Boarding house

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For the short story, see The Boarding House. Boarding house_sentence_0

For the film, see Boardinghouse (film). Boarding house_sentence_1

A boarding house is a house (frequently a family home) in which lodgers rent one or more rooms for one or more nights, and sometimes for extended periods of weeks, months, and years. Boarding house_sentence_2

The common parts of the house are maintained, and some services, such as laundry and cleaning, may be supplied. Boarding house_sentence_3

They normally provide "room and board," that is, at least some meals as well as accommodation. Boarding house_sentence_4

Lodgers legally only obtain a licence to use their rooms, and not exclusive possession, so the landlord retains the right of access. Boarding house_sentence_5

Arrangements Boarding house_section_0

Formerly boarders would typically share washing, breakfast and dining facilities; in recent years it has become common for each room to have its own washing and toilet facilities. Boarding house_sentence_6

Such boarding houses were often found in English seaside towns (for tourists) and college towns (for students). Boarding house_sentence_7

It was common for there to be one or two elderly long-term residents. Boarding house_sentence_8

"The phrase "boardinghouse reach" [referring to a diner reaching far across a dining table] comes from an important variant of hotel life. Boarding house_sentence_9

In boardinghouses, tenants rent rooms and the proprietor provides family-style breakfasts and evening dinners in a common dining room. Boarding house_sentence_10

Traditionally, the food was put on the table, and everyone scrambled for the best dishes. Boarding house_sentence_11

Those with a long, fast reach ate best." Boarding house_sentence_12

Boarders can often arrange to stay bed-and-breakfast (bed and breakfast only), half-board (bed, breakfast and dinner only) or full-board (bed, breakfast, lunch and dinner). Boarding house_sentence_13

Especially for families on holiday with children, boarding (particularly on a full-board basis) was an inexpensive alternative and certainly much cheaper than staying in all but the cheapest hotels. Boarding house_sentence_14

History Boarding house_section_1

Boarding houses were common in most US cities throughout the 19th century and until the 1950s. Boarding house_sentence_15

In Boston in the 1830s, when the landlords and their boarders were added up, between one-third and one-half of the city's entire population lived in a boarding house. Boarding house_sentence_16

Boarding houses ran from large, purpose-built buildings down to "genteel ladies" who rented a room or two as a way of earning a little extra money. Boarding house_sentence_17

Large houses were converted to boarding houses as wealthy families moved to more fashionable neighborhoods. Boarding house_sentence_18

The boarders in the 19th century ran the gamut as well, from well-off businessmen to poor laborers, and from single people to families. Boarding house_sentence_19

In the 19th century, between 1/3 to 1/2 of urban dwellers rented a room to boarders or were boarders themselves. Boarding house_sentence_20

In New York in 1869, the cost of living in a boarding house ranged from $2.50 to $40 a week. Boarding house_sentence_21

Some boarding houses attracted people with particular occupations or preferences, such as vegetarian meals. Boarding house_sentence_22

The boarding house reinforced some social changes: it made it feasible for people to move to a large city, and away from their families. Boarding house_sentence_23

This distance from relatives brought social anxieties and complaints that the residents of boarding houses were not respectable. Boarding house_sentence_24

Boarding out gave people the opportunity to meet other residents, so they promoted some social mixing. Boarding house_sentence_25

This had advantages, such as learning new ideas and new people's stories, and also disadvantages, such as occasionally meeting disreputable or dangerous people. Boarding house_sentence_26

Most boarders were men, but women found that they had limited options: a co-ed boarding house might mean meeting objectionable men, but an all-female boarding house might be – or at least be suspected of being – a brothel. Boarding house_sentence_27

Boarding houses attracted criticism: in "1916, Walter Krumwilde, a Protestant minister, saw the rooming house or boardinghouse system [as] "spreading its web like a spider, stretching out its arms like an octopus to catch the unwary soul." Boarding house_sentence_28

Attempts to reduce boarding house availability had a gendered impact, as boarding houses were typically operated or managed by women "matrons"; closing boarding houses reduced this opportunity for women to make a living from operating these houses. Boarding house_sentence_29

Later, groups such as the Young Women's Christian Association provided heavily supervised boarding houses for young women. Boarding house_sentence_30

Boarding houses were viewed as "brick-and-mortar chastity belts" for young unmarried women, which protected them from the vices in the city. Boarding house_sentence_31

The Jeanne d'Arc Residence in Chelsea, which was operated by an order of nuns, aimed to provide a dwelling space for young French seamstresses and nannies. Boarding house_sentence_32

Married women who boarded with their families in boarding houses were accused of being too lazy to do all of the washing, cooking, and cleaning necessary to keep house or to raise children properly. Boarding house_sentence_33

While there is an association between boarding houses and women renters, men also rented, notably the poet-authors Walt Whitman and Edgar Allan Poe. Boarding house_sentence_34

In the decades after the 1880s, urban reformers began working on modernizing cities; their efforts to create "uniformity within areas, less mixture of social classes, maximum privacy for each family, much lower density for many activities, buildings set back from the street, and a permanently built order" all meant that housing for single people had to be cut back or eliminated. Boarding house_sentence_35

By the early 1930s, urban reformers were typically using codes and zoning to enforce "uniform and protected single-use residential district[s] of private houses", the reformers' preferred housing type. Boarding house_sentence_36

In 1936, the FHA Property Standards defined a dwelling as "any structure used principally for residential purposes", noting that "commercial rooming houses and tourist homes, sanitariums, tourist cabins, clubs, or fraternities would not be considered dwellings" as they did not have the "private kitchen and a private bath" that reformers viewed as essential in a "proper home". Boarding house_sentence_37

As a result, boarding houses became less common in the early 20th century. Boarding house_sentence_38

Another factor that reduced boarding house numbers was that improved mass transit options made it feasible for more city residents to live in the suburbs and work in the city. Boarding house_sentence_39

By the 1930s, boarding houses were becoming less common in most of the United States. Boarding house_sentence_40

In the 1930s and 1940s, "rooming or boarding houses had been taken for granted as respectable places for students, single workers, immigrants, and newlyweds to live when they left home or came to the city". Boarding house_sentence_41

However, with the housing boom in the 1950s, middle class newcomers could increasingly afford their own homes or apartments, which meant that rooming and boarding houses were beginning to be used more often by post-secondary "students, the working poor, or the unemployed". Boarding house_sentence_42

By the 1960s, rooming and boarding houses were deteriorating, as official city policies tended to ignore them. Boarding house_sentence_43

Similar concepts Boarding house_section_2

The common lodging-house or flophouse usually offered a space to sleep, but little else. Boarding house_sentence_44

When used for temporary purposes, this arrangement was similar to a hostel. Boarding house_sentence_45

Flophouse beds may offer dormitory-style space for as little as one night at a time. Boarding house_sentence_46

A lodging house, also known in the United States as a rooming house, may or may not offer meals. Boarding house_sentence_47

Single room occupancy (SRO) buildings rent individual rooms to residents, and have a shared bathroom; some may have a shared kitchen space for residents to cook their own meals. Boarding house_sentence_48

Dormitory accommodations for post-secondary students are similar to a boarding houses when they include cafeterias. Boarding house_sentence_49

In the 2010s, microapartments with one or two rooms rented plus access to shared common spaces in the building, are very similar to boarding houses. Boarding house_sentence_50

WeWork, a company mostly known for its shared coworking rental spaces, is also offering shared housing arrangements in which renters get a private bedroom but share a kitchen, living room, and other common areas. Boarding house_sentence_51

Bed and breakfast accommodation (B&B), which exists in many countries in the world (e.g. the UK, the United States, Canada, and Australia), is a specialized form of boarding house in which the guests or boarders normally stay only on a bed-and-breakfast basis, and where long-stay residence is rare. Boarding house_sentence_52

Legal restrictions Boarding house_section_3

In the United States, zoning was used by neighborhoods to limit boarding houses. Boarding house_sentence_53

In popular culture Boarding house_section_4

Literature Boarding house_section_5

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  • In Little Women, Jo March moves to New York City to pursue her literary career and lives in a boarding house where she meets a variety of boarders. She develops a relationship with one of them, Professor Bhaer.Boarding house_item_0_0
  • Sherlock Holmes lived in a boarding house at 221B Baker Street, of which the landlady Mrs. Hudson provided some domestic service.Boarding house_item_0_1
  • Addy Walker is a character in the American Girl historical collection her story takes place in the mid 1860s, and the majority of the books in her series feature her and her family living in a boarding house in Philadelphia.Boarding house_item_0_2
  • Mary Roberts Rinehart wrote the now-classic boarding-house mystery, The Case of Jennie Brice, in 1913.Boarding house_item_0_3
  • H. G. Wells satirized boarding houses of the Edwardian era in his novel The Dream (1924).Boarding house_item_0_4
  • E. Phillips Oppenheim set his espionage novel, The Strange Boarders of Palace Crescent (1934) in a London boarding house.Boarding house_item_0_5
  • The climax of Patrick Hamilton's 1941 novel Hangover Square occurs in a dingy Maidenhead boarding house.Boarding house_item_0_6
  • Lynne Reid Banks's 1960 novel The L-Shaped Room is set in a run-down boarding house.Boarding house_item_0_7
  • Ben Mears, the main character in the 1975 horror novel Salem's Lot by Stephen King, stays at Eva Miller's boarding house.Boarding house_item_0_8
  • Harry Dresden, from the book series by Jim Butcher lives in the rented basement of a boarding house early on in the series.Boarding house_item_0_9
  • In True Grit, the main protagonist, Mattie Ross, stays at the Monarch Boarding House where she is forced to share a bed with Grandma Turner, one of the long-term residents and where a robust communal meal takes place.Boarding house_item_0_10
  • The young heroes in Horatio Alger's 19th-century rags-to-riches tales often experience life in boarding houses and single works often depict both unscrupulous and kindly boarding house proprietors as the characters make their way upward (or downward) in the world.Boarding house_item_0_11

Films Boarding house_section_6

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Television Boarding house_section_7

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  • A pair of puppet shows released on home video feature an older woman called Bubbie who runs a boarding house. Bubbie hosts her grandchildren and their friend for Hanukkah and Passover celebrations with her boarders; she takes a little time to explain to the young man delivering the Hanukkah groceries how a boarding house works.Boarding house_item_2_32
  • Mr Bean lives in a boarding house in the early episodes.Boarding house_item_2_33
  • Mary Richards, the main character in The Mary Tyler Moore Show, lives in a studio apartment in a Victorian boarding house.Boarding house_item_2_34
  • In the cartoon Groovie Goolies, the characters of that show reside at a boarding house called Horrible Hall that is located on Horrible Drive.Boarding house_item_2_35
  • The titular protagonist of the Nickelodeon television show Hey Arnold! lives in a boarding house owned by his grandparents called Sunset Arms.Boarding house_item_2_36
  • In The Vampire Diaries, Stefan and Damon Salvatore live in the old Salvatore Boarding house when they return to Mystic Falls.Boarding house_item_2_37
  • In The Andy Griffith Show, Barney Fife is a long-term resident of a boarding house run by Mrs. Mendelbright. When she catches Barney cooking in his room with a hot plate, she asks him to leave.Boarding house_item_2_38
  • The South Korean television series Reply 1994 is set in a nineties boarding house.Boarding house_item_2_39
  • In the Torchwood episode "Immortal Sins", Jack Harkness, and his companion Angelo Colasanto stay in a boarding house.Boarding house_item_2_40

Comics Boarding house_section_8

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  • Many of the scenes in the comic strip Bloom County took place at the Bloom Boarding house owned by the family of main character Milo Bloom.Boarding house_item_3_41
  • Our Boarding House (1921–1984) was an American single-panel cartoon and comic strip set in a boarding house run by the sensible Mrs. Hoople.Boarding house_item_3_42

Board games Boarding house_section_9

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See also Boarding house_section_10

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Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: house.