gary Clark Jr., Jeff Beck, Derek Trucks, Keb Mo, and others. Blues_sentence_347

See also Blues_section_12


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