Bogotá

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For other uses, see Bogotá (disambiguation). Bogotá_sentence_0

Bogotá_table_infobox_0

BogotáBogotá_header_cell_0_0_0
CountryBogotá_header_cell_0_1_0 ColombiaBogotá_cell_0_1_1
DepartmentBogotá_header_cell_0_2_0 Capital District

Cundinamarca (see text)Bogotá_cell_0_2_1

FoundedBogotá_header_cell_0_3_0 6 August 1538 (traditional)Bogotá_cell_0_3_1
Founded byBogotá_header_cell_0_4_0 Gonzalo Jiménez de QuesadaBogotá_cell_0_4_1
GovernmentBogotá_header_cell_0_5_0
MayorBogotá_header_cell_0_6_0 Claudia López

(2020–2023)Bogotá_cell_0_6_1

AreaBogotá_header_cell_0_7_0
Capital city of ColombiaBogotá_header_cell_0_8_0 1,587 km (613 sq mi)Bogotá_cell_0_8_1
UrbanBogotá_header_cell_0_9_0 307.36 km (118.67 sq mi)Bogotá_cell_0_9_1
Area rankBogotá_header_cell_0_10_0 32ndBogotá_cell_0_10_1
ElevationBogotá_header_cell_0_11_0 2,640 m (8,660 ft)Bogotá_cell_0_11_1
Population (2018)Bogotá_header_cell_0_12_0
Capital city of ColombiaBogotá_header_cell_0_13_0 7,412,566Bogotá_cell_0_13_1
RankBogotá_header_cell_0_14_0 1stBogotá_cell_0_14_1
MetroBogotá_header_cell_0_15_0 10,700,000Bogotá_cell_0_15_1
Demonym(s)Bogotá_header_cell_0_16_0 Bogotan

bogotano, -na, rolo (informal), cachaco (informal) (es)Bogotá_cell_0_16_1

Time zoneBogotá_header_cell_0_17_0 UTC−5Bogotá_cell_0_17_1
Postal codeBogotá_header_cell_0_18_0 11XXXXBogotá_cell_0_18_1
Area code(s)Bogotá_header_cell_0_19_0 +57 1Bogotá_cell_0_19_1
HDI (2018)Bogotá_header_cell_0_20_0 0.806Bogotá_cell_0_20_1
GDP (PPP) (2014)Bogotá_header_cell_0_21_0 USD 160 billionBogotá_cell_0_21_1
GDP (PPP) per capita (2014)Bogotá_header_cell_0_22_0 USD 17,500Bogotá_cell_0_22_1
Primary AirportBogotá_header_cell_0_23_0 El Dorado International Airport

BOG (Major/International)Bogotá_cell_0_23_1

Secondary AirportBogotá_header_cell_0_24_0 CATAM

none (Military) Guaymaral Airport none (Private Activities) La Vanguardia Airport VVC (Regional)Bogotá_cell_0_24_1

Bus rapid transitBogotá_header_cell_0_25_0 TransMilenioBogotá_cell_0_25_1
Bike PathsBogotá_header_cell_0_26_0 R2-R29Bogotá_cell_0_26_1
Rapid TransitBogotá_header_cell_0_27_0 Bogotá MetroBogotá_cell_0_27_1
TramwayBogotá_header_cell_0_28_0 Trams in Bogotá

Teleférico de MonserrateBogotá_cell_0_28_1

WebsiteBogotá_header_cell_0_29_0 (in Spanish)Bogotá_cell_0_29_1

Bogotá (/ˌboʊɡəˈtɑː/, also UK: /ˌbɒɡ-/, US: /ˈboʊɡətɑː/, Spanish: [boɣoˈta (listen)), officially Bogotá, Distrito Capital, abbreviated Bogotá, D.C., and formerly known as Santa Fe de Bogotá during the time of the colony and between 1991 and 2000, is the capital and largest city of Colombia, administered as the Capital District, as well as the capital of the department of Cundinamarca. Bogotá_sentence_1

Bogotá is a territorial entity of the first order, with the same administrative status as the departments of Colombia. Bogotá_sentence_2

It is the political, economic, administrative and industrial center of the country. Bogotá_sentence_3

Bogotá was founded as the capital of the New Kingdom of Granada on 6 August 1538, by Spanish conquistador Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada after a harsh expedition into the Andes conquering the Muisca. Bogotá_sentence_4

The Muisca were the indigenous inhabitants of the region, and they called the place of the foundation "Thybzaca" or "Old Town". Bogotá_sentence_5

The name of Bogotá corresponds to the Spanish pronunciation of the Chibcha Bacatá (or Mueketá) which was the name of a neighboring settlement located between the modern towns of Funza and Cota. Bogotá_sentence_6

There are different opinions about the meaning of the word Bacatá, the most accepted being that it means "walling of the farmland" in the Chibcha language. Bogotá_sentence_7

Another popular translation argues that it means "The Lady of the Andes". Bogotá_sentence_8

Further, the word 'Andes' in the Aymara language means "shining mountain", thus rendering the full lexical signification of Bogotá as "The Lady of the shining mountain" (notice, however, that the language of the Muisca people was not Aymara but Chibcha). Bogotá_sentence_9

Others suggest that Bacatá was the name of the Muisca cacique who governed the land before the Spaniards arrived. Bogotá_sentence_10

Jiménez de Quesada gave the settlement the name of "Our Lady of Hope" but the Spanish crown gave it the name of Santafé (Holy Faith) in 1540 when it was appointed as a city. Bogotá_sentence_11

Santafé became the seat of the government of the Spanish Royal Audiencia of the New Kingdom of Granada (created in 1550), and then after 1717 it was the capital of the Viceroyalty of New Granada. Bogotá_sentence_12

After the Battle of Boyacá on 7 August 1819, Bogotá became the capital of the independent nation of Gran Colombia. Bogotá_sentence_13

It was Simón Bolívar who rebaptized the city with the name of Bogotá, as a way of honoring the Muisca people and as an emancipation act towards the Spanish crown. Bogotá_sentence_14

Hence, since the Viceroyalty of New Granada's independence from the Spanish Empire and during the formation of present-day Colombia, Bogotá has remained the capital of this territory. Bogotá_sentence_15

The city is located in the center of Colombia, on a high plateau known as the Bogotá savanna, part of the Altiplano Cundiboyacense located in the Eastern Cordillera of the Andes. Bogotá_sentence_16

It is the third-highest capital in South America and in the world after Quito and La Paz, at an average of 2,640 metres (8,660 ft) above sea level. Bogotá_sentence_17

Subdivided into 20 localities, Bogotá has an area of 1,587 square kilometres (613 square miles) and a relatively cool climate that is constant through the year. Bogotá_sentence_18

The city is home to central offices of the executive branch (Office of the President), the legislative branch (Congress of Colombia) and the judicial branch (Supreme Court of Justice, Constitutional Court, Council of State and the Superior Council of Judicature) of the Colombian government. Bogotá_sentence_19

Bogotá stands out for its economic strength and associated financial maturity, its attractiveness to global companies and the quality of human capital. Bogotá_sentence_20

It is the financial and commercial heart of Colombia, with the most business activity of any city in the country. Bogotá_sentence_21

The capital hosts the main financial market in Colombia and the Andean natural region, and is the leading destination for new foreign direct investment projects coming into Latin America and Colombia. Bogotá_sentence_22

It has the highest nominal GDP in the country, responsible for almost a quarter of the nation's total (24.7%). Bogotá_sentence_23

The city's airport, El Dorado International Airport, named after the mythical El Dorado, handles the largest cargo volume in Latin America, and is third in number of people. Bogotá_sentence_24

Bogotá is home to the largest number of universities and research centers in the country, and is an important cultural center, with many theaters, libraries and museums. Bogotá_sentence_25

Bogotá ranks 52nd on the Global Cities Index 2014, and is considered a global city type "Beta +" by GaWC in 2020. Bogotá_sentence_26

History Bogotá_section_0

Main articles: History of Bogotá and Timeline of Bogotá history Bogotá_sentence_27

The area of modern Bogotá was first populated by groups of indigenous people who migrated south based on the relation with the other Chibcha languages; the Bogotá savanna was the southernmost Chibcha-speaking group that exists from Nicaragua to the Andes in Colombia. Bogotá_sentence_28

The civilisation built by the Muisca, who settled in the valleys and fertile highlands of and surrounding the Altiplano Cundiboyacense (modern-day departments of Cundinamarca and Boyacá and small parts of Santander), was one of the great civilisations in the Americas. Bogotá_sentence_29

The name Muisca Confederation has been given to a loose egalitarian society of various chiefs (caciques) who lived in small settlements of maximum 100 bohíos. Bogotá_sentence_30

The agriculture and salt-based society of the people was rich in goldworking, trade and mummification. Bogotá_sentence_31

The religion of the Muisca consisted of various gods, mostly related to natural phenomena as the Sun (Sué) and his wife, the Moon; Chía, rain Chibchacum, rainbow Cuchavira and with building and feasting (Nencatacoa) and wisdom (Bochica). Bogotá_sentence_32

Their complex luni-solar calendar, deciphered by Manuel Izquierdo based on work by Duquesne, followed three different sets of years, where the sidereal and synodic months were represented. Bogotá_sentence_33

Their astronomical knowledge is represented in one of the few extant landmarks of the architecture of the Muisca in El Infiernito outside Villa de Leyva to the north of Bogotá. Bogotá_sentence_34

Pre-Columbian era Bogotá_section_1

Main article: Muisca Confederation Bogotá_sentence_35

See also: El Abra, Tequendama, and Herrera Period Bogotá_sentence_36

The first populations inhabiting the present-day Metropolitan Area of Bogotá were hunter-gatherers in the late Pleistocene. Bogotá_sentence_37

The oldest dated evidence thus far has been discovered in El Abra (12,500 BP), north of Zipaquirá. Bogotá_sentence_38

Slightly later dated excavations in a rock shelter southwest of the city in Soacha provided ages of ~11,000 BP; Tequendama. Bogotá_sentence_39

Since around 0 AD, the Muisca domesticated guinea pigs, part of their meat diet. Bogotá_sentence_40

The people inhabiting the Bogotá savanna in the late 15th century were the Muisca, speaking Muysccubun, a member of the Chibcha language family. Bogotá_sentence_41

Muisca means "people" or "person", making "Muisca people", how they are called, a tautology. Bogotá_sentence_42

At the arrival of the Spanish conquistadores, the Muisca population was estimated to be half a million indigenous people on the Bogotá savanna, and up to two million in the Muisca Confederation. Bogotá_sentence_43

They occupied the highland and mild climate flanks between the Sumapaz Mountains to the southwest and Cocuy's snowy peak to the northeast, covering an approximate area of 25,000 km (9,653 sq mi), comprising Bogotá's high plain, a large portion of the modern-day department of Boyacá department portion and a small area in the Santander region. Bogotá_sentence_44

Trade was the most important activity of the Muisca with other Chibcha-speaking neighbours, such as the Guane, Lache and U'wa and with Cariban-speaking groups such as the Muzo or "Emerald People". Bogotá_sentence_45

Their knowledge of salt production from brines, a task devoted exclusively to Muisca women, gave them the name of "Salt People". Bogotá_sentence_46

Tropical fruits that didn't grow on the cool highlands, as well as coca, cotton and gold were all traded at markets that took place every Muisca week; every four days. Bogotá_sentence_47

At these frequent markets, the Muisca obtained various luxury goods that appear worthless in a modern sense, as well as precious metals and gemstones that seem valuable to us and which became abundant and were used for various purposes. Bogotá_sentence_48

The Muisca warrior elite were allowed to wear feathered crowns, from parrots and macaws whose habitat was to the east of the Andes; the Arawkan-speaking Guayupe, Tegua and Achagua. Bogotá_sentence_49

The Muisca cuisine consisted of a stable and varied diet of tubers, potatoes and fruits. Bogotá_sentence_50

Maize was the main ingredient of the Muisca, cultivated on elevated and irrigated terraces. Bogotá_sentence_51

Many words exist in Muysccubun for maize, corn and the various types and forms of it. Bogotá_sentence_52

The product was also the base for chicha; the alcoholic beverage of the people, still sold in central Bogotá today. Bogotá_sentence_53

It was the beverage used to celebrate the construction of houses, harvests and sowing, ritual practices around the various sacred sites of the Altiplano, music and dances, trade at special fairs with farther away trading indigenous groups of Colombia and to inaugurate the new highest regarded member of the community; zipas, zaques, caciques and the religious ruler iraca from Sacred City of the Sun Sugamuxi. Bogotá_sentence_54

Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada expedition and Spanish conquest Bogotá_section_2

Main article: Spanish conquest of the Muisca Bogotá_sentence_55

From 1533, a belief persisted that the Río Grande de la Magdalena was the trail to the South Sea, to Perú, legendary El Dorado. Bogotá_sentence_56

Such was the target of Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada, the Granadanian conquistador who left Santa Marta on 6 April 1536 with 800 soldiers, heading towards the interior of current Colombia. Bogotá_sentence_57

The expedition divided into two groups, one under Quesada's command to move on land, and the other commanded by Diego de Urbino would go up river in four brigantine ships to, later on, meet Quesada troops at the site named Tora de las Barrancas Bermejas. Bogotá_sentence_58

When they arrived, they heard news about Indians inhabiting the south and making large salt cakes used to trade for wild cotton and fish. Bogotá_sentence_59

Jiménez de Quesada decided to abandon the route to Peru and cross the mountain in search of salt villages. Bogotá_sentence_60

They saw crops, trails, white salt cakes and then huts where they found corn, yucca and beans. Bogotá_sentence_61

From Tora, the expedition went up the Opón River and found indigenous people wearing very finely painted cotton mantles. Bogotá_sentence_62

When they arrived in Muisca territories in the Andean Plateau, on 9 March 1537, of the expedition leaving Santa Marta, only 162 men were left. Bogotá_sentence_63

The zipa at the moment of Spanish conquest was Tisquesusa. Bogotá_sentence_64

His main bohío was in a small village called Bacatá with others in Funza and Cajicá, giving name to the present day capital of Colombia. Bogotá_sentence_65

Bacatá was actually located near to the modern location of the city of Funza. Bogotá_sentence_66

A prophecy in his life came true; he would be dying, bathing in his own blood. Bogotá_sentence_67

Defending Funza with a reduced army of guecha warriors against the heavily exhausted but heavily armed strangers, his reign fell in the hands of Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada and his younger brother Hernán Pérez on 20 April 1537. Bogotá_sentence_68

Upon his death, his brother Sagipa became the last zipa, against the inheritance tradition of the Muisca. Bogotá_sentence_69

Sagipa used to be a main captain for Tisquesusa but quickly submitted to the Spanish rulers. Bogotá_sentence_70

The first encomenderos asked high prices in valuable products and agricultural production from the indigenous people. Bogotá_sentence_71

On top of that epidemics of European viruses razed through the population, of which in current Boyacá 65–85 % of the Muisca were killed within 100 years. Bogotá_sentence_72

Jiménez de Quesada decided to establish a military campament in the area in 1538, in the site today known as the Chorro de Quevedo square. Bogotá_sentence_73

The foundation was performed by the construction of 12 houses of reed, referring to the Twelve Apostles, and the construction of a preliminary church, also of reed. Bogotá_sentence_74

With the celebration of the first mass in the campament, celebrated by Dominican friar Domingo de las Casas the city was founded with the name of Nuestra Señora de la Esperanza (Our Lady of Hope) on 6 August 1538. Bogotá_sentence_75

Quesada placed his right foot on the bare earth and said simply, "I take possession of this land in the name of the most sovereign emperor, Charles V." Bogotá_sentence_76

This founding, however, was irregular as no town council was formed nor were town officials appointed, as well as lacking some other juridical requirements for an official founding. Bogotá_sentence_77

As a consequence, the official founding only occurred about eight months later, on 27 April 1539, in a site close to one of the recreational lands of the zipa, called Theusa or Theusaquillo. Bogotá_sentence_78

This official founding involved an official ceremony appointing a council and officials, and the demarcation of streets and lands, and in it fellow conquistadores Sebastián de Belalcázar and Nikolaus Federmann were present. Bogotá_sentence_79

While this was the official date of founding, traditionally it is the 6 August 1538 that is considered the date of the actual foundation. Bogotá_sentence_80

The village obtained the title of City by way of a decree from Charles V on 27 July 1540, which changed the name of the city from Our Lady of Hope to Santa Fe (Holy Faith), after the name of a town nearby Granada where Jiménez de Quesada grew up. Bogotá_sentence_81

Jiménez de Quesada and conquerors De Belalcázar and Federmann left for Spain in April 1539, founding Guataquí together on 6 April 1539. Bogotá_sentence_82

The rule over the newly created New Kingdom of Granada was left to Jiménez de Quesada's brother, Hernán Pérez de Quesada. Bogotá_sentence_83

The first mayors of the city were captains Pedro de Arevalo y Jeronimo de Inzar. Bogotá_sentence_84

The city obtained the Title of Muy Noble y Muy Leal (Very Noble and Loyal) on 17 August 1575 by a decree from Phillip II. Bogotá_sentence_85

Bogotá, then called Santa Fe, later became the capital of the later Viceroyalty of New Granada. Bogotá_sentence_86

Following the independence from Spain, Bogotá became capital of Gran Colombia and later the capital of the Republic of Colombia. Bogotá_sentence_87

Spanish colonization Bogotá_section_3

The city mayor and the chapter formed by two councilmen, assisted by the constable and the police chief, governed the city. Bogotá_sentence_88

For better administration of these domains, in April 1550, the Audiencia of Santafé was organized. Bogotá_sentence_89

Santa Fe (or Santafé) became the seat of the government of the New Kingdom of Granada . Bogotá_sentence_90

Fourteen years later in 1564, the Spanish Crown designated the first Royal Audiencia chairman, Andrés Díaz Venero de Leyva. Bogotá_sentence_91

The Chapter and the Royal Audience were located on the other side of what is today the Plaza de Bolívar (then called, Plaza Mayor or Major Square). Bogotá_sentence_92

The street connecting the Major Square and the Square of Herbs— now Santander Park— was named Calle Real (Royal Street), now Carrera Séptima (or "Seventh Street"; counted from the mountains to the east of the city). Bogotá_sentence_93

After 1717 Santafé became the capital of the Viceroyalty of New Granada. Bogotá_sentence_94

Formed by Europeans, mestizos, indigenous people, and slaves, from the second half of the 16th century, the population began to grow rapidly. Bogotá_sentence_95

The 1789 census recorded 18,161 inhabitants, and by 1819 the city population reached 30,000 inhabitants distributed in 195 blocks. Bogotá_sentence_96

Importance grew when the Diocese was established. Bogotá_sentence_97

Nineteenth century Bogotá_section_4

Political unease over the Spanish monarchy and the rights of citizens born in the Americas had been feeling all over Spanish colonies in America, and it was expressed in New Granada in many different ways, accelerating the movement to independence. Bogotá_sentence_98

One of the most transcendent was the , a riot by the locals that started in Villa del Socorro —current Department of Santander—in March 1781. Bogotá_sentence_99

Spanish authorities suppressed the riot, and José Antonio Galán, the leader, was executed. Bogotá_sentence_100

He left an imprint, though. Bogotá_sentence_101

One of the soldiers witnessing his execution was an intellectually curious, noble teenager named Antonio Nariño, who was deeply impressed by both the insurrection and the execution. Bogotá_sentence_102

Nariño went on to become a politician in Santafé, and he became acquainted with the liberal ideas in vogue in Europe. Bogotá_sentence_103

He started organizing clandestine meetings with other intellectuals and politicians to discuss and promote the independence of the American colonies from the Spanish crown. Bogotá_sentence_104

In 1794, Nariño clandestinely translated and published in Santa Fe the Declaration of the Rights of Men and of the Citizen, and copies of his translation were distributed all over the continent and started creating a stirring in the political mentalities of the time. Bogotá_sentence_105

The Spanish government had banned the distribution of the pamphlet and soon discovered the material and burned any copy that they could find. Bogotá_sentence_106

Nariño was arrested on 29 August 1794, and sentenced to ten years of imprisonment and to have all of his properties confiscated, and was sent to exile the year after. Bogotá_sentence_107

Those suspected of being part of Nariño's intellectual circle were also persecuted, but his ideas had become widespread. Bogotá_sentence_108

In 1807, following the French invasion of Spain and the subsequent abdication of the House of Bourbon in Spain, pressed by Napoleon to give the crown to his brother Joseph, resulting in the destruction of the Spanish administration, many in Spain and in the American colonies created local resistance governments called Juntas. Bogotá_sentence_109

The dissolution of the Supreme Central Junta, following a series of military defeats in the Spanish troops promoted the creation of local juntas all throughout Latin America, which very soon consolidated the independentist ideas already in vogue. Bogotá_sentence_110

After the establishment of a junta in Cartagena de Indias on 22 May 1810, and in many other cities throughout the Viceroyalty, the Junta de Santa Fe was established on 20 July 1810, in what is often called the Colombian Declaration of Independence. Bogotá_sentence_111

The Junta adopted the name of "Supreme Junta of the New Kingdom of Granada", and first swore allegiance to Viceroy Antonio José Amar y Borbón, and appointed him as president, but then he was deposed and arrested five days later. Bogotá_sentence_112

After declaring independence from Spain the different juntas attempted to establish a congress of provinces, but they were unable to do so and military conflicts soon emerged. Bogotá_sentence_113

The period between 1810 and 1816 was marked by intense conflict between federalist and centralist factions over the nature of the new government of the recently emancipated juntas, a period that has become known as la Patria Boba. Bogotá_sentence_114

The Province of Santafé became the Free and Independent State of Cundinamarca, which soon became embroiled in a civil war against other of the local juntas which banded together to form the United Provinces of New Granada and advocated for a federalist government system. Bogotá_sentence_115

Following a failed military campaign against Quito, General Simón Bolívar of the United Provinces led a campaign that led to the surrender of the Cundinamarca province in December 1814. Bogotá_sentence_116

In Spain, the war had ended and the Spanish monarchy was restored on 11 December 1813. Bogotá_sentence_117

King Ferdinand VII of Spain declared the uprisings in the colonies illegal and sent a large army to quell the rebellions and reconquer the lost colonies, for which he appointed General Pablo Morillo. Bogotá_sentence_118

Morillo led a successful military campaign that culminated in the capture of Santafé on 6 May 1816. Bogotá_sentence_119

In 1819, Bolívar initiated his campaign to liberate New Granada. Bogotá_sentence_120

Following a series of battles, the last of which was the Battle of Boyacá, the republican army led by Bolívar cleared its way to Santafé, where he arrived victorious on 10 August 1819. Bogotá_sentence_121

It was Simón Bolívar who rebaptized the city with the name of Bogotá, to honor the Muisca people and to emphasize the emancipation from Spain. Bogotá_sentence_122

Bogotá then became the capital of the Gran Colombia. Bogotá_sentence_123

Between 1819 and 1849, there were no fundamental structural changes from the colonial period. Bogotá_sentence_124

By the mid-19th century, a series of fundamental reforms were enacted, some of the most important being slavery abolition and religious, teaching, print and speech industry and trade freedom, among others. Bogotá_sentence_125

During the decade of the 70s, radicalism accelerated reforms and state and social institutions were substantially modified. Bogotá_sentence_126

However, during the second half of the century, the country faced permanent pronouncements, declarations of rebellions between states, and factions which resulted in civil wars: the last and bloodiest was the Thousand Days' War from 1899 to 1902. Bogotá_sentence_127

In 1823, a few years after the formation of Gran Colombia, the Public Library, now the National Library, was enlarged and modernized with new volumes and better facilities. Bogotá_sentence_128

The National Museum was founded. Bogotá_sentence_129

Those institutions were of great importance to the new republic's cultural development. Bogotá_sentence_130

The Central University was the first State school, precursor of the current National University, founded in 1867 and domiciled in Bogotá. Bogotá_sentence_131

Regeneration Bogotá_section_5

President Rafael Núñez declared the end of Federalism, and in 1886 the country became a centralist republic ruled by the constitution in force – save some amendments – up to 1981. Bogotá_sentence_132

In the middle of political and administration avatars, Bogotá continued as the capital and principal political center of the country. Bogotá_sentence_133

From a base of only 20,000 people in 1793, the city grew to approximately 117,000 people in 1912. Bogotá_sentence_134

Population growth was rapid after 1870, largely because of emigration from the eastern highlands. Bogotá_sentence_135

Twentieth century Bogotá_section_6

Early in the 20th century, Colombia had to face devastating consequences from the One Thousand Days War, which lasted from 1899 to 1902, and the loss of Panama. Bogotá_sentence_136

Between 1904 and 1909, the lawfulness of the liberal party was re-established and President Rafael Reyes endeavored to implement a national government. Bogotá_sentence_137

Peace and state reorganization generated the increase of economic activities. Bogotá_sentence_138

Bogotá started deep architectural and urban transformation with significant industrial and artisan production increases. Bogotá_sentence_139

In 1910, the Industrial Exposition of the Century took place at Park of Independence. Bogotá_sentence_140

Stands built evidenced industrial, artisan work, beaux arts, electricity and machinery progress achieved. Bogotá_sentence_141

The period from 1910 to 1930 is designated conservative hegemony. Bogotá_sentence_142

Between 1924 and 1928, hard union struggles began, with oil fields and banana zone workers' strikes, leaving numerous people dead. Bogotá_sentence_143

Bogotá had practically no industry. Bogotá_sentence_144

Production was basically artisan work grouped in specific places, similar to commercial sectors. Bogotá_sentence_145

Plaza de Bolívar and surroundings lodged hat stores, at Calle del Comercio –current Carrera Seventh– and Calle Florián –now Carrera Eight– luxurious stores selling imported products opened their doors; at Pasaje Hernández, tailor's shops provided their services, and between 1870 and 1883, four main banks opened their doors: Bogotá, Colombia, Popular and Mortgage Credit banks. Bogotá_sentence_146

See also: Bogotazo and La Violencia Bogotá_sentence_147

Following the banana zone killings and conservative party division, Enrique Olaya Herrera took office in 1930. Bogotá_sentence_148

The liberal party reformed during 16 years of the so-called Liberal Republic, agricultural, social, political, labor, educational, economic and administrative sectors. Bogotá_sentence_149

Unionism strengthened and education coverage expanded. Bogotá_sentence_150

The celebration produced a large number of infrastructure works, new construction and work sources. Bogotá_sentence_151

Following the 1946 liberal party division, a conservative candidate took presidential office again in 1948, after the killing of liberal leader Jorge Eliécer Gaitán, Bogotá's downtown was virtually destroyed as violence reigned. Bogotá_sentence_152

From then, Bogotá's urban, architectural and population sectors were substantially reorganized. Bogotá_sentence_153

Twenty-first century Bogotá_section_7

The city begins the 21st century with important changes in its urban space and public transport, looking to plan a demographic and economic growth that would position it as a strategic hub for international business in Latin America. Bogotá_sentence_154

Some of the main interventions initiated in this century looked to develop projects contained in the Plan of Territorial Ordering (POT), which will guide the development of the city for the next two centuries. Bogotá_sentence_155

One of the most important interventions in the city for this time was its transportation system. Bogotá_sentence_156

In 1967, there were 2,679 urban buses in Bogotá that transported, on average, 1,629,254 passengers per day. Bogotá_sentence_157

The city had a little more than a million inhabitants and 8,000 hectares in length, the service was relatively reasonable and comfortable. Bogotá_sentence_158

But as the city grew and reached more than five million inhabitants and an area greater than 30,000 hectares, not only did the car fleet increase substantially to reach more than 20,000 vehicles, but chaos multiplied, as well as pollution and the inefficiency of the only existing transportation system. Bogotá_sentence_159

By the end of the 20th century, the situation was critical. Bogotá_sentence_160

There was no real urban public transport system that would serve as an alternative to the private vehicle - which further incentivized its use - and the city had low levels of competitiveness in Latin America, as well as an unsatisfactory quality of life for the vast majority of its inhabitants. Bogotá_sentence_161

The administrations of mayors Andrés Pastrana (1988–1990) and Jaime Castro (1992–1994), in addition to the first one of Antanas Mockus (1995–1997), formulated proposals to solve the problem of public transport, with limited results. Bogotá_sentence_162

It was during the mayoralty of the latter when there was an insistent talk about the possibility of establishing a mass transportation system that would help remedy the problem of mobility in Bogotá. Bogotá_sentence_163

Under the second administration of Antanas Mockus, Bogota opened a 'zone of tolerancia' which legalized prostitution in a large swath of the center of the city in the Santa Fe neighborhood. Bogotá_sentence_164

Mayor Enrique Peñalosa (whose first term was 1998–2000) included in his government program as a priority project a solution to the problem of public transport. Bogotá_sentence_165

Consequently, in the execution of the development plan "For the Bogotá we Want" in terms of mobility and in a concrete way to the massive transportation system project, the construction of a special infrastructure exclusively for its operation was determined. Bogotá_sentence_166

This system would include specialized bus corridors, equipped with single-use lanes, stations, bridges, bike paths and special pedestrian access platforms, designed to facilitate the user's experience in the system. Bogotá_sentence_167

However, Peñalosa was became infamous for this campaign against the poor, saying he would rather see robbers on the streets rather than people selling candies. Bogotá_sentence_168

Peñalosa also served a second term (2016–2019). Bogotá_sentence_169

After getting elected in 2011, Gustavo Petro, clashed with conservative political establishment after remunicipalization of the city's garbage collection system. Bogotá_sentence_170

The inspector general, Alejandro Ordoñez deposed Petro for alleged constitutional overreach and when he tried to replace the city's private trash collectors. Bogotá_sentence_171

Petro was reinstated weeks later after a Bogota court ruled that the Alejandro Ordoñez had overstepped his authority. Bogotá_sentence_172

Although the proposal for biarticulated diesel buses called "Transmilenio" was in its early stages a success, due in part to the small numbers of passengers that it transported, in the long term it became an inefficient and contaminating system, saturated for a metro population of almost ten million inhabitants, guilty of environmental deterioration and air pollution. Bogotá_sentence_173

For its part, the cultural equipment plan of Bogotá has given as one of its most significant results the construction of three large public libraries in different sectors of the city, in addition to the provision of existing ones. Bogotá_sentence_174

The new libraries were located in sectors that allow a wide coverage, have easy access by public transport and bike paths; and their projects were commissioned to distinguished architects of the city. Bogotá_sentence_175

They are those of El Tunal, in the south, projected by the architect Suely Vargas of El Tintal, in the west, the work of the architect Daniel Bermúdez, and the Virgilio Barco Vargas library, located in the Simón Bolívar park in the central area, work of the architect Rogelio Salmona. Bogotá_sentence_176

The three libraries, in addition to their excellent architecture, offer spaces for the educational and cultural development of the citizens of Bogota. Bogotá_sentence_177

As for 2019, the city's distribution is composed of nine main business centers (Av. Bogotá_sentence_178

El Dorado Business Corridor, Centro Internacional, Parque de la 93, El Lago, North Point, Calle 100, Santa Barbara Business Center, Zona Industrial Montevideo & Parque Industrial Zona Franca). Bogotá_sentence_179

Grittier sides sit south and southwest, where working-class barrios continue to battle their reputations for drugs and crime. Bogotá_sentence_180

In the ritzier north you'll find boutique hotels, corporate offices and well-heeled locals piling into chic entertainment districts such as the Zona Rosa and Zona G. Bogotá_sentence_181

Protests against police brutality started in Bogotá following the death of Javier Ordóñez while in police custody on 9 September 2020. Bogotá_sentence_182

As of 12 September 2020, 13 people have died and over 400 have been injured as part of the protests. Bogotá_sentence_183

Geography Bogotá_section_8

Bogotá is located in the southeastern part of the Bogotá savanna (Sabana de Bogotá) at an average altitude of 2,640 metres (8,660 ft) above sea level. Bogotá_sentence_184

The Bogotá savanna is popularly called "savannah" (sabana), but constitutes actually a high plateau in the Andes mountains, part of an extended region known as the Altiplano Cundiboyacense, which literally means "high plateau of Cundinamarca and Boyacá". Bogotá_sentence_185

Bogotá is the largest city in the world at its elevation; there is no urban area that is both higher and more populous than Bogotá. Bogotá_sentence_186

In the extreme south of Bogota's District, the world's largest continuous paramo ecosystem can be found; Sumapaz Páramo in the locality Sumapaz. Bogotá_sentence_187

The Bogotá River running NE-SW crosses the sabana, forming Tequendama Falls (Salto del Tequendama) to the south. Bogotá_sentence_188

Tributary rivers form valleys with flourishing villages, whose economy is based on agriculture, livestock raising and artisanal production. Bogotá_sentence_189

The sabana is bordered to the east by the Eastern Cordillera of the Andes mountain range. Bogotá_sentence_190

The Eastern Hills, which limit city growth, run from south to north, and form east of the center the Guadalupe and Monserrate mountains. Bogotá_sentence_191

The western city limit is the Bogotá River. Bogotá_sentence_192

The Sumapaz Paramo (moorland) borders the south and to the north Bogotá extends over the plateau up to the towns of Chía and Sopó. Bogotá_sentence_193

Most of the wetlands in the Bogota region have disappeared. Bogotá_sentence_194

They covered nearly 50,000 hectares in the 1960s, compared to only 727 in 2019, for a disappearance rate of 98%. Bogotá_sentence_195

Climate Bogotá_section_9

Bogotá has a subtropical highland climate (Köppen Cfb) bordering on a warm-summer Mediterranean climate (Csb). Bogotá_sentence_196

The average temperature is 14.5 °C (58 °F), varying from 6 to 19 °C (43 to 66 °F) on sunny days to 10 to 18 °C (50 to 64 °F) on rainy days. Bogotá_sentence_197

Dry and rainy seasons alternate throughout the year. Bogotá_sentence_198

The driest months are December, January, July and August. Bogotá_sentence_199

The warmest month is March, bringing a maximum of 19.7 °C (67.5 °F). Bogotá_sentence_200

The coolest nights occur in January, with an average of 7.6 °C (45.7 °F) in the city; fog is very usual in early morning, 220 days per year, whilst clear sky sunny full days are quite unusual. Bogotá_sentence_201

The official highest temperature recorded within the city limits is 30.0 °C (86 °F), and the lowest temperature recorded is −7.1 °C (19 °F), both at the Guaymaral Airport. Bogotá_sentence_202

The rainiest months are April, May, September, October, and November, in which typical days are mostly overcast, with low clouds and some winds, bringing maximum temperatures of 18 °C (64 °F) and lows of 7 °C (45 °F). Bogotá_sentence_203

Because of its low latitude and high altitude, Bogotá has an average of 12 daylight hours and 11+ ultraviolet radiation year-round. Bogotá_sentence_204

Urban layout and nomenclature Bogotá_section_10

Bogotá has 20 localities, or districts, forming an extensive network of neighborhoods. Bogotá_sentence_205

Areas of higher economic status tend to be located in the north, close to the Eastern Hills in the districts of Chapinero, Usaquén and the east of Suba. Bogotá_sentence_206

The lower middle class inhabit the central, western and northwestern parts of the city.. Bogotá_sentence_207

The working-class neighborhoods are located in the south, some of them squatter areas. Bogotá_sentence_208

The urban layout in the center of the city is based on the focal point of a square or plaza, typical of Spanish-founded settlements, but the layout gradually becomes more modern in outlying neighborhoods. Bogotá_sentence_209

The types of roads are classified as Calles (streets), which run from west to east horizontally, with street numbers increasing towards the north, and also towards the south (with the suffix "Sur") from Calle 0 down south. Bogotá_sentence_210

Carreras (roads) run from north to south vertically, with numbering increasing from east to west. Bogotá_sentence_211

(with the suffix "Este" for roads east of Carrera 0). Bogotá_sentence_212

At the southeast of the city, the addresses are logically sur-este. Bogotá_sentence_213

Other types of roads more common in newer parts of the city may be termed Eje (Axis), Diagonal or Transversal. Bogotá_sentence_214

The numbering system for street addresses recently changed, and numbers are assigned according to street rank from main avenues to smaller avenues and local streets. Bogotá_sentence_215

Some of Bogotá's main roads, which also go by a proper name in addition to a number, are: Bogotá_sentence_216

Bogotá_unordered_list_0

  • Norte-Quito-Sur or NQS (North Quito South Avenue, from 9th Rd at north following railway to 30th Rd, or Quito City Avenue, and Southern Highway)Bogotá_item_0_0
  • Autopista Norte-Avenida Caracas (Northern Highway, or 45th Rd, joined to Caracas Avenue, or 14th Rd)Bogotá_item_0_1
  • Avenida Circunvalar (or 1st Rd)Bogotá_item_0_2
  • Avenida Suba (60th transversal from 100th St the Suba Hills; 145th St from Suba Hills westward)Bogotá_item_0_3
  • Avenida El Dorado (El Dorado Avenue, or 26th St)Bogotá_item_0_4
  • Avenida de las Américas (Avenue of the Americas, from 34th street at east to 6th street at west)Bogotá_item_0_5
  • Avenida Primero de Mayo (May First Avenue, or 22nd St South)Bogotá_item_0_6
  • Avenida Ciudad de Cali (Cali City Avenue, or 86th Rd)Bogotá_item_0_7
  • Avenida Boyacá (Boyacá Avenue, or 72nd Rd)Bogotá_item_0_8
  • Autopista Sur (Southern Highway)Bogotá_item_0_9

Localities (districts) Bogotá_section_11

Surrounding towns Bogotá_section_12

Demographics Bogotá_section_13

Bogotá_table_general_1

Population of Bogotá by yearBogotá_cell_1_0_0

The largest and most populous city in Colombia, Bogotá had 7,412,566 inhabitants within the city's limits (2018 census), with a population density of approximately 4,310 inhabitants per square kilometer. Bogotá_sentence_217

Only 25,166 people are located in rural areas of Capital District. Bogotá_sentence_218

47.8% of the population are male and 52.2% women. Bogotá_sentence_219

In Bogotá, as in the rest of the country, urbanization has accelerated due to industrialization as well as complex political and social reasons such as poverty and violence, which led to migration from rural to urban areas throughout the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. Bogotá_sentence_220

A dramatic example of this is the number of displaced people who have arrived in Bogotá due to the internal armed conflict. Bogotá_sentence_221

Some estimates show that Bogotá's floating population may be as high as 4 million people, most of them being migrant workers from other departments and displaced people. Bogotá_sentence_222

The majority of the displaced population lives in the Ciudad Bolívar, Kennedy, Usme, and Bosa sections. Bogotá_sentence_223

Ethnic Groups Bogotá_section_14

Main article: Human biological diversity and ethnicity in Bogotá Bogotá_sentence_224

The ethnic composition of the city's population includes minorities of Afro-Colombian people (0.9%), and Indigenous Amerindians (0.3%); 98.8% of the population has no ethnic affiliation, but are mestizos and whites. Bogotá_sentence_225

The native population of Bogota (bogotanos), is composed of two large groups: rolos and cachacos, the first being descendants of people who are not native to Bogota and the second, children of bogotanos. Bogotá_sentence_226

In Bogotá, the accelerated urbanization process is not exclusively due to industrialization, since there are complex political and social reasons such as poverty and violence, which have motivated migration from the countryside to the city throughout the 20th century, determining an exponential growth of the population in Bogotá and the establishment of misery belts in its surroundings. Bogotá_sentence_227

According to the Consultancy for Human Rights, Codhes, in the period 1999-2005 more than 260,000 displaced persons arrived in Bogotá, approximately 3.8% of the total population of Bogotá. Bogotá_sentence_228

The locations where the majority of the displaced population is concentrated are Ciudad Bolivar, Kennedy, Bosa and Usme. Bogotá_sentence_229

For this reason, the children of the migrant population born in Bogotá (rolos) often do not have a sense of belonging to the city or a cultural identity as marked as that of the cachacos. Bogotá_sentence_230

However, due to the growing acculturation of rolos and the decreasing number of ethnic cachacos in Bogotá, the population of rolos tends to be predominant in the city Bogotá_sentence_231

Bogotá_table_general_2

Ethnic and demographic evolution of BogotáBogotá_table_caption_2
YearBogotá_cell_2_0_0 Pop.Bogotá_cell_2_0_1 Bogota nativesBogotá_cell_2_0_2 Other ColombiansBogotá_cell_2_0_4 ForeignersBogotá_cell_2_0_5
RolosBogotá_cell_2_1_0 CachacosBogotá_cell_2_1_1
1951Bogotá_cell_2_2_0 715.250Bogotá_cell_2_2_1 10.729Bogotá_cell_2_2_2 693.793Bogotá_cell_2_2_3 8047Bogotá_cell_2_2_4 2682Bogotá_cell_2_2_5
1964Bogotá_cell_2_3_0 1.697.311Bogotá_cell_2_3_1 135.785Bogotá_cell_2_3_2 1.425.741Bogotá_cell_2_3_3 101.839Bogotá_cell_2_3_4 33.946Bogotá_cell_2_3_5
1973Bogotá_cell_2_4_0 2.855.065Bogotá_cell_2_4_1 356.883Bogotá_cell_2_4_2 2.141.299Bogotá_cell_2_4_3 267.662Bogotá_cell_2_4_4 89.221Bogotá_cell_2_4_5
1985Bogotá_cell_2_5_0 4.236.490Bogotá_cell_2_5_1 783.751Bogotá_cell_2_5_2 2.668.989Bogotá_cell_2_5_3 587.813Bogotá_cell_2_5_4 195.938Bogotá_cell_2_5_5
1993Bogotá_cell_2_6_0 5.484.244Bogotá_cell_2_6_1 1.233.955Bogotá_cell_2_6_2 3.016.334Bogotá_cell_2_6_3 925.466Bogotá_cell_2_6_4 308.489Bogotá_cell_2_6_5
2005Bogotá_cell_2_7_0 6.778.691Bogotá_cell_2_7_1 1.931.927Bogotá_cell_2_7_2 2.914.837Bogotá_cell_2_7_3 1.448.945Bogotá_cell_2_7_4 482.982Bogotá_cell_2_7_5
2018Bogotá_cell_2_8_0 7.412.566Bogotá_cell_2_8_1 2.594.398Bogotá_cell_2_8_2 2.223.770Bogotá_cell_2_8_3 1.945.799Bogotá_cell_2_8_4 648.600Bogotá_cell_2_8_5
2020Bogotá_cell_2_9_0 7.743.955Bogotá_cell_2_9_1 2.787.824Bogotá_cell_2_9_2 2.168.307Bogotá_cell_2_9_3 2.090.868Bogotá_cell_2_9_4 696.956Bogotá_cell_2_9_5

Crime Bogotá_section_15

Bogotá has gone to great lengths to change its formerly notorious crime rate and its image with increasing success after being considered in the 1990s to be one of the most violent cities in the world. Bogotá_sentence_232

In 1993 there were 4,352 murders at a rate of 81 per 100,000 people; in 2007 Bogotá suffered 1,401 murders at a rate of 20 per 100,000 inhabitants, and had a further reduction to 14 per 100,000 inhabitants in 2017 (the lowest since 1979). Bogotá_sentence_233

This success was mainly the result of a participatory and integrated security policy; "Comunidad Segura", that was first adopted in 1995 and continues to be enforced. Bogotá_sentence_234

1.2 percent of street addresses account for 99 percent of homicides. Bogotá_sentence_235

Government Bogotá_section_16

Bogotá is the capital of the Republic of Colombia, and houses the Congress, Supreme Court of Justice and the center of the executive administration as well as the residence of the President (Casa de Nariño). Bogotá_sentence_236

These buildings, along with the Office of the Mayor, the Lievano Palace (Palacio Liévano), are located within a few meters from each other on the Bolívar Square (Plaza de Bolívar). Bogotá_sentence_237

The square is located in the city's historical center, La Candelaria, which features architecture in Spanish Colonial and Spanish Baroque styles. Bogotá_sentence_238

The Mayor of Bogotá and the City Council – both elected by popular vote – are responsible for city administration. Bogotá_sentence_239

In 2019 Claudia López was elected Mayor; her term runs from 2020 to 2023. Bogotá_sentence_240

The city is divided into 20 localities: Usaquén, Chapinero, Santa Fe, San Cristóbal, Usme, Tunjuelito, Bosa, Kennedy, Fontibón, Engativá, Suba, Barrios Unidos, Teusaquillo, Los Mártires, Antonio Nariño, Puente Aranda, La Candelaria, Rafael Uribe Uribe, Ciudad Bolívar and Sumapaz. Bogotá_sentence_241

Each of the 20 localities is governed by an administrative board elected by popular vote, made up of no fewer than seven members. Bogotá_sentence_242

The Mayor designates local mayors from candidates nominated by the respective administrative board. Bogotá_sentence_243

Economy Bogotá_section_17

Bogotá is the main economic and industrial center of Colombia. Bogotá_sentence_244

The Colombian government fosters the import of capital goods, Bogotá being one of the main destinations of these imports. Bogotá_sentence_245

Tourism Bogotá_section_18

Travel & Tourism's share of the city's overall GDP stands at 2.5%. Bogotá_sentence_246

Bogotá is responsible for 56% of the tourism that arrives to Colombia and is home 1,423 multinational companies. Bogotá_sentence_247

Bogotá also ranked highly as a global city where business is done and meetings are held. Bogotá_sentence_248

Bogotá is a growing international meetings destination. Bogotá_sentence_249

During the last year, Bogotá has won 50 major international events, with 12 more world-class events in progress. Bogotá_sentence_250

The 16th World Summit of Nobel Peace Laureates took place from 2 to 5 February 2017 in Bogotá, Colombia. Bogotá_sentence_251

One Young World is the preeminent global forum for young leaders aged 18–30. Bogotá_sentence_252

Bogotá, Colombia is the host city for Summit 2017. Bogotá_sentence_253

The hotels in the historical center of La Candelaria and its surrounding areas cater to lovers of culture and the arts. Bogotá_sentence_254

This area also has the bulk of hostels in the city as well. Bogotá_sentence_255

In La Candelaria, there are many museums, including the Botero Museum and the Gold Museum. Bogotá_sentence_256

Close to La Candelaria is the Cerro Monserrate, which you can reach by cable car or funicular. Bogotá_sentence_257

The hotels located near Ciudad Salitre are intended for visitors who make short stops in Bogotá and near El Dorado International Airport. Bogotá_sentence_258

Important landmarks and tourist stops in Bogotá include the botanical garden José Celestino Mutis, the Quinta de Bolívar, the national observatory, the planetarium, Maloka, the Colpatria observation point, the observation point of La Calera, the monument of the American flags, and La Candelaria (the historical district of the city). Bogotá_sentence_259

There is also Usaquen, a colonial landmark where brunch and flea market on Sundays is a traditional activity. Bogotá_sentence_260

The city has numerous green parks and amusement parks like Salitre Magico or Mundo Aventura. Bogotá_sentence_261

Green areas surrounding Bogota are perfect locations for eco-tourism and hiking activities, in the eastern mountains of the city, just a few minutes walking from main roads, there are Quebrada La vieja and Chapinero Waterfalls, two of many green spots for sightseeing and tourism with clean air. Bogotá_sentence_262

There are also several areas of the city where fine restaurants can be found. Bogotá_sentence_263

The G Zone, the T Zone, and La Macarena are well known for their gastronomic offerings. Bogotá_sentence_264

Since the 2000s, major hotel chains have established in the city. Bogotá_sentence_265

Bogota has a great cultural diversity, coming from different regions of the country, which allows the tourist to know the multiculturalism of the country without the need to travel to other cities, this includes gastronomy and different festivals. Bogotá_sentence_266

Bogotá_unordered_list_1

  • Bogotá_item_1_10
  • Bogotá_item_1_11
  • Bogotá_item_1_12
  • Bogotá_item_1_13

Shopping malls Bogotá_section_19

Bogotá's economy has been significantly boosted due to new shopping malls built within the last few years. Bogotá_sentence_267

As of December 2011, over 160 new malls are planned in addition to the existing 100 malls. Bogotá_sentence_268

Notable malls include: Bogotá_sentence_269

Bogotá_unordered_list_2

Media Bogotá_section_20

Bogota is home to several television stations like Canal Capital and Citytv which are local stations, Canal 13 is a regional station, and is home to the national channels Caracol TV, RCN TV, Canal Uno, Canal Institucional, and Señal Colombia. Bogotá_sentence_270

It has multiple satellite television services like Telefónica, Claro and DirecTV and several satellite dishes which offer hundreds of international channels, plus several exclusive channels for Bogotá. Bogotá_sentence_271

In Bogota, all the major radio networks in the country are available, in both AM and FM; 70% of the FM stations offer RDS service. Bogotá_sentence_272

There are several newspapers, including El Tiempo, El Espectador and El Nuevo Siglo, plus economical dailies La República and Portafolio, tabloids El Espacio, Q'Hubo, and Extra. Bogotá_sentence_273

Bogotá also offers three free newspapers, two Spanish, ADN and Publimetro, and one English, The Bogota Post. Bogotá_sentence_274

Infrastructure Bogotá_section_21

Energy and sewer bills are stratified based on the location of owner's residence, The system is the classification of the residential properties that should receive public services. Bogotá_sentence_275

Although the system does not consider the income per person and the rules say that the residential real estate should stratify and not households. Bogotá_sentence_276

All mayors should do the stratification of residential properties of their municipality or district. Bogotá_sentence_277

Bogotá's social strata have been divided as follows and have been extensively used by the government as a reference to develop social welfare programs, statistical information and to some degree for the assignment of lands. Bogotá_sentence_278

Bogotá_unordered_list_3

  • Estrato 1 (lowest)Bogotá_item_3_24
  • Estrato 2 (low)Bogotá_item_3_25
  • Estrato 3 (mid-low)Bogotá_item_3_26
  • Estrato 4 (mid-high)Bogotá_item_3_27
  • Estrato 5 (high)Bogotá_item_3_28
  • Estrato 6 (highest)Bogotá_item_3_29

Transport Bogotá_section_22

Bogotá's growth has placed a strain on its roads and highways, but since 1998 significant efforts to upgrade the infrastructure have been undertaken. Bogotá_sentence_279

Private car ownership forms a major part of the congestion, in addition to taxis, buses and commercial vehicles. Bogotá_sentence_280

Buses remain the main means of mass transit. Bogotá_sentence_281

There are two bus systems: the traditional system and the TransMilenio. Bogotá_sentence_282

The traditional system runs a variety of bus types, operated by several companies on normal streets and avenues: Bus (large buses), Buseta (medium size buses) and Colectivo (vans or minivans). Bogotá_sentence_283

The bigger buses were divided into two categories: Ejecutivo, which was originally to be a deluxe service and was not to carry standing passengers, and corriente or normal service. Bogotá_sentence_284

Since May 2008, all buses run as corriente services. Bogotá_sentence_285

Bogotá is a hub for domestic and international bus routes. Bogotá_sentence_286

The Bogotá terminal serves routes to most cities and towns in Colombia and is the largest in the country. Bogotá_sentence_287

There is international service to Ecuador, Perú and Venezuela. Bogotá_sentence_288

The TransMilenio system was created during Enrique Peñalosa's mayoral term, and is a form of bus rapid transit that has been deployed as a measure to compensate for the lack of a subway or rail system. Bogotá_sentence_289

TransMilenio combines articulated buses that operate on dedicated bus roads (busways) and smaller buses (feeders) that operate in residential areas, bringing passengers to the main grid. Bogotá_sentence_290

TransMilenio's main routes are: Caracas Avenue, Northern Highway (Autopista Norte), 80th Street, Americas Avenue, Jiménez Avenue, and 30th Avenue (also referred to as Norte Quito Sur or N.Q.S. Bogotá_sentence_291

for short). Bogotá_sentence_292

Routes for Suba Avenue and Southern Highway (Autopista Sur), the southern leg of the 30th Avenue, were opened in April 2006. Bogotá_sentence_293

The third phase of the system will cover 7th Avenue, 10th Avenue, and 26th Street (or Avenida El Dorado). Bogotá_sentence_294

The system is planned to cover the entire city by 2030. Bogotá_sentence_295

Although the Transmilenio carries commuters to numerous corners of the city, it is more expensive (US$0.80 or 2300 COP) than any public transport, except taxis. Bogotá_sentence_296

In addition to TransMilenio, the Peñalosa administration and voter-approved referenda helped to establish travel restrictions on cars with certain license plate numbers during peak hours called Pico y placa; 121 kilometres (75 miles) of Ciclovía on Sundays and major holidays; a massive system (376 km (234 mi) as of 2013) of bicycle paths and segregated lanes called ciclorrutas; and the removal of thousands of parking spots in an attempt to make roads more pedestrian-friendly and discourage car use. Bogotá_sentence_297

Ciclorrutas is one of the most extensive dedicated bike path networks of any city in the world, with a total extension of 376 kilometres (234 miles). Bogotá_sentence_298

It extends from the north of the city, 170th Street, to the south, 27th Street, and from Monserrate on the east to the Bogotá River on the west. Bogotá_sentence_299

The ciclorruta was started by the 1995–1998 Antanas Mockus administration with a few kilometers, and considerably extended afterwards with the development of a Bicycle Master Plan and the addition of paths hundreds of kilometers in extent. Bogotá_sentence_300

Since the construction of the ciclorruta bicycle use in the city has increased, and a car free week was introduced in 2014. Bogotá_sentence_301

Bogotá_unordered_list_4

  • Bogotá_item_4_30
  • Bogotá_item_4_31
  • Bogotá_item_4_32
  • Bogotá_item_4_33

Airports Bogotá_section_23

Bogotá's main airport is El Dorado International Airport, with an approximate area of 6.9 km (2.7 sq mi) located west of the city's downtown in the Fontibón Locality. Bogotá_sentence_302

It is the third most important airport in Latin America after Mexico City International Airport and São Paulo–Guarulhos International Airport and it is the most important airport in Colombia. Bogotá_sentence_303

Construction of the airport was ordered by Gustavo Rojas Pinilla (19th President of Colombia) in 1955 to replace the . Bogotá_sentence_304

Due to its central location in Colombia and in Latin America, it is a hub for Colombia's Flagship Carrier Avianca, Copa Airlines Colombia and LATAM Colombia. Bogotá_sentence_305

It is also serviced by a number of international airlines including American, Delta, United, Air France, KLM, Turkish Airlines, Jet Blue, and Lufthansa. Bogotá_sentence_306

The national airport has begun to take more responsibility due to the congestion at the international airport. Bogotá_sentence_307

In response to the high demand of approximately 27 Million passengers per year, a new airport, El Dorado II, is planned to be built by 2021, to help alleviate traffic at the main airport. Bogotá_sentence_308

A secondary airport, CATAM, serves as a base for Military and Police Aviation. Bogotá_sentence_309

This airport, which uses the runways of El Dorado will eventually move to Madrid, a nearby town in the region of Cundinamarca, leaving further space to expand El Dorado. Bogotá_sentence_310

Guaymaral Airport is another small airport located in the northern boundaries of Bogota. Bogotá_sentence_311

It is used mainly for private aviation activities. Bogotá_sentence_312

Urban and suburban railways Bogotá_section_24

Main articles: Bogotá Metro and Tramways of Bogotá Bogotá_sentence_313

See also: Bogotá's Savannah Railway and RegioTram Bogotá_sentence_314

Bogotá has little railway transit infrastructure, following the collapse of the tram network, although a number of plans hope to change that. Bogotá_sentence_315

The Bogotá Metro has been pushed forward by two successive governments, and proponents hope that construction will soon begin. Bogotá_sentence_316

Plans to construct railways in and out of the city, replacing defunct routes, have been delayed due to the pressing need for transport within the city. Bogotá_sentence_317

A tram train line using right-of-way from the defunct Bogotá Savannah Railway, known as RegioTram, will be opening in 2023. Bogotá_sentence_318

Bicycle infrastructure Bogotá_section_25

Main article: Bogotá's Bike Paths Network Bogotá_sentence_319

Bogotá is the Colombian city with the most extensive and comprehensive network of bike paths. Bogotá_sentence_320

Bogotá's bike paths network or Ciclorutas de Bogotá in Spanish, designed and built during the administration of Mayors Antanas Mockus and Enrique Peñalosa, is also one of the most extensive in the world and the most extensive in Latin America. Bogotá_sentence_321

The network is integrated with the TransMilenio bus system which has bicycle parking facilities. Bogotá_sentence_322

Bogota implemented a healthy habit called "Ciclovia" where principal highways are closed from 7:00 a.m. until 2:00 pm on Sundays and public holidays; therefore, the People ride their bikes to enjoy the city as well as exercise. Bogotá_sentence_323

In the same way just on December the same activity is carried out in the night, there are some special activities such as fireworks, street theater performances, and street food just to mention a few. Bogotá_sentence_324

Since 4 April 2016 the carrera 11 has been reduced from four to three car lanes and a new bike lane (cicloruta) has been inaugurated. Bogotá_sentence_325

Tramway Bogotá_section_26

On 25 December 1884, the first tramway pulled by mules was inaugurated and covered the route from Plaza de Bolívar to Chapinero, and in 1892, the line connecting Plaza de Bolívar and La Sabana Station started operating. Bogotá_sentence_326

The tramway ran over wooden rails and was easily derailed, so steel rails imported from Britain were eventually installed. Bogotá_sentence_327

In 1894, a tramway car ran the Bogotá–Chapinero line every 20 minutes. Bogotá_sentence_328

The tram system eventually grew to cover most of the city and its surrounding suburbs. Bogotá_sentence_329

But during the Bogotazo riots of 1948, the system suffered heavy damage and was forced to close. Bogotá_sentence_330

The economic effects of the subsequent civil war that followed prevented the damage from being repaired. Bogotá_sentence_331

Parts of the system continued to operate in a reduced state until 1951, when they were replaced by buses. Bogotá_sentence_332

Most of the streetcar tracks were eventually paved over, but exposed tracks can still be seen on many of the older roads of the city, especially downtown and in the La Candelaria area, although it has been about 70 years since any vehicles have run on them. Bogotá_sentence_333

Bogota public transportation statistics Bogotá_section_27

The average amount of time people spend commuting with public transit in Bogota, for example to and from work, on a weekday is 97 min. Bogotá_sentence_334

32% of public transit riders, ride for more than 2 hours every day. Bogotá_sentence_335

The average amount of time people wait at a stop or station for public transit is 20 min, while 40% of riders wait for over 20 minutes on average every day. Bogotá_sentence_336

The average distance people usually ride in a single trip with public transit is 8 km, while 16% travel for over 12 km in a single direction. Bogotá_sentence_337

Education Bogotá_section_28

Main article: List of universities in Bogotá Bogotá_sentence_338

Known as the Athens of South America, Bogotá has an extensive educational system of both primary and secondary schools and colleges. Bogotá_sentence_339

Due to the constant migration of people into the nation's capital, the availability of quotas for access to education offered by the State free of charge is often insufficient. Bogotá_sentence_340

The city also has a diverse system of colleges and private schools. Bogotá_sentence_341

There are a number of universities, both public and private. Bogotá_sentence_342

In 2002, there were a total of 113 higher education institutions; in Bogotá there are several universities, most partially or fully accredited by the NAC (National Accreditation Council): National University of Colombia, University of the Andes, Colombia, District University of Bogotá, La Salle University, Colombia, University of La Sabana, Pontifical Xavierian University, Our Lady of the Rosary University, Universidad Externado de Colombia, Military University Nueva Granada, Central University, Colombia, University of America, Sergio Arboleda University, Jorge Tadeo Lozano University, Pilot University of Colombia, Catholic University of Colombia, Saint Thomas Aquinas University and Universidad Pedagógica Nacional. Bogotá_sentence_343

The city has a University City at the National University of Colombia campus located in the traditional sector Teusaquillo. Bogotá_sentence_344

It is the largest campus in Colombia and one of the largest in Latin America. Bogotá_sentence_345

Bogotá_unordered_list_5

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Culture Bogotá_section_29

Bogotá has many cultural venues including 58 museums, 62 art galleries, 33 library networks, 45 stage theaters, 75 sports and attraction parks, and over 150 national monuments. Bogotá_sentence_346

Many of these are renowned globally such as: The Luis Ángel Arango Library, the most important in the region which receives well over 6 million visitors a year; The Colombian National Museum, one of the oldest in the Americas, dating back to 1823; The Ibero-American Theater Festival, largest of its kind in the world, receives 2 million attendees enjoying over 450 performances across theaters and off the street; The Bogotá Philharmonic is the most important symphony orchestra in Colombia, with over 100 musicians and 140 performances a year. Bogotá_sentence_347

The city has been a member of the UNESCO Creative Cities Network in the category of music since March 2012. Bogotá_sentence_348

The Cristóbal Colón Theater, the country's oldest Opera House, opened in 1892. Bogotá_sentence_349

It is home to the National Symphony Association's major act, the National Symphony Orchestra of Colombia. Bogotá_sentence_350

Rock al Parque or Rock at the Park is an open air rock music festival. Bogotá_sentence_351

Recurring annually, it gathers over 320,000 music fans who can enjoy over 60 band performances for free during three days a year. Bogotá_sentence_352

The series have been so successful during its 15 years of operation that the city has replicated the initiative for other music genres, resulting in other recent festivals like Salsa at the Park, Hip Hop at the Park, Ballet at the Park, Opera at the Park, and Jazz at the Park. Bogotá_sentence_353

Kids' Choice Awards Colombia, are the most important awards given in the city by Nickelodeon and the first ceremony was given in 2014 by the singer Maluma and in Corferias the ceremony has been the home of shows given by artists like Austin Mahone, Carlos Peña, Don Tetto and Riva among others. Bogotá_sentence_354

Bogotá has worked in recent years to position itself as leader in cultural offerings in South America, and it is increasingly being recognized worldwide as a hub in the region for the development of the arts. Bogotá_sentence_355

In 2007, Bogotá was awarded the title of Cultural Capital of Ibero-America by the UCCI (Union of Ibero-American Capital Cities), and it became the only city to have received the recognition twice, after being awarded for the first time in 1991. Bogotá_sentence_356

Cultural history Bogotá_section_30

Bogotá gave the Spanish-speaking world José Asunción Silva (1865–1896), Modernism pioneer. Bogotá_sentence_357

His poetic work in the novel De sobremesa has a place in outstanding American literature. Bogotá_sentence_358

Rafael Pombo (1833–1912) was an American romanticism poet who left a collection of fables essential part of children imagination and Colombian tradition. Bogotá_sentence_359

Architecture Bogotá_section_31

The urban morphology and typology of colonial buildings in Bogotá have been maintained since the late nineteenth century, long after the independence of Colombia (1810). Bogotá_sentence_360

This persistence of the colonial setting is still visible, particularly in La Candelaria, the historical center of Bogotá. Bogotá_sentence_361

Also kept up are the colonial houses of two stories, with courtyards, gabled roofs, ceramic tiles and balconies. Bogotá_sentence_362

In some cases, these balconies were enclosed with glass windows during the Republican period, a distinguishing feature of the architecture of the sector (for example, the House of Rafael Pombo). Bogotá_sentence_363

"Republican Architecture" was the style that prevailed between 1830 and 1930. Bogotá_sentence_364

Although there were attempts to consolidate a modern architectural language, the only examples seen are University City and White City at the National University of Colombia (constructed 1936 to 1939). Bogotá_sentence_365

This work was developed by German architect Leopold Rother, although architects of rationalist trends participated in the design of campus buildings. Bogotá_sentence_366

We also see in Bogotan architecture trends such as art deco, expressionism and organic architecture. Bogotá_sentence_367

This last trend was typified by Bogotan architects in the second half of the twentieth century such as Rogelio Salmona. Bogotá_sentence_368

In 2015 BD Bacatá was inaugurated, surpassing the Colpatria Tower to become the tallest building of the city and of Colombia. Bogotá_sentence_369

The building its expected to be the beginning of the city's downtown renovation. Bogotá_sentence_370

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Libraries and archives Bogotá_section_32

In 2007 Bogotá was named World Book Capital by UNESCO. Bogotá_sentence_371

Bogotá is the first Latin American city to receive this recognition, and the second one in the Americas after Montreal. Bogotá_sentence_372

It stood out in programs, the library network and the presence of organizations that, in a coordinated manner, are working to promote books and reading in the city. Bogotá_sentence_373

Several specific initiatives for the World Book Capital program have been undertaken with the commitment of groups, both public and private, engaged in the book sector. Bogotá_sentence_374

The city is home to the Biblored, an institution which administers 16 small and four large public libraries (Biblioteca Virgilio Barco, Biblioteca El Tintal, Biblioteca El Tunal and Biblioteca Julio Mario Santodomingo). Bogotá_sentence_375

It also has six branches of the Library Network of the Family Compensation Fund Colsubsidio and libraries and documentation centers attached to institutions like the Museo Nacional de Colombia (specializing in old books, catalogs and art), Bogotá Museum of Modern Art, the Alliance Française, and the Centro Colombo Americano. Bogotá_sentence_376

Another set of libraries are the new collaborative initiatives between the state, city and international agencies. Bogotá_sentence_377

Examples are the Cultural Center Gabriel García Marquez, custom designed by the Fondo de Cultura Economica in Mexico, and the Spanish Cultural Center, which will begin construction with public funds and of the Spanish government in downtown Bogotá. Bogotá_sentence_378

The National Library of Colombia (1777), a dependence of the Ministry of Culture and the Biblioteca Luis Angel Arango (1958), a dependence of the Bank of the Republic are the two largest public libraries in the city. Bogotá_sentence_379

The first is the repository of more than two million volumes, with an important collection of ancient books. Bogotá_sentence_380

The latter has almost two million volumes, and with 45,000 m (480,000 sq ft) in size, it hosts 10,000 visitors a day; the Library Alfonso Palacio Rudas is also a dependence of the Bank of the Republic, and is located at the north of the city, with about 50,000 volumes. Bogotá_sentence_381

Other large public libraries are the Library of Congress in Colombia (with 100,000 volumes), of the Instituto Caro y Cuervo (with nearly 200,000 volumes, the largest Latin American library in Philology and Linguistics), the Library of the Academy of History The Library of the Academy of Language, the Library of the Colombian Institute of Anthropology and History ICANH, and many university libraries. Bogotá_sentence_382

Bogotá is home to historical records housed in the General National Archive, a collection of about 60 million documents, one of the largest repositories of primary historical sources in Latin America. Bogotá_sentence_383

Bogotá is also home to the Musical Archive of the Cathedral of Bogotá (with thousands of books and choral song-colonial period), the Archdiocesan Archive, the Archive of the Conciliar Seminary of Bogotá, the Archive History National University of Colombia and the Archive of the Mint in Bogotá, under the Bank of the Republic. Bogotá_sentence_384

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Museums and galleries Bogotá_section_33

The city offers 58 museums and over 70 art galleries. Bogotá_sentence_385

The Colombian National Museum has acquisitions divided into four collections: art, history, archeology and ethnography. Bogotá_sentence_386

The Gold Museum, with 35,000 pieces of tumbaga gold, along with 30,000 objects in ceramic, stone and textiles, represents the largest collection of pre-Columbian gold in the world. Bogotá_sentence_387

The Botero Museum has 123 works of Fernando Botero and 87 works by international artists. Bogotá_sentence_388

The Bogotá Museum of Modern Art has a collection of graphic arts, industrial design and photography. Bogotá_sentence_389

The Museum of Colonial Art is home to an important collection of colonial art from Colombia. Bogotá_sentence_390

Fundación Gilberto Alzate Avendaño hosts activities related to the performing arts and shows temporary exhibits of art in its halls and galleries. Bogotá_sentence_391

Among the scientific museums are the Archeological Museum – Casa del Marqués de San Jorge, which has about 30 thousand pieces of pre-Columbian art, Instituto de Ciencias Naturales (UN), one of the four largest museums of natural sciences in Latin America, and the Geological Museum, which has a collection specializing in Geology and Paleontology. Bogotá_sentence_392

Bogotá has historical museums like the Jorge Eliecer Gaitan Museum, the Museum of Independence (Museo de la Independencia), the Quinta de Bolívar and the Casa Museo Francisco José de Caldas, as well as the headquarters of Maloka and the Children's Museum of Bogotá. Bogotá_sentence_393

New museums include the Art Deco and the Museum of Bogotá. Bogotá_sentence_394

Theater and arts Bogotá_section_34

Besides the Ibero-American Theater Festival, the largest theater festival in the world, the city has forty-five theaters; the principal ones are the Colon Theater, the newly built , the National Theater with its two venues, the traditional TPB Hall, the Theater of La Candelaria, the Camarin del Carmen (over 400 years old, formerly a convent), the Colsubsidio, and a symbol of the city, the renovated , León de Greiff Auditorium (home of the Bogotá Philharmonic Orchestra), and the Open Air Theater "La Media Torta", where musical events are also held. Bogotá_sentence_395

The Ibero-American Theater Festival, is not the only acclaimed festival. Bogotá_sentence_396

There are many other regional and local theater festivals that are celebrated and maintain the city active year-round . Bogotá_sentence_397

Amongst these is the "Alternative Theater Festival". Bogotá_sentence_398

Bogotá has its own film festival, the Bogotá Film Festival, and many theaters, showing both contemporary films and art cinema. Bogotá_sentence_399

Bogota's international art fair, ArtBo, takes place in October of every year and showcases thousands of works covering arts across all formats, movements, and concepts. Bogotá_sentence_400

The main cultural center of the city is the La Candelaria, historic center of the city, with a concentration of universities and museums. Bogotá_sentence_401

In 2007 Bogotá was designated the Ibero-American cultural Capital of Iberoamerica. Bogotá_sentence_402

Religion Bogotá_section_35

Before the Spanish conquest, the beliefs of the inhabitants of Bogotá formed part of the Muisca religion. Bogotá_sentence_403

From the colonial period onwards, the city has been predominantly Roman Catholic. Bogotá_sentence_404

Proof of this religious tradition is the number of churches built in the historic city center. Bogotá_sentence_405

The city has been seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Bogotá since 22 March 1564. Bogotá_sentence_406

The seat of the Archbishop is the Primatial Cathedral of Bogotá; the archdiocese itself is located in new buildings in the north of the city. Bogotá_sentence_407

However a large group of the population nowadays declares itself non-practicing. Bogotá_sentence_408

The city has a mosque located in the area of Chapinero called the Estambul mosque, a mosque being built on the Calle 80 with Cra 30 called Abou Bakr Alsiddiq mosque and which is the first in the city to have the traditional Islamic architecture, and an Islamic Center called Al-Qurtubi. Bogotá_sentence_409

The main Ashkenazi Jewish synagogue (there are a total of 4 synagogues in Bogotá) is located on 94th street (also called State of Israel avenue). Bogotá_sentence_410

An Eastern Orthodox church and the San Pablo Anglican Cathedral, the mother church of the Episcopal Church in Colombia, are both located in Chapinero. Bogotá_sentence_411

The Bogotá Colombia Temple of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is located in the Niza neighborhood. Bogotá_sentence_412

There are four Buddhist centers located in the north of the city. Bogotá_sentence_413

There is also a wide variety of Protestant churches in different parts of the city, including the Bogotá Baptist Chapel, the non-denominational Union Church, and the St. Matthaus Evangelical Lutheran Church which holds services in German as well as Spanish for the German-Colombian community. Bogotá_sentence_414

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Cuisine Bogotá_section_36

There is a broad array of restaurants in Bogotá that serve typical and international food. Bogotá_sentence_415

Parque de la 93, Usaquén, Zona T, The G Zone, La Macarena, La Candelaria, The parkway and the International Center are some of the main sectors where a number of international restaurants are found, ranging from Argentinian, Peruvian, Venezuelan, Brazilian, Mexican, American establishments to Arabic, Asian, French, Italian, Russian and British bistros, rotisseries, steakhouses and pubs, just to name a few. Bogotá_sentence_416

Typical dishes of Bogotá include the ajiaco, a soup prepared with chicken, a variety of potatoes, corn on the cob, and guascas (an herb), usually served with sour cream and capers, and accompanied by avocado and rice. Bogotá_sentence_417

Tamale is a very traditional Bogotá dish. Bogotá_sentence_418

Colombian tamal is a paste made with rice, beef, pork and/or chicken (depending on the region), chickpea, carrot, and spices, wrapped in plantain leaves and steam-cooked. Bogotá_sentence_419

Figs with arequipe, strawberries with cream, postre de natas and cuajada con melao are some of the main desserts offered in the city. Bogotá_sentence_420

Canelazo is a hot drink from the Altiplano prepared with aguapanela, cinnamon and aguardiente. Bogotá_sentence_421

Another hot beverage is the carajillo, made with coffee (tinto as it is known in Colombia) and aguardiente. Bogotá_sentence_422

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Parks and recreation Bogotá_section_37

There are numerous parks in Bogotá, many with facilities for concerts, plays, movies, storytellers and other activities. Bogotá_sentence_423

Bogotá_unordered_list_10

  • Simón Bolívar Metropolitan Park is a large park regularly used to stage free concerts (such as the annual Rock al Parque festival).Bogotá_item_10_52
  • The public Parque Nacional (National Park) has green spaces, ponds, games for children, foot and bicycle paths, and venues for entertainment such as public screenings of movies and concerts and events organized by the Council of BogotáBogotá_item_10_53
  • The Bogotá Botanical Garden (Jardín Botánico de Bogotá)Bogotá_item_10_54
  • Parque de la 93 has day-time leisure activities and nightlife. Several of the top restaurants and bars in the city are in this park, the park is known around the world like the Colombian Pike Place by having the first Starbucks in all the country and Carl's Jr. as well.Bogotá_item_10_55
  • Mundo Aventura is an amusement park, with an entry charge and charges for the different attractions. It has rides for adults and children, a petting zoo, and the "cerdodromo", where pigs race.Bogotá_item_10_56
  • Salitre Mágico is another amusement park with rides and attractions. The park is near the Simón Bolívar park, where concerts are held throughout the year.Bogotá_item_10_57
  • Parque del Chicó has trees, gardens, artificial creeks and ponds, and a colonial style house converted into a museum; Museo del ChicóBogotá_item_10_58
  • To the north of Bogotá, in the municipality of Tocancipá; Jaime Duque Park has rides, a giant map of Colombia, various exhibits, a zoo, and a big hand holding the world symbolizing God. There is a reproduction of the Taj Mahal in the park with a collection of reproductions of famous paintings. The park is also used for large concerts, mainly electronic music ones.Bogotá_item_10_59
  • Maloka is an interactive museum of sciencesBogotá_item_10_60
  • Tourist train is a sightseeing train, popular with Bogotá residents, which runs to outlying towns Zipaquirá, Cajicá and Nemocón along the lines of the former Bogotá Savannah Railway on weekends. The route to Zipaquirá (known for its salt cathedral) is 53 kilometres (33 miles) long. Another line goes towards the north for 47 km (29 mi) and ends at Briceño.Bogotá_item_10_61
  • The Usaquén Park is another of the most important parks in the city several of the best restaurants in this city are located there, is recognized to have street performers such as storytellers, magicians, jugglers, etc. and also for being one of the most decorated parks in the city during Christmas time.Bogotá_item_10_62

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Sports Bogotá_section_38

The District Institute for Recreation and Sport promotes recreation, sports and use of the parks in Bogotá. Bogotá_sentence_424

Football has been declared a symbol of Bogotá, and is widely played in the city. Bogotá_sentence_425

There are three professional clubs in the city, Santa Fe, Millonarios, and La Equidad. Bogotá_sentence_426

The main stadium in the city is The Campín Stadium (Estadio Nemesio Camacho El Campín) home of the local teams Santa Fe and Millonarios, In 2001 The Campín Stadium has been the place for the 2001 Copa América final between the Colombia national football and the Mexico national football, final score 1–0 in favor of the home team and finally getting their first continental cup. Bogotá_sentence_427

The other soccer venue is the multi-use Techo Metropolitan Stadium which is the home of La Equidad. Bogotá_sentence_428

Other major sporting venues are the covered Coliseum El Campín, the Simón Bolívar Aquatic Complex, the Sports Palace, the El Salitre Sports Venue which includes the Luis Carlos Galán Velodrome (which hosted the 1995 UCI Track Cycling World Championships), the El Salitre Diamond Ballpark and the BMX track "Mario Andrés Soto". Bogotá_sentence_429

Bogotá hosted the first Bolivarian Games held in 1938. Bogotá_sentence_430

The city hosted the National Games in 2004, winning the championship. Bogotá_sentence_431

It was a sub-venue Bolivarian Pan American Games. Bogotá_sentence_432

In addition, the city on the route of the Tour of Colombia. Bogotá_sentence_433

After being a major venue city for the 2011 FIFA U-20 World Cup that was held in Colombia, Bogotá was one of the venue cities hosting the 2016 FIFA Futsal World Cup. Bogotá_sentence_434

Sports teams Bogotá_section_39

Bogotá_table_general_3

TeamBogotá_header_cell_3_0_0 League (Cup) / SportBogotá_header_cell_3_0_1 Stadium / ColiseumBogotá_header_cell_3_0_2 FoundedBogotá_header_cell_3_0_3 ChampionshipsBogotá_header_cell_3_0_4
Santa FeBogotá_header_cell_3_1_0 Categoría Primera A / FootballBogotá_cell_3_1_1 El Campín StadiumBogotá_cell_3_1_2 1941Bogotá_cell_3_1_3 16 (9 Primera A, 1 Copa Sudamericana, 1 Suruga Bank Championship, 2 Copa Colombia, 3 Superliga)Bogotá_cell_3_1_4
MillonariosBogotá_header_cell_3_2_0 Categoría Primera A / FootballBogotá_cell_3_2_1 El Campín StadiumBogotá_cell_3_2_2 1946Bogotá_cell_3_2_3 20 (15 Primera A, 1 Copa Merconorte, 3 Copa Colombia, 1 Superliga)Bogotá_cell_3_2_4
La EquidadBogotá_header_cell_3_3_0 Categoría Primera A / FootballBogotá_cell_3_3_1 Metropolitano de Techo StadiumBogotá_cell_3_3_2 1982Bogotá_cell_3_3_3 1 (1 Copa Colombia)Bogotá_cell_3_3_4
Bogotá F.C.Bogotá_header_cell_3_4_0 Categoría Primera B / FootballBogotá_cell_3_4_1 Metropolitano de Techo StadiumBogotá_cell_3_4_2 2003Bogotá_cell_3_4_3 0Bogotá_cell_3_4_4
Tigres F.C.Bogotá_header_cell_3_5_0 Categoría Primera B / FootballBogotá_cell_3_5_1 Metropolitano de Techo StadiumBogotá_cell_3_5_2 2016Bogotá_cell_3_5_3 0Bogotá_cell_3_5_4
Guerreros de BogotáBogotá_header_cell_3_6_0 Liga DirecTV / BasketballBogotá_cell_3_6_1 El Salitre ColiseumBogotá_cell_3_6_2 2011Bogotá_cell_3_6_3 1 (1 league)Bogotá_cell_3_6_4
Piratas de BogotáBogotá_header_cell_3_7_0 Liga DirecTV / BasketballBogotá_cell_3_7_1 El Salitre ColiseumBogotá_cell_3_7_2 1995Bogotá_cell_3_7_3 4 (4 league)Bogotá_cell_3_7_4
Bogota BulldogsBogotá_header_cell_3_8_0 Australian rules footballBogotá_cell_3_8_1 Bogotá_cell_3_8_2 2015Bogotá_cell_3_8_3 Bogotá_cell_3_8_4

Symbols Bogotá_section_40

The flag originated with the insurgency movement against the colonial authorities which began on 20 July 1810, during which the rebels wore armbands with yellow and red bands, as these colours were those of the Spanish flag used as the flag for the New Kingdom of Granada. Bogotá_sentence_435

On 9 October 1952, exactly 142 years after these events, decree 555 of 1952 officially adopted the patriotic armband as the flag of Bogotá. Bogotá_sentence_436

The flag of Cundinamarca follows the same pattern, plus a light blue tile which represents the Virgin Mary's cape. Bogotá_sentence_437

The flag itself is a yellow band above a red one. Bogotá_sentence_438

The yellow denotes the gold from the earth, as well as the virtues of justice, clemency, benevolence, the so-called "mundane qualities" (defined as nobility, excellence, richness, generosity, splendour, health, steadfastness, joy and prosperity), long life, eternity, power and constancy. Bogotá_sentence_439

The red denotes the virtue of charity, as well as the qualities of bravery, nobility, values, audacity, victory, honour and furor, Colombians call it the blood of their people. Bogotá_sentence_440

The coat of arms of the city was granted by emperor Charles V (Charles I of Spain) to the New Kingdom of Granada, by royal decree given in Valladolid, Spain on 3 December 1548. Bogotá_sentence_441

It contains a black eagle in the center, which symbolises steadfastness. Bogotá_sentence_442

The eagle is also a symbol of the Habsburgs, which was the ruling family of the Spanish empire at the time. Bogotá_sentence_443

The eagle is crowned with gold and holds a red pomegranate inside a golden background. Bogotá_sentence_444

The border contains olive branches with nine golden pomegranates on a blue background. Bogotá_sentence_445

The two red pomegranates symbolize audacity, and the nine golden ones represent the nine states which constituted the New Kingdom of Granada at the time. Bogotá_sentence_446

In 1932 the coat of arms was officially recognized and adopted as the symbol of Bogotá. Bogotá_sentence_447

Bogotá's anthem lyrics were written by Pedro Medina Avendaño; the melody was composed by Roberto Pineda Duque. Bogotá_sentence_448

The song was officially declared the anthem by decree 1000 31 July 1974, by then Mayor of Bogotá, Aníbal Fernandez de Soto. Bogotá_sentence_449

International relations Bogotá_section_41

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in South America Bogotá_sentence_450

Panoramas Bogotá_section_42

Notable people Bogotá_section_43

Esperanza Cortes (1957-), Visual Artist Bogotá_sentence_451

See also Bogotá_section_44

Bogotá_unordered_list_12


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bogotá.