Bob Dylan

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This article is about the musician. Bob Dylan_sentence_0

For his debut album, see Bob Dylan (album). Bob Dylan_sentence_1

Bob Dylan_table_infobox_0

Bob DylanBob Dylan_header_cell_0_0_0
BornBob Dylan_header_cell_0_1_0 Robert Allen Zimmerman
(1941-05-24) May 24, 1941 (age 79)

Duluth, Minnesota, U.S.Bob Dylan_cell_0_1_1

Other namesBob Dylan_header_cell_0_2_0 Bob Dylan_cell_0_2_1
OccupationBob Dylan_header_cell_0_3_0 Bob Dylan_cell_0_3_1
Years activeBob Dylan_header_cell_0_4_0 1961–presentBob Dylan_cell_0_4_1
Spouse(s)Bob Dylan_header_cell_0_5_0 Sara Dylan

​ ​(m. 1965; div. 1977)​

Carolyn Dennis ​ ​(m. 1986; div. 1992)​Bob Dylan_cell_0_5_1

ChildrenBob Dylan_header_cell_0_6_0 6, including Jesse and Jakob DylanBob Dylan_cell_0_6_1
AwardsBob Dylan_header_cell_0_7_0 Nobel Prize in Literature (2016)

(For others, see List)Bob Dylan_cell_0_7_1

GenresBob Dylan_header_cell_0_8_0 Bob Dylan_cell_0_8_1
InstrumentsBob Dylan_header_cell_0_9_0 Bob Dylan_cell_0_9_1
LabelsBob Dylan_header_cell_0_10_0 Bob Dylan_cell_0_10_1
Associated actsBob Dylan_header_cell_0_11_0 Bob Dylan_cell_0_11_1
WebsiteBob Dylan_header_cell_0_12_0 Bob Dylan_cell_0_12_1

Bob Dylan (born Robert Allen Zimmerman; May 24, 1941) is an American singer-songwriter, author and visual artist. Bob Dylan_sentence_2

Widely regarded as one of the greatest songwriters of all time, Dylan has been a major figure in popular culture for more than 50 years. Bob Dylan_sentence_3

Much of his most celebrated work dates from the 1960s, when songs such as "Blowin' in the Wind" (1963) and "The Times They Are a-Changin'" (1964) became anthems for the civil rights and anti-war movements. Bob Dylan_sentence_4

His lyrics during this period incorporated a range of political, social, philosophical, and literary influences, defied pop music conventions and appealed to the burgeoning counterculture. Bob Dylan_sentence_5

Following his self-titled debut album in 1962, which mainly comprised traditional folk songs, Dylan made his breakthrough as a songwriter with the release of The Freewheelin' Bob Dylan the following year. Bob Dylan_sentence_6

The album features "Blowin' in the Wind" and the thematically complex "A Hard Rain's a-Gonna Fall". Bob Dylan_sentence_7

For many of these songs, he adapted the tunes and phraseology of older folk songs. Bob Dylan_sentence_8

He went on to release the politically charged The Times They Are a-Changin' and the more lyrically abstract and introspective Another Side of Bob Dylan in 1964. Bob Dylan_sentence_9

In 1965 and 1966, Dylan drew controversy when he adopted electrically amplified rock instrumentation, and in the space of 15 months recorded three of the most important and influential rock albums of the 1960s: Bringing It All Back Home (1965), Highway 61 Revisited (1965) and Blonde on Blonde (1966). Bob Dylan_sentence_10

Commenting on the six-minute single "Like a Rolling Stone" (1965), Rolling Stone wrote: "No other pop song has so thoroughly challenged and transformed the commercial laws and artistic conventions of its time, for all time." Bob Dylan_sentence_11

In July 1966, Dylan withdrew from touring after a motorcycle accident. Bob Dylan_sentence_12

During this period, he recorded a large body of songs with members of the Band, who had previously backed him on tour. Bob Dylan_sentence_13

These recordings were released as the collaborative album The Basement Tapes in 1975. Bob Dylan_sentence_14

In the late 1960s and early 1970s, Dylan explored country music and rural themes in John Wesley Harding (1967), Nashville Skyline (1969), and New Morning (1970). Bob Dylan_sentence_15

In 1975, he released Blood on the Tracks, which many saw as a return to form. Bob Dylan_sentence_16

In the late 1970s, he became a born-again Christian and released a series of albums of contemporary gospel music before returning to his more familiar rock-based idiom in the early 1980s. Bob Dylan_sentence_17

Dylan's 1997 album Time Out of Mind marked the beginning of a renaissance for his career. Bob Dylan_sentence_18

He has released five critically acclaimed albums of original material since then, the most recent being Rough and Rowdy Ways (2020). Bob Dylan_sentence_19

He also recorded a series of three albums in the 2010s comprising versions of traditional American standards, especially songs recorded by Frank Sinatra. Bob Dylan_sentence_20

Backed by a changing lineup of musicians, he has toured steadily since the late 1980s on what has been dubbed the Never Ending Tour. Bob Dylan_sentence_21

Since 1994, Dylan has published eight books of drawings and paintings, and his work has been exhibited in major art galleries. Bob Dylan_sentence_22

He has sold more than 100 million records, making him one of the best-selling music artists of all time. Bob Dylan_sentence_23

He has received numerous awards, including the Presidential Medal of Freedom, ten Grammy Awards, a Golden Globe Award and an Academy Award. Bob Dylan_sentence_24

Dylan has been inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, Nashville Songwriters Hall of Fame and the Songwriters Hall of Fame. Bob Dylan_sentence_25

The Pulitzer Prize Board in 2008 awarded him a special citation for "his profound impact on popular music and American culture, marked by lyrical compositions of extraordinary poetic power". Bob Dylan_sentence_26

In 2016, Dylan was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature "for having created new poetic expressions within the great American song tradition". Bob Dylan_sentence_27

Life and career Bob Dylan_section_0

1941–1959: Origins and musical beginnings Bob Dylan_section_1

Bob Dylan was born Robert Allen Zimmerman (Hebrew: שבתאי זיסל בן אברהם‎ Shabtai Zisl ben Avraham) in St. Mary's Hospital on May 24, 1941, in Duluth, Minnesota, and raised in Hibbing, Minnesota, on the Mesabi Range west of Lake Superior. Bob Dylan_sentence_28

Dylan's paternal grandparents, Anna Kirghiz and Zigman Zimmerman, emigrated from Odessa in the Russian Empire (now Ukraine) to the United States following the pogroms of 1905. Bob Dylan_sentence_29

His maternal grandparents, Florence and Ben Stone, were Lithuanian Jews who arrived in the United States in 1902. Bob Dylan_sentence_30

In his autobiography, Chronicles: Volume One, Dylan wrote that his paternal grandmother's family originated from the Kağızman district of Kars Province in northeastern Turkey. Bob Dylan_sentence_31

Dylan's father Abram Zimmerman and mother Beatrice "Beatty" Stone were part of a small, close-knit Jewish community. Bob Dylan_sentence_32

They lived in Duluth until Dylan was six, when his father contracted polio and the family returned to his mother's hometown, Hibbing, where they lived for the rest of Dylan's childhood, and his father and paternal uncles ran a furniture and appliances store. Bob Dylan_sentence_33

In his early years he listened to the radio—first to blues and country stations from Shreveport, Louisiana, and later, when he was a teenager, to rock and roll. Bob Dylan_sentence_34

Dylan formed several bands while attending Hibbing High School. Bob Dylan_sentence_35

In the Golden Chords, he performed covers of songs by Little Richard and Elvis Presley. Bob Dylan_sentence_36

Their performance of Danny & the Juniors' "Rock and Roll Is Here to Stay" at their high school talent show was so loud that the principal cut the microphone. Bob Dylan_sentence_37

In 1959, Dylan's high school yearbook carried the caption "Robert Zimmerman: to join 'Little Richard'." Bob Dylan_sentence_38

That year, as Elston Gunnn, he performed two dates with Bobby Vee, playing piano and clapping. Bob Dylan_sentence_39

In September 1959, Dylan moved to Minneapolis and enrolled at the University of Minnesota. Bob Dylan_sentence_40

His focus on rock and roll gave way to American folk music, as he explained in a 1985 interview: Bob Dylan_sentence_41

Living at the Jewish-centric fraternity Sigma Alpha Mu house, Dylan began to perform at the Ten O'Clock Scholar, a coffeehouse a few blocks from campus, and became involved in the Dinkytown folk music circuit. Bob Dylan_sentence_42

During this period, he began to introduce himself as "Bob Dylan." Bob Dylan_sentence_43

In his memoir, he said he had considered adopting the surname Dillon before he unexpectedly saw poems by Dylan Thomas, and decided upon that less common variant. Bob Dylan_sentence_44

Explaining his change of name in a 2004 interview, he said, "You're born, you know, the wrong names, wrong parents. Bob Dylan_sentence_45

I mean, that happens. Bob Dylan_sentence_46

You call yourself what you want to call yourself. Bob Dylan_sentence_47

This is the land of the free." Bob Dylan_sentence_48

1960s Bob Dylan_section_2

Relocation to New York and record deal Bob Dylan_section_3

In May 1960, Dylan dropped out of college at the end of his first year. Bob Dylan_sentence_49

In January 1961, he traveled to New York City to perform there and visit his musical idol Woody Guthrie, who was seriously ill with Huntington's disease in Greystone Park Psychiatric Hospital. Bob Dylan_sentence_50

Guthrie had been a revelation to Dylan and influenced his early performances. Bob Dylan_sentence_51

Describing Guthrie's impact, he wrote: "The songs themselves had the infinite sweep of humanity in them... [He] was the true voice of the American spirit. Bob Dylan_sentence_52

I said to myself I was going to be Guthrie's greatest disciple." Bob Dylan_sentence_53

As well as visiting Guthrie in hospital, Dylan befriended Guthrie's protégé Ramblin' Jack Elliott. Bob Dylan_sentence_54

Much of Guthrie's repertoire was channeled through Elliott, and Dylan paid tribute to Elliott in Chronicles: Volume One. Bob Dylan_sentence_55

Dylan later said he was influenced by African-American poets he heard on the New York streets, especially Big Brown. Bob Dylan_sentence_56

From February 1961, Dylan played at clubs around Greenwich Village, befriending and picking up material from folk singers there, including Dave Van Ronk, Fred Neil, Odetta, the New Lost City Ramblers and Irish musicians the Clancy Brothers and Tommy Makem. Bob Dylan_sentence_57

On April 11, Dylan commenced a two-week engagement at Gerde's Folk City, supporting John Lee Hooker. Bob Dylan_sentence_58

In September, New York Times critic Robert Shelton boosted Dylan's career with a very enthusiastic review of his performance at Gerde's Folk City: "Bob Dylan: A Distinctive Folk-Song Stylist". Bob Dylan_sentence_59

That month, Dylan played harmonica on folk singer Carolyn Hester's third album. Bob Dylan_sentence_60

This brought him to the attention of the album's producer, John Hammond, who signed Dylan to Columbia Records. Bob Dylan_sentence_61

Dylan's first album, Bob Dylan, released March 19, 1962, consisted of familiar folk, blues and gospel with two original compositions. Bob Dylan_sentence_62

The album sold only 5,000 copies in its first year, just enough to break even. Bob Dylan_sentence_63

Within Columbia Records, some referred to Dylan as "Hammond's Folly" and suggested dropping his contract, but Hammond defended him and was supported by songwriter Johnny Cash. Bob Dylan_sentence_64

In March 1962, Dylan contributed harmonica and backup vocals to the album Three Kings and the Queen, accompanying Victoria Spivey and Big Joe Williams on a recording for Spivey Records. Bob Dylan_sentence_65

While working for Columbia, Dylan recorded under the pseudonym Blind Boy Grunt for Broadside, a folk magazine and record label. Bob Dylan_sentence_66

Dylan used the pseudonym Bob Landy to record as a piano player on The Blues Project, a 1964 anthology album by Elektra Records. Bob Dylan_sentence_67

As Tedham Porterhouse, Dylan played harmonica on Ramblin' Jack Elliott's 1964 album Jack Elliott. Bob Dylan_sentence_68

Dylan made two important career moves in August 1962: he legally changed his name to Bob Dylan, and signed a management contract with Albert Grossman. Bob Dylan_sentence_69

(In June 1961, Dylan had signed an agreement with Roy Silver. Bob Dylan_sentence_70

In 1962, Grossman paid Silver $10,000 to become sole manager.) Bob Dylan_sentence_71

Grossman remained Dylan's manager until 1970, and was known for his sometimes confrontational personality and protective loyalty. Bob Dylan_sentence_72

Dylan said, "He was kind of like a Colonel Tom Parker figure ... you could smell him coming." Bob Dylan_sentence_73

Tension between Grossman and John Hammond led to the latter suggesting Dylan work with the young African-American jazz producer Tom Wilson, who produced several tracks for the second album without formal credit. Bob Dylan_sentence_74

Wilson produced the next three albums Dylan recorded. Bob Dylan_sentence_75

Dylan made his first trip to the United Kingdom from December 1962 to January 1963. Bob Dylan_sentence_76

He had been invited by television director Philip Saville to appear in a drama, Madhouse on Castle Street, which Saville was directing for BBC Television. Bob Dylan_sentence_77

At the end of the play, Dylan performed "Blowin' in the Wind", one of its first public performances. Bob Dylan_sentence_78

The film recording of Madhouse on Castle Street was discarded by the BBC in 1968. Bob Dylan_sentence_79

While in London, Dylan performed at London folk clubs, including the Troubadour, Les Cousins, and Bunjies. Bob Dylan_sentence_80

He also learned material from UK performers, including Martin Carthy. Bob Dylan_sentence_81

By the release of Dylan's second album, The Freewheelin' Bob Dylan, in May 1963, he had begun to make his name as a singer-songwriter. Bob Dylan_sentence_82

Many songs on the album were labeled protest songs, inspired partly by Guthrie and influenced by Pete Seeger's passion for topical songs. Bob Dylan_sentence_83

"Oxford Town", for example, was an account of James Meredith's ordeal as the first black student to risk enrollment at the University of Mississippi. Bob Dylan_sentence_84

The first song on the album, "Blowin' in the Wind", partly derived its melody from the traditional slave song, "No More Auction Block", while its lyrics questioned the social and political status quo. Bob Dylan_sentence_85

The song was widely recorded by other artists and became a hit for Peter, Paul and Mary. Bob Dylan_sentence_86

Another song, "A Hard Rain's a-Gonna Fall", was based on the folk ballad "Lord Randall". Bob Dylan_sentence_87

With veiled references to an impending apocalypse, it gained resonance when the Cuban Missile Crisis developed a few weeks after Dylan began performing it. Bob Dylan_sentence_88

Like "Blowin' in the Wind", "A Hard Rain's a-Gonna Fall" marked a new direction in songwriting, blending a stream-of-consciousness, imagist lyrical attack with traditional folk form. Bob Dylan_sentence_89

Dylan's topical songs led to his being viewed as more than just a songwriter. Bob Dylan_sentence_90

Janet Maslin wrote in 1980 of Freewheelin': "These were the songs that established [Dylan] as the voice of his generation—someone who implicitly understood how concerned young Americans felt about nuclear disarmament and the growing Civil Rights Movement: his mixture of moral authority and nonconformity was perhaps the most timely of his attributes." Bob Dylan_sentence_91

Freewheelin' also included love songs and surreal talking blues. Bob Dylan_sentence_92

Humor was an important part of Dylan's persona, and the range of material on the album impressed listeners, including the Beatles. Bob Dylan_sentence_93

George Harrison said of the album: "We just played it, just wore it out. Bob Dylan_sentence_94

The content of the song lyrics and just the attitude—it was incredibly original and wonderful." Bob Dylan_sentence_95

The rough edge of Dylan's singing was unsettling to some but an attraction to others. Bob Dylan_sentence_96

Novelist Joyce Carol Oates wrote: "When we first heard this raw, very young, and seemingly untrained voice, frankly nasal, as if sandpaper could sing, the effect was dramatic and electrifying." Bob Dylan_sentence_97

Many early songs reached the public through more palatable versions by other performers, such as Joan Baez, who became Dylan's advocate and lover. Bob Dylan_sentence_98

Baez was influential in bringing Dylan to prominence by recording several of his early songs and inviting him on stage during her concerts. Bob Dylan_sentence_99

"It didn't take long before people got it, that he was pretty damned special," says Baez. Bob Dylan_sentence_100

Others who had hits with Dylan's songs in the early 1960s included the Byrds, Sonny & Cher, the Hollies, Peter, Paul and Mary, the Association, Manfred Mann and the Turtles. Bob Dylan_sentence_101

Most attempted a pop feel and rhythm, while Dylan and Baez performed them mostly as sparse folk songs. Bob Dylan_sentence_102

The covers became so ubiquitous that CBS promoted him with the slogan "Nobody Sings Dylan Like Dylan". Bob Dylan_sentence_103

"Mixed-Up Confusion", recorded during the Freewheelin' sessions with a backing band, was released as Dylan's first single in December 1962, but then swiftly withdrawn. Bob Dylan_sentence_104

In contrast to the mostly solo acoustic performances on the album, the single showed a willingness to experiment with a rockabilly sound. Bob Dylan_sentence_105

Cameron Crowe described it as "a fascinating look at a folk artist with his mind wandering towards Elvis Presley and Sun Records." Bob Dylan_sentence_106

Protest and Another Side Bob Dylan_section_4

In May 1963, Dylan's political profile rose when he walked out of The Ed Sullivan Show. Bob Dylan_sentence_107

During rehearsals, Dylan had been told by CBS television's head of program practices that "Talkin' John Birch Paranoid Blues" was potentially libelous to the John Birch Society. Bob Dylan_sentence_108

Rather than comply with censorship, Dylan refused to appear. Bob Dylan_sentence_109

By this time, Dylan and Baez were prominent in the civil rights movement, singing together at the March on Washington on August 28, 1963. Bob Dylan_sentence_110

Dylan's third album, The Times They Are a-Changin', reflected a more politicized Dylan. Bob Dylan_sentence_111

The songs often took as their subject matter contemporary stories, with "Only a Pawn in Their Game" addressing the murder of civil rights worker Medgar Evers; and the Brechtian "The Lonesome Death of Hattie Carroll" the death of black hotel barmaid Hattie Carroll, at the hands of young white socialite William Zantzinger. Bob Dylan_sentence_112

On a more general theme, "Ballad of Hollis Brown" and "North Country Blues" addressed despair engendered by the breakdown of farming and mining communities. Bob Dylan_sentence_113

This political material was accompanied by two personal love songs, "Boots of Spanish Leather" and "One Too Many Mornings". Bob Dylan_sentence_114

By the end of 1963, Dylan felt both manipulated and constrained by the folk and protest movements. Bob Dylan_sentence_115

Accepting the "Tom Paine Award" from the National Emergency Civil Liberties Committee shortly after the assassination of John F. Kennedy, an intoxicated Dylan questioned the role of the committee, characterized the members as old and balding, and claimed to see something of himself and of every man in Kennedy's assassin, Lee Harvey Oswald. Bob Dylan_sentence_116

Another Side of Bob Dylan, recorded in a single evening on June 9, 1964, had a lighter mood. Bob Dylan_sentence_117

The humorous Dylan reemerged on "I Shall Be Free No. Bob Dylan_sentence_118

10" and "Motorpsycho Nightmare". Bob Dylan_sentence_119

"Spanish Harlem Incident" and "To Ramona" are passionate love songs, while "Black Crow Blues" and "I Don't Believe You (She Acts Like We Never Have Met)" suggest the rock and roll soon to dominate Dylan's music. Bob Dylan_sentence_120

"It Ain't Me Babe", on the surface a song about spurned love, has been described as a rejection of the role of political spokesman thrust upon him. Bob Dylan_sentence_121

His newest direction was signaled by two lengthy songs: the impressionistic "Chimes of Freedom", which sets social commentary against a metaphorical landscape in a style characterized by Allen Ginsberg as "chains of flashing images," and "My Back Pages", which attacks the simplistic and arch seriousness of his own earlier topical songs and seems to predict the backlash he was about to encounter from his former champions as he took a new direction. Bob Dylan_sentence_122

In the latter half of 1964 and into 1965, Dylan moved from folk songwriter to folk-rock pop-music star. Bob Dylan_sentence_123

His jeans and work shirts were replaced by a Carnaby Street wardrobe, sunglasses day or night, and pointed "Beatle boots". Bob Dylan_sentence_124

A London reporter wrote: "Hair that would set the teeth of a comb on edge. Bob Dylan_sentence_125

A loud shirt that would dim the neon lights of Leicester Square. Bob Dylan_sentence_126

He looks like an undernourished cockatoo." Bob Dylan_sentence_127

Dylan began to spar with interviewers. Bob Dylan_sentence_128

Appearing on the Les Crane television show and asked about a movie he planned, he told Crane it would be a cowboy horror movie. Bob Dylan_sentence_129

Asked if he played the cowboy, Dylan replied, "No, I play my mother." Bob Dylan_sentence_130

Going electric Bob Dylan_section_5

Main articles: Electric Dylan controversy and Folk rock Bob Dylan_sentence_131

Dylan's late March 1965 album Bringing It All Back Home was another leap, featuring his first recordings with electric instruments, under producer Tom Wilson's guidance. Bob Dylan_sentence_132

One influence on Dylan's decision to go electric was The Animals' version of "The House of the Rising Sun". Bob Dylan_sentence_133

Drummer John Steel states Dylan told him when he first heard this version on his car radio, he stopped to listen, "jumped out of his car" and "banged on the bonnet". Bob Dylan_sentence_134

The first single, "Subterranean Homesick Blues", owed much to Chuck Berry's "Too Much Monkey Business"; its free-association lyrics described as harking back to the energy of beat poetry and as a forerunner of rap and hip-hop. Bob Dylan_sentence_135

The song was provided with an early music video, which opened D. Bob Dylan_sentence_136 A. Pennebaker's cinéma vérité presentation of Dylan's 1965 tour of Great Britain, Dont Look Back. Bob Dylan_sentence_137

Instead of miming, Dylan illustrated the lyrics by throwing cue cards containing key words from the song on the ground. Bob Dylan_sentence_138

Pennebaker said the sequence was Dylan's idea, and it has been imitated in music videos and advertisements. Bob Dylan_sentence_139

The second side of Bringing It All Back Home contained four long songs on which Dylan accompanied himself on acoustic guitar and harmonica. Bob Dylan_sentence_140

"Mr. Bob Dylan_sentence_141 Tambourine Man" became one of his best-known songs when the Byrds recorded an electric version that reached number one in the US and UK. Bob Dylan_sentence_142

"It's All Over Now, Baby Blue" and "It's Alright Ma (I'm Only Bleeding)" were two of Dylan's most important compositions. Bob Dylan_sentence_143

In 1965, headlining the Newport Folk Festival, Dylan performed his first electric set since high school with a pickup group featuring Mike Bloomfield on guitar and Al Kooper on organ. Bob Dylan_sentence_144

Dylan had appeared at Newport in 1963 and 1964, but in 1965 met with cheering and booing and left the stage after three songs. Bob Dylan_sentence_145

One version has it that the boos were from folk fans whom Dylan had alienated by appearing, unexpectedly, with an electric guitar. Bob Dylan_sentence_146

Murray Lerner, who filmed the performance, said: "I absolutely think that they were booing Dylan going electric." Bob Dylan_sentence_147

An alternative account claims audience members were upset by poor sound and a short set. Bob Dylan_sentence_148

This account is supported by Kooper and one of the directors of the festival who claims his recording proves the only boos were in response to MC Peter Yarrow's flustered announcement that there was only enough time for a short set. Bob Dylan_sentence_149

Nevertheless, Dylan's performance provoked a hostile response from the folk music establishment. Bob Dylan_sentence_150

In the September issue of Sing Out! Bob Dylan_sentence_151 , Ewan MacColl wrote: "Our traditional songs and ballads are the creations of extraordinarily talented artists working inside disciplines formulated over time ...'But what of Bobby Dylan?' Bob Dylan_sentence_152

scream the outraged teenagers ... Only a completely non-critical audience, nourished on the watery pap of pop music, could have fallen for such tenth-rate drivel." Bob Dylan_sentence_153

On July 29, four days after Newport, Dylan was back in the studio in New York, recording "Positively 4th Street". Bob Dylan_sentence_154

The lyrics contained images of vengeance and paranoia, and have been interpreted as Dylan's put-down of former friends from the folk community he had known in clubs along West 4th Street. Bob Dylan_sentence_155

Highway 61 Revisited and Blonde on Blonde Bob Dylan_section_6

In July 1965, Dylan's six-minute single "Like a Rolling Stone" peaked at number two in the U.S. chart. Bob Dylan_sentence_156

In 2004 and in 2011, Rolling Stone listed it as number one of "The 500 Greatest Songs of All Time". Bob Dylan_sentence_157

Bruce Springsteen, in his speech for Dylan's inauguration into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, said that on first hearing the single, "that snare shot sounded like somebody'd kicked open the door to your mind." Bob Dylan_sentence_158

The song opened Dylan's next album, Highway 61 Revisited, named after the road that led from Dylan's Minnesota to the musical hotbed of New Orleans. Bob Dylan_sentence_159

The songs were in the same vein as the hit single, flavored by Mike Bloomfield's blues guitar and Al Kooper's organ riffs. Bob Dylan_sentence_160

"Desolation Row", backed by acoustic guitar and understated bass, offers the sole exception, with Dylan alluding to figures in Western culture in a song described by Andy Gill as "an 11-minute epic of entropy, which takes the form of a Fellini-esque parade of grotesques and oddities featuring a huge cast of celebrated characters, some historical (Einstein, Nero), some biblical (Noah, Cain and Abel), some fictional (Ophelia, Romeo, Cinderella), some literary (T. Bob Dylan_sentence_161 S. Eliot and Ezra Pound), and some who fit into none of the above categories, notably Dr. Filth and his dubious nurse". Bob Dylan_sentence_162

In support of the album, Dylan was booked for two U.S. concerts with Al Kooper and Harvey Brooks from his studio crew and Robbie Robertson and Levon Helm, former members of Ronnie Hawkins's backing band the Hawks. Bob Dylan_sentence_163

On August 28 at Forest Hills Tennis Stadium, the group was heckled by an audience still annoyed by Dylan's electric sound. Bob Dylan_sentence_164

The band's reception on September 3 at the Hollywood Bowl was more favorable. Bob Dylan_sentence_165

From September 24, 1965, in Austin, Texas, Dylan toured the U.S. and Canada for six months, backed by the five musicians from the Hawks who became known as The Band. Bob Dylan_sentence_166

While Dylan and the Hawks met increasingly receptive audiences, their studio efforts foundered. Bob Dylan_sentence_167

Producer Bob Johnston persuaded Dylan to record in Nashville in February 1966, and surrounded him with top-notch session men. Bob Dylan_sentence_168

At Dylan's insistence, Robertson and Kooper came from New York City to play on the sessions. Bob Dylan_sentence_169

The Nashville sessions produced the double album Blonde on Blonde (1966), featuring what Dylan called "that thin wild mercury sound". Bob Dylan_sentence_170

Kooper described it as "taking two cultures and smashing them together with a huge explosion": the musical world of Nashville and the world of the "quintessential New York hipster" Bob Dylan. Bob Dylan_sentence_171

On November 22, 1965, Dylan quietly married 25-year-old former model Sara Lownds. Bob Dylan_sentence_172

Robertson has described how he received a phone call that morning to accompany the couple to a courthouse on Long Island, and then to a reception hosted by Albert and Sally Grossman at the Algonquin Hotel. Bob Dylan_sentence_173

Some of Dylan's friends, including Ramblin' Jack Elliott, say that, immediately after the event, Dylan denied he was married. Bob Dylan_sentence_174

Journalist Nora Ephron made the news public in the New York Post in February 1966 with the headline "Hush! Bob Dylan_sentence_175

Bob Dylan is wed." Bob Dylan_sentence_176

Dylan toured Australia and Europe in April and May 1966. Bob Dylan_sentence_177

Each show was split in two. Bob Dylan_sentence_178

Dylan performed solo during the first half, accompanying himself on acoustic guitar and harmonica. Bob Dylan_sentence_179

In the second, backed by the Hawks, he played electrically amplified music. Bob Dylan_sentence_180

This contrast provoked many fans, who jeered and slow handclapped. Bob Dylan_sentence_181

The tour culminated in a raucous confrontation between Dylan and his audience at the Manchester Free Trade Hall in England on May 17, 1966. Bob Dylan_sentence_182

A recording of this concert was released in 1998: The Bootleg Series Vol. 4: Bob Dylan Live 1966. Bob Dylan_sentence_183

At the climax of the evening, a member of the audience, angered by Dylan's electric backing, shouted: "Judas!" Bob Dylan_sentence_184

to which Dylan responded, "I don't believe you ... You're a liar!" Bob Dylan_sentence_185

Dylan turned to his band and said, "Play it fucking loud!" Bob Dylan_sentence_186

as they launched into the final song of the night—"Like a Rolling Stone". Bob Dylan_sentence_187

During his 1966 tour, Dylan was described as exhausted and acting "as if on a death trip". Bob Dylan_sentence_188

D. A. Pennebaker, the filmmaker accompanying the tour, described Dylan as "taking a lot of amphetamine and who-knows-what-else". Bob Dylan_sentence_189

In a 1969 interview with Jann Wenner, Dylan said, "I was on the road for almost five years. Bob Dylan_sentence_190

It wore me down. Bob Dylan_sentence_191

I was on drugs, a lot of things ... just to keep going, you know?" Bob Dylan_sentence_192

In 2011, BBC Radio 4 reported that, in an interview that Robert Shelton taped in 1966, Dylan said he had kicked heroin in New York City: "I got very, very strung out for a while ... Bob Dylan_sentence_193

I had about a $25-a-day habit and I kicked it." Bob Dylan_sentence_194

Some journalists questioned the validity of this confession, pointing out that Dylan had "been telling journalists wild lies about his past since the earliest days of his career". Bob Dylan_sentence_195

Motorcycle accident and reclusion Bob Dylan_section_7

After his tour, Dylan returned to New York, but the pressures increased. Bob Dylan_sentence_196

ABC Television had paid an advance for a TV show. Bob Dylan_sentence_197

His publisher, Macmillan, was demanding a manuscript of the poem/novel Tarantula. Bob Dylan_sentence_198

Manager Albert Grossman had scheduled a concert tour for the latter part of the year. Bob Dylan_sentence_199

On July 29, 1966, Dylan crashed his 500 cc Triumph Tiger 100 motorcycle near his home in Woodstock, New York, and was thrown to the ground. Bob Dylan_sentence_200

Though the extent of his injuries was never disclosed, Dylan said that he broke several vertebrae in his neck. Bob Dylan_sentence_201

Mystery still surrounds the circumstances of the accident since no ambulance was called to the scene and Dylan was not hospitalized. Bob Dylan_sentence_202

Dylan's biographers have written that the crash offered Dylan the chance to escape the pressures around him. Bob Dylan_sentence_203

Dylan confirmed this interpretation in his autobiography: "I had been in a motorcycle accident and I'd been hurt, but I recovered. Bob Dylan_sentence_204

Truth was that I wanted to get out of the rat race." Bob Dylan_sentence_205

Dylan withdrew from public and, apart from a few appearances, did not tour again for almost eight years. Bob Dylan_sentence_206

Once Dylan was well enough to resume creative work, he began to edit D. A. Pennebaker's film of his 1966 tour. Bob Dylan_sentence_207

A rough cut was shown to ABC Television, which rejected it as incomprehensible to a mainstream audience. Bob Dylan_sentence_208

The film was subsequently titled Eat the Document on bootleg copies, and it has been screened at a handful of film festivals. Bob Dylan_sentence_209

In 1967 he began recording with the Hawks at his home and in the basement of the Hawks' nearby house, "Big Pink". Bob Dylan_sentence_210

These songs, initially demos for other artists to record, provided hits for Julie Driscoll and the Brian Auger Trinity ("This Wheel's on Fire"), the Byrds ("You Ain't Goin' Nowhere", "Nothing Was Delivered") and Manfred Mann ("Mighty Quinn"). Bob Dylan_sentence_211

Columbia released selections in 1975 as The Basement Tapes. Bob Dylan_sentence_212

Over the years, many more songs recorded by Dylan and his band in 1967 appeared on bootleg recordings, culminating in the 2014 official Columbia release The Basement Tapes Complete which contained 138 songs and alternative takes. Bob Dylan_sentence_213

In the coming months, the Hawks recorded the album Music from Big Pink using songs they worked on in their basement in Woodstock, and renamed themselves the Band, beginning a long recording and performing career of their own. Bob Dylan_sentence_214

In October and November 1967, Dylan returned to Nashville. Bob Dylan_sentence_215

Back in the studio after 19 months, he was accompanied by Charlie McCoy on bass, Kenny Buttrey on drums, and Pete Drake on steel guitar. Bob Dylan_sentence_216

The result was John Wesley Harding, a contemplative record of shorter songs, set in a landscape that drew on the American West and the Bible. Bob Dylan_sentence_217

The sparse structure and instrumentation, with lyrics that took the Judeo-Christian tradition seriously, departed from Dylan's own work and from the psychedelic fervor of the 1960s. Bob Dylan_sentence_218

It included "All Along the Watchtower", with lyrics derived from the Book of Isaiah (21:5–9). Bob Dylan_sentence_219

The song was later recorded by Jimi Hendrix, whose version Dylan acknowledged as definitive. Bob Dylan_sentence_220

Woody Guthrie died on October 3, 1967, and Dylan made his first live appearance in twenty months at a Guthrie memorial concert held at Carnegie Hall on January 20, 1968, where he was backed by the Band. Bob Dylan_sentence_221

Dylan's next release, Nashville Skyline (1969), was mainstream country featuring Nashville musicians, a mellow-voiced Dylan, a duet with Johnny Cash, and the hit single "Lay Lady Lay". Bob Dylan_sentence_222

Variety wrote, "Dylan is definitely doing something that can be called singing. Bob Dylan_sentence_223

Somehow he has managed to add an octave to his range." Bob Dylan_sentence_224

During one recording session, Dylan and Cash recorded a series of duets but only their version of Dylan's "Girl from the North Country" was released on the album. Bob Dylan_sentence_225

In May 1969, Dylan appeared on the first episode of Johnny Cash's television show and sang a duet with Cash of "Girl from the North Country", with solos of "Living the Blues" and "I Threw It All Away." Bob Dylan_sentence_226

Dylan next traveled to England to top the bill at the Isle of Wight festival on August 31, 1969, after rejecting overtures to appear at the Woodstock Festival closer to his home. Bob Dylan_sentence_227

1970s Bob Dylan_section_8

In the early 1970s, critics charged that Dylan's output was varied and unpredictable. Bob Dylan_sentence_228

Rolling Stone writer Greil Marcus asked "What is this shit?" Bob Dylan_sentence_229

on first listening to Self Portrait, released in June 1970. Bob Dylan_sentence_230

It was a double LP including few original songs, and was poorly received. Bob Dylan_sentence_231

In October 1970, Dylan released New Morning, considered a return to form. Bob Dylan_sentence_232

This album included "Day of the Locusts", a song in which Dylan gave an account of receiving an honorary degree from Princeton University on June 9, 1970. Bob Dylan_sentence_233

In November 1968, Dylan had co-written "I'd Have You Anytime" with George Harrison; Harrison recorded "I'd Have You Anytime" and Dylan's "If Not for You" for his 1970 solo triple album All Things Must Pass. Bob Dylan_sentence_234

Dylan's surprise appearance at Harrison's 1971 Concert for Bangladesh attracted media coverage, reflecting that Dylan's live appearances had become rare. Bob Dylan_sentence_235

Between March 16 and 19, 1971, Dylan reserved three days at Blue Rock, a small studio in Greenwich Village, to record with Leon Russell. Bob Dylan_sentence_236

These sessions resulted in "Watching the River Flow" and a new recording of "When I Paint My Masterpiece". Bob Dylan_sentence_237

On November 4, 1971, Dylan recorded "George Jackson", which he released a week later. Bob Dylan_sentence_238

For many, the single was a surprising return to protest material, mourning the killing of Black Panther George Jackson in San Quentin State Prison that year. Bob Dylan_sentence_239

Dylan contributed piano and harmony to Steve Goodman's album, Somebody Else's Troubles, under the pseudonym Robert Milkwood Thomas (referencing Under Milk Wood by Dylan Thomas and his own previous name) in September 1972. Bob Dylan_sentence_240

In 1972, Dylan signed to Sam Peckinpah's film Pat Garrett and Billy the Kid, providing songs and backing music for the movie, and playing "Alias", a member of Billy's gang with some historical basis. Bob Dylan_sentence_241

Despite the film's failure at the box office, the song "Knockin' on Heaven's Door" became one of Dylan's most covered songs. Bob Dylan_sentence_242

Also in 1972, Dylan protested the move to deport John Lennon and Yoko Ono, who had been convicted of possessing cannabis, by sending a letter to the U.S. Immigration Service, in part: "Hurray for John & Yoko. Bob Dylan_sentence_243

Let them stay and live here and breathe. Bob Dylan_sentence_244

The country's got plenty of room and space. Bob Dylan_sentence_245

Let John and Yoko stay!" Bob Dylan_sentence_246

Return to touring Bob Dylan_section_9

Dylan began 1973 by signing with a new label, David Geffen's Asylum Records when his contract with Columbia Records expired. Bob Dylan_sentence_247

His next album, Planet Waves, was recorded in the fall of 1973, using the Band as his backing group as they rehearsed for a major tour. Bob Dylan_sentence_248

The album included two versions of "Forever Young", which became one of his most popular songs. Bob Dylan_sentence_249

As one critic described it, the song projected "something hymnal and heartfelt that spoke of the father in Dylan", and Dylan himself commented: "I wrote it thinking about one of my boys and not wanting to be too sentimental." Bob Dylan_sentence_250

Columbia Records simultaneously released Dylan, a collection of studio outtakes, widely interpreted as a churlish response to Dylan's signing with a rival record label. Bob Dylan_sentence_251

In January 1974, Dylan, backed by the Band, embarked on a North American tour of 40 concerts—his first tour for seven years. Bob Dylan_sentence_252

A live double album, Before the Flood, was released on Asylum Records. Bob Dylan_sentence_253

Soon, according to Clive Davis, Columbia Records sent word they "will spare nothing to bring Dylan back into the fold." Bob Dylan_sentence_254

Dylan had second thoughts about Asylum, unhappy that Geffen had sold only 600,000 copies of Planet Waves despite millions of unfulfilled ticket requests for the 1974 tour; he returned to Columbia Records, which reissued his two Asylum albums. Bob Dylan_sentence_255

After the tour, Dylan and his wife became estranged. Bob Dylan_sentence_256

He filled a small red notebook with songs about relationships and ruptures, and recorded an album entitled Blood on the Tracks in September 1974. Bob Dylan_sentence_257

Dylan delayed the release and re-recorded half of the songs at Sound 80 Studios in Minneapolis with production assistance from his brother, David Zimmerman. Bob Dylan_sentence_258

Released in early 1975, Blood on the Tracks received mixed reviews. Bob Dylan_sentence_259

In the NME, Nick Kent described "the accompaniments [as] often so trashy they sound like mere practice takes." Bob Dylan_sentence_260

In Rolling Stone, Jon Landau wrote that "the record has been made with typical shoddiness." Bob Dylan_sentence_261

Over the years critics came to see it as one of Dylan's greatest achievements. Bob Dylan_sentence_262

For the Salon website, journalist Bill Wyman wrote: "Blood on the Tracks is his only flawless album and his best produced; the songs, each of them, are constructed in disciplined fashion. Bob Dylan_sentence_263

It is his kindest album and most dismayed, and seems in hindsight to have achieved a sublime balance between the logorrhea-plagued excesses of his mid-1960s output and the self-consciously simple compositions of his post-accident years." Bob Dylan_sentence_264

Novelist Rick Moody called it "the truest, most honest account of a love affair from tip to stern ever put down on magnetic tape." Bob Dylan_sentence_265

In the middle of that year, Dylan wrote a ballad championing boxer Rubin "Hurricane" Carter, imprisoned for a triple murder in Paterson, New Jersey, in 1966. Bob Dylan_sentence_266

After visiting Carter in jail, Dylan wrote "Hurricane", presenting the case for Carter's innocence. Bob Dylan_sentence_267

Despite its length—over eight minutes—the song was released as a single, peaking at 33 on the U.S. Billboard chart, and performed at every 1975 date of Dylan's next tour, the Rolling Thunder Revue. Bob Dylan_sentence_268

The tour featured about one hundred performers and supporters from the Greenwich Village folk scene, including T-Bone Burnett, Ramblin' Jack Elliott, Joni Mitchell, David Mansfield, Roger McGuinn, Mick Ronson, Joan Baez and Scarlet Rivera, whom Dylan discovered walking down the street, her violin case on her back. Bob Dylan_sentence_269

Running through late 1975 and again through early 1976, the tour encompassed the release of the album Desire, with many of Dylan's new songs featuring a travelogue-like narrative style, showing the influence of his new collaborator, playwright Jacques Levy. Bob Dylan_sentence_270

The 1976 half of the tour was documented by a TV concert special, Hard Rain, and the LP Hard Rain; no concert album from first half of the tour was released until 2002's Live 1975. Bob Dylan_sentence_271

The 1975 tour with the Revue provided the backdrop to Dylan's nearly four-hour film Renaldo and Clara, a sprawling narrative mixed with concert footage and reminiscences. Bob Dylan_sentence_272

Released in 1978, the movie received poor, sometimes scathing, reviews. Bob Dylan_sentence_273

Later in that year, a two-hour edit, dominated by the concert performances, was more widely released. Bob Dylan_sentence_274

More than forty years later, a documentary about the 1975 leg of the Rolling Thunder Revue, Rolling Thunder Revue: A Bob Dylan Story by Martin Scorsese was released by Netflix on June 12, 2019. Bob Dylan_sentence_275

In November 1976, Dylan appeared at the Band's "farewell" concert, with Eric Clapton, Joni Mitchell, Muddy Waters, Van Morrison and Neil Young. Bob Dylan_sentence_276

Martin Scorsese's 1978 cinematic chronicle of the concert, The Last Waltz, included about half of Dylan's set. Bob Dylan_sentence_277

In 1976, Dylan wrote and duetted on "Sign Language" for Eric Clapton's No Reason To Cry. Bob Dylan_sentence_278

In 1978, Dylan embarked on a year-long world tour, performing 114 shows in Japan, the Far East, Europe and North America, to a total audience of two million. Bob Dylan_sentence_279

Dylan assembled an eight-piece band and three backing singers. Bob Dylan_sentence_280

Concerts in Tokyo in February and March were released as the live double album, Bob Dylan at Budokan. Bob Dylan_sentence_281

Reviews were mixed. Bob Dylan_sentence_282

Robert Christgau awarded the album a C+ rating, giving the album a derisory review, while Janet Maslin defended it in Rolling Stone, writing: "These latest live versions of his old songs have the effect of liberating Bob Dylan from the originals." Bob Dylan_sentence_283

When Dylan brought the tour to the U.S. in September 1978, the press described the look and sound as a 'Las Vegas Tour'. Bob Dylan_sentence_284

The 1978 tour grossed more than $20 million, and Dylan told the Los Angeles Times that he had debts because "I had a couple of bad years. Bob Dylan_sentence_285

I put a lot of money into the movie, built a big house  ... and it costs a lot to get divorced in California." Bob Dylan_sentence_286

In April and May 1978, Dylan took the same band and vocalists into Rundown Studios in Santa Monica, California, to record an album of new material: Street-Legal. Bob Dylan_sentence_287

It was described by Michael Gray as, "after Blood On The Tracks, arguably Dylan's best record of the 1970s: a crucial album documenting a crucial period in Dylan's own life." Bob Dylan_sentence_288

However, it had poor sound and mixing (attributed to Dylan's studio practices), muddying the instrumental detail until a remastered CD release in 1999 restored some of the songs' strengths. Bob Dylan_sentence_289

Christian period Bob Dylan_section_10

In the late 1970s, Dylan converted to Evangelical Christianity, undertaking a three-month discipleship course run by the Association of Vineyard Churches; and released three albums of contemporary gospel music. Bob Dylan_sentence_290

Slow Train Coming (1979) featured the guitar accompaniment of Mark Knopfler (of Dire Straits) and was produced by veteran R&B producer Jerry Wexler. Bob Dylan_sentence_291

Wexler said that Dylan had tried to evangelize him during the recording. Bob Dylan_sentence_292

He replied: "Bob, you're dealing with a 62-year-old Jewish atheist. Bob Dylan_sentence_293

Let's just make an album." Bob Dylan_sentence_294

Dylan won the Grammy Award for Best Male Rock Vocal Performance for the song "Gotta Serve Somebody." Bob Dylan_sentence_295

His second Christian-themed album, Saved (1980), received mixed reviews, described by Michael Gray as "the nearest thing to a follow-up album Dylan has ever made, Slow Train Coming II and inferior". Bob Dylan_sentence_296

His third overtly Christian album was Shot of Love in 1981. Bob Dylan_sentence_297

When touring in late 1979 and early 1980, Dylan would not play his older, secular works, and he delivered declarations of his faith from the stage, such as: Bob Dylan_sentence_298

Dylan's Christianity was unpopular with some fans and musicians. Bob Dylan_sentence_299

Shortly before his murder, John Lennon recorded "Serve Yourself" in response to Dylan's "Gotta Serve Somebody." Bob Dylan_sentence_300

By 1981, Stephen Holden wrote in The New York Times that "neither age (he's now 40) nor his much-publicized conversion to born-again Christianity has altered his essentially iconoclastic temperament." Bob Dylan_sentence_301

1980s Bob Dylan_section_11

In late 1980, Dylan briefly played concerts billed as "A Musical Retrospective", restoring popular 1960s songs to the repertoire. Bob Dylan_sentence_302

Shot of Love, recorded early the next year, featured his first secular compositions in more than two years, mixed with Christian songs. Bob Dylan_sentence_303

"Every Grain of Sand" reminded some of William Blake's verses. Bob Dylan_sentence_304

In the 1980s, reception of Dylan's recordings varied, from the well-regarded Infidels in 1983 to the panned Down in the Groove in 1988. Bob Dylan_sentence_305

Michael Gray condemned Dylan's 1980s albums for carelessness in the studio and for failing to release his best songs. Bob Dylan_sentence_306

As an example of the latter, the Infidels recording sessions, which again employed Knopfler on lead guitar and also as the album's producer, resulted in several notable songs that Dylan left off the album. Bob Dylan_sentence_307

Best regarded of these were "Blind Willie McTell", a tribute to the dead blues musician and an evocation of African American history, "Foot of Pride" and "Lord Protect My Child." Bob Dylan_sentence_308

These three songs were released on The Bootleg Series Volumes 1–3 (Rare & Unreleased) 1961–1991. Bob Dylan_sentence_309

Between July 1984 and March 1985, Dylan recorded Empire Burlesque. Bob Dylan_sentence_310

Arthur Baker, who had remixed hits for Bruce Springsteen and Cyndi Lauper, was asked to engineer and mix the album. Bob Dylan_sentence_311

Baker said he felt he was hired to make Dylan's album sound "a little bit more contemporary." Bob Dylan_sentence_312

In 1985 Dylan sang on USA for Africa's famine relief single "We Are the World". Bob Dylan_sentence_313

He also joined Artists United Against Apartheid providing vocals for their single "Sun City". Bob Dylan_sentence_314

On July 13, 1985, he appeared at the climax at the Live Aid concert at JFK Stadium, Philadelphia. Bob Dylan_sentence_315

Backed by Keith Richards and Ronnie Wood, he performed a ragged version of "Hollis Brown", his ballad of rural poverty, and then said to the worldwide audience exceeding one billion people: "I hope that some of the money ... maybe they can just take a little bit of it, maybe ... one or two million, maybe ... and use it to pay the mortgages on some of the farms and, the farmers here, owe to the banks." Bob Dylan_sentence_316

His remarks were widely criticized as inappropriate, but they did inspire Willie Nelson to organize a series of events, Farm Aid, to benefit debt-ridden American farmers. Bob Dylan_sentence_317

In April 1986, Dylan made a foray into rap music when he added vocals to the opening verse of "Street Rock", featured on Kurtis Blow's album Kingdom Blow. Bob Dylan_sentence_318

Dylan's next studio album, Knocked Out Loaded, in July 1986 contained three covers (by Little Junior Parker, Kris Kristofferson and the gospel hymn "Precious Memories"), plus three collaborations (with Tom Petty, Sam Shepard and Carole Bayer Sager), and two solo compositions by Dylan. Bob Dylan_sentence_319

One reviewer commented that "the record follows too many detours to be consistently compelling, and some of those detours wind down roads that are indisputably dead ends. Bob Dylan_sentence_320

By 1986, such uneven records weren't entirely unexpected by Dylan, but that didn't make them any less frustrating." Bob Dylan_sentence_321

It was the first Dylan album since Bob Dylan (1962) to fail to make the Top 50. Bob Dylan_sentence_322

Since then, some critics have called the 11-minute epic that Dylan co-wrote with Sam Shepard, "Brownsville Girl", a work of genius. Bob Dylan_sentence_323

In 1986 and 1987, Dylan toured with Tom Petty and the Heartbreakers, sharing vocals with Petty on several songs each night. Bob Dylan_sentence_324

Dylan also toured with the Grateful Dead in 1987, resulting in a live album Dylan & The Dead. Bob Dylan_sentence_325

This received negative reviews; AllMusic said it was "Quite possibly the worst album by either Bob Dylan or the Grateful Dead." Bob Dylan_sentence_326

Dylan then initiated what came to be called the Never Ending Tour on June 7, 1988, performing with a back-up band featuring guitarist G. Bob Dylan_sentence_327 E. Smith. Bob Dylan_sentence_328

Dylan would continue to tour with a small, changing band for the next 30 years. Bob Dylan_sentence_329

In 1987, Dylan starred in Richard Marquand's movie Hearts of Fire, in which he played Billy Parker, a washed-up rock star turned chicken farmer whose teenage lover (Fiona) leaves him for a jaded English synth-pop sensation played by Rupert Everett. Bob Dylan_sentence_330

Dylan also contributed two original songs to the soundtrack—"Night After Night", and "I Had a Dream About You, Baby", as well as a cover of John Hiatt's "The Usual". Bob Dylan_sentence_331

The film was a critical and commercial flop. Bob Dylan_sentence_332

Dylan was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in January 1988, with Bruce Springsteen's introduction declaring, "Bob freed your mind the way Elvis freed your body. Bob Dylan_sentence_333

He showed us that just because music was innately physical did not mean that it was anti-intellectual." Bob Dylan_sentence_334

The album Down in the Groove in May 1988 sold even more poorly than his previous studio album. Bob Dylan_sentence_335

Michael Gray wrote: "The very title undercuts any idea that inspired work may lie within. Bob Dylan_sentence_336

Here was a further devaluing of the notion of a new Bob Dylan album as something significant." Bob Dylan_sentence_337

The critical and commercial disappointment of that album was swiftly followed by the success of the Traveling Wilburys. Bob Dylan_sentence_338

Dylan co-founded the band with George Harrison, Jeff Lynne, Roy Orbison and Tom Petty, and in late 1988 their multi-platinum Traveling Wilburys Vol. 1 reached three on the US album chart, featuring songs that were described as Dylan's most accessible compositions in years. Bob Dylan_sentence_339

Despite Orbison's death in December 1988, the remaining four recorded a second album in May 1990 with the title Traveling Wilburys Vol. 3. Bob Dylan_sentence_340

Dylan finished the decade on a critical high note with Oh Mercy produced by Daniel Lanois. Bob Dylan_sentence_341

Michael Gray wrote that the album was: "Attentively written, vocally distinctive, musically warm, and uncompromisingly professional, this cohesive whole is the nearest thing to a great Bob Dylan album in the 1980s." Bob Dylan_sentence_342

The track "Most of the Time", a lost love composition, was later prominently featured in the film High Fidelity, while "What Was It You Wanted?" Bob Dylan_sentence_343

has been interpreted both as a catechism and a wry comment on the expectations of critics and fans. Bob Dylan_sentence_344

The religious imagery of "Ring Them Bells" struck some critics as a re-affirmation of faith. Bob Dylan_sentence_345

1990s Bob Dylan_section_12

Dylan's 1990s began with Under the Red Sky (1990), an about-face from the serious Oh Mercy. Bob Dylan_sentence_346

It contained several apparently simple songs, including "Under the Red Sky" and "Wiggle Wiggle". Bob Dylan_sentence_347

The album was dedicated to "Gabby Goo Goo", a nickname for the daughter of Dylan and Carolyn Dennis, Desiree Gabrielle Dennis-Dylan, who was four. Bob Dylan_sentence_348

Musicians on the album included George Harrison, Slash from Guns N' Roses, David Crosby, Bruce Hornsby, Stevie Ray Vaughan, and Elton John. Bob Dylan_sentence_349

The record received bad reviews and sold poorly. Bob Dylan_sentence_350

In 1990 and 1991 Dylan was described by his biographers as drinking heavily, impairing his performances on stage. Bob Dylan_sentence_351

In an interview with Rolling Stone, Dylan dismissed allegations that drinking was interfering with his music: "That's completely inaccurate. Bob Dylan_sentence_352

I can drink or not drink. Bob Dylan_sentence_353

I don't know why people would associate drinking with anything I do, really." Bob Dylan_sentence_354

Defilement and remorse were themes Dylan addressed when he received a Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award from American actor Jack Nicholson in February 1991. Bob Dylan_sentence_355

The event coincided with the start of the Gulf War against Saddam Hussein and Dylan performed "Masters of War". Bob Dylan_sentence_356

He then made a short speech: "My daddy once said to me, he said, 'Son, it is possible for you to become so defiled in this world that your own mother and father will abandon you. Bob Dylan_sentence_357

If that happens, God will believe in your ability to mend your own ways.'" Bob Dylan_sentence_358

The sentiment was subsequently revealed to be a quote from 19th-century German Jewish intellectual Rabbi Samson Raphael Hirsch. Bob Dylan_sentence_359

Over the next few years Dylan returned to his roots with two albums covering traditional folk and blues songs: Good as I Been to You (1992) and World Gone Wrong (1993), backed solely by his acoustic guitar. Bob Dylan_sentence_360

Many critics and fans commented on the quiet beauty of the song "Lone Pilgrim", written by a 19th-century teacher. Bob Dylan_sentence_361

In November 1994 Dylan recorded two live shows for MTV Unplugged. Bob Dylan_sentence_362

He said his wish to perform traditional songs was overruled by Sony executives who insisted on hits. Bob Dylan_sentence_363

The album from it, MTV Unplugged, included "John Brown", an unreleased 1962 song of how enthusiasm for war ends in mutilation and disillusionment. Bob Dylan_sentence_364

With a collection of songs reportedly written while snowed in on his Minnesota ranch, Dylan booked recording time with Daniel Lanois at Miami's Criteria Studios in January 1997. Bob Dylan_sentence_365

The subsequent recording sessions were, by some accounts, fraught with musical tension. Bob Dylan_sentence_366

Before the album's release Dylan was hospitalized with a life-threatening heart infection, pericarditis, brought on by histoplasmosis. Bob Dylan_sentence_367

His scheduled European tour was cancelled, but Dylan made a speedy recovery and left the hospital saying, "I really thought I'd be seeing Elvis soon." Bob Dylan_sentence_368

He was back on the road by mid-year, and performed before Pope John Paul II at the World Eucharistic Conference in Bologna, Italy. Bob Dylan_sentence_369

The Pope treated the audience of 200,000 people to a homily based on Dylan's lyric "Blowin' in the Wind". Bob Dylan_sentence_370

In September Dylan released the new Lanois-produced album, Time Out of Mind. Bob Dylan_sentence_371

With its bitter assessment of love and morbid ruminations, Dylan's first collection of original songs in seven years was highly acclaimed. Bob Dylan_sentence_372

One critic wrote: "the songs themselves are uniformly powerful, adding up to Dylan's best overall collection in years." Bob Dylan_sentence_373

This collection of complex songs won him his first solo "Album of the Year" Grammy Award. Bob Dylan_sentence_374

In December 1997, U.S. President Bill Clinton presented Dylan with a Kennedy Center Honor in the East Room of the White House, paying this tribute: "He probably had more impact on people of my generation than any other creative artist. Bob Dylan_sentence_375

His voice and lyrics haven't always been easy on the ear, but throughout his career Bob Dylan has never aimed to please. Bob Dylan_sentence_376

He's disturbed the peace and discomforted the powerful." Bob Dylan_sentence_377

2000s Bob Dylan_section_13

Dylan commenced the 2000s by winning the Polar Music Prize in May 2000 and his first Oscar; his song "Things Have Changed", written for the film Wonder Boys, won an Academy Award for Best Song in 2001. Bob Dylan_sentence_378

The Oscar, by some reports a facsimile, tours with him, presiding over shows atop an amplifier. Bob Dylan_sentence_379

"Love and Theft" was released on September 11, 2001. Bob Dylan_sentence_380

Recorded with his touring band, Dylan produced the album himself under the pseudonym Jack Frost. Bob Dylan_sentence_381

The album was critically well received and earned nominations for several Grammy awards. Bob Dylan_sentence_382

Critics noted that Dylan was widening his musical palette to include rockabilly, Western swing, jazz, and even lounge ballads. Bob Dylan_sentence_383

"Love and Theft" generated controversy when The Wall Street Journal pointed out similarities between the album's lyrics and Japanese author Junichi Saga's book Confessions of a Yakuza. Bob Dylan_sentence_384

In 2003, Dylan revisited the evangelical songs from his Christian period and participated in the CD project Gotta Serve Somebody: The Gospel Songs of Bob Dylan. Bob Dylan_sentence_385

That year Dylan also released the film Masked & Anonymous, which he co-wrote with director Larry Charles under the alias Sergei Petrov. Bob Dylan_sentence_386

Dylan played the central character in the film, Jack Fate, alongside a cast that included Jeff Bridges, Penélope Cruz and John Goodman. Bob Dylan_sentence_387

The film polarised critics: many dismissed it as an "incoherent mess"; a few treated it as a serious work of art. Bob Dylan_sentence_388

In October 2004, Dylan published the first part of his autobiography, Chronicles: Volume One. Bob Dylan_sentence_389

Confounding expectations, Dylan devoted three chapters to his first year in New York City in 1961–1962, virtually ignoring the mid-1960s when his fame was at its height. Bob Dylan_sentence_390

He also devoted chapters to the albums New Morning (1970) and Oh Mercy (1989). Bob Dylan_sentence_391

The book reached number two on The New York Times' Hardcover Non-Fiction best seller list in December 2004 and was nominated for a National Book Award. Bob Dylan_sentence_392

No Direction Home, Martin Scorsese's acclaimed film biography of Dylan, was first broadcast on September 26–27, 2005, on BBC Two in the UK and PBS in the US. Bob Dylan_sentence_393

The documentary focuses on the period from Dylan's arrival in New York in 1961 to his motorcycle crash in 1966, featuring interviews with Suze Rotolo, Liam Clancy, Joan Baez, Allen Ginsberg, Pete Seeger, Mavis Staples and Dylan himself. Bob Dylan_sentence_394

The film received a Peabody Award in April 2006 and a Columbia-duPont Award in January 2007. Bob Dylan_sentence_395

The accompanying soundtrack featured unreleased songs from Dylan's early career. Bob Dylan_sentence_396

Dylan earned another distinction when a 2007 study of US legal opinions found his lyrics were quoted by judges and lawyers more than those of any other songwriter, 186 times versus 74 by the Beatles, who were second. Bob Dylan_sentence_397

Among those quoting Dylan were US Supreme Court Chief Justice John Roberts and Justice Antonin Scalia, both conservatives. Bob Dylan_sentence_398

The most widely cited lines included "you don't need a weatherman to know which way the wind blows" from "Subterranean Homesick Blues" and "when you ain't got nothing, you got nothing to lose" from "Like a Rolling Stone". Bob Dylan_sentence_399

Modern Times Bob Dylan_section_14

Dylan's career as a radio presenter commenced on May 3, 2006, with his weekly radio program, Theme Time Radio Hour for XM Satellite Radio, with song selections on chosen themes. Bob Dylan_sentence_400

Dylan played classic and obscure records from the 1920s to the present day, including contemporary artists as diverse as Blur, Prince, L.L. Bob Dylan_sentence_401 Cool J and the Streets. Bob Dylan_sentence_402

The show was praised by fans and critics, as Dylan told stories and made eclectic references, commenting on his musical choices. Bob Dylan_sentence_403

In April 2009, Dylan broadcast the 100th show in his radio series; the theme was "Goodbye" and the final record played was Woody Guthrie's "So Long, It's Been Good to Know Yuh". Bob Dylan_sentence_404

Dylan resurrected his Theme Time Radio Hour format when he broadcast a two-hour special on the theme of "Whiskey" on Sirius Radio on September 21, 2020. Bob Dylan_sentence_405

Dylan released his Modern Times album in August 2006. Bob Dylan_sentence_406

Despite some coarsening of Dylan's voice (a critic for The Guardian characterised his singing on the album as "a catarrhal death rattle") most reviewers praised the album, and many described it as the final installment of a successful trilogy, embracing Time Out of Mind and "Love and Theft". Bob Dylan_sentence_407

Modern Times entered the U.S. charts at number one, making it Dylan's first album to reach that position since 1976's Desire. Bob Dylan_sentence_408

The New York Times published an article exploring similarities between some of Dylan's lyrics in Modern Times and the work of the Civil War poet Henry Timrod. Bob Dylan_sentence_409

Nominated for three Grammy Awards, Modern Times won Best Contemporary Folk/Americana Album and Bob Dylan also won Best Solo Rock Vocal Performance for "Someday Baby." Bob Dylan_sentence_410

Modern Times was named Album of the Year, 2006, by Rolling Stone magazine, and by Uncut in the UK. Bob Dylan_sentence_411

On the same day that Modern Times was released the iTunes Music Store released Bob Dylan: The Collection, a digital box set containing all of his albums (773 tracks in total), along with 42 rare and unreleased tracks. Bob Dylan_sentence_412

In August 2007, the award-winning film biography of Dylan I'm Not There, written and directed by Todd Haynes, was released—bearing the tagline "inspired by the music and many lives of Bob Dylan." Bob Dylan_sentence_413

The movie used six different actors to represent different aspects of Dylan's life: Christian Bale, Cate Blanchett, Marcus Carl Franklin, Richard Gere, Heath Ledger and Ben Whishaw. Bob Dylan_sentence_414

Dylan's previously unreleased 1967 recording from which the film takes its name was released for the first time on the film's original soundtrack; all other tracks are covers of Dylan songs, specially recorded for the movie by a diverse range of artists, including Sonic Youth, Eddie Vedder, Mason Jennings, Stephen Malkmus, Jeff Tweedy, Karen O, Willie Nelson, Cat Power, Richie Havens and Tom Verlaine. Bob Dylan_sentence_415

On October 1, 2007, Columbia Records released the triple CD retrospective album Dylan, anthologising his entire career under the Dylan 07 logo. Bob Dylan_sentence_416

The sophistication of the Dylan 07 marketing campaign was a reminder that Dylan's commercial profile had risen considerably since the 1990s. Bob Dylan_sentence_417

This became evident in 2004, when Dylan appeared in a TV advertisement for Victoria's Secret lingerie. Bob Dylan_sentence_418

Three years later, in October 2007, he participated in a multi-media campaign for the 2008 Cadillac Escalade. Bob Dylan_sentence_419

Then, in 2009, he gave the highest profile endorsement of his career, appearing with rapper in a Pepsi ad that debuted during the telecast of Super Bowl XLIII. Bob Dylan_sentence_420

The ad, broadcast to a record audience of 98 million viewers, opened with Dylan singing the first verse of "Forever Young" followed by doing a hip hop version of the song's third and final verse. Bob Dylan_sentence_421

The Bootleg Series Vol. 8 – Tell Tale Signs was released in October 2008, as both a two-CD set and a three-CD version with a 150-page hardcover book. Bob Dylan_sentence_422

The set contains live performances and outtakes from selected studio albums from Oh Mercy to Modern Times, as well as soundtrack contributions and collaborations with David Bromberg and Ralph Stanley. Bob Dylan_sentence_423

The pricing of the album—the two-CD set went on sale for $18.99 and the three-CD version for $129.99—led to complaints about "rip-off packaging" from some fans and commentators. Bob Dylan_sentence_424

The release was widely acclaimed by critics. Bob Dylan_sentence_425

The abundance of alternative takes and unreleased material suggested to one reviewer that this volume of old outtakes "feels like a new Bob Dylan record, not only for the astonishing freshness of the material, but also for the incredible sound quality and organic feeling of everything here." Bob Dylan_sentence_426

Together Through Life and Christmas in the Heart Bob Dylan_section_15

Bob Dylan released his album Together Through Life on April 28, 2009. Bob Dylan_sentence_427

In a conversation with music journalist Bill Flanagan, published on Dylan's website, Dylan explained that the genesis of the record was when French film director Olivier Dahan asked him to supply a song for his new road movie, My Own Love Song; initially only intending to record a single track, "Life Is Hard," "the record sort of took its own direction." Bob Dylan_sentence_428

Nine of the ten songs on the album are credited as co-written by Bob Dylan and Robert Hunter. Bob Dylan_sentence_429

The album received largely favorable reviews, although several critics described it as a minor addition to Dylan's canon of work. Bob Dylan_sentence_430

In its first week of release, the album reached number one in the Billboard 200 chart in the U.S., making Bob Dylan (67 years of age) the oldest artist to ever debut at number one on that chart. Bob Dylan_sentence_431

It also reached number one on the UK album chart, 39 years after Dylan's previous UK album chart topper New Morning. Bob Dylan_sentence_432

This meant that Dylan currently holds the record for the longest gap between solo number one albums in the UK chart. Bob Dylan_sentence_433

Dylan's album, Christmas in the Heart, was released in October 2009, comprising such Christmas standards as "Little Drummer Boy", "Winter Wonderland" and "Here Comes Santa Claus." Bob Dylan_sentence_434

Critics pointed out that Dylan was "revisiting yuletide styles popularized by Nat King Cole, Mel Tormé, and the Ray Conniff Singers." Bob Dylan_sentence_435

Dylan's royalties from the sale of this album were donated to the charities Feeding America in the USA, Crisis in the UK, and the World Food Programme. Bob Dylan_sentence_436

The album received generally favorable reviews. Bob Dylan_sentence_437

The New Yorker wrote that Dylan had welded a pre-rock musical sound to "some of his croakiest vocals in a while", and speculated that his intentions might be ironic: "Dylan has a long and highly publicized history with Christianity; to claim there's not a wink in the childish optimism of 'Here Comes Santa Claus' or 'Winter Wonderland' is to ignore a half-century of biting satire." Bob Dylan_sentence_438

In an interview published in The Big Issue, journalist Bill Flanagan asked Dylan why he had performed the songs in a straightforward style, and Dylan responded: "There wasn't any other way to play it. Bob Dylan_sentence_439

These songs are part of my life, just like folk songs. Bob Dylan_sentence_440

You have to play them straight too." Bob Dylan_sentence_441

2010s Bob Dylan_section_16

Tempest Bob Dylan_section_17

Volume 9 of Dylan's Bootleg Series, The Witmark Demos was issued in October 18, 2010. Bob Dylan_sentence_442

It comprised 47 demo recordings of songs taped between 1962 and 1964 for Dylan's earliest music publishers: Leeds Music in 1962, and Witmark Music from 1962 to 1964. Bob Dylan_sentence_443

One reviewer described the set as "a hearty glimpse of young Bob Dylan changing the music business, and the world, one note at a time." Bob Dylan_sentence_444

The critical aggregator website Metacritic awarded the album a Metascore of 86, indicating "universal acclaim." Bob Dylan_sentence_445

In the same week, Sony Legacy released Bob Dylan: The Original Mono Recordings, a box set that for the first time presented Dylan's eight earliest albums, from Bob Dylan (1962) to John Wesley Harding (1967), in their original mono mix in the CD format. Bob Dylan_sentence_446

The CDs were housed in miniature facsimiles of the original album covers, replete with original liner notes. Bob Dylan_sentence_447

The set was accompanied by a booklet featuring an essay by music critic Greil Marcus. Bob Dylan_sentence_448

On April 12, 2011, Legacy Recordings released Bob Dylan in Concert – Brandeis University 1963, taped at Brandeis University on May 10, 1963, two weeks prior to the release of The Freewheelin' Bob Dylan. Bob Dylan_sentence_449

The tape was discovered in the archive of music writer Ralph J. Gleason, and the recording carries liner notes by Michael Gray, who says it captures Dylan "from way back when Kennedy was President and the Beatles hadn't yet reached America. Bob Dylan_sentence_450

It reveals him not at any Big Moment but giving a performance like his folk club sets of the period... Bob Dylan_sentence_451

This is the last live performance we have of Bob Dylan before he becomes a star." Bob Dylan_sentence_452

The extent to which his work was studied at an academic level was demonstrated on Dylan's 70th birthday on May 24, 2011, when three universities organized symposia on his work. Bob Dylan_sentence_453

The University of Mainz, the University of Vienna, and the University of Bristol invited literary critics and cultural historians to give papers on aspects of Dylan's work. Bob Dylan_sentence_454

Other events, including tribute bands, discussions and simple singalongs, took place around the world, as reported in The Guardian: "From Moscow to Madrid, Norway to Northampton and Malaysia to his home state of Minnesota, self-confessed 'Bobcats' will gather today to celebrate the 70th birthday of a giant of popular music." Bob Dylan_sentence_455

On May 29, 2012, U.S. President Barack Obama awarded Dylan a Presidential Medal of Freedom in the White House. Bob Dylan_sentence_456

At the ceremony, Obama praised Dylan's voice for its "unique gravelly power that redefined not just what music sounded like but the message it carried and how it made people feel." Bob Dylan_sentence_457

Dylan's 35th studio album, Tempest was released on September 11, 2012. Bob Dylan_sentence_458

The album features a tribute to John Lennon, "Roll On John", and the title track is a 14-minute song about the sinking of the Titanic. Bob Dylan_sentence_459

Reviewing Tempest for Rolling Stone, Will Hermes gave the album five out of five stars, writing: "Lyrically, Dylan is at the top of his game, joking around, dropping wordplay and allegories that evade pat readings and quoting other folks' words like a freestyle rapper on fire." Bob Dylan_sentence_460

The critical aggregator website Metacritic awarded the album a score of 83 out of 100, indicating "universal acclaim." Bob Dylan_sentence_461

Volume 10 of Dylan's Bootleg Series, Another Self Portrait (1969–1971), was released in August 2013. Bob Dylan_sentence_462

The album contained 35 previously unreleased tracks, including alternative takes and demos from Dylan's 1969–1971 recording sessions during the making of the Self Portrait and New Morning albums. Bob Dylan_sentence_463

The box set also included a live recording of Dylan's performance with the Band at the Isle of Wight Festival in 1969. Bob Dylan_sentence_464

Another Self Portrait received favorable reviews, earning a score of 81 on the critical aggregator, Metacritic, indicating "universal acclaim." Bob Dylan_sentence_465

AllMusic critic Thom Jurek wrote, "For fans, this is more than a curiosity, it's an indispensable addition to the catalog." Bob Dylan_sentence_466

Columbia Records released a boxed set containing all 35 Dylan studio albums, six albums of live recordings, and a collection, entitled Sidetracks, of non-album material, Bob Dylan: Complete Album Collection: Vol. One, in November 2013. Bob Dylan_sentence_467

To publicize the 35 album box set, an innovative video of the song "Like a Rolling Stone" was released on Dylan's website. Bob Dylan_sentence_468

The interactive video, created by director Vania Heymann, allowed viewers to switch between 16 simulated TV channels, all featuring characters who are lip-synching the lyrics of the 48-year-old song. Bob Dylan_sentence_469

Dylan appeared in a commercial for the Chrysler 200 car which was screened during the 2014 Super Bowl American football game played on February 2, 2014. Bob Dylan_sentence_470

At the end of the commercial, Dylan says: "So let Germany brew your beer, let Switzerland make your watch, let Asia assemble your phone. Bob Dylan_sentence_471

We will build your car." Bob Dylan_sentence_472

Dylan's Super Bowl commercial generated controversy and op-ed pieces discussing the protectionist implications of his words, and whether the singer had "sold out" to corporate interests. Bob Dylan_sentence_473

In 2013 and 2014, auction house sales demonstrated the high cultural value attached to Dylan's mid-1960s work and the record prices that collectors were willing to pay for artefacts from this period. Bob Dylan_sentence_474

In December 2013, the Fender Stratocaster which Dylan had played at the 1965 Newport Folk Festival fetched $965,000, the second highest price paid for a guitar. Bob Dylan_sentence_475

In June 2014, Dylan's hand-written lyrics of "Like a Rolling Stone", his 1965 hit single, fetched $2 million dollars at auction, a record for a popular music manuscript. Bob Dylan_sentence_476

A massive 960 page, thirteen and a half pound edition of Dylan's lyrics, The Lyrics: Since 1962 was published by Simon & Schuster in the fall of 2014. Bob Dylan_sentence_477

The book was edited by literary critic Christopher Ricks, Julie Nemrow and Lisa Nemrow, to offer variant versions of Dylan's songs, sourced from out-takes and live performances. Bob Dylan_sentence_478

A limited edition of 50 books, signed by Dylan, was priced at $5,000. Bob Dylan_sentence_479

"It's the biggest, most expensive book we've ever published, as far as I know," said Jonathan Karp, Simon & Schuster's president and publisher. Bob Dylan_sentence_480

A comprehensive edition of the Basement Tapes, songs recorded by Dylan and the Band in 1967, was released as The Basement Tapes Complete in November 2014. Bob Dylan_sentence_481

These 138 tracks in a six-CD box form Volume 11 of Dylan's Bootleg Series. Bob Dylan_sentence_482

The 1975 album, The Basement Tapes, had contained just 24 tracks from the material which Dylan and the Band had recorded at their homes in Woodstock, New York in 1967. Bob Dylan_sentence_483

Subsequently, over 100 recordings and alternate takes had circulated on bootleg records. Bob Dylan_sentence_484

The sleeve notes for the new box set are by Sid Griffin, author of Million Dollar Bash: Bob Dylan, the Band, and the Basement Tapes. Bob Dylan_sentence_485

The box set earned a score of 99 on the critical aggregator, Metacritic. Bob Dylan_sentence_486

Shadows in the Night, Fallen Angels and Triplicate Bob Dylan_section_18

In February 2015, Dylan released Shadows in the Night, featuring ten songs written between 1923 and 1963, which have been described as part of the Great American Songbook. Bob Dylan_sentence_487

All the songs on the album were recorded by Frank Sinatra but both critics and Dylan himself cautioned against seeing the record as a collection of "Sinatra covers." Bob Dylan_sentence_488

Dylan explained, "I don't see myself as covering these songs in any way. Bob Dylan_sentence_489

They've been covered enough. Bob Dylan_sentence_490

Buried, as a matter a fact. Bob Dylan_sentence_491

What me and my band are basically doing is uncovering them. Bob Dylan_sentence_492

Lifting them out of the grave and bringing them into the light of day." Bob Dylan_sentence_493

In an interview, Dylan said he had been thinking about making this record since hearing Willie Nelson's 1978 album Stardust. Bob Dylan_sentence_494

Dylan's first foray into this material was in 2001 when he recorded Dean Martin's "Return to Me" for the third season of The Sopranos. Bob Dylan_sentence_495

Shadows In the Night received favorable reviews, scoring 82 on the critical aggregator Metacritic, which indicates "universal acclaim". Bob Dylan_sentence_496

Critics praised the restrained instrumental backings and the quality of Dylan's singing. Bob Dylan_sentence_497

Bill Prince in GQ commented: "A performer who's had to hear his influence in virtually every white pop recording made since he debuted his own self-titled album back in 1962 imagines himself into the songs of his pre-rock'n'roll early youth." Bob Dylan_sentence_498

The album debuted at number one in the UK Albums Chart in its first week of release. Bob Dylan_sentence_499

The Bootleg Series Vol. 12: The Cutting Edge 1965–1966, consisting of previously unreleased material from the three albums Dylan recorded between January 1965 and March 1966: Bringing It All Back Home, Highway 61 Revisited and Blonde on Blonde was released in November 2015. Bob Dylan_sentence_500

The set was released in three formats: a 2-CD "Best Of" version, a 6-CD "Deluxe edition", and an 18-CD "Collector's Edition" in a limited edition of 5,000 units. Bob Dylan_sentence_501

On Dylan's website the "Collector's Edition" was described as containing "every single note recorded by Bob Dylan in the studio in 1965/1966." Bob Dylan_sentence_502

The critical aggregator website Metacritic awarded Cutting Edge a score of 99, indicating universal acclaim. Bob Dylan_sentence_503

The Best of the Cutting Edge entered the Billboard Top Rock Albums chart at number one on November 18, based on its first-week sales. Bob Dylan_sentence_504

The sale of Dylan's extensive archive of about 6,000 items of memorabilia to the George Kaiser Family Foundation and the University of Tulsa was announced on March 2, 2016. Bob Dylan_sentence_505

It was reported the sale price was "an estimated $15 million to $20 million". Bob Dylan_sentence_506

The archive comprises notebooks, drafts of Dylan lyrics, recordings, and correspondence. Bob Dylan_sentence_507

The archive will be housed at Helmerich Center for American Research, a facility at the Gilcrease Museum. Bob Dylan_sentence_508

Dylan released Fallen Angels—described as "a direct continuation of the work of 'uncovering' the Great Songbook that he began on last year's Shadows In the Night"—in May. Bob Dylan_sentence_509

The album contained twelve songs by classic songwriters such as Harold Arlen, Sammy Cahn and Johnny Mercer, eleven of which had been recorded by Sinatra. Bob Dylan_sentence_510

Jim Farber wrote in Entertainment Weekly: "Tellingly, [Dylan] delivers these songs of love lost and cherished not with a burning passion but with the wistfulness of experience. Bob Dylan_sentence_511

They're memory songs now, intoned with a present sense of commitment. Bob Dylan_sentence_512

Released just four days ahead of his 75th birthday, they couldn't be more age-appropriate." Bob Dylan_sentence_513

The album received a score of 79 on critical aggregator website Metacritic, denoting "generally favorable reviews". Bob Dylan_sentence_514

A massive 36-CD collection, The 1966 Live Recordings, including every known recording of Bob Dylan's 1966 concert tour was released in November 2016. Bob Dylan_sentence_515

The recordings commence with the concert in White Plains New York on February 5, 1966, and end with the Royal Albert Hall concert in London on May 27. Bob Dylan_sentence_516

The New York Times reported most of the concerts had "never been heard in any form", and described the set as "a monumental addition to the corpus". Bob Dylan_sentence_517

Dylan released a triple album of a further 30 recordings of classic American songs, Triplicate, in March 2017. Bob Dylan_sentence_518

Dylan's 38th studio album was recorded in Hollywood's Capitol Studios and features his touring band. Bob Dylan_sentence_519

Dylan posted a long interview on his website to promote the album, and was asked if this material was an exercise in nostalgia. Bob Dylan_sentence_520

"Nostalgic? Bob Dylan_sentence_521

No I wouldn't say that. Bob Dylan_sentence_522

It's not taking a trip down memory lane or longing and yearning for the good old days or fond memories of what's no more. Bob Dylan_sentence_523

A song like "Sentimental Journey" is not a way back when song, it doesn't emulate the past, it's attainable and down to earth, it's in the here and now." Bob Dylan_sentence_524

The album was awarded a score of 84 on critical aggregator website Metacritic, signifying "universal acclaim". Bob Dylan_sentence_525

Critics praised the thoroughness of Dylan's exploration of the great American songbook, though, in the opinion of Uncut: "For all its easy charms, Triplicate labours its point to the brink of overkill. Bob Dylan_sentence_526

After five albums' worth of croon toons, this feels like a fat full stop on a fascinating chapter." Bob Dylan_sentence_527

The next edition of Dylan's Bootleg Series revisited Dylan's "Born Again" Christian period of 1979 to 1981, which was described by Rolling Stone as "an intense, wildly controversial time that produced three albums and some of the most confrontational concerts of his long career". Bob Dylan_sentence_528

Reviewing the box set, The Bootleg Series Vol. 13: Trouble No More 1979–1981, comprising 8 CDs and 1 DVD. Bob Dylan_sentence_529

in The New York Times, Jon Pareles wrote, "Decades later, what comes through these recordings above all is Mr. Dylan's unmistakable fervor, his sense of mission. Bob Dylan_sentence_530

The studio albums are subdued, even tentative, compared with what the songs became on the road. Bob Dylan_sentence_531

Mr. Dylan's voice is clear, cutting and ever improvisational; working the crowds, he was emphatic, committed, sometimes teasingly combative. Bob Dylan_sentence_532

And the band tears into the music." Bob Dylan_sentence_533

Trouble No More includes a DVD of a film directed by Jennifer Lebeau consisting of live footage of Dylan's gospel performances interspersed with sermons delivered by actor Michael Shannon. Bob Dylan_sentence_534

The box set album received an aggregate score of 84 on the critical website Metacritic, indicating "universal acclaim". Bob Dylan_sentence_535

Dylan made a contribution to the compilation EP Universal Love, a collection of reimagined wedding songs for the LGBT community in April 2018. Bob Dylan_sentence_536

The album was funded by MGM Resorts International and the songs are intended to function as "wedding anthems for same-sex couples". Bob Dylan_sentence_537

Dylan recorded the 1929 song "She's Funny That Way", changing the gender pronoun to "He's Funny That Way". Bob Dylan_sentence_538

The song has previously been recorded by Billie Holiday and Frank Sinatra. Bob Dylan_sentence_539

Also in April 2018, The New York Times announced that Dylan was launching Heaven's Door, a range of three whiskeys: a straight rye, a straight bourbon and a "double-barreled" whiskey. Bob Dylan_sentence_540

Dylan has been involved in both the creation and the marketing of the range. Bob Dylan_sentence_541

The Times described the venture as "Mr. Dylan's entry into the booming celebrity-branded spirits market, the latest career twist for an artist who has spent five decades confounding expectations." Bob Dylan_sentence_542

On November 2, 2018, Dylan released More Blood, More Tracks as Volume 14 in the Bootleg Series. Bob Dylan_sentence_543

The set comprises all Dylan's recordings for his 1975 album Blood On the Tracks, and was issued as a single CD and also as a six-CD Deluxe Edition. Bob Dylan_sentence_544

The box set album received an aggregate score of 93 on the critical website Metacritic, indicating "universal acclaim". Bob Dylan_sentence_545

Netflix released the movie Rolling Thunder Revue: A Bob Dylan Story by Martin Scorsese on June 12, 2019, describing the film as "Part documentary, part concert film, part fever dream". Bob Dylan_sentence_546

The Scorsese film received an aggregate score of 88 on critical website Metacritic, indicating "universal acclaim". Bob Dylan_sentence_547

The film sparked controversy because of the way it deliberately mixed documentary footage filmed during the Rolling Thunder Revue in the fall of 1975 with fictitious characters and invented stories. Bob Dylan_sentence_548

Coinciding with the film release, a box set of 14 CDs, The Rolling Thunder Revue: The 1975 Live Recordings, was released by Columbia Records. Bob Dylan_sentence_549

The set comprises five full Dylan performances from the tour and recently discovered tapes from Dylan's tour rehearsals. Bob Dylan_sentence_550

The box set received an aggregate score of 89 on the critical website Metacritic, indicating "universal acclaim". Bob Dylan_sentence_551

The next instalment of Dylan's Bootleg Series, Bob Dylan (featuring Johnny Cash) – Travelin’ Thru, 1967 – 1969: The Bootleg Series Vol. 15, was released on November 1. Bob Dylan_sentence_552

The 3-CD set comprises outtakes from Dylan's albums John Wesley Harding and Nashville Skyline, and songs that Dylan recorded with Johnny Cash in Nashville in 1969 and with Earl Scruggs in 1970. Bob Dylan_sentence_553

Travelin' Thru received an aggregate score of 88 on the critical website Metacritic, indicating "universal acclaim". Bob Dylan_sentence_554

2020s Bob Dylan_section_19

Rough and Rowdy Ways Bob Dylan_section_20

Main article: Rough and Rowdy Ways Bob Dylan_sentence_555

On March 26, 2020, Dylan released a seventeen-minute track "Murder Most Foul" on his YouTube channel, revolving around the assassination of President Kennedy. Bob Dylan_sentence_556

Dylan posted a statement: "This is an unreleased song we recorded a while back that you might find interesting. Bob Dylan_sentence_557

Stay safe, stay observant and may God be with you." Bob Dylan_sentence_558

Billboard reported on April 8 that "Murder Most Foul" had topped the Billboard Rock Digital Song Sales Chart. Bob Dylan_sentence_559

This was the first time that Dylan had scored a number one song on a pop chart under his own name. Bob Dylan_sentence_560

Three weeks later, on April 17, 2020, Dylan released another new song, "I Contain Multitudes". Bob Dylan_sentence_561

The title is a quote from Section 51 of Walt Whitman's poem "Song of Myself". Bob Dylan_sentence_562

On May 7, Dylan released a third single, "False Prophet", accompanied by the news that "Murder Most Foul", "I Contain Multitudes" and "False Prophet" would all appear on a forthcoming double album. Bob Dylan_sentence_563

Rough and Rowdy Ways, Dylan's 39th studio album and his first album of original material since 2012, was released on June 19 to favorable reviews. Bob Dylan_sentence_564

Alexis Petridis wrote in The Guardian, "For all its bleakness, Rough and Rowdy Ways might well be Bob Dylan’s most consistently brilliant set of songs in years: the die-hards can spend months unravelling the knottier lyrics, but you don’t need a PhD in Dylanology to appreciate its singular quality and power." Bob Dylan_sentence_565

Rolling Stone critic Rob Sheffield wrote: "While the world keeps trying to celebrate him as an institution, pin him down, cast him in the Nobel Prize canon, embalm his past, this drifter always keeps on making his next escape. Bob Dylan_sentence_566

On Rough and Rowdy Ways, Dylan is exploring terrain nobody else has reached before—yet he just keeps pushing on into the future." Bob Dylan_sentence_567

Critical aggregator Metacritic gave the album a score of 95, indicating "universal acclaim". Bob Dylan_sentence_568

In its first week of release Rough and Rowdy Ways reached number one on the U.K. album chart, making Dylan "the oldest artist to score a No. Bob Dylan_sentence_569

1 of new, original material". Bob Dylan_sentence_570

To accompany the album, Dylan gave a rare interview to historian Douglas Brinkley, published in The New York Times on June 12. Bob Dylan_sentence_571

Dylan commented on the killing of George Floyd: "It was beyond ugly. Bob Dylan_sentence_572

Let's hope that justice comes swift for the Floyd family and for the nation." Bob Dylan_sentence_573

He said of the COVID-19 pandemic, "Maybe we are on the eve of destruction. Bob Dylan_sentence_574

There are numerous ways you can think about this virus. Bob Dylan_sentence_575

I think you just have to let it run its course." Bob Dylan_sentence_576

Never Ending Tour Bob Dylan_section_21

Main article: Never Ending Tour Bob Dylan_sentence_577

The Never Ending Tour commenced on June 7, 1988, and Dylan has played roughly 100 dates a year for the entirety of the 1990s and 2000s—a heavier schedule than most performers who started out in the 1960s. Bob Dylan_sentence_578

By April 2019, Dylan and his band had played more than 3,000 shows, anchored by long-time bassist Tony Garnier, multi-instrumentalist Donnie Herron and guitarist Charlie Sexton. Bob Dylan_sentence_579

In October 2019, drummer Matt Chamberlain joined the band. Bob Dylan_sentence_580

To the dismay of some of his audience, Dylan's performances remain unpredictable as he alters his arrangements and changes his vocal approach night after night. Bob Dylan_sentence_581

Critical opinion about Dylan's shows remains divided. Bob Dylan_sentence_582

Critics such as Richard Williams and Andy Gill have argued that Dylan has found a successful way to present his rich legacy of material. Bob Dylan_sentence_583

Others have criticized his live performances for mangling and spitting out "the greatest lyrics ever written so that they are effectively unrecognisable", and giving so little to the audience that "it is difficult to understand what he is doing on stage at all." Bob Dylan_sentence_584

Dylan's performances in China in April 2011 generated controversy. Bob Dylan_sentence_585

Some criticised him for not making any explicit comment on the political situation in China, and for, allegedly, allowing the Chinese authorities to censor his set list. Bob Dylan_sentence_586

Others defended Dylan's performances, arguing that such criticism represented a misunderstanding of Dylan's art, and that no evidence for the censorship of Dylan's set list existed. Bob Dylan_sentence_587

In response to these allegations, Dylan posted a statement on his website: "As far as censorship goes, the Chinese government had asked for the names of the songs that I would be playing. Bob Dylan_sentence_588

There's no logical answer to that, so we sent them the set lists from the previous 3 months. Bob Dylan_sentence_589

If there were any songs, verses or lines censored, nobody ever told me about it and we played all the songs that we intended to play." Bob Dylan_sentence_590

In 2019, Dylan undertook two tours in Europe. Bob Dylan_sentence_591

The first commenced in Düsseldorf, Germany, on March 31, and ended in Valencia, Spain, on May 7. Bob Dylan_sentence_592

He played his 3000th show of the Never Ending Tour on April 19, 2019, in Innsbruck, Austria. Bob Dylan_sentence_593

Dylan's second tour began in Bergen, Norway, on June 21, and ended in Kilkenny, Ireland, on July 14. Bob Dylan_sentence_594

In the fall of 2019 Dylan toured the USA, commencing in Irvine, California on October 11 and ending in Washington D.C. on December 8. Bob Dylan_sentence_595

In October 2019, Dylan's touring company indicated that he would play 14 concerts in Japan in April 2020. Bob Dylan_sentence_596

However, on March 12, 2020, it was announced that these scheduled shows had been canceled due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Bob Dylan_sentence_597

Visual art Bob Dylan_section_22

The cover of Dylan's album Self Portrait (1970) is a reproduction of a painting of a face by Dylan. Bob Dylan_sentence_598

Another of his paintings is reproduced on the cover of the 1974 album Planet Waves. Bob Dylan_sentence_599

In 1994 Random House published Drawn Blank, a book of Dylan's drawings. Bob Dylan_sentence_600

In 2007, the first public exhibition of Dylan's paintings, The Drawn Blank Series, opened at the Kunstsammlungen in Chemnitz, Germany; it showcased more than 200 watercolors and gouaches made from the original drawings. Bob Dylan_sentence_601

The exhibition coincided with the publication of Bob Dylan: The Drawn Blank Series, which includes 170 reproductions from the series. Bob Dylan_sentence_602

From September 2010 until April 2011, the National Gallery of Denmark exhibited 40 large-scale acrylic paintings by Dylan, The Brazil Series. Bob Dylan_sentence_603

In July 2011, a leading contemporary art gallery, Gagosian Gallery, announced their representation of Dylan's paintings. Bob Dylan_sentence_604

An exhibition of Dylan's art, The Asia Series, opened at the Gagosian Madison Avenue Gallery on September 20, displaying Dylan's paintings of scenes in China and the Far East. Bob Dylan_sentence_605

The New York Times reported that "some fans and Dylanologists have raised questions about whether some of these paintings are based on the singer's own experiences and observations, or on photographs that are widely available and were not taken by Mr. Bob Dylan_sentence_606

Dylan." Bob Dylan_sentence_607

The Times pointed to close resemblances between Dylan's paintings and historic photos of Japan and China, and photos taken by Dmitri Kessel and Henri Cartier-Bresson. Bob Dylan_sentence_608

Art critic Blake Gopnik has defended Dylan's artistic practice, arguing: "Ever since the birth of photography, painters have used it as the basis for their works: Edgar Degas and Edouard Vuillard and other favorite artists—even Edvard Munch—all took or used photos as sources for their art, sometimes barely altering them." Bob Dylan_sentence_609

The Magnum photo agency confirmed that Dylan had licensed the reproduction rights of these photographs. Bob Dylan_sentence_610

Dylan's second show at the Gagosian Gallery, Revisionist Art, opened in November 2012. Bob Dylan_sentence_611

The show consisted of thirty paintings, transforming and satirizing popular magazines, including Playboy and Babytalk. Bob Dylan_sentence_612

In February 2013, Dylan exhibited the New Orleans Series of paintings at the Palazzo Reale in Milan. Bob Dylan_sentence_613

In August 2013, Britain's National Portrait Gallery in London hosted Dylan's first major UK exhibition, Face Value, featuring twelve pastel portraits. Bob Dylan_sentence_614

In November 2013, the Halcyon Gallery in London mounted Mood Swings, an exhibition in which Dylan displayed seven wrought iron gates he had made. Bob Dylan_sentence_615

In a statement released by the gallery, Dylan said, "I've been around iron all my life ever since I was a kid. Bob Dylan_sentence_616

I was born and raised in iron ore country, where you could breathe it and smell it every day. Bob Dylan_sentence_617

Gates appeal to me because of the negative space they allow. Bob Dylan_sentence_618

They can be closed but at the same time they allow the seasons and breezes to enter and flow. Bob Dylan_sentence_619

They can shut you out or shut you in. Bob Dylan_sentence_620

And in some ways there is no difference." Bob Dylan_sentence_621

In November 2016, the Halcyon Gallery featured a collection of drawings, watercolors and acrylic works by Dylan. Bob Dylan_sentence_622

The exhibition, The Beaten Path, depicted American landscapes and urban scenes, inspired by Dylan's travels across the USA. Bob Dylan_sentence_623

The show was reviewed by Vanity Fair and Asia Times Online. Bob Dylan_sentence_624

In October 2018, the Halcyon Gallery mounted an exhibition of Dylan's drawings, Mondo Scripto. Bob Dylan_sentence_625

The works consisted of Dylan hand-written lyrics of his songs, with each song illustrated by a drawing. Bob Dylan_sentence_626

Since 1994, Dylan has published eight books of paintings and drawings. Bob Dylan_sentence_627

Discography Bob Dylan_section_23

Main articles: Bob Dylan discography and List of songs written by Bob Dylan Bob Dylan_sentence_628

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: Dylan.