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This article is about the South American country. Bolivia_sentence_0

For other uses, see Bolivia (disambiguation). Bolivia_sentence_1


Plurinational State of Bolivia

Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia  (Spanish) Tetã Hetãvoregua Mborivia  (Guarani) Wuliwya Suyu  (Aymara) Puliwya Mamallaqta (Quechua)Bolivia_header_cell_0_0_0

CapitalBolivia_header_cell_0_1_0 Sucre (constitutional and judicial)

La Paz (executive and legislative)Bolivia_cell_0_1_1

Largest cityBolivia_header_cell_0_2_0 Santa CruzBolivia_cell_0_2_1
Official languagesBolivia_header_cell_0_3_0 Bolivia_cell_0_3_1
Ethnic groups (2009)Bolivia_header_cell_0_4_0 Bolivia_cell_0_4_1
Religion (2018)Bolivia_header_cell_0_5_0 88.9% Christianity

—70.0% Roman Catholic —17.2% Protestant —1.7% Other Christian 9.3% No religion 1.2% Other religions 0.6% No answerBolivia_cell_0_5_1

Demonym(s)Bolivia_header_cell_0_6_0 BolivianBolivia_cell_0_6_1
GovernmentBolivia_header_cell_0_7_0 Unitary presidential constitutional republicBolivia_cell_0_7_1
PresidentBolivia_header_cell_0_8_0 Luis ArceBolivia_cell_0_8_1
Vice PresidentBolivia_header_cell_0_9_0 David ChoquehuancaBolivia_cell_0_9_1
LegislatureBolivia_header_cell_0_10_0 Plurinational Legislative AssemblyBolivia_cell_0_10_1
Upper houseBolivia_header_cell_0_11_0 Chamber of SenatorsBolivia_cell_0_11_1
Lower houseBolivia_header_cell_0_12_0 Chamber of DeputiesBolivia_cell_0_12_1
Independence from SpainBolivia_header_cell_0_13_0
DeclaredBolivia_header_cell_0_14_0 6 August 1825Bolivia_cell_0_14_1
RecognizedBolivia_header_cell_0_15_0 21 July 1847Bolivia_cell_0_15_1
Admitted to the United NationsBolivia_header_cell_0_16_0 14 November 1945Bolivia_cell_0_16_1
Current constitutionBolivia_header_cell_0_17_0 7 February 2009Bolivia_cell_0_17_1
Area Bolivia_header_cell_0_18_0
TotalBolivia_header_cell_0_19_0 1,098,581 km (424,164 sq mi) (27th)Bolivia_cell_0_19_1
Water (%)Bolivia_header_cell_0_20_0 1.29Bolivia_cell_0_20_1
2019 estimateBolivia_header_cell_0_22_0 11,428,245 (83rd)Bolivia_cell_0_22_1
DensityBolivia_header_cell_0_23_0 10.4/km (26.9/sq mi) (224th)Bolivia_cell_0_23_1
GDP (PPP)Bolivia_header_cell_0_24_0 2019 estimateBolivia_cell_0_24_1
TotalBolivia_header_cell_0_25_0 $89.018 billion (88th)Bolivia_cell_0_25_1
Per capitaBolivia_header_cell_0_26_0 $7,790 (123rd)Bolivia_cell_0_26_1
GDP (nominal)Bolivia_header_cell_0_27_0 2019 estimateBolivia_cell_0_27_1
TotalBolivia_header_cell_0_28_0 $40.687 billion (90th)Bolivia_cell_0_28_1
Per capitaBolivia_header_cell_0_29_0 $3,823 (117th)Bolivia_cell_0_29_1
Gini (2018)Bolivia_header_cell_0_30_0 42.2


HDI (2018)Bolivia_header_cell_0_31_0 0.703

high · 114thBolivia_cell_0_31_1

CurrencyBolivia_header_cell_0_32_0 Boliviano (BOB)Bolivia_cell_0_32_1
Time zoneBolivia_header_cell_0_33_0 UTC−4 (BOT)Bolivia_cell_0_33_1
Driving sideBolivia_header_cell_0_34_0 rightBolivia_cell_0_34_1
Calling codeBolivia_header_cell_0_35_0 +591Bolivia_cell_0_35_1
ISO 3166 codeBolivia_header_cell_0_36_0 BOBolivia_cell_0_36_1
Internet TLDBolivia_header_cell_0_37_0 .boBolivia_cell_0_37_1

Bolivia /bəˈlɪviə/ (listen), officially the Plurinational State of Bolivia, is a landlocked country located in western-central South America. Bolivia_sentence_2

The constitutional capital is Sucre, while the seat of government and executive capital is La Paz. Bolivia_sentence_3

The largest city and principal industrial center is Santa Cruz de la Sierra, located on the Llanos Orientales (tropical lowlands), a mostly flat region in the east of the country. Bolivia_sentence_4

The sovereign state of Bolivia is a constitutionally unitary state, divided into nine departments. Bolivia_sentence_5

Its geography varies from the peaks of the Andes in the West, to the Eastern Lowlands, situated within the Amazon basin. Bolivia_sentence_6

It is bordered to the north and east by Brazil, to the southeast by Paraguay, to the south by Argentina, to the southwest by Chile, and to the northwest by Peru. Bolivia_sentence_7

One-third of the country is within the Andean mountain range. Bolivia_sentence_8

With 1,098,581 km (424,164 sq mi) of area, Bolivia is the fifth largest country in South America, after Brazil, Argentina, Peru, and Colombia (and alongside Paraguay, one of the only two landlocked countries in the Americas), the 27th largest in the world, the largest landlocked country in the Southern Hemisphere and the world's seventh largest landlocked country, after Kazakhstan, Mongolia, Chad, Niger, Mali and Ethiopia. Bolivia_sentence_9

The country's population, estimated at 11 million, is multiethnic, including Amerindians, Mestizos, Europeans, Asians and Africans. Bolivia_sentence_10

Spanish is the official and predominant language, although 36 indigenous languages also have official status, of which the most commonly spoken are Guarani, Aymara and Quechua languages. Bolivia_sentence_11

Before Spanish colonization, the Andean region of Bolivia was part of the Inca Empire, while the northern and eastern lowlands were inhabited by independent tribes. Bolivia_sentence_12

Spanish conquistadors arriving from Cusco and Asunción took control of the region in the 16th century. Bolivia_sentence_13

During the Spanish colonial period Bolivia was administered by the Real Audiencia of Charcas. Bolivia_sentence_14

Spain built its empire in large part upon the silver that was extracted from Bolivia's mines. Bolivia_sentence_15

After the first call for independence in 1809, 16 years of war followed before the establishment of the Republic, named for Simón Bolívar. Bolivia_sentence_16

Over the course of the 19th and early 20th century Bolivia lost control of several peripheral territories to neighboring countries including the seizure of its coastline by Chile in 1879. Bolivia_sentence_17

Bolivia remained relatively politically stable until 1971, when Hugo Banzer led a CIA-supported coup d'état which replaced the socialist government of Juan José Torres with a military dictatorship headed by Banzer; Torres was murdered in Buenos Aires, Argentina by a right-wing death squad in 1976. Bolivia_sentence_18

Banzer's regime cracked down on leftist and socialist opposition and other forms of dissent, resulting in the torture and deaths of a number of Bolivian citizens. Bolivia_sentence_19

Banzer was ousted in 1978 and later returned as the democratically elected president of Bolivia from 1997 to 2001. Bolivia_sentence_20

Modern Bolivia is a charter member of the UN, IMF, NAM, OAS, ACTO, Bank of the South, ALBA, and USAN. Bolivia_sentence_21

Bolivia remains the second poorest country in South America, though they have slashed poverty rates and are the fastest growing economy in South America (GDP wise). Bolivia_sentence_22

It is a developing country, with a high ranking in the Human Development Index. Bolivia_sentence_23

Its main economic activities include agriculture, forestry, fishing, mining, and manufacturing goods such as textiles, clothing, refined metals, and refined petroleum. Bolivia_sentence_24

Bolivia is very rich in minerals, including tin, silver, lithium, and copper. Bolivia_sentence_25

Etymology Bolivia_section_0

Bolivia is named after Simón Bolívar, a Venezuelan leader in the Spanish American wars of independence. Bolivia_sentence_26

The leader of Venezuela, Antonio José de Sucre, had been given the option by Bolívar to either unite Charcas (present-day Bolivia) with the newly formed Republic of Peru, to unite with the United Provinces of Rio de la Plata, or to formally declare its independence from Spain as a wholly independent state. Bolivia_sentence_27

Sucre opted to create a brand new state and on 6 August 1825, with local support, named it in honor of Simón Bolívar. Bolivia_sentence_28

The original name was Republic of Bolívar. Bolivia_sentence_29

Some days later, congressman Manuel Martín Cruz proposed: "If from Romulus, Rome, then from Bolívar, Bolivia" (Spanish: Si de Rómulo, Roma; de Bolívar, Bolivia). Bolivia_sentence_30

The name was approved by the Republic on 3 October 1825. Bolivia_sentence_31

In 2009, a new constitution changed the country's official name to "Plurinational State of Bolivia" in recognition of the multi-ethnic nature of the country and the enhanced position of Bolivia's indigenous peoples under the new constitution. Bolivia_sentence_32

History Bolivia_section_1

Main article: History of Bolivia Bolivia_sentence_33

Pre-colonial Bolivia_section_2

The region now known as Bolivia had been occupied for over 2,500 years when the Aymara arrived. Bolivia_sentence_34

However, present-day Aymara associate themselves with the ancient civilization of the Tiwanaku Empire which had its capital at Tiwanaku, in Western Bolivia. Bolivia_sentence_35

The capital city of Tiwanaku dates from as early as 1500 BC when it was a small, agriculturally based village. Bolivia_sentence_36

The community grew to urban proportions between AD 600 and AD 800, becoming an important regional power in the southern Andes. Bolivia_sentence_37

According to early estimates, the city covered approximately 6.5 square kilometers (2.5 square miles) at its maximum extent and had between 15,000 and 30,000 inhabitants. Bolivia_sentence_38

In 1996 satellite imaging was used to map the extent of fossilized suka kollus (flooded raised fields) across the three primary valleys of Tiwanaku, arriving at population-carrying capacity estimates of anywhere between 285,000 and 1,482,000 people. Bolivia_sentence_39

Around AD 400, Tiwanaku went from being a locally dominant force to a predatory state. Bolivia_sentence_40

Tiwanaku expanded its reaches into the Yungas and brought its culture and way of life to many other cultures in Peru, Bolivia, and Chile. Bolivia_sentence_41

Tiwanaku was not a violent culture in many respects. Bolivia_sentence_42

In order to expand its reach, Tiwanaku exercised great political astuteness, creating colonies, fostering trade agreements (which made the other cultures rather dependent), and instituting state cults. Bolivia_sentence_43

The empire continued to grow with no end in sight. Bolivia_sentence_44

William H. Isbell states "Tiahuanaco underwent a dramatic transformation between AD 600 and 700 that established new monumental standards for civic architecture and greatly increased the resident population." Bolivia_sentence_45

Tiwanaku continued to absorb cultures rather than eradicate them. Bolivia_sentence_46

Archaeologists note a dramatic adoption of Tiwanaku ceramics into the cultures which became part of the Tiwanaku empire. Bolivia_sentence_47

Tiwanaku's power was further solidified through the trade it implemented among the cities within its empire. Bolivia_sentence_48

Tiwanaku's elites gained their status through the surplus food they controlled, collected from outlying regions and then redistributed to the general populace. Bolivia_sentence_49

Further, this elite's control of llama herds became a powerful control mechanism as llamas were essential for carrying goods between the civic centre and the periphery. Bolivia_sentence_50

These herds also came to symbolize class distinctions between the commoners and the elites. Bolivia_sentence_51

Through this control and manipulation of surplus resources, the elite's power continued to grow until about AD 950. Bolivia_sentence_52

At this time a dramatic shift in climate occurred, causing a significant drop in precipitation in the Titicaca Basin, believed by archaeologists to have been on the scale of a major drought. Bolivia_sentence_53

As the rainfall decreased, many of the cities farther away from Lake Titicaca began to tender fewer foodstuffs to the elites. Bolivia_sentence_54

As the surplus of food decreased, and thus the amount available to underpin their power, the control of the elites began to falter. Bolivia_sentence_55

The capital city became the last place viable for food production due to the resiliency of the raised field method of agriculture. Bolivia_sentence_56

Tiwanaku disappeared around AD 1000 because food production, the main source of the elites' power, dried up. Bolivia_sentence_57

The area remained uninhabited for centuries thereafter. Bolivia_sentence_58

Between 1438 and 1527, the Inca empire expanded from its capital at Cusco, Peru. Bolivia_sentence_59

It gained control over much of what is now Andean Bolivia and extended its control into the fringes of the Amazon basin. Bolivia_sentence_60

Colonial period Bolivia_section_3

The Spanish conquest of the Inca empire began in 1524, and was mostly completed by 1533. Bolivia_sentence_61

The territory now called Bolivia was known as Charcas, and was under the authority of the Viceroy of Lima. Bolivia_sentence_62

Local government came from the Audiencia de Charcas located in Chuquisaca (La Plata—modern Sucre). Bolivia_sentence_63

Founded in 1545 as a mining town, Potosí soon produced fabulous wealth, becoming the largest city in the New World with a population exceeding 150,000 people. Bolivia_sentence_64

By the late 16th century, Bolivian silver was an important source of revenue for the Spanish Empire. Bolivia_sentence_65

A steady stream of natives served as labor force under the brutal, slave conditions of the Spanish version of the pre-Columbian draft system called the mita. Bolivia_sentence_66

Charcas was transferred to the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata in 1776 and the people from Buenos Aires, the capital of the Viceroyalty, coined the term "Upper Peru" (Spanish: Alto Perú) as a popular reference to the Royal Audiencia of Charcas. Bolivia_sentence_67

Túpac Katari led the indigenous rebellion that laid siege to La Paz in March 1781, during which 20,000 people died. Bolivia_sentence_68

As Spanish royal authority weakened during the Napoleonic wars, sentiment against colonial rule grew. Bolivia_sentence_69

Independence and subsequent wars Bolivia_section_4

Main article: History of Bolivia (1809–1920) Bolivia_sentence_70

The struggle for independence started in the city of Sucre on 25 May 1809 and the Chuquisaca Revolution (Chuquisaca was then the name of the city) is known as the first cry of Freedom in Latin America. Bolivia_sentence_71

That revolution was followed by the La Paz revolution on 16 July 1809. Bolivia_sentence_72

The La Paz revolution marked a complete split with the Spanish government, while the Chuquisaca Revolution established a local independent junta in the name of the Spanish King deposed by Napoleon Bonaparte. Bolivia_sentence_73

Both revolutions were short-lived and defeated by the Spanish authorities in the Viceroyalty of the Rio de La Plata, but the following year the Spanish American wars of independence raged across the continent. Bolivia_sentence_74

Bolivia was captured and recaptured many times during the war by the royalists and patriots. Bolivia_sentence_75

Buenos Aires sent three military campaigns, all of which were defeated, and eventually limited itself to protecting the national borders at Salta. Bolivia_sentence_76

Bolivia was finally freed of Royalist dominion by Marshal Antonio José de Sucre, with a military campaign coming from the North in support of the campaign of Simón Bolívar. Bolivia_sentence_77

After 16 years of war the Republic was proclaimed on 6 August 1825. Bolivia_sentence_78

In 1836, Bolivia, under the rule of Marshal Andrés de Santa Cruz, invaded Peru to reinstall the deposed president, General Luis José de Orbegoso. Bolivia_sentence_79

Peru and Bolivia formed the Peru-Bolivian Confederation, with de Santa Cruz as the Supreme Protector. Bolivia_sentence_80

Following tension between the Confederation and Chile, Chile declared war on 28 December 1836. Bolivia_sentence_81

Argentina separately declared war on the Confederation on 9 May 1837. Bolivia_sentence_82

The Peruvian-Bolivian forces achieved several major victories during the War of the Confederation: the defeat of the Argentine expedition and the defeat of the first Chilean expedition on the fields of Paucarpata near the city of Arequipa. Bolivia_sentence_83

The Chilean army and its Peruvian rebel allies surrendered unconditionally and signed the Paucarpata Treaty. Bolivia_sentence_84

The treaty stipulated that Chile would withdraw from Peru-Bolivia, Chile would return captured Confederate ships, economic relations would be normalized, and the Confederation would pay Peruvian debt to Chile. Bolivia_sentence_85

However, the Chilean government and public rejected the peace treaty. Bolivia_sentence_86

Chile organized a second attack on the Confederation and defeated it in the Battle of Yungay. Bolivia_sentence_87

After this defeat, Santa Cruz resigned and went to exile in Ecuador and then Paris, and the Peruvian-Bolivian Confederation was dissolved. Bolivia_sentence_88

Following the renewed independence of Peru, Peruvian president General Agustín Gamarra invaded Bolivia. Bolivia_sentence_89

On 18 November 1841, the battle de Ingavi took place, in which the Bolivian Army defeated the Peruvian troops of Gamarra (killed in the battle). Bolivia_sentence_90

After the victory, Bolivia invaded Perú on several fronts. Bolivia_sentence_91

The eviction of the Bolivian troops from the south of Peru would be achieved by the greater availability of material and human resources of Peru; the Bolivian Army did not have enough troops to maintain an occupation. Bolivia_sentence_92

In the district of Locumba – Tacna, a column of Peruvian soldiers and peasants defeated a Bolivian regiment in the so-called Battle of Los Altos de Chipe (Locumba). Bolivia_sentence_93

In the district of Sama and in Arica, the Peruvian colonel José María Lavayén organized a troop that managed to defeat the Bolivian forces of Colonel Rodríguez Magariños and threaten the port of Arica. Bolivia_sentence_94

In the battle of Tarapacá on 7 January 1842, Peruvian militias formed by the commander Juan Buendía defeated a detachment led by Bolivian colonel José María García, who died in the confrontation. Bolivia_sentence_95

Bolivian troops left Tacna, Arica and Tarapacá in February 1842, retreating towards Moquegua and Puno. Bolivia_sentence_96

The battles of Motoni and  Orurillo forced the withdrawal of Bolivian forces occupying Peruvian territory and exposed Bolivia to the threat of counter-invasion. Bolivia_sentence_97

The Treaty of Puno was signed on 7 June 1842, ending the war. Bolivia_sentence_98

However, the climate of tension between Lima and La Paz would continue until 1847, when the signing of a Peace and Trade Treaty became effective. Bolivia_sentence_99

The estimated population of the main three cities in 1843 was La Paz 300,000, Cochabamba 250,000 and Potosi 200,000. Bolivia_sentence_100

A period of political and economic instability in the early-to-mid-19th century weakened Bolivia. Bolivia_sentence_101

In addition, during the War of the Pacific (1879–83), Chile occupied vast territories rich in natural resources south west of Bolivia, including the Bolivian coast. Bolivia_sentence_102

Chile took control of today's Chuquicamata area, the adjoining rich salitre (saltpeter) fields, and the port of Antofagasta among other Bolivian territories. Bolivia_sentence_103

Since independence, Bolivia has lost over half of its territory to neighboring countries. Bolivia_sentence_104

Through diplomatic channels in 1909, it lost the basin of the Madre de Dios River and the territory of the Purus in the Amazon, yielding 250,000 km to Peru. Bolivia_sentence_105

It also lost the state of Acre, in the Acre War, important because this region was known for its production of rubber. Bolivia_sentence_106

Peasants and the Bolivian army fought briefly but after a few victories, and facing the prospect of a total war against Brazil, it was forced to sign the Treaty of Petrópolis in 1903, in which Bolivia lost this rich territory. Bolivia_sentence_107

Popular myth has it that Bolivian president Mariano Melgarejo (1864–71) traded the land for what he called "a magnificent white horse" and Acre was subsequently flooded by Brazilians, which ultimately led to confrontation and fear of war with Brazil. Bolivia_sentence_108

In the late 19th century, an increase in the world price of silver brought Bolivia relative prosperity and political stability. Bolivia_sentence_109

Early 20th century Bolivia_section_5

Main article: History of Bolivia (1920–64) Bolivia_sentence_110

During the early 20th century, tin replaced silver as the country's most important source of wealth. Bolivia_sentence_111

A succession of governments controlled by the economic and social elite followed laissez-faire capitalist policies through the first 30 years of the 20th century. Bolivia_sentence_112

Living conditions of the native people, who constitute most of the population, remained deplorable. Bolivia_sentence_113

With work opportunities limited to primitive conditions in the mines and in large estates having nearly feudal status, they had no access to education, economic opportunity, and political participation. Bolivia_sentence_114

Bolivia's defeat by Paraguay in the Chaco War (1932–35), where Bolivia lost a great part of the Gran Chaco region in dispute, marked a turning-point. Bolivia_sentence_115

The Revolutionary Nationalist Movement (MNR), the most historic political party, emerged as a broad-based party. Bolivia_sentence_116

Denied its victory in the 1951 presidential elections, the MNR led a successful revolution in 1952. Bolivia_sentence_117

Under President Víctor Paz Estenssoro, the MNR, having strong popular pressure, introduced universal suffrage into his political platform and carried out a sweeping land-reform promoting rural education and nationalization of the country's largest tin mines. Bolivia_sentence_118

Late 20th century Bolivia_section_6

Main article: History of Bolivia (1964–82) Bolivia_sentence_119

Twelve years of tumultuous rule left the MNR divided. Bolivia_sentence_120

In 1964, a military junta overthrew President Estenssoro at the outset of his third term. Bolivia_sentence_121

The 1969 death of President René Barrientos Ortuño, a former member of the junta who was elected president in 1966, led to a succession of weak governments. Bolivia_sentence_122

Alarmed by the rising Popular Assembly and the increase in the popularity of President Juan José Torres, the military, the MNR, and others installed Colonel (later General) Hugo Banzer Suárez as president in 1971. Bolivia_sentence_123

He returned to the presidency in 1997 through 2001. Bolivia_sentence_124

Juan José Torres, who had fled Bolivia, was kidnapped and assassinated in 1976 as part of Operation Condor, the U.S.-supported campaign of political repression by South American right-wing dictators. Bolivia_sentence_125

The United States' Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) financed and trained the Bolivian military dictatorship in the 1960s. Bolivia_sentence_126

The revolutionary leader Che Guevara was killed by a team of CIA officers and members of the Bolivian Army on 9 October 1967, in Bolivia. Bolivia_sentence_127

Félix Rodríguez was a CIA officer on the team with the Bolivian Army that captured and shot Guevara. Bolivia_sentence_128

Rodriguez said that after he received a Bolivian presidential execution order, he told "the soldier who pulled the trigger to aim carefully, to remain consistent with the Bolivian government's story that Che had been killed in action during a clash with the Bolivian army." Bolivia_sentence_129

Rodriguez said the US government had wanted Che in Panama, and "I could have tried to falsify the command to the troops, and got Che to Panama as the US government said they had wanted", but that he had chosen to "let history run its course" as desired by Bolivia. Bolivia_sentence_130

Elections in 1979 and 1981 were inconclusive and marked by fraud. Bolivia_sentence_131

There were coups d'état, counter-coups, and caretaker governments. Bolivia_sentence_132

In 1980, General Luis García Meza Tejada carried out a ruthless and violent coup d'état that did not have popular support. Bolivia_sentence_133

He pacified the people by promising to remain in power only for one year. Bolivia_sentence_134

At the end of the year, he staged a televised rally to claim popular support and announced, "Bueno, me quedo", or, "All right; I'll stay [in office]." Bolivia_sentence_135

After a military rebellion forced out Meza in 1981, three other military governments in 14 months struggled with Bolivia's growing problems. Bolivia_sentence_136

Unrest forced the military to convoke the Congress, elected in 1980, and allow it to choose a new chief executive. Bolivia_sentence_137

In October 1982, Hernán Siles Zuazo again became president, 22 years after the end of his first term of office (1956–60). Bolivia_sentence_138

Democratic transition Bolivia_section_7

Main article: History of Bolivia (1982–present) Bolivia_sentence_139

In 1993, Gonzalo Sánchez de Lozada was elected president in alliance with the Tupac Katari Revolutionary Liberation Movement, which inspired indigenous-sensitive and multicultural-aware policies. Bolivia_sentence_140

Sánchez de Lozada pursued an aggressive economic and social reform agenda. Bolivia_sentence_141

The most dramatic reform was privatization under the "capitalization" program, under which investors, typically foreign, acquired 50% ownership and management control of public enterprises in return for agreed upon capital investments. Bolivia_sentence_142

In 1993, Sanchez de Lozada introduced the Plan de Todos, which led to the decentralization of government, introduction of intercultural bilingual education, implementation of agrarian legislation, and privatization of state owned businesses. Bolivia_sentence_143

The plan explicitly stated that Bolivian citizens would own a minimum of 51% of enterprises; under the plan, most state-owned enterprises (SOEs), though not mines, were sold. Bolivia_sentence_144

This privatization of SOEs led to a neoliberal structuring. Bolivia_sentence_145

The reforms and economic restructuring were strongly opposed by certain segments of society, which instigated frequent and sometimes violent protests, particularly in La Paz and the Chapare coca-growing region, from 1994 through 1996. Bolivia_sentence_146

The indigenous population of the Andean region was not able to benefit from government reforms. Bolivia_sentence_147

During this time, the umbrella labor-organization of Bolivia, the Central Obrera Boliviana (COB), became increasingly unable to effectively challenge government policy. Bolivia_sentence_148

A teachers' strike in 1995 was defeated because the COB could not marshal the support of many of its members, including construction and factory workers. Bolivia_sentence_149

1997–2002 General Banzer Presidency Bolivia_section_8

In the 1997 elections, General Hugo Banzer, leader of the Nationalist Democratic Action party (ADN) and former dictator (1971–78), won 22% of the vote, while the MNR candidate won 18%. Bolivia_sentence_150

At the outset of his government, President Banzer launched a policy of using special police-units to eradicate physically the illegal coca of the Chapare region. Bolivia_sentence_151

The MIR of Jaime Paz Zamora remained a coalition-partner throughout the Banzer government, supporting this policy (called the Dignity Plan). Bolivia_sentence_152

The Banzer government basically continued the free-market and privatization-policies of its predecessor. Bolivia_sentence_153

The relatively robust economic growth of the mid-1990s continued until about the third year of its term in office. Bolivia_sentence_154

After that, regional, global and domestic factors contributed to a decline in economic growth. Bolivia_sentence_155

Financial crises in Argentina and Brazil, lower world prices for export commodities, and reduced employment in the coca sector depressed the Bolivian economy. Bolivia_sentence_156

The public also perceived a significant amount of public sector corruption. Bolivia_sentence_157

These factors contributed to increasing social protests during the second half of Banzer's term. Bolivia_sentence_158

Between January 1999 and April 2000, large-scale protests erupted in Cochabamba, Bolivia's third largest city, in response to the privatisation of water resources by foreign companies and a subsequent doubling of water prices. Bolivia_sentence_159

On 6 August 2001, Banzer resigned from office after being diagnosed with cancer. Bolivia_sentence_160

He died less than a year later. Bolivia_sentence_161

Vice President Jorge Fernando Quiroga Ramírez completed the final year of his term. Bolivia_sentence_162

2002–2005 Sánchez de Lozada / Mesa Presidency Bolivia_section_9

In the June 2002 national elections, former President Gonzalo Sánchez de Lozada (MNR) placed first with 22.5% of the vote, followed by coca-advocate and native peasant-leader Evo Morales (Movement Toward Socialism, MAS) with 20.9%. Bolivia_sentence_163

A July agreement between the MNR and the fourth-place MIR, which had again been led in the election by former President Jaime Paz Zamora, virtually ensured the election of Sánchez de Lozada in the congressional run-off, and on 6 August he was sworn in for the second time. Bolivia_sentence_164

The MNR platform featured three overarching objectives: economic reactivation (and job creation), anti-corruption, and social inclusion. Bolivia_sentence_165

In 2003 the Bolivian gas conflict broke out. Bolivia_sentence_166

On 12 October 2003 the government imposed martial law in El Alto after 16 people were shot by the police and several dozen wounded in violent clashes. Bolivia_sentence_167

Faced with the option of resigning or more bloodshed, Sánchez de Lozada offered his resignation in a letter to an emergency session of Congress. Bolivia_sentence_168

After his resignation was accepted and his vice president, Carlos Mesa, invested, he left on a commercially scheduled flight for the United States. Bolivia_sentence_169

The country's internal situation became unfavorable for such political action on the international stage. Bolivia_sentence_170

After a resurgence of gas protests in 2005, Carlos Mesa attempted to resign in January 2005, but his offer was refused by Congress. Bolivia_sentence_171

On 22 March 2005, after weeks of new street protests from organizations accusing Mesa of bowing to U.S. corporate interests, Mesa again offered his resignation to Congress, which was accepted on 10 June. Bolivia_sentence_172

The chief justice of the Supreme Court, Eduardo Rodríguez, was sworn as interim president to succeed the outgoing Carlos Mesa. Bolivia_sentence_173

2005–2019 Morales Presidency Bolivia_section_10

Evo Morales won the 2005 presidential election with 53.7% of the votes in Bolivian elections. Bolivia_sentence_174

On 1 May 2006, Morales announced his intent to re-nationalize Bolivian hydrocarbon assets following protests which demanded this action. Bolivia_sentence_175

Fulfilling a campaign promise, on 6 August 2006, Morales opened the Bolivian Constituent Assembly to begin writing a new constitution aimed at giving more power to the indigenous majority. Bolivia_sentence_176

In August 2007, a conflict which came to be known as The Calancha Case arose in Sucre. Bolivia_sentence_177

Local citizens demanded that an official discussion of the seat of government be included in the agenda of the full body of the Bolivian Constituent Assembly. Bolivia_sentence_178

The people of Sucre wanted to make Sucre the full capital of the country, including returning the executive and legislative branches to the city, but the government rejected the demand as impractical. Bolivia_sentence_179

Three people died in the conflict and as many as 500 were wounded. Bolivia_sentence_180

The result of the conflict was to include text in the constitution stating that the capital of Bolivia is officially Sucre, while leaving the executive and legislative branches in La Paz. Bolivia_sentence_181

In May 2008, Evo Morales was a signatory to the UNASUR Constitutive Treaty of the Union of South American Nations. Bolivia_sentence_182

2009 marked the creation of a new constitution and the renaming of the country to the Plurinational State of Bolivia. Bolivia_sentence_183

The previous constitution did not allow a consecutive reelection of a president, but the new constitution allowed just for one reelection, starting the dispute if Evo Morales was enabled to run for a second term arguing he was elected under the last constitution. Bolivia_sentence_184

This also triggered a new general election in which Evo Morales was re-elected with 61.36% of the vote. Bolivia_sentence_185

His party, Movement for Socialism, also won a two-thirds majority in both houses of the National Congress. Bolivia_sentence_186

By the year 2013 after being reelected under the new constitution, Evo Morales and his party attempt for a third term as President of Bolivia. Bolivia_sentence_187

The opposition argued that a third term would be unconstitutional but the Bolivian Constitutional Court ruled that Morales' first term under the previous constitution, did not count towards his term limit. Bolivia_sentence_188

This allowed Evo Morales to run for a third term in 2014, and he was re-elected with 64.22% of the vote. Bolivia_sentence_189

On 17 October 2015, Morales surpassed Andrés de Santa Cruz's nine years, eight months, and twenty-four days in office and became Bolivia's longest serving president. Bolivia_sentence_190

During his third term, Evo Morales began to plan for a fourth, and the 2016 Bolivian constitutional referendum asked voters to override the constitution and allow Evo Morales to run for an additional term in office. Bolivia_sentence_191

Morales narrowly lost the referendum, however in 2017 his party then petitioned the Bolivian Constitutional Court to override the constitution on the basis that the American Convention on Human Rights made term limits a human rights violation. Bolivia_sentence_192

The Inter-American Court of Human Rights determined that term limits are not a human rights violation in 2018, however, once again the Bolivian Constitutional Court ruled that Morales has the permission to run for a fourth term in the 2019 elections, and the permission was not retracted. Bolivia_sentence_193

"[...] the country’s highest court overruled the constitution, scrapping term limits altogether for every office. Bolivia_sentence_194

Morales can now run for a fourth term in 2019 – and for every election thereafter." Bolivia_sentence_195

described an article in The Guardian in 2017. Bolivia_sentence_196

Interim government 2019–2020 Bolivia_section_11

See also: 2019 Bolivian general election and 2019 Bolivian political crisis Bolivia_sentence_197

During the 2019 elections, the transmission of the unofficial quick counting process was interrupted; at the time, Morales had a lead of 46.86 percent to Mesa’s 36.72, after 95.63 percent of tally sheets were counted. Bolivia_sentence_198

The Transmisión de Resultados Electorales Preliminares (TREP) is a quick count process used in Latin America as a transparency measure in electoral processes that is meant to provide a preliminary results on election day, and its shutdown without further explanation raised consternation among opposition politicians and certain election monitors. Bolivia_sentence_199

Two days after the interruption, the official count showed Morales fractionally clearing the 10-point margin he needed to avoid a runoff election, with the final official tally counted as 47.08 percent to Mesa’s 36.51 percent. Bolivia_sentence_200

Amidst allegations that Morales rigged the 2019 Bolivian general election, after three weeks of widespread protests organized to dispute the election, and after the head of the country's military called for his resignation, Morales resigned on 10 November 2019. Bolivia_sentence_201

The interim government was heavily protested by Morales' supporters, whose protest against Anez was met with lethal force and accusations of a massacre on indigenous pro-Morales protesters. Bolivia_sentence_202

The heated divide and chain of events started after the official results were announced when the Organization of American States (OAS) as well as some local investigators and analysts had claimed irregularities and fraud, but these findings were quickly heavily disputed. Bolivia_sentence_203

The Center for Economic and Policy Research (CEPR) concluded that "it is very likely that Morales won the required 10 percentage point margin to win in the first round of the election on 20 October 2019." Bolivia_sentence_204

David Rosnick, an economist for CEPR, showed that "a basic coding error" was discovered in the OAS's data, and that explained OAS irreproducible findings as OAS had misused its own data when it ordered the time stamps on the tally sheets alphabetically rather than chronologically. Bolivia_sentence_205

However, OAS stood by its findings arguing that "[...] researchers’ work did not address many of the allegations mentioned in the OAS report, including the accusation that Bolivian officials maintained hidden servers that could have permitted the alteration of results",Additionally, observers from the European Union released a report with similar findings and conclusions as the OAS. Bolivia_sentence_206

But Ethical Hacking, the audit company that was featured predominantly in OAS Report, had investigated the hidden servers and reported that no data had been altered or manipulated but those findings were omitted in OAS final report. Bolivia_sentence_207

The tech security company hired by the TSE (under Morales) to audit the elections, also stated that there were multiple irregularities and violations of procedure and that "our function as an auditor security company is to declare everything that was found, and much of what was found supports the conclusion that the electoral process be declared null and void". Bolivia_sentence_208

The New York Times reported on 7 June 2020, that the OAS analysis immediately after the 20 October election, was flawed yet fuelled “a chain of events that changed the South American nation’s history”. Bolivia_sentence_209

Morales flew to Mexico and was granted asylum there, along with his vice president and several other members of his government. Bolivia_sentence_210

Jeanine Áñez was declared acting president of Bolivia following the constitutional line of succession after the President, Vice President and Head of the Senate. Bolivia_sentence_211

She was confirmed Interim President by the Constitutional court who declared her succession to be constitutional and automatic. Bolivia_sentence_212

Morales, his supporters, the Governments of Mexico and Nicaragua, and other personalities argue the event as a coup d'état. Bolivia_sentence_213

International politicians, scholars and journalists are divided between describing the event as a coup or a spontaneous social uprising against an unconstitutional fourth-term. Bolivia_sentence_214

Protests to reinstate Morales as President continued, and was met with violence by security forces against the indigenous supporters of Morales, after Áñez had exempted police and military from criminal responsibility in operations for "the restoration of order and public stability". Bolivia_sentence_215

Because the election was declared invalid, previously elected members of the House of Deputies and Senate retained their seats. Bolivia_sentence_216

This resulted in Morales' MAS party still holding a majority in both chambers. Bolivia_sentence_217

New elections were scheduled for 3 May 2020. Bolivia_sentence_218

In response to the Coronavirus pandemic, the Bolivian electoral body, the TSE, made an announcement postponing the election. Bolivia_sentence_219

Morales's party MAS reluctantly agreed with the first delay only. Bolivia_sentence_220

A date for the new election has been delayed twice more, in the face of massive protests and violence The final proposed date for the elections was the 18th of October. Bolivia_sentence_221

Official observers of the 2020 election the OAS, UNIORE and the UN all reported that they did not find any fraudulent actions in the 2020 elections. Bolivia_sentence_222

The 18 October 2020 election had a record voter turnout of 88.4% and ended in a landslide win for Morales' party taking 55.1% of the votes with a 26.3% margin over centrist former President Carlos Mesa who had 28.8% of the vote. Bolivia_sentence_223

Both Carlos Mesa and Anez conceded defeat. Bolivia_sentence_224

“I congratulate the winners and I ask them to govern thinking in Bolivia and in our democracy,” Áñez said on Twitter. Bolivia_sentence_225

Geography Bolivia_section_12

Main article: Geography of Bolivia Bolivia_sentence_226

Government and politics Bolivia_section_13

Main articles: Politics of Bolivia and Foreign relations of Bolivia Bolivia_sentence_227

Bolivia has been governed by democratically elected governments since 1982; prior to that, it was governed by various dictatorships. Bolivia_sentence_228

Presidents Hernán Siles Zuazo (1982–85) and Víctor Paz Estenssoro (1985–89) began a tradition of ceding power peacefully which has continued, although three presidents have stepped down in the face of popular protests: Gonzalo Sánchez de Lozada in 2003, Carlos Mesa in 2005, and Evo Morales in 2019. Bolivia_sentence_229

Bolivia's multiparty democracy has seen a wide variety of parties in the presidency and parliament, although the Revolutionary Nationalist Movement, Nationalist Democratic Action, and the Revolutionary Left Movement predominated from 1985 to 2005. Bolivia_sentence_230

On 11 November 2019, all senior governmental positions were vacated following the resignation of Evo Morales and his government. Bolivia_sentence_231

On 13 November 2019, Jeanine Áñez, a former senator representing Beni, declared herself acting President of Bolivia. Bolivia_sentence_232

Luis Arce was elected on 23 October 2020; he took office as President on 8 November 2020. Bolivia_sentence_233

The constitution, drafted in 2006–07 and approved in 2009, provides for balanced executive, legislative, judicial, and electoral powers, as well as several levels of autonomy. Bolivia_sentence_234

The traditionally strong executive branch tends to overshadow the Congress, whose role is generally limited to debating and approving legislation initiated by the executive. Bolivia_sentence_235

The judiciary, consisting of the Supreme Court and departmental and lower courts, has long been riddled with corruption and inefficiency. Bolivia_sentence_236

Through revisions to the constitution in 1994, and subsequent laws, the government has initiated potentially far-reaching reforms in the judicial system as well as increasing decentralizing powers to departments, municipalities, and indigenous territories. Bolivia_sentence_237

The executive branch is headed by a president and vice president, and consists of a variable number (currently, 20) of government ministries. Bolivia_sentence_238

The president is elected to a five-year term by popular vote, and governs from the Presidential Palace (popularly called the Burnt Palace, Palacio Quemado) in La Paz. Bolivia_sentence_239

In the case that no candidate receives an absolute majority of the popular vote or more than 40% of the vote with an advantage of more than 10% over the second-place finisher, a run-off is to be held among the two candidates most voted. Bolivia_sentence_240

The Asamblea Legislativa Plurinacional (Plurinational Legislative Assembly or National Congress) has two chambers. Bolivia_sentence_241

The Cámara de Diputados (Chamber of Deputies) has 130 members elected to five-year terms, seventy from single-member districts (circunscripciones), sixty by proportional representation, and seven by the minority indigenous peoples of seven departments. Bolivia_sentence_242

The Cámara de Senadores (Chamber of Senators) has 36 members (four per department). Bolivia_sentence_243

Members of the Assembly are elected to five-year terms. Bolivia_sentence_244

The body has its headquarters on the Plaza Murillo in La Paz, but also holds honorary sessions elsewhere in Bolivia. Bolivia_sentence_245

The Vice President serves as titular head of the combined Assembly. Bolivia_sentence_246

The judiciary consists of the Supreme Court of Justice, the Plurinational Constitutional Court, the Judiciary Council, Agrarian and Environmental Court, and District (departmental) and lower courts. Bolivia_sentence_247

In October 2011, Bolivia held its first judicial elections to choose members of the national courts by popular vote, a reform brought about by Evo Morales. Bolivia_sentence_248

The Plurinational Electoral Organ is an independent branch of government which replaced the National Electoral Court in 2010. Bolivia_sentence_249

The branch consists of the Supreme Electoral Court, the nine Departmental Electoral Court, Electoral Judges, the anonymously selected Juries at Election Tables, and Electoral Notaries. Bolivia_sentence_250

Wilfredo Ovando presides over the seven-member Supreme Electoral Court. Bolivia_sentence_251

Its operations are mandated by the Constitution and regulated by the Electoral Regime Law (Law 026, passed 2010). Bolivia_sentence_252

The Organ's first elections were the country's first judicial election in October 2011, and five municipal special elections held in 2011. Bolivia_sentence_253

Capital Bolivia_section_14

Bolivia has its constitutionally recognized capital in Sucre, while La Paz is the seat of government. Bolivia_sentence_254

La Plata (now Sucre) was proclaimed provisional capital of the newly independent Alto Perú (later, Bolivia) on 1 July 1826. Bolivia_sentence_255

On 12 July 1839, President José Miguel de Velasco proclaimed a law naming the city as the capital of Bolivia, and renaming it in honor of the revolutionary leader Antonio José de Sucre. Bolivia_sentence_256

The Bolivian seat of government moved to La Paz at the start of the twentieth century, as a consequence of Sucre's relative remoteness from economic activity after the decline of Potosí and its silver industry and of the Liberal Party in the War of 1899. Bolivia_sentence_257

The 2009 Constitution assigns the role of national capital to Sucre, not referring to La Paz in the text. Bolivia_sentence_258

In addition to being the constitutional capital, the Supreme Court of Bolivia is located in Sucre, making it the judicial capital. Bolivia_sentence_259

Nonetheless, the Palacio Quemado (the Presidential Palace and seat of Bolivian executive power) is located in La Paz, as are the National Congress and Plurinational Electoral Organ. Bolivia_sentence_260

La Paz thus continues to be the seat of government. Bolivia_sentence_261

Law and crime Bolivia_section_15

Main article: Crime in Bolivia Bolivia_sentence_262

There are 54 prisons in Bolivia, which incarcerate around 8,700 people as of 2010. Bolivia_sentence_263

The prisons are managed by the Penitentiary Regime Directorate (Spanish: Dirección de Régimen Penintenciario). Bolivia_sentence_264

There are 17 prisons in departmental capital cities and 36 provincial prisons. Bolivia_sentence_265

Foreign relations Bolivia_section_16

Main article: Foreign relations of Bolivia Bolivia_sentence_266

Despite losing its maritime coast, the so-called Litoral Department, after the War of the Pacific, Bolivia has historically maintained, as a state policy, a maritime claim to that part of Chile; the claim asks for sovereign access to the Pacific Ocean and its maritime space. Bolivia_sentence_267

The issue has also been presented before the Organization of American States; in 1979, the OAS passed the 426 Resolution, which declared that the Bolivian problem is a hemispheric problem. Bolivia_sentence_268

On 4 April 1884, a truce was signed with Chile, whereby Chile gave facilities of access to Bolivian products through Antofagasta, and freed the payment of export rights in the port of Arica. Bolivia_sentence_269

In October 1904, the Treaty of Peace and Friendship was signed, and Chile agreed to build a railway between Arica and La Paz, to improve access of Bolivian products to the ports. Bolivia_sentence_270

The Special Economical Zone for Bolivia in Ilo (ZEEBI) is a special economic area of 5 kilometres (3.1 miles) of maritime coast, and a total extension of 358 hectares (880 acres), called Mar Bolivia ("Sea Bolivia"), where Bolivia may maintain a free port near Ilo, Peru under its administration and operation for a period of 99 years starting in 1992; once that time has passed, all the construction and territory revert to the Peruvian government. Bolivia_sentence_271

Since 1964, Bolivia has had its own port facilities in the Bolivian Free Port in Rosario, Argentina. Bolivia_sentence_272

This port is located on the Paraná River, which is directly connected to the Atlantic Ocean. Bolivia_sentence_273

The dispute with Chile was taken to the International Court of Justice. Bolivia_sentence_274

The court ruled in support of the Chilean position, and declared that although Chile may have held talks about a Bolivian corridor to the sea, the country was not required to actually negotiate one or to surrender its territory. Bolivia_sentence_275

Military Bolivia_section_17

The Bolivian military comprises three branches: Ejército (Army), Naval (Navy) and Fuerza Aérea (Air Force). Bolivia_sentence_276

The legal age for voluntary admissions is 18; however, when numbers are small the government in the past has recruited people as young as 14. Bolivia_sentence_277

The tour of duty is generally 12 months. Bolivia_sentence_278

The Bolivian army has around 31,500 men. Bolivia_sentence_279

There are six military regions (regiones militares—RMs) in the army. Bolivia_sentence_280

The army is organized into ten divisions. Bolivia_sentence_281

Although it is landlocked Bolivia keeps a navy. Bolivia_sentence_282

The Bolivian Naval Force (Fuerza Naval Boliviana in Spanish) is a naval force about 5,000 strong in 2008. Bolivia_sentence_283

The Bolivian Air Force ('Fuerza Aérea Boliviana' or 'FAB') has nine air bases, located at La Paz, Cochabamba, Santa Cruz, Puerto Suárez, Tarija, Villamontes, Cobija, Riberalta, and Roboré. Bolivia_sentence_284

In 2018, Bolivia signed the UN treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons. Bolivia_sentence_285

The Bolivian government annually spends $130 million on defense. Bolivia_sentence_286

Administrative divisions Bolivia_section_18

Main articles: Departments of Bolivia, Provinces of Bolivia, Municipalities of Bolivia, Cantons of Bolivia, and Native Community Lands Bolivia_sentence_287

Bolivia has nine departments—Pando, La Paz, Beni, Oruro, Cochabamba, Santa Cruz, Potosí, Chuquisaca, Tarija. Bolivia_sentence_288

According to what is established by the Bolivian Political Constitution, the Law of Autonomies and Decentralization regulates the procedure for the elaboration of Statutes of Autonomy, the transfer and distribution of direct competences between the central government and the autonomous entities. Bolivia_sentence_289

There are four levels of decentralization: Departmental government, constituted by the Departmental Assembly, with rights over the legislation of the department. Bolivia_sentence_290

The governor is chosen by universal suffrage. Bolivia_sentence_291

Municipal government, constituted by a Municipal Council, with rights over the legislation of the municipality. Bolivia_sentence_292

The mayor is chosen by universal suffrage. Bolivia_sentence_293

Regional government, formed by several provinces or municipalities of geographical continuity within a department. Bolivia_sentence_294

It is constituted by a Regional Assembly. Bolivia_sentence_295

Original indigenous government, self-governance of original indigenous people on the ancient territories where they live. Bolivia_sentence_296

Economy Bolivia_section_19

Main article: Economy of Bolivia Bolivia_sentence_297

Bolivia's estimated 2012 gross domestic product (GDP) totaled $27.43 billion at official exchange rate and $56.14 billion at purchasing power parity. Bolivia_sentence_298

Despite a series of mostly political setbacks, between 2006 and 2009 the Morales administration has spurred growth higher than at any point in the preceding 30 years. Bolivia_sentence_299

The growth was accompanied by a moderate decrease in inequality. Bolivia_sentence_300

A surplus budget of 1.7% (GDP) was obtained by 2012, the government runs surpluses since Morales administration reflecting a prudent economic management. Bolivia_sentence_301

A major blow to the Bolivian economy came with a drastic fall in the price of tin during the early 1980s, which impacted one of Bolivia's main sources of income and one of its major mining industries. Bolivia_sentence_302

Since 1985, the government of Bolivia has implemented a far-reaching program of macroeconomic stabilization and structural reform aimed at maintaining price stability, creating conditions for sustained growth, and alleviating scarcity. Bolivia_sentence_303

A major reform of the customs service has significantly improved transparency in this area. Bolivia_sentence_304

Parallel legislative reforms have locked into place market-liberal policies, especially in the hydrocarbon and telecommunication sectors, that have encouraged private investment. Bolivia_sentence_305

Foreign investors are accorded national treatment. Bolivia_sentence_306

In April 2000, Hugo Banzer, the former president of Bolivia, signed a contract with Aguas del Tunari, a private consortium, to operate and improve the water supply in Bolivia's third-largest city, Cochabamba. Bolivia_sentence_307

Shortly thereafter, the company tripled the water rates in that city, an action which resulted in protests and rioting among those who could no longer afford clean water. Bolivia_sentence_308

Amidst Bolivia's nationwide economic collapse and growing national unrest over the state of the economy, the Bolivian government was forced to withdraw the water contract. Bolivia_sentence_309

Bolivia has the second largest natural gas reserves in South America. Bolivia_sentence_310

The government has a long-term sales agreement to sell natural gas to Brazil through 2019. Bolivia_sentence_311

The government held a binding referendum in 2005 on the Hydrocarbon Law. Bolivia_sentence_312

The US Geological Service estimates that Bolivia has 5.4 million cubic tonnes of lithium, which represent 50%–70% of world reserves. Bolivia_sentence_313

However, to mine for it would involve disturbing the country's salt flats (called Salar de Uyuni), an important natural feature which boosts tourism in the region. Bolivia_sentence_314

The government does not want to destroy this unique natural landscape to meet the rising world demand for lithium. Bolivia_sentence_315

On the other hand, sustainable extraction of lithium is attempted by the government. Bolivia_sentence_316

This project is carried out by the public company "Recursos Evaporíticos" subsidiary of COMIBOL. Bolivia_sentence_317

It is thought that due to the importance of lithium for batteries for electric vehicles and stabilization of electric grids with large proportions of intermittent renewables in the electricity mix, Bolivia could be strengthened geopolitically. Bolivia_sentence_318

However, this perspective has also been criticized for underestimating the power of economic incentives for expanded production in other parts of the world. Bolivia_sentence_319

Once Bolivia's government depended heavily on foreign assistance to finance development projects and to pay the public staff. Bolivia_sentence_320

At the end of 2002, the government owed $4.5 billion to its foreign creditors, with $1.6 billion of this amount owed to other governments and most of the balance owed to multilateral development banks. Bolivia_sentence_321

Most payments to other governments have been rescheduled on several occasions since 1987 through the Paris Club mechanism. Bolivia_sentence_322

External creditors have been willing to do this because the Bolivian government has generally achieved the monetary and fiscal targets set by IMF programs since 1987, though economic crises have undercut Bolivia's normally good record. Bolivia_sentence_323

However, by 2013 the foreign assistance is just a fraction of the government budget thanks to tax collection mainly from the profitable exports to Brazil and Argentina of natural gas. Bolivia_sentence_324

Foreign-exchange reserves Bolivia_section_20

The amount in reserve currencies and gold held by Bolivia's Central Bank advanced from 1.085 billion US dollars in 2000, under Hugo Banzer Suarez's government, to 15.282 billion US dollars in 2014 under Evo Morales' government. Bolivia_sentence_325

Tourism Bolivia_section_21

Main article: Tourism in Bolivia Bolivia_sentence_326

The income from tourism has become increasingly important. Bolivia_sentence_327

Bolivia's tourist industry has placed an emphasis on attracting ethnic diversity. Bolivia_sentence_328

The most visited places include Nevado Sajama, Torotoro National Park, Madidi National Park, Tiwanaku and the city of La Paz. Bolivia_sentence_329

The best known of the various festivals found in the country is the "Carnaval de Oruro", which was among the first 19 "Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity", as proclaimed by UNESCO in May 2001. Bolivia_sentence_330

Transport Bolivia_section_22

Roads Bolivia_section_23

Bolivia's Yungas Road was called the "world's most dangerous road" by the Inter-American Development Bank, called (El Camino de la Muerte) in Spanish. Bolivia_sentence_331

The northern portion of the road, much of it unpaved and without guardrails, was cut into the Cordillera Oriental Mountain in the 1930s. Bolivia_sentence_332

The fall from the narrow 12 feet (3.7 m) path is as much as 2,000 feet (610 m) in some places and due to the humid weather from the Amazon there are often poor conditions like mudslides and falling rocks. Bolivia_sentence_333

Each year over 25,000 bikers cycle along the 40 miles (64 km) road. Bolivia_sentence_334

In 2018, an Israeli woman was killed by a falling rock while cycling on the road. Bolivia_sentence_335

The Apolo road goes deep into La Paz. Bolivia_sentence_336

Roads in this area were originally built to allow access to mines located near Charazani. Bolivia_sentence_337

Other noteworthy roads run to Coroico, Sorata, the Zongo Valley (Illimani mountain), and along the Cochabamba highway (carretera). Bolivia_sentence_338

According to researchers with the Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), Bolivia's road network was still underdeveloped as of 2014. Bolivia_sentence_339

In lowland areas of Bolivia there is less than 2,000 kilometres (2,000,000 m) of paved road. Bolivia_sentence_340

There have been some recent investments; animal husbandry has expanded in Guayaramerín, which might be due to a new road connecting Guayaramerín with Trinidad. Bolivia_sentence_341

Air traffic Bolivia_section_24

See also: List of airlines of Bolivia and List of airports in Bolivia Bolivia_sentence_342

The General Directorate of Civil Aeronautics (Dirección General de Aeronáutica Civil—DGAC) formerly part of the FAB, administers a civil aeronautics school called the National Institute of Civil Aeronautics (Instituto Nacional de Aeronáutica Civil—INAC), and two commercial air transport services TAM and TAB. Bolivia_sentence_343

TAM – Transporte Aéreo Militar (the Bolivian Military Airline) was an airline based in La Paz, Bolivia. Bolivia_sentence_344

It was the civilian wing of the 'Fuerza Aérea Boliviana' (the Bolivian Air Force), operating passenger services to remote towns and communities in the North and Northeast of Bolivia. Bolivia_sentence_345

TAM (a.k.a. TAM Group 71) has been a part of the FAB since 1945. Bolivia_sentence_346

The airline company has suspended its operations since 23 September 2019. Bolivia_sentence_347

Boliviana de Aviación, often referred to as simply BoA, is the flag carrier airline of Bolivia and is wholly owned by the country's government. Bolivia_sentence_348

A private airline serving regional destinations is Línea Aérea Amaszonas, with services including some international destinations. Bolivia_sentence_349

Although a civil transport airline, TAB – Transportes Aéreos Bolivianos, was created as a subsidiary company of the FAB in 1977. Bolivia_sentence_350

It is subordinate to the Air Transport Management (Gerencia de Transportes Aéreos) and is headed by an FAB general. Bolivia_sentence_351

TAB, a charter heavy cargo airline, links Bolivia with most countries of the Western Hemisphere; its inventory includes a fleet of Hercules C130 aircraft. Bolivia_sentence_352

TAB is headquartered adjacent to El Alto International Airport. Bolivia_sentence_353

TAB flies to Miami and Houston, with a stop in Panama. Bolivia_sentence_354

The three largest, and main international airports in Bolivia are El Alto International Airport in La Paz, Viru Viru International Airport in Santa Cruz, and Jorge Wilstermann International Airport in Cochabamba. Bolivia_sentence_355

There are regional airports in other cities that connect to these three hubs. Bolivia_sentence_356

Railways Bolivia_section_25

See also: Rail transport in Bolivia Bolivia_sentence_357

Bolivia possesses an extensive but aged rail system, all in 1000 mm gauge, consisting of two disconnected networks. Bolivia_sentence_358

Technology Bolivia_section_26

Bolivia owns a communications satellite which was offshored/outsourced and launched by China, named Túpac Katari 1. Bolivia_sentence_359

In 2015, it was announced that electrical power advancements include a planned $300 million nuclear reactor developed by the Russian nuclear company Rosatom. Bolivia_sentence_360

Water supply and sanitation Bolivia_section_27

Main article: Water supply and sanitation in Bolivia Bolivia_sentence_361

Bolivia's drinking water and sanitation coverage has greatly improved since 1990 due to a considerable increase in sectoral investment. Bolivia_sentence_362

However, the country has the continent's lowest coverage levels and services are of low quality. Bolivia_sentence_363

Political and institutional instability have contributed to the weakening of the sector's institutions at the national and local levels. Bolivia_sentence_364

Two concessions to foreign private companies in two of the three largest cities – Cochabamba and La Paz/El Alto – were prematurely ended in 2000 and 2006 respectively. Bolivia_sentence_365

The country's second largest city, Santa Cruz de la Sierra, manages its own water and sanitation system relatively successfully by way of cooperatives. Bolivia_sentence_366

The government of Evo Morales intends to strengthen citizen participation within the sector. Bolivia_sentence_367

Increasing coverage requires a substantial increase of investment financing. Bolivia_sentence_368

According to the government the main problems in the sector are low access to sanitation throughout the country; low access to water in rural areas; insufficient and ineffective investments; a low visibility of community service providers; a lack of respect of indigenous customs; "technical and institutional difficulties in the design and implementation of projects"; a lack of capacity to operate and maintain infrastructure; an institutional framework that is "not consistent with the political change in the country"; "ambiguities in the social participation schemes"; a reduction in the quantity and quality of water due to climate change; pollution and a lack of integrated water resources management; and the lack of policies and programs for the reuse of wastewater. Bolivia_sentence_369

Only 27% of the population has access to improved sanitation, 80 to 88% has access to improved water sources. Bolivia_sentence_370

Coverage in urban areas is bigger than in rural ones. Bolivia_sentence_371

Demographics Bolivia_section_28

Main article: Demographics of Bolivia Bolivia_sentence_372

According to the last two censuses carried out by the Bolivian National Statistics Institute (Instituto Nacional de Estadística, INE), the population increased from 8,274,325 (from which 4,123,850 were men and 4,150,475 were women) in 2001 to 10,059,856 in 2012. Bolivia_sentence_373

In the last fifty years the Bolivian population has tripled, reaching a population growth rate of 2.25%. Bolivia_sentence_374

The growth of the population in the inter-census periods (1950–1976 and 1976–1992) was approximately 2.05%, while between the last period, 1992–2001, it reached 2.74% annually. Bolivia_sentence_375

Some 67.49% of Bolivians live in urban areas, while the remaining 32.51% in rural areas. Bolivia_sentence_376

The most part of the population (70%) is concentrated in the departments of La Paz, Santa Cruz and Cochabamba. Bolivia_sentence_377

In the Andean Altiplano region the departments of La Paz and Oruro hold the largest percentage of population, in the valley region the largest percentage is held by the departments of Cochabamba and Chuquisaca, while in the Llanos region by Santa Cruz and Beni. Bolivia_sentence_378

At national level, the population density is 8.49, with variations marked between 0.8 (Pando Department) and 26.2 (Cochabamba Department). Bolivia_sentence_379

The largest population center is located in the so-called "central axis" and in the Llanos region. Bolivia_sentence_380

Bolivia has a young population. Bolivia_sentence_381

According to the 2011 census, 59% of the population is between 15 and 59 years old, 39% is less than 15 years old. Bolivia_sentence_382

Almost 60% of the population is younger than 25 years of age. Bolivia_sentence_383

Genetics Bolivia_section_29

According to a genetic study done on Bolivians, average values of Native American, European and African ancestry are 86%, 12.5%, and 1.5%, in individuals from La Paz and 76.8%, 21.4%, and 1.8% in individuals from Chuquisaca; respectively. Bolivia_sentence_384

Ethnic and racial classifications Bolivia_section_30

The vast majority of Bolivians are mestizo (with the indigenous component higher than the European one), although the government has not included the cultural self-identification "mestizo" in the November 2012 census. Bolivia_sentence_385

There are approximately three dozen native groups totaling approximately half of the Bolivian population – the largest proportion of indigenous people in Latin America. Bolivia_sentence_386

Exact numbers vary based on the wording of the ethnicity question and the available response choices. Bolivia_sentence_387

For example, the 2001 census did not provide the racial category "mestizo" as a response choice, resulting in a much higher proportion of respondents identifying themselves as belonging to one of the available indigenous ethnicity choices. Bolivia_sentence_388

Mestizos are distributed throughout the entire country and make up 26% of the Bolivian population. Bolivia_sentence_389

Most people assume their mestizo identity while at the same time identifying themselves with one or more indigenous cultures. Bolivia_sentence_390

A 2018 estimate of racial classification put mestizo (mixed white and Amerindian) at 68%, indigenous at 20%, white at 5%, cholo at 2%, black at 1%, other at 4%, while 2% were unspecified; 44% attributed themselves to some indigenous group, predominantly the linguistic categories of Quechuas or Aymaras. Bolivia_sentence_391

Whites comprised about 14% of the population in 2006, and are usually concentrated in the largest cities: La Paz, Santa Cruz de la Sierra and Cochabamba, but as well in some minor cities like Tarija and Sucre. Bolivia_sentence_392

The ancestry of Whites and the White ancestry of Mestizos lies within the continents of Europe and Middle East, most notably Spain, Italy, Germany, Croatia, Lebanon and Syria. Bolivia_sentence_393

In the Santa Cruz Department, there are several dozen colonies of German-speaking Mennonites from Russia totaling around 40,000 inhabitants (as of 2012). Bolivia_sentence_394

Afro-Bolivians, descendants of African slaves who arrived in the time of the Spanish Empire, inhabit the department of La Paz, and are located mainly in the provinces of Nor Yungas and Sud Yungas. Bolivia_sentence_395

Slavery was abolished in Bolivia in 1831. Bolivia_sentence_396

There are also important communities of Japanese (14.000) and Lebanese (12.900). Bolivia_sentence_397

Indigenous peoples, also called "originarios" ("native" or "original") and less frequently, Amerindians, could be categorized by geographic area, such as Andean, like the Aymaras and Quechuas (who formed the ancient Inca Empire), who are concentrated in the western departments of La Paz, Potosí, Oruro, Cochabamba and Chuquisaca. Bolivia_sentence_398

There also are ethnic populations in the east, composed of the Chiquitano, Chané, Guaraní and Moxos, among others, who inhabit the departments of Santa Cruz, Beni, Tarija and Pando. Bolivia_sentence_399

There are small numbers of European citizens from Germany, France, Italy and Portugal, as well as from other countries of the Americas, as Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Cuba, Ecuador, the United States, Paraguay, Peru, Mexico and Venezuela, among others. Bolivia_sentence_400

There are important Peruvian colonies in La Paz, El Alto and Santa Cruz de la Sierra. Bolivia_sentence_401

There are around 140,000 mennonites in Bolivia of Friesian, Flemish and German ethnic origins. Bolivia_sentence_402

Indigenous peoples Bolivia_section_31

The Indigenous peoples of Bolivia can be divided into two categories of ethnic groups: the Andeans, who are located in the Andean Altiplano and the valley region; and the lowland groups, who inhabit the warm regions of central and eastern Bolivia, including the valleys of Cochabamba Department, the Amazon Basin areas of northern La Paz Department, and the lowland departments of Beni, Pando, Santa Cruz, and Tarija (including the Gran Chaco region in the southeast of the country). Bolivia_sentence_403

Large numbers of Andean peoples have also migrated to form Quechua, Aymara, and intercultural communities in the lowlands. Bolivia_sentence_404


  • Andean ethnicitiesBolivia_item_0_0
    • Aymara people. They live on the high plateau of the departments of La Paz, Oruro and Potosí, as well as some small regions near the tropical flatlands.Bolivia_item_0_1
    • Quechua people. They mostly inhabit the valleys in Cochabamba and Chuquisaca. They also inhabit some mountain regions in Potosí and Oruro. They divide themselves into different Quechua nations, as the Tarabucos, Ucumaris, Chalchas, Chaquies, Yralipes, Tirinas, among others.Bolivia_item_0_2
    • Uru peopleBolivia_item_0_3
  • Ethnicities of the Eastern LowlandsBolivia_item_0_4
    • Guaraníes: made up of Guarayos, Pausernas, Sirionós, Chiriguanos, Wichí, Chulipis, Taipetes, Tobas, and Yuquis.Bolivia_item_0_5
    • Tacanas: made up of Lecos, Chimanes, Araonas, and Maropas.Bolivia_item_0_6
    • Panos: made up of Chacobos, Caripunas, Sinabos, Capuibos, and Guacanaguas.Bolivia_item_0_7
    • Aruacos: made up of Apolistas, Baures, Moxos, Chané, Movimas, Cayabayas, Carabecas, and Paiconecas (Paucanacas).Bolivia_item_0_8
    • Chapacuras: made up of Itenez (More), Chapacuras, Sansinonianos, Canichanas, Itonamas, Yuracares, Guatoses, and Chiquitanos.Bolivia_item_0_9
    • Botocudos: made up of Bororos and Otuquis.Bolivia_item_0_10
    • Zamucos: made up of Ayoreos.Bolivia_item_0_11

Language Bolivia_section_32

Main article: Languages of Bolivia Bolivia_sentence_405

Bolivia has great linguistic diversity as a result of its multiculturalism. Bolivia_sentence_406

The Constitution of Bolivia recognizes 36 official languages besides Spanish: Aymara, Araona, Baure, Bésiro, Canichana, Cavineño, Cayubaba, Chácobo, Chimán, Ese Ejja, Guaraní, Guarasu'we, Guarayu, Itonama, Leco, Machajuyai-Kallawaya, Machineri, Maropa, Mojeño-Ignaciano, Mojeño-Trinitario, Moré, Mosetén, Movima, Pacawara, Puquina, Quechua, Sirionó, Tacana, Tapieté, Toromona, Uru-Chipaya, Weenhayek, Yaminawa, Yuki, Yuracaré, and Zamuco. Bolivia_sentence_407

Spanish is the most spoken official language in the country, according to the 2001 census; as it is spoken by two-thirds of the population. Bolivia_sentence_408

All legal and official documents issued by the State, including the Constitution, the main private and public institutions, the media, and commercial activities, are in Spanish. Bolivia_sentence_409

The main indigenous languages are: Quechua (21.2% of the population in the 2001 census), Aymara (14.6%), Guarani (0.6%) and others (0.4%) including the Moxos in the department of Beni. Bolivia_sentence_410

Plautdietsch, a German dialect, is spoken by about 70,000 Mennonites in Santa Cruz. Bolivia_sentence_411

Portuguese is spoken mainly in the areas close to Brazil. Bolivia_sentence_412

Bilingual education was implemented in Bolivia under the leadership of President Evo Morales. Bolivia_sentence_413

His program placed emphasis on the expansion of indigenous languages in the educational systems of the country. Bolivia_sentence_414

Religion Bolivia_section_33

Main article: Religion in Bolivia Bolivia_sentence_415

Bolivia is a constitutionally secular state that guarantees the freedom of religion and the independence of government from religion. Bolivia_sentence_416

According to the 2001 census conducted by the National Institute of Statistics of Bolivia, 78% of the population is Roman Catholic, followed by 19% that are Protestant, as well as a small number of Bolivians that are Orthodox, and 3% non-religious. Bolivia_sentence_417

The Association of Religion Data Archives (relying on the World Christian Database) records that in 2010, 92.5% of Bolivians identified as Christian (of any denomination), 3.1% identified with indigenous religion, 2.2% identified as Baháʼí, 1.9% identified as agnostic, and all other groups constituted 0.1% or less. Bolivia_sentence_418

Much of the indigenous population adheres to different traditional beliefs marked by inculturation or syncretisim with Christianity. Bolivia_sentence_419

The cult of Pachamama, or "Mother Earth", is notable. Bolivia_sentence_420

The veneration of the Virgin of Copacabana, Virgin of Urkupiña and Virgin of Socavón, is also an important feature of Christian pilgrimage. Bolivia_sentence_421

There also are important Aymaran communities near Lake Titicaca that have a strong devotion to James the Apostle. Bolivia_sentence_422

Deities worshiped in Bolivia include Ekeko, the Aymaran god of abundance and prosperity, whose day is celebrated every 24 January, and Tupá, a god of the Guaraní people. Bolivia_sentence_423

Largest cities and towns Bolivia_section_34

Approximately 67% of Bolivians live in urban areas, among the lowest proportion in South America. Bolivia_sentence_424

Nevertheless, the rate of urbanization is growing steadily, at around 2.5% annually. Bolivia_sentence_425

According to the 2012 census, there are total of 3,158,691 households in Bolivia – an increase of 887,960 from 2001. Bolivia_sentence_426

In 2009, 75.4% of homes were classified as a house, hut, or Pahuichi; 3.3% were apartments; 21.1% were rental residences; and 0.1% were mobile homes. Bolivia_sentence_427

Most of the country's largest cities are located in the highlands of the west and central regions. Bolivia_sentence_428

Culture Bolivia_section_35

Main article: Culture of Bolivia Bolivia_sentence_429

See also: Music of Bolivia and Public holidays in Bolivia Bolivia_sentence_430

Bolivian culture has been heavily influenced by the Aymara, the Quechua, as well as the popular cultures of Latin America as a whole. Bolivia_sentence_431

The cultural development is divided into three distinct periods: precolumbian, colonial, and republican. Bolivia_sentence_432

Important archaeological ruins, gold and silver ornaments, stone monuments, ceramics, and weavings remain from several important pre-Columbian cultures. Bolivia_sentence_433

Major ruins include Tiwanaku, El Fuerte de Samaipata, Inkallaqta and Iskanawaya. Bolivia_sentence_434

The country abounds in other sites that are difficult to reach and have seen little archaeological exploration. Bolivia_sentence_435

The Spanish brought their own tradition of religious art which, in the hands of local native and mestizo builders and artisans, developed into a rich and distinctive style of architecture, painting, and sculpture known as "Mestizo Baroque". Bolivia_sentence_436

The colonial period produced not only the paintings of Pérez de Holguín, Flores, Bitti, and others but also the works of skilled but unknown stonecutters, woodcarvers, goldsmiths, and silversmiths. Bolivia_sentence_437

An important body of Native Baroque religious music of the colonial period was recovered and has been performed internationally to wide acclaim since 1994. Bolivia_sentence_438

Bolivian artists of stature in the 20th century include María Luisa Pacheco, Roberto Mamani Mamani, Alejandro Mario Yllanes, Alfredo Da Silva, and Marina Núñez del Prado. Bolivia_sentence_439

Bolivia has a rich folklore. Bolivia_sentence_440

Its regional folk music is distinctive and varied. Bolivia_sentence_441

The "devil dances" at the annual carnival of Oruro are one of the great folkloric events of South America, as is the lesser known carnival at Tarabuco. Bolivia_sentence_442

Education Bolivia_section_36

Main article: Education in Bolivia Bolivia_sentence_443

In 2008, following UNESCO standards, Bolivia was declared free of illiteracy, making it the fourth country in South America to attain this status. Bolivia_sentence_444

Bolivia has public and private universities. Bolivia_sentence_445

Among them: Universidad Mayor, Real y Pontificia de San Francisco Xavier de Chuquisaca USFX – Sucre, founded in 1624; Universidad Mayor de San Andrés UMSA – La Paz, founded in 1830; Universidad Mayor de San Simon UMSS – Cochabamba, founded in 1832; Universidad Autónoma Gabriel René Moreno UAGRM – Santa Cruz de la Sierra, founded in 1880; Universidad Técnica de Oruro UTO – Oruro, founded in 1892; and Universidad Autónoma Tomás Frías UATF – Potosi, founded in 1892. Bolivia_sentence_446

Health Bolivia_section_37

Main article: Health in Bolivia Bolivia_sentence_447

See also: Refresh Bolivia Bolivia_sentence_448

Based on 2013 The World Factbook estimates, Bolivia is ranked 161st in life expectancy with a number of 68.2 years. Bolivia_sentence_449

Life expectancy for men is 65.4 and for women is 71.1. Bolivia_sentence_450

A study by the United Nations Development Programme and United Nations International Emergency Children's Fund reported over 230 babies died per day in Bolivia through lack of proper care. Bolivia_sentence_451

The majority of the population has no health insurance or access to healthcare. Bolivia_sentence_452

Demographic and Health Surveys has completed five surveys in Bolivia since 1989 on a wide range of topics. Bolivia_sentence_453

Between 2006 and 2016, extreme poverty in Bolivia fell from 38.2% to 16.8%. Bolivia_sentence_454

Chronic malnutrition in children under five years of age also went down by 14% and the child mortality rate was reduced by more than 50%, according to World Health Organization. Bolivia_sentence_455

Sports Bolivia_section_38

Football is popular. Bolivia_sentence_456

The national team is the Bolivia national football team. Bolivia_sentence_457

Racquetball is the second most popular sport in Bolivia as for the results in the Odesur 2018 Games held in Cochabamba. Bolivia_sentence_458

See also Bolivia_section_39


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