Bob Marley

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"Marley" redirects here. Bob Marley_sentence_0

For other uses, see Marley (disambiguation). Bob Marley_sentence_1

This article is about the Jamaican musician. Bob Marley_sentence_2

For the American comedian, see Bob Marley (comedian). Bob Marley_sentence_3

Bob Marley_table_infobox_0

The Honourable

Bob Marley OMBob Marley_header_cell_0_0_0

BornBob Marley_header_cell_0_1_0 Robert Nesta Marley

(1945-02-06)6 February 1945 Nine Mile, Saint Ann Parish, Colony of JamaicaBob Marley_cell_0_1_1

DiedBob Marley_header_cell_0_2_0 11 May 1981(1981-05-11) (aged 36)

Miami, Florida, U.S.Bob Marley_cell_0_2_1

Cause of deathBob Marley_header_cell_0_3_0 malignant melanoma (pigmented skin cancer)Bob Marley_cell_0_3_1
Other namesBob Marley_header_cell_0_4_0 Bob Marley_cell_0_4_1
OccupationBob Marley_header_cell_0_5_0 Bob Marley_cell_0_5_1
Spouse(s)Bob Marley_header_cell_0_6_0 Rita Anderson ​(m. after 1966)​Bob Marley_cell_0_6_1
Partner(s)Bob Marley_header_cell_0_7_0 Cindy Breakspeare (1977–1978)Bob Marley_cell_0_7_1
ChildrenBob Marley_header_cell_0_8_0 11Bob Marley_cell_0_8_1
Parent(s)Bob Marley_header_cell_0_9_0 Bob Marley_cell_0_9_1
RelativesBob Marley_header_cell_0_10_0 Bob Marley_cell_0_10_1
GenresBob Marley_header_cell_0_11_0 Bob Marley_cell_0_11_1
InstrumentsBob Marley_header_cell_0_12_0 Bob Marley_cell_0_12_1
Years activeBob Marley_header_cell_0_13_0 1962–1981Bob Marley_cell_0_13_1
LabelsBob Marley_header_cell_0_14_0 Bob Marley_cell_0_14_1
Associated actsBob Marley_header_cell_0_15_0 Bob Marley and the WailersBob Marley_cell_0_15_1
WebsiteBob Marley_header_cell_0_16_0 Bob Marley_cell_0_16_1

Robert Nesta Marley, OM (6 February 1945 – 11 May 1981) was a Jamaican singer, songwriter, and musician. Bob Marley_sentence_4

Considered one of the pioneers of reggae, his musical career was marked by fusing elements of reggae, ska, and rocksteady, as well as his distinctive vocal and songwriting style. Bob Marley_sentence_5

Marley's contributions to music increased the visibility of Jamaican music worldwide, and made him a global figure in popular culture for over a decade. Bob Marley_sentence_6

Over the course of his career Marley became known as a Rastafari icon, and he infused his music with a sense of spirituality. Bob Marley_sentence_7

He is also considered a global symbol of Jamaican music and culture and identity, and was controversial in his outspoken support for the legalization of marijuana, while he also advocated for Pan-Africanism. Bob Marley_sentence_8

Born in Nine Mile, British Jamaica, Marley began his professional musical career in 1963, after forming Bob Marley and the Wailers. Bob Marley_sentence_9

The group released its debut studio album The Wailing Wailers in 1965, which contained the single "One Love/People Get Ready"; the song was popular worldwide, and established the group as a rising figure in reggae. Bob Marley_sentence_10

The Wailers subsequently released eleven further studio albums; while initially employing louder instrumentation and singing, the group began engaging in rhythmic-based song construction in the late 1960s and early 1970s, which coincided with the singer's conversion to Rastafarianism. Bob Marley_sentence_11

During this period Marley relocated to London, and the group embodied their musical shift with the release of the album The Best of The Wailers (1971). Bob Marley_sentence_12

The group attained international success after the release of the albums Catch a Fire and Burnin' (both 1973), and forged a reputation as touring artists. Bob Marley_sentence_13

Following the disbandment of the Wailers a year later, Marley went on to release his solo material under the band's name. Bob Marley_sentence_14

His debut studio album Natty Dread (1974) received positive reception, as did its follow-up Rastaman Vibration (1976). Bob Marley_sentence_15

A few months after the album's release Marley survived an assassination attempt at his home in Jamaica, which prompted him to permanently relocate to London. Bob Marley_sentence_16

During his time in London he recorded the album Exodus (1977); it incorporated elements of blues, soul, and British rock, enjoyed widespread commercial and critical success. Bob Marley_sentence_17

In 1977, Marley was diagnosed with acral lentiginous melanoma; he died as a result of the illness in 1981. Bob Marley_sentence_18

His fans around the world expressed their grief, and he received a state funeral in Jamaica. Bob Marley_sentence_19

The greatest hits album Legend was released in 1984, and became the best-selling reggae album of all time. Bob Marley_sentence_20

Marley also ranks as one of the best-selling music artists of all time, with estimated sales of more than 75 million records worldwide. Bob Marley_sentence_21

He was posthumously honored by Jamaica soon after his death with a designated Order of Merit by his nation. Bob Marley_sentence_22

In 1994, he was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. Bob Marley_sentence_23

Rolling Stone ranked him No. Bob Marley_sentence_24

11 on its list of the 100 Greatest Artists of All Time. Bob Marley_sentence_25

Early life and career Bob Marley_section_0

Robert Nesta Marley was born on 6 February 1945 at the farm of his maternal grandfather in Nine Mile, Saint Ann Parish, Jamaica, to Norval Sinclair Marley and Cedella Malcolm. Bob Marley_sentence_26

Norval Marley was a white Jamaican from Clarendon Parish, Jamaica, whose family claimed to have Syrian Jewish origins. Bob Marley_sentence_27

Norval claimed to have been a captain in the Royal Marines; at the time of his marriage to Cedella Malcolm, an Afro-Jamaican then 18 years old, he was employed as a plantation overseer. Bob Marley_sentence_28

Bob Marley's full name is Robert Nesta Marley, though some sources give his birth name as Nesta Robert Marley, with a story that when Marley was still a boy a Jamaican passport official reversed his first and middle names because Nesta sounded like a girl's name. Bob Marley_sentence_29

Norval provided financial support for his wife and child but seldom saw them as he was often away. Bob Marley_sentence_30

Bob Marley attended Stepney Primary and Junior High School which serves the catchment area of Saint Ann. Bob Marley_sentence_31

In 1955, when Bob Marley was 10 years old, his father died of a heart attack at the age of 70. Bob Marley_sentence_32

Marley's mother went on later to marry Edward Booker, a civil servant from the United States, giving Marley two half-brothers: Richard and Anthony. Bob Marley_sentence_33

Bob Marley and Neville Livingston (later known as Bunny Wailer) had been childhood friends in Nine Mile. Bob Marley_sentence_34

They had started to play music together while at Stepney Primary and Junior High School. Bob Marley_sentence_35

Marley left Nine Mile with his mother when he was 12 and moved to Trenchtown, Kingston. Bob Marley_sentence_36

She and Thadeus Livingston (Bunny Wailer's father) had a daughter together whom they named Claudette Pearl, who was a younger sister to both Bob and Bunny. Bob Marley_sentence_37

Now that Marley and Livingston were living together in the same house in Trenchtown, their musical explorations deepened to include the latest R&B from United States radio stations whose broadcasts reached Jamaica, and the new ska music. Bob Marley_sentence_38

The move to Trenchtown was proving to be fortuitous, and Marley soon found himself in a vocal group with Bunny Wailer, Peter Tosh, Beverley Kelso and Junior Braithwaite. Bob Marley_sentence_39

Joe Higgs, who was part of the successful vocal act Higgs and Wilson, resided on 3rd St., and his singing partner Roy Wilson had been raised by the grandmother of Junior Braithwaite. Bob Marley_sentence_40

Higgs and Wilson would rehearse at the back of the houses between 2nd and 3rd Streets, and soon, Marley (now residing on 2nd St.), Junior Braithwaite and the others were congregating around this successful duo. Bob Marley_sentence_41

Marley and the others did not play any instruments at this time, and were more interested in being a vocal harmony group. Bob Marley_sentence_42

Higgs was glad to help them develop their vocal harmonies, although more importantly, he had started to teach Marley how to play guitar—thereby creating the bedrock that would later allow Marley to construct some of the biggest-selling reggae songs in the history of the genre. Bob Marley_sentence_43

Musical career Bob Marley_section_1

Main article: Bob Marley and the Wailers Bob Marley_sentence_44

1962–72: Early years Bob Marley_section_2

In February 1962, Marley recorded four songs, "Judge Not", "One Cup of Coffee", "Do You Still Love Me?" Bob Marley_sentence_45

and "Terror", at Federal Studios for local music producer Leslie Kong. Bob Marley_sentence_46

Three of the songs were released on Beverley's with "One Cup of Coffee" being released under the pseudonym Bobby Martell. Bob Marley_sentence_47

In 1963, Bob Marley, Bunny Wailer, Peter Tosh, Junior Braithwaite, Beverley Kelso, and Cherry Smith were called the Teenagers. Bob Marley_sentence_48

They later changed the name to the Wailing Rudeboys, then to the Wailing Wailers, at which point they were discovered by record producer Coxsone Dodd, and finally to the Wailers. Bob Marley_sentence_49

Their single "Simmer Down" for the Coxsone label became a Jamaican No. Bob Marley_sentence_50

1 in February 1964 selling an estimated 70,000 copies. Bob Marley_sentence_51

The Wailers, now regularly recording for Studio One, found themselves working with established Jamaican musicians such as Ernest Ranglin (arranger "It Hurts To Be Alone"), the keyboardist Jackie Mittoo and saxophonist Roland Alphonso. Bob Marley_sentence_52

By 1966, Braithwaite, Kelso, and Smith had left the Wailers, leaving the core trio of Bob Marley, Bunny Wailer, and Peter Tosh. Bob Marley_sentence_53

In 1966, Marley married Rita Anderson, and moved near his mother's residence in Wilmington, Delaware, in the United States for a short time, during which he worked as a DuPont lab assistant and on the assembly line at a Chrysler plant in nearby Newark, under the alias Donald Marley. Bob Marley_sentence_54

Though raised as a Catholic, Marley became interested in Rastafari beliefs in the 1960s, when away from his mother's influence. Bob Marley_sentence_55

After returning to Jamaica, Marley formally converted to Rastafari and began to grow dreadlocks. Bob Marley_sentence_56

After a financial disagreement with Dodd, Marley and his band teamed up with Lee "Scratch" Perry and his studio band, the Upsetters. Bob Marley_sentence_57

Although the alliance lasted less than a year, they recorded what many consider the Wailers' finest work. Bob Marley_sentence_58

Marley and Perry split after a dispute regarding the assignment of recording rights, but they would continue to work together. Bob Marley_sentence_59

1969 brought another change to Jamaican popular music in which the beat slowed down even further. Bob Marley_sentence_60

The new beat was a slow, steady, ticking rhythm that was first heard on The Maytals song "Do the Reggay." Bob Marley_sentence_61

Marley approached producer Leslie Kong, who was regarded as one of the major developers of the reggae sound. Bob Marley_sentence_62

For the recordings, Kong combined the Wailers with his studio musicians called Beverley's All-Stars, which consisted of the bassists Lloyd Parks and Jackie Jackson, the drummer Paul Douglas, the keyboard players Gladstone Anderson and Winston Wright, and the guitarists Rad Bryan, Lynn Taitt, and Hux Brown. Bob Marley_sentence_63

As David Moskowitz writes, "The tracks recorded in this session illustrated the Wailers' earliest efforts in the new reggae style. Bob Marley_sentence_64

Gone are the ska trumpets and saxophones of the earlier songs, with instrumental breaks now being played by the electric guitar." Bob Marley_sentence_65

The songs recorded would be released as the album The Best of The Wailers, including tracks "Soul Shakedown Party," "Stop That Train," "Caution," "Go Tell It on the Mountain," "Soon Come," "Can't You See," "Soul Captives," "Cheer Up," "Back Out," and "Do It Twice". Bob Marley_sentence_66

Between 1968 and 1972, Bob and Rita Marley, Peter Tosh and Bunny Wailer re-cut some old tracks with JAD Records in Kingston and London in an attempt to commercialise the Wailers' sound. Bob Marley_sentence_67

Bunny later asserted that these songs "should never be released on an album ... they were just demos for record companies to listen to". Bob Marley_sentence_68

In 1968, Bob and Rita visited songwriter Jimmy Norman at his apartment in the Bronx. Bob Marley_sentence_69

Norman had written the extended lyrics for Kai Winding's "Time Is on My Side" (covered by the Rolling Stones) and had also written for Johnny Nash and Jimi Hendrix. Bob Marley_sentence_70

A three-day jam session with Norman and others, including Norman's co-writer Al Pyfrom, resulted in a 24-minute tape of Marley performing several of his own and Norman-Pyfrom's compositions. Bob Marley_sentence_71

This tape is, according to Reggae archivist Roger Steffens, rare in that it was influenced by pop rather than reggae, as part of an effort to break Marley into the US charts. Bob Marley_sentence_72

According to an article in The New York Times, Marley experimented on the tape with different sounds, adopting a doo-wop style on "Stay With Me" and "the slow love song style of 1960s artists" on "Splish for My Splash". Bob Marley_sentence_73

An artist yet to establish himself outside his native Jamaica, Marley lived in Ridgmount Gardens, Bloomsbury, during 1972. Bob Marley_sentence_74

1972–74: Move to Island Records Bob Marley_section_3

In 1972, Bob Marley signed with CBS Records in London and embarked on a UK tour with soul singer Johnny Nash. Bob Marley_sentence_75

While in London the Wailers asked their road manager Brent Clarke to introduce them to Chris Blackwell, who had licensed some of their Coxsone releases for his Island Records. Bob Marley_sentence_76

The Wailers intended to discuss the royalties associated with these releases; instead, the meeting resulted in the offer of an advance of £4,000 to record an album. Bob Marley_sentence_77

Since Jimmy Cliff, Island's top reggae star, had recently left the label, Blackwell was primed for a replacement. Bob Marley_sentence_78

In Marley, Blackwell recognised the elements needed to snare the rock audience: "I was dealing with rock music, which was really rebel music. Bob Marley_sentence_79

I felt that would really be the way to break Jamaican music. Bob Marley_sentence_80

But you needed someone who could be that image. Bob Marley_sentence_81

When Bob walked in he really was that image." Bob Marley_sentence_82

The Wailers returned to Jamaica to record at Harry J's in Kingston, which resulted in the album Catch a Fire. Bob Marley_sentence_83

Primarily recorded on an eight-track, Catch a Fire marked the first time a reggae band had access to a state-of-the-art studio and were accorded the same care as their rock 'n' roll peers. Bob Marley_sentence_84

Blackwell desired to create "more of a drifting, hypnotic-type feel than a reggae rhythm", and restructured Marley's mixes and arrangements. Bob Marley_sentence_85

Marley travelled to London to supervise Blackwell's overdubbing of the album which included tempering the mix from the bass-heavy sound of Jamaican music and omitting two tracks. Bob Marley_sentence_86

The Wailers' first album for Island, Catch a Fire, was released worldwide in April 1973, packaged like a rock record with a unique Zippo lighter lift-top. Bob Marley_sentence_87

Initially selling 14,000 units, it received a positive critical reception. Bob Marley_sentence_88

It was followed later that year by the album Burnin' which included the song "I Shot the Sheriff". Bob Marley_sentence_89

Eric Clapton was given the album by his guitarist George Terry in the hope that he would enjoy it. Bob Marley_sentence_90

Clapton was impressed and chose to record a cover version of "I Shot the Sheriff" which became his first US hit since "Layla" two years earlier and reached number 1 on the Billboard Hot 100 on 14 September 1974. Bob Marley_sentence_91

Many Jamaicans were not keen on the new reggae sound on Catch a Fire, but the Trenchtown style of Burnin found fans across both reggae and rock audiences. Bob Marley_sentence_92

During this period, Blackwell gifted his Kingston residence and company headquarters at 56 Hope Road (then known as Island House) to Marley. Bob Marley_sentence_93

Housing Tuff Gong Studios, the property became not only Marley's office but also his home. Bob Marley_sentence_94

The Wailers were scheduled to open 17 shows in the US for Sly and the Family Stone. Bob Marley_sentence_95

After four shows, the band was fired because they were more popular than the acts they were opening for. Bob Marley_sentence_96

The Wailers disbanded in 1974, with each of the three main members pursuing a solo career. Bob Marley_sentence_97

1974–76: Line-up changes and shooting Bob Marley_section_4

Main article: Bob Marley assassination attempt Bob Marley_sentence_98

Despite the break-up, Marley continued recording as "Bob Marley & The Wailers". Bob Marley_sentence_99

His new backing band included brothers Carlton and Aston "Family Man" Barrett on drums and bass respectively, Junior Marvin and Al Anderson on lead guitar, Tyrone Downie and Earl "Wya" Lindo on keyboards, and Alvin "Seeco" Patterson on percussion. Bob Marley_sentence_100

The "I Threes", consisting of Judy Mowatt, Marcia Griffiths, and Marley's wife, Rita, provided backing vocals. Bob Marley_sentence_101

In 1975, Marley had his international breakthrough with his first hit outside Jamaica, with a live version of "No Woman, No Cry", from the Live! Bob Marley_sentence_102

album. Bob Marley_sentence_103

This was followed by his breakthrough album in the United States, Rastaman Vibration (1976), which reached the Top 50 of the Billboard Soul Charts. Bob Marley_sentence_104

On 3 December 1976, two days before "Smile Jamaica", a free concert organised by the Jamaican Prime Minister Michael Manley in an attempt to ease tension between two warring political groups, Marley, his wife, and manager Don Taylor were wounded in an assault by unknown gunmen inside Marley's home. Bob Marley_sentence_105

Taylor and Marley's wife sustained serious injuries but later made full recoveries. Bob Marley_sentence_106

Bob Marley received minor wounds in the chest and arm. Bob Marley_sentence_107

The attempt on his life was thought to have been politically motivated, as many felt the concert was really a support rally for Manley. Bob Marley_sentence_108

Nonetheless, the concert proceeded, and an injured Marley performed as scheduled, two days after the attempt. Bob Marley_sentence_109

When asked why, Marley responded, "The people who are trying to make this world worse aren't taking a day off. Bob Marley_sentence_110

How can I?" Bob Marley_sentence_111

The members of the group Zap Pow played as Bob Marley's backup band before a festival crowd of 80,000 while members of The Wailers were still missing or in hiding. Bob Marley_sentence_112

1976–79: Relocation to England Bob Marley_section_5

Marley left Jamaica at the end of 1976, and after a month-long "recovery and writing" sojourn at the site of Chris Blackwell's Compass Point Studios in Nassau, Bahamas, arrived in England, where he spent two years in self-imposed exile. Bob Marley_sentence_113

Whilst in England, he recorded the albums Exodus and Kaya. Bob Marley_sentence_114

Exodus stayed on the British album charts for 56 consecutive weeks. Bob Marley_sentence_115

It included four UK hit singles: "Exodus", "Waiting in Vain", "Jamming", and "One Love" (which interpolates Curtis Mayfield's hit, "People Get Ready"). Bob Marley_sentence_116

During his time in London, he was arrested and received a conviction for possession of a small quantity of cannabis. Bob Marley_sentence_117

In 1978, Marley returned to Jamaica and performed at another political concert, the One Love Peace Concert, again in an effort to calm warring parties. Bob Marley_sentence_118

Near the end of the performance, by Marley's request, Michael Manley (leader of then-ruling People's National Party) and his political rival Edward Seaga (leader of the opposing Jamaica Labour Party) joined each other on stage and shook hands. Bob Marley_sentence_119

Under the name Bob Marley and the Wailers 11 albums were released, four live albums and seven studio albums. Bob Marley_sentence_120

The releases included Babylon by Bus, a double live album with 13 tracks, was released in 1978 and received critical acclaim. Bob Marley_sentence_121

This album, and specifically the final track "Jamming" with the audience in a frenzy captured the intensity of Marley's live performances. Bob Marley_sentence_122

1979–81: Later years Bob Marley_section_6

Survival, a defiant and politically charged album, was released in 1979. Bob Marley_sentence_123

Tracks such as "Zimbabwe", "Africa Unite", "Wake Up and Live", and "Survival" reflected Marley's support for the struggles of Africans. Bob Marley_sentence_124

His appearance at the Amandla Festival in Boston in July 1979 showed his strong opposition to South African apartheid, which he already had shown in his song "War" in 1976. Bob Marley_sentence_125

In early 1980, he was invited to perform at 17 April celebration of Zimbabwe's Independence Day. Bob Marley_sentence_126

Uprising (1980) was Bob Marley's final studio album, and is one of his most religious productions; it includes "Redemption Song" and "Forever Loving Jah". Bob Marley_sentence_127

Confrontation, released posthumously in 1983, contained unreleased material recorded during Marley's lifetime, including the hit "Buffalo Soldier" and new mixes of singles previously only available in Jamaica. Bob Marley_sentence_128

Illness and death Bob Marley_section_7

In July 1977, Marley was found to have a type of malignant melanoma under the nail of a toe. Bob Marley_sentence_129

Contrary to urban legend, this lesion was not primarily caused by an injury during a football match that year but was instead a symptom of already-existing cancer. Bob Marley_sentence_130

He had to see two doctors before a biopsy was made, which confirmed the deadliest kind of skin cancer: acral lentiginous melanoma. Bob Marley_sentence_131

Unlike other melanomas, usually on skin exposed to the sun, acral lentiginous melanoma occurs in places that are easy to miss, such as the soles of the feet, or under toenails. Bob Marley_sentence_132

Although it is the commonest melanoma in people with dark skin, it is not widely recognised, and was not mentioned in the most popular medical textbook of the time. Bob Marley_sentence_133

Marley turned down his doctors' advice to have his toe amputated (which would have hindered his performing career), citing his religious beliefs, and instead, the nail and nail bed were removed and a skin graft was taken from his thigh to cover the area. Bob Marley_sentence_134

Despite his illness, he continued touring and was in the process of scheduling a world tour in 1980. Bob Marley_sentence_135

The album Uprising was released in May 1980. Bob Marley_sentence_136

The band completed a major tour of Europe, where it played its biggest concert to 100,000 people in Milan, Italy. Bob Marley_sentence_137

After the tour Marley went to the United States, where he performed two shows at Madison Square Garden in New York City as part of the Uprising Tour. Bob Marley_sentence_138

He collapsed while jogging in Central Park and was taken to hospital, where it was found that his cancer had spread to his brain, lungs, and liver. Bob Marley_sentence_139

Marley's last concert took place two days later at the Stanley Theater (now The Benedum Center For The Performing Arts) in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, on 23 September 1980. Bob Marley_sentence_140

The only known photographs from the show were included in Kevin Macdonald's documentary film Marley. Bob Marley_sentence_141

Shortly afterward, Marley's health deteriorated as his cancer had spread throughout his body. Bob Marley_sentence_142

The rest of the tour was canceled and Marley sought treatment at the clinic of Josef Issels in Bavaria, Germany, where he underwent an alternative cancer treatment called Issels treatment partly based on avoidance of certain foods, drinks, and other substances. Bob Marley_sentence_143

After eight months of effectively failing to treat his advancing cancer, Marley boarded a plane for his home in Jamaica. Bob Marley_sentence_144

During the flight Marley's vital functions worsened. Bob Marley_sentence_145

After landing in Miami, Florida, he was taken to Cedars of Lebanon Hospital (later University of Miami Hospital) for immediate medical attention, where he died on 11 May 1981, aged 36, due to the spread of melanoma to his lungs and brain. Bob Marley_sentence_146

His final words to his son Ziggy were "Money can't buy life." Bob Marley_sentence_147

Marley was given a state funeral in Jamaica on 21 May 1981, which combined elements of Ethiopian Orthodoxy and Rastafari tradition. Bob Marley_sentence_148

He was buried in a chapel near his birthplace with his guitar. Bob Marley_sentence_149

On 21 May 1981, Jamaican Prime Minister Edward Seaga delivered the final funeral eulogy to Marley, saying: Bob Marley_sentence_150

Legacy Bob Marley_section_8

Awards and honours Bob Marley_section_9

Bob Marley_unordered_list_0

  • 1976: Rolling Stone Band of the YearBob Marley_item_0_0
  • June 1978: Awarded the Peace Medal of the Third World from the United Nations.Bob Marley_item_0_1
  • February 1981: Awarded the Jamaican Order of Merit, then the nation's third highest honour.Bob Marley_item_0_2
  • March 1994: Inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame.Bob Marley_item_0_3
  • 1999: Album of the Century for Exodus by Time Magazine.Bob Marley_item_0_4
  • February 2001: A star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame.Bob Marley_item_0_5
  • February 2001: Awarded Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award.Bob Marley_item_0_6
  • 2004: Rolling Stone ranked him No. 11 on their list of the 100 Greatest Artists of All Time.Bob Marley_item_0_7
  • 2004: Among the first inductees into the UK Music Hall of FameBob Marley_item_0_8
  • "One Love" named song of the millennium by BBC.Bob Marley_item_0_9
  • Voted as one of the greatest lyricists of all time by a BBC poll.Bob Marley_item_0_10
  • 2006: A blue plaque was unveiled at his first UK residence in Ridgmount Gardens, London, dedicated to him by the Nubian Jak Community Trust and supported by the Foreign and Commonwealth Office.Bob Marley_item_0_11
  • 2010: Catch a Fire inducted into the Grammy Hall of Fame (Reggae Album).Bob Marley_item_0_12

Other tributes Bob Marley_section_10

A statue was inaugurated, next to the national stadium on Arthur Wint Drive in Kingston to commemorate him. Bob Marley_sentence_151

In 2006, the New York City Department of Education co-named a portion of Church Avenue from Remsen Avenue to East 98th Street in the East Flatbush section of Brooklyn as "Bob Marley Boulevard". Bob Marley_sentence_152

In 2008, a statue of Marley was inaugurated in Banatski Sokolac, Serbia. Bob Marley_sentence_153

Internationally, Marley's message also continues to reverberate among various indigenous communities. Bob Marley_sentence_154

For instance, the Australian Aboriginal people continue to burn a sacred flame to honour his memory in Sydney's Victoria Park, while members of the Native American Hopi and Havasupai tribes revere his work. Bob Marley_sentence_155

There are also many tributes to Bob Marley throughout India, including restaurants, hotels, and cultural festivals. Bob Marley_sentence_156

Marley evolved into a global symbol, which has been endlessly merchandised through a variety of media. Bob Marley_sentence_157

In the light of this, author Dave Thompson in his book Reggae and Caribbean Music, laments what he perceives to be the commercialised pacification of Marley's more militant edge, stating: Bob Marley_sentence_158

Several film adaptations have evolved as well. Bob Marley_sentence_159

For instance, a feature-length documentary about his life, Rebel Music, won various awards at the Grammys. Bob Marley_sentence_160

With contributions from Rita, The Wailers, and Marley's lovers and children, it also tells much of the story in his own words. Bob Marley_sentence_161

In February 2008, director Martin Scorsese announced his intention to produce a documentary movie on Marley. Bob Marley_sentence_162

The film was set to be released on 6 February 2010, on what would have been Marley's 65th birthday. Bob Marley_sentence_163

However, Scorsese dropped out due to scheduling problems. Bob Marley_sentence_164

He was replaced by Jonathan Demme, who dropped out due to creative differences with producer Steve Bing during the beginning of editing. Bob Marley_sentence_165

Kevin Macdonald replaced Demme and the film, Marley, was released on 20 April 2012. Bob Marley_sentence_166

In 2011, ex-girlfriend and filmmaker Esther Anderson, along with Gian Godoy, made the documentary Bob Marley: The Making of a Legend, which premiered at the Edinburgh International Film Festival. Bob Marley_sentence_167

In October 2015, Jamaican author Marlon James' novel A Brief History of Seven Killings, a fictional account of the attempted assassination of Marley, won the 2015 Man Booker Prize at a ceremony in London. Bob Marley_sentence_168

In February 2020, the musical Get Up Stand Up!, the Bob Marley Story was announced by writer Lee Hall and director Dominic Cooke, starring Arinzé Kene as Bob Marley. Bob Marley_sentence_169

It will open at London's Lyric Theatre in February 2021. Bob Marley_sentence_170

Personal life Bob Marley_section_11

Religion Bob Marley_section_12

Bob Marley was a member for some years of the Rastafari movement, whose culture was a key element in the development of reggae. Bob Marley_sentence_171

He became an ardent proponent of Rastafari, taking its music out of the socially deprived areas of Jamaica and onto the international music scene. Bob Marley_sentence_172

He once gave the following response, which was typical, to a question put to him during a recorded interview: Bob Marley_sentence_173

Archbishop Abuna Yesehaq baptised Marley into the Ethiopian Orthodox Church, giving him the name Berhane Selassie, on 4 November 1980, shortly before his death. Bob Marley_sentence_174

Family Bob Marley_section_13

Bob Marley married Alpharita Constantia "Rita" Anderson in Kingston, Jamaica, on 10 February 1966. Bob Marley_sentence_175

Marley had many children: four with his wife Rita, two adopted from Rita's previous relationships, and several others with different women. Bob Marley_sentence_176

The official Bob Marley website acknowledges 11 children. Bob Marley_sentence_177

Those listed on the official site are: Bob Marley_sentence_178

Bob Marley_ordered_list_1

  1. Sharon, born 23 November 1964, daughter of Rita from a previous relationship but then adopted by Marley after his marriage with RitaBob Marley_item_1_13
  2. Cedella born 23 August 1967, to RitaBob Marley_item_1_14
  3. David "Ziggy", born 17 October 1968, to RitaBob Marley_item_1_15
  4. Stephen, born 20 April 1972, to RitaBob Marley_item_1_16
  5. Robert "Robbie", born 16 May 1972, to Pat WilliamsBob Marley_item_1_17
  6. Rohan, born 19 May 1972, to Janet HuntBob Marley_item_1_18
  7. Karen, born 1973 to Janet BowenBob Marley_item_1_19
  8. Stephanie, born 17 August 1974; according to Cedella Booker she was the daughter of Rita and a man called Ital with whom Rita had an affair; nonetheless, she was acknowledged as Bob's daughterBob Marley_item_1_20
  9. Julian, born 4 June 1975, to Lucy PounderBob Marley_item_1_21
  10. Ky-Mani, born 26 February 1976, to Anita BelnavisBob Marley_item_1_22
  11. Damian, born 21 July 1978, to Cindy BreakspeareBob Marley_item_1_23

Other sites have noted additional individuals who claim to be family members, as noted below: Bob Marley_sentence_179

Bob Marley_unordered_list_2

  • Makeda was born on 30 May 1981, to Yvette Crichton, after Marley's death. Meredith Dixon's book lists her as Marley's child, but she is not listed as such on the Bob Marley official website.Bob Marley_item_2_24
  • Various websites, for example, also list Imani Carole, born 22 May 1963 to Cheryl Murray; but she does not appear on the official Bob Marley website.Bob Marley_item_2_25

Marley also has two notable grandsons, musician Skip Marley and American football player Nico Marley. Bob Marley_sentence_180

Association football Bob Marley_section_14

Aside from music, association football played a major role throughout his life. Bob Marley_sentence_181

As well as playing the game, in parking lots, fields, and even inside recording studios, growing up he followed the Brazilian club Santos and its star player Pelé. Bob Marley_sentence_182

Marley surrounded himself with people from the sport, and in the 1970s made the Jamaican international footballer Allan "Skill" Cole his tour manager. Bob Marley_sentence_183

He told a journalist, "If you want to get to know me, you will have to play football against me and the Wailers." Bob Marley_sentence_184

Personal views Bob Marley_section_15

Pan-Africanism Bob Marley_section_16

Marley was a Pan-Africanist and believed in the unity of African people worldwide. Bob Marley_sentence_185

His beliefs were rooted in his Rastafari religious beliefs. Bob Marley_sentence_186

He was substantially inspired by Marcus Garvey, and had anti-imperialist and pan-Africanist themes in many of his songs, such as "Zimbabwe", "Exodus", "Survival", "Blackman Redemption", and "Redemption Song". Bob Marley_sentence_187

"Redemption Song" draws influence from a speech given by Marcus Garvey in Nova Scotia, 1937. Bob Marley_sentence_188

Marley held that independence of African countries from European domination was a victory for all those in the African diaspora. Bob Marley_sentence_189

In the song "Africa Unite", he sings of a desire for all peoples of the African diaspora to come together and fight against "Babylon"; similarly, in the song "Zimbabwe", he marks the liberation of the whole continent of Africa, and evokes calls for unity between all Africans, both within and outside Africa. Bob Marley_sentence_190

Cannabis Bob Marley_section_17

See also: Rastafari and cannabis Bob Marley_sentence_191

Marley considered cannabis a healing herb, a "sacrament", and an "aid to meditation"; he supported the legalisation of the drug. Bob Marley_sentence_192

He thought that marijuana use was prevalent in the Bible, reading passages such as Psalms 104:14 as showing approval of its usage. Bob Marley_sentence_193

Marley began to use cannabis when he converted to the Rastafari faith from Catholicism in 1966. Bob Marley_sentence_194

He was arrested in 1968 after being caught with cannabis but continued to use marijuana in accordance with his religious beliefs. Bob Marley_sentence_195

Of his marijuana usage, he said, "When you smoke herb, herb reveal yourself to you. Bob Marley_sentence_196

All the wickedness you do, the herb reveal itself to yourself, your conscience, show up yourself clear, because herb make you meditate. Bob Marley_sentence_197

Is only a natural t'ing and it grow like a tree." Bob Marley_sentence_198

Marley saw marijuana usage as a vital factor in religious growth and connection with Jah, and as a way to philosophise and become wiser. Bob Marley_sentence_199

Discography Bob Marley_section_18

Main article: Bob Marley and the Wailers discography Bob Marley_sentence_200

Studio albums Bob Marley_section_19

Bob Marley_unordered_list_3

Live albums Bob Marley_section_20

Bob Marley_unordered_list_4

See also Bob Marley_section_21

Bob Marley_unordered_list_5

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: Marley.