Bolton

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This article is about Bolton in Greater Manchester. Bolton_sentence_0

For other uses, see Bolton (disambiguation). Bolton_sentence_1

Bolton_table_infobox_0

BoltonBolton_header_cell_0_0_0
PopulationBolton_header_cell_0_1_0 128,139 2011 CensusBolton_cell_0_1_1
OS grid referenceBolton_header_cell_0_2_0 Bolton_cell_0_2_1
Metropolitan boroughBolton_header_cell_0_3_0 Bolton_cell_0_3_1
Metropolitan countyBolton_header_cell_0_4_0 Bolton_cell_0_4_1
RegionBolton_header_cell_0_5_0 Bolton_cell_0_5_1
CountryBolton_header_cell_0_6_0 EnglandBolton_cell_0_6_1
Sovereign stateBolton_header_cell_0_7_0 United KingdomBolton_cell_0_7_1
Post townBolton_header_cell_0_8_0 BOLTONBolton_cell_0_8_1
Postcode districtBolton_header_cell_0_9_0 BL1-BL7Bolton_cell_0_9_1
Dialling codeBolton_header_cell_0_10_0 01204Bolton_cell_0_10_1
PoliceBolton_header_cell_0_11_0 Greater ManchesterBolton_cell_0_11_1
FireBolton_header_cell_0_12_0 Greater ManchesterBolton_cell_0_12_1
AmbulanceBolton_header_cell_0_13_0 North WestBolton_cell_0_13_1
UK ParliamentBolton_header_cell_0_14_0 Bolton_cell_0_14_1

Bolton (/ˈbɒltən/ (listen), locally /ˈboʊtən/) is a large town in Greater Manchester in North West England, historically and traditionally a part of Lancashire. Bolton_sentence_2

A former mill town, Bolton has been a production centre for textiles since Flemish weavers settled in the area in the 14th century, introducing a wool and cotton-weaving tradition. Bolton_sentence_3

The urbanisation and development of the town largely coincided with the introduction of textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution. Bolton_sentence_4

Bolton was a 19th-century boomtown and, at its zenith in 1929, its 216 cotton mills and 26 bleaching and dyeing works made it one of the largest and most productive centres of cotton spinning in the world. Bolton_sentence_5

The British cotton industry declined sharply after the First World War and, by the 1980s, cotton manufacture had virtually ceased in Bolton. Bolton_sentence_6

Close to the West Pennine Moors, Bolton is 10 miles (16 km) north-west of Manchester. Bolton_sentence_7

It is surrounded by several neighbouring towns and villages that together form the Metropolitan Borough of Bolton, of which Bolton is the administrative centre. Bolton_sentence_8

The town of Bolton has a population of 139,403, whilst the wider metropolitan borough has a population of 262,400. Bolton_sentence_9

Bolton originated as a small settlement in the moorland known as Bolton le Moors. Bolton_sentence_10

In the English Civil War, the town was a Parliamentarian outpost in a staunchly Royalist region and, as a result, was stormed by 3,000 Royalist troops led by Prince Rupert of the Rhine in 1644. Bolton_sentence_11

In what became known as the Bolton Massacre, 1,600 residents were killed and 700 were taken prisoner. Bolton_sentence_12

Bolton Wanderers football club play home games at the University of Bolton Stadium and the WBA World light-welterweight champion Amir Khan was born in the town. Bolton_sentence_13

Cultural interests include the Octagon Theatre and the Bolton Museum and Art Gallery, as well as one of the earliest public libraries established after the Public Libraries Act 1850. Bolton_sentence_14

History Bolton_section_0

Toponymy Bolton_section_1

Bolton is a common Northern English name derived from the Old English bothl-tun, meaning a settlement with a dwelling. Bolton_sentence_15

The first recorded use of the name, in the form Boelton, dates from 1185 to describe Bolton le Moors, though this may not be in relation to a dwelling. Bolton_sentence_16

It was recorded as Bothelton in 1212, Botelton in 1257, Boulton in 1288, and Bolton after 1307. Bolton_sentence_17

Later forms of Botheltun were Bodeltown, Botheltun-le-Moors, Bowelton, Boltune, Bolton-super-Moras, Bolton-in-ye-Moors, Bolton-le-Moors. Bolton_sentence_18

The town's motto of Supera Moras means "overcome difficulties" (or "delays"), and is a pun on the Bolton-super-Moras version of the name meaning literally, "Bolton on the moors". Bolton_sentence_19

The name itself is referred to in the badge of the Bolton Metropolitan Borough Council using a form of visual pun, a rebus, in combining motifs of arrow for 'bolt' and heraldic crown for 'tun', the term for the central high point of a defensive position that is the etymon of the suffix of Bolton. Bolton_sentence_20

Early history to the Civil War Bolton_section_2

There is evidence of human existence on the moors around Bolton since the early part of the Bronze Age, including a stone circle on Cheetham Close above Egerton, and Bronze Age burial mounds on Winter Hill. Bolton_sentence_21

A Bronze Age mound was excavated in Victorian times outside Haulgh Hall. Bolton_sentence_22

The Romans built roads from Manchester to Ribchester to the east and a road along what is now the A6 to the west. Bolton_sentence_23

It is claimed that Agricola built a fort at Blackrod by clearing land above the forest. Bolton_sentence_24

Evidence of a Saxon settlement exists in the form of religious objects found when the Victorian parish church was built. Bolton_sentence_25

In 1067 Great Bolton was the property of Roger de Poitou and after 1100, of Roger de Meresheys. Bolton_sentence_26

It became the property of the Pilkingtons who forfeited it in the Civil War and after that the Stanleys who became Earls of Derby. Bolton_sentence_27

Great Bolton and Little Bolton were part of the Marsey fee, in 1212 Little Bolton was held by Roger de Bolton as plough-land, by the service of the twelfth part of a knight's fee to Randle de Marsey. Bolton_sentence_28

The parish church in Bolton has an early foundation although the exact date is unknown; it was given by the lord of the manor to the Gilbertine canons of Mattersey Priory in Nottinghamshire, founded by Roger de Marsey. Bolton_sentence_29

A charter to hold a market in Churchgate was granted on 14 December 1251 by King Henry III of England. Bolton_sentence_30

Bolton became a market town and borough by a charter from the Earl of Derby, William de Ferrers, on 14 January 1253, and a market was held until the 18th century. Bolton_sentence_31

Burgage plots were laid out on Churchgate and Deansgate in the centre of the medieval town close to where Ye Olde Man & Scythe public house, dating from 1251, is situated today. Bolton_sentence_32

In 1337 Flemish weavers settled and introduced the manufacture of woollen cloth. Bolton_sentence_33

More Flemish weavers, fleeing the Huguenot persecutions, settled here in the 17th century. Bolton_sentence_34

The second wave of settlers wove fustian, a rough cloth made of linen and cotton. Bolton_sentence_35

Digging sea coal was recorded in 1374. Bolton_sentence_36

There was an outbreak of the plague in the town in 1623. Bolton_sentence_37

During the English Civil War, the people of Bolton were Puritans and supported the Parliamentarian cause. Bolton_sentence_38

A parliamentary garrison in the town was attacked twice without success but on 28 May 1644 Prince Rupert's Royalist army with troops under the command of the Earl of Derby attacked again. Bolton_sentence_39

The attack became known as the Bolton Massacre in which 1,500 died, 700 were taken prisoner and the town plundered. Bolton_sentence_40

The attackers took to referring to the town as the "Geneva of the North", referencing Geneva's dominant Calvinism, although historian Malcolm Hardman says this was a description borne "more of irritation than accuracy". Bolton_sentence_41

At the end of the Civil War, Lord Derby was tried as a traitor at Chester and condemned to death. Bolton_sentence_42

When his appeal for pardon to parliament was rejected he attempted to escape but was recaptured and executed for his part in the massacre outside Ye Olde Man & Scythe Inn on 15 October 1651. Bolton_sentence_43

Industrial revolution onward Bolton_section_3

A tradition of cottage spinning and weaving and improvements to spinning technology by local inventors, Richard Arkwright and Samuel Crompton, led to rapid growth of the textile industry in the 19th century. Bolton_sentence_44

Crompton, whilst living at Hall i' th' Wood, invented the spinning mule in 1779. Bolton_sentence_45

Streams draining the surrounding moorland into the River Croal provided the water necessary for the bleach works that were a feature of this area. Bolton_sentence_46

Bleaching using chlorine was introduced in the 1790s by the Ainsworths at Halliwell Bleachworks. Bolton_sentence_47

Bolton and the surrounding villages had more than thirty bleachworks including the Lever Bank Bleach Works in the Irwell Valley. Bolton_sentence_48

The mule revolutionised cotton spinning by combining the roller drafting of Arkwright's water frame with the carriage drafting and spindle tip twisting of James Hargreaves's spinning jenny, producing a high quality yarn. Bolton_sentence_49

Self-acting mules were used in Bolton mills until the 1960s producing fine yarn. Bolton_sentence_50

The earliest mills were situated by the streams and river as at Barrow Bridge, but steam power led to the construction of the large multi-storey mills and their chimneys that dominated Bolton's skyline, some of which survive today. Bolton_sentence_51

Growth of the textile industry was assisted by the availability of coal in the area. Bolton_sentence_52

By 1896 John Fletcher had coal mines at Ladyshore in Little Lever; The Earl of Bradford had a coal mine at Great Lever; the Darcy Lever Coal Company had mines at Darcy Lever and there were coal mines at Tonge, Breightmet, Deane and Doffcocker. Bolton_sentence_53

Some of these pits were close to the Manchester Bolton & Bury Canal providing the owners with markets in Bolton and Manchester. Bolton_sentence_54

Coal mining declined in the 20th century. Bolton_sentence_55

Important transport links contributed to the growth of the town and the textile industry; the Manchester Bolton & Bury Canal constructed in 1791, connected the town to Bury and Manchester providing transport for coal and other basic materials. Bolton_sentence_56

The Bolton and Leigh Railway, the oldest in Lancashire, opened to goods traffic in 1828 and Great Moor Street station opened to passengers in 1831. Bolton_sentence_57

The railway initially connected Bolton to the Leeds and Liverpool Canal in Leigh, an important link with the port of Liverpool for the import of raw cotton from America, but was extended in 1829 to link up with the Manchester to Liverpool Line. Bolton_sentence_58

Local firms built locomotives for the railway, in 1830 "Union" was built by Rothwell, Hick and Company and two locomotives, "Salamander" and "Veteran" were built by Crook and Dean. Bolton_sentence_59

Bolton's first Mayor, Charles James Darbishire was sympathetic to Chartism and a supporter of the Anti-Corn Law League. Bolton_sentence_60

In August 1839 Bolton was besieged by Chartist rioters and the Riot Act was read and special constables sworn in. Bolton_sentence_61

The mayor accompanied soldiers called to rescue special constables at Little Bolton Town Hall, which was besieged by a mob, and the incident ended without bloodshed. Bolton_sentence_62

Derby Barracks was established in Fletcher Street in the early 1860s. Bolton_sentence_63

One of two statues prominent on Victoria Square near Bolton Town Hall is that of Samuel Taylor Chadwick (1809 – 3 May 1876) a philanthropist who donated funds to Bolton Hospital to create an ear, nose and throat ward. Bolton_sentence_64

Built houses for people living in cellars, through Bolton Council fought for better public health including cleaner water, established the Chadwick Orphanage, improved the Bolton Workhouse and funded the towns natural history museum that was the basis of the present Bolton Museum at Le Mans Crescent, the original museum was in a building at Queens Park. Bolton_sentence_65

The second statue at Victoria Square is in memory of a former Bolton Mayor Sir Benjamin Alfred Dobson (1847–1898) who died in office in 1898, he was a textile machinery manufacturer and chairman of Dobson & Barlow, a significant employer in the town. Bolton_sentence_66

By 1900 Bolton was Lancashire's third largest engineering centre after Manchester and Oldham. Bolton_sentence_67

About 9,000 men were employed in the industry, half of them working for Dobson and Barlow in Kay Street. Bolton_sentence_68

Another engineering company Hick, Hargreaves & Co based at the Soho Foundry made Lancashire boilers and heavy machinery. Bolton_sentence_69

Thomas Ryder and Son of Turner Bridge manufactured machine tools for the international motor industry. Bolton_sentence_70

Wrought iron was produced for more than 100 years at Thomas Walmsley and Sons' Atlas Forge. Bolton_sentence_71

By 1911 the textile industry in Bolton employed about 36,000 people. Bolton_sentence_72

As of 1920, the Bolton Cardroom Union had more than 15,000 members, while the Bolton Weavers' Association represented 13,500 workers. Bolton_sentence_73

The last mill to be constructed was Sir John Holden's Mill in 1927. Bolton_sentence_74

The cotton industry declined from the 1920s. Bolton_sentence_75

A brief upturn after the Second World War was not sustained, and the industry had virtually vanished by the end of the 20th century. Bolton_sentence_76

During the night of 26 September 1916, Bolton was the target for an aerial offensive. Bolton_sentence_77

L21, a Zeppelin commanded by Oberleutnant Kurt Frankenburg of the Imperial German Navy, dropped twenty-one bombs on the town, five of them on the working class area of Kirk Street, killing thirteen residents and destroying six houses. Bolton_sentence_78

Further attacks followed on other parts of the town, including three incendiaries dropped close to the Town Hall. Bolton_sentence_79

Lord Leverhulme Bolton_section_4

In 1899 William Lever, Lord Leverhulme, bought Hall i'th' Wood as a memorial to Samuel Crompton inventor of the spinning mule. Bolton_sentence_80

Lever restored the dilapidated building and presented it to the town in 1902, having turned it into a museum furnished with household goods typical of domestic family life in the 16th and 17th centuries. Bolton_sentence_81

Lever re-endowed Bolton Schools, giving land and his house on Chorley New Road. Bolton_sentence_82

He presented the town with 67 acres (270,000 m) of land for a public park which the corporation named Leverhulme Park in 1914. Bolton_sentence_83

In 1902 he gave the people of Bolton Lever Park at Rivington. Bolton_sentence_84

In 1911, Lever consulted Thomas Mawson, landscape architect and lecturer in Landscape Design at the University of Liverpool, regarding town planning in Bolton. Bolton_sentence_85

Mawson published "Bolton – a Study in Town Planning and Civic Art" and gave lectures entitled "Bolton Housing and Town Planning Society" which formed the basis of an illustrated book "Bolton – as it is and as it might be". Bolton_sentence_86

In 1924, Leverhulme presented Bolton Council with an ambitious plan to rebuild the town centre based on Mawson's designs funded partly by himself. Bolton_sentence_87

The council declined in favour of extending the town hall and building the civic centre. Bolton_sentence_88

Governance Bolton_section_5

Lying within the county boundaries of Lancashire, until the early 19th century, Great Bolton and Little Bolton were two of the eighteen townships of the ecclesiastical parish of Bolton le Moors. Bolton_sentence_89

These townships were separated by the River Croal, Little Bolton on the north bank and Great Bolton on the south. Bolton_sentence_90

Bolton Poor Law Union was formed on 1 February 1837. Bolton_sentence_91

It continued using existing poorhouses at Fletcher Street and Turton but in 1856 started to build a new workhouse at Fishpool Farm in Farnworth. Bolton_sentence_92

Townleys Hospital was built on the site which is now Royal Bolton Hospital. Bolton_sentence_93

In 1838 Great Bolton, most of Little Bolton and the Haulgh area of Tonge with Haulgh were incorporated under the Municipal Corporations Act 1835 as a municipal borough, the second to be created in England. Bolton_sentence_94

Further additions were made adding part of Rumworth in 1872 and part of Halliwell in 1877. Bolton_sentence_95

In 1889 Bolton was granted County Borough status and became self-governing and independent from Lancashire County Council jurisdiction. Bolton_sentence_96

In 1898, the borough was extended further by adding the civil parishes of Breightmet, Darcy Lever, Great Lever, the rest of Halliwell, Heaton, Lostock, Middle Hulton, the rest of Rumworth which had been renamed Deane in 1894, Smithills, and Tonge plus Astley Bridge Urban District, and part of Over Hulton civil parish. Bolton_sentence_97

The County Borough of Bolton was abolished in 1974 and became a constituent part of the Metropolitan Borough of Bolton in Greater Manchester. Bolton_sentence_98

Bolton unsuccessfully applied for city status in 2011. Bolton_sentence_99

Bolton Metropolitan Borough Council is divided into twenty wards, each of which elects three councillors for a term of up to four years. Bolton_sentence_100

Under the Reform Act of 1832, a Parliamentary Borough was established. Bolton_sentence_101

The Bolton constituency was represented by two Members of Parliament. Bolton_sentence_102

The Parliamentary Borough continued until 1950 when it was abolished and replaced with two parliamentary constituencies, Bolton East and Bolton West, each with one Member of Parliament. Bolton_sentence_103

In 1983 Bolton East was abolished and two new constituencies were created, Bolton North East, and Bolton South East covering most of the former Farnworth constituency. Bolton_sentence_104

At the same time major boundary changes also took place to Bolton West, which took over most of the former Westhoughton constituency. Bolton_sentence_105

Under the town twinning scheme the local council have twinned Bolton with Le Mans in France, since 1967, and Paderborn in Germany, since 1975. Bolton_sentence_106

Geography Bolton_section_6

Further information: Geography of Greater Manchester Bolton_sentence_107

Bolton is a town in Greater Manchester, in the North West of England. Bolton_sentence_108

Close to the West Pennine Moors, it is 10 miles (16 km) northwest of the city of Manchester and surrounded by several smaller towns and villages which together form the Metropolitan Borough of Bolton, of which Bolton is the administrative centre. Bolton_sentence_109

The early name, Bolton le Moors, described the position of the town amid the low hills on the edge of the West Pennine Moors southeast of Rivington Pike (456 m). Bolton_sentence_110

Bolton lies on relatively flat land on both sides of the clough or steep-banked valley through which the River Croal flows in a southeasterly direction towards the River Irwell. Bolton_sentence_111

The geological formation around Bolton consists of sandstones of the Carboniferous series and Coal Measures; in the northern part of Bolton the lower Coal Measures are mixed with underlying Millstone Grit. Bolton_sentence_112

Climate in the Greater Manchester area is generally similar to the climate of England, although owing to protection from the mountains in North Wales it experiences slightly lower than average rainfall except during the summer months, when rainfall is higher than average. Bolton_sentence_113

Bolton has mild differences between highs and lows, and there is adequate rainfall year-round. Bolton_sentence_114

The Köppen Climate Classification subtype for this climate is "Cfb" (Marine West Coast Climate/Oceanic climate). Bolton_sentence_115

Demography Bolton_section_7

Bolton_table_general_1

Bolton ComparedBolton_header_cell_1_0_0
2001 CensusBolton_header_cell_1_1_0 BoltonBolton_header_cell_1_1_1 Bolton (borough)Bolton_header_cell_1_1_2 GM Urban AreaBolton_header_cell_1_1_3 EnglandBolton_header_cell_1_1_4
Total populationBolton_cell_1_2_0 139,403Bolton_cell_1_2_1 261,037Bolton_cell_1_2_2 2,240,230Bolton_cell_1_2_3 49,138,831Bolton_cell_1_2_4
WhiteBolton_cell_1_4_0 81.6%Bolton_cell_1_4_1 89.0%Bolton_cell_1_4_2 90.3%Bolton_cell_1_4_3 90.9%Bolton_cell_1_4_4
AsianBolton_cell_1_5_0 15.8%Bolton_cell_1_5_1 9.1%Bolton_cell_1_5_2 6.2%Bolton_cell_1_5_3 4.6%Bolton_cell_1_5_4
BlackBolton_cell_1_6_0 0.9%Bolton_cell_1_6_1 0.6%Bolton_cell_1_6_2 1.3%Bolton_cell_1_6_3 2.3%Bolton_cell_1_6_4
Source: Office for National StatisticsBolton_header_cell_1_7_0

At the time of the United Kingdom Census 2001, according to the Office for National Statistics, the Urban Subdivision of Bolton was part of the Greater Manchester Urban Area and had a total resident population of 139,403, of which 67,823 (48.7%) were male and 71,580 (51.3%) were female, living in 57,827 households. Bolton_sentence_116

The settlement occupied 4,446 hectares (17.17 sq mi), compared with 2,992 hectares (11.55 sq mi) in the 1991 census, though the 2001 Urban census area contains a large rural area to the south of the town. Bolton_sentence_117

Its population density was 31.35 people per hectare compared with an average of 40.20 across the Greater Manchester Urban Area. Bolton_sentence_118

The median age of the population was 35, compared with 36 within the Greater Manchester Urban Area and 37 across England and Wales. Bolton_sentence_119

The majority of the population of Bolton were born in England (87.10%); 2.05% were born elsewhere within the United Kingdom, 1.45% within the rest of the European Union, and 9.38% elsewhere in the world. Bolton_sentence_120

Data on religious beliefs across the town in the 2001 census show that 67.9% declared themselves to be Christian, 12.5% stated that they were Muslim, 8.6% said they held no religion, and 3.4% reported themselves as Hindu. Bolton_sentence_121

Population change Bolton_section_8

For earlier population figures, see Great Bolton and Little Bolton. Bolton_sentence_122

Economy Bolton_section_9

At the time of the 2001 Census, 56,390 people resident in Bolton were in employment. Bolton_sentence_123

Of these, 21.13% worked in the wholesale and retail trade, including repair of motor vehicles; 18.71% worked within manufacturing industry; 11.00% worked within the health and social work sector and 6.81% were employed in the transport, storage and communication industries. Bolton_sentence_124

In the last quarter of the 20th century heavy industry was replaced by service-based activities including data processing, call centres, hi-tech electronics and IT companies. Bolton_sentence_125

The town retains some traditional industries employing people in paper-manufacturing, packaging, textiles, transportation, steel foundries and building materials. Bolton_sentence_126

Missiles were produced at the British Aerospace (BAe) factory in Lostock, now closed. Bolton_sentence_127

The Reebok brand's European headquarters are located at the Reebok Stadium. Bolton_sentence_128

Bolton is also the home of the family bakery, Warburtons, established in 1876 on Blackburn Road. Bolton_sentence_129

On 13 February 2003, Bolton was granted Fairtrade Town status. Bolton_sentence_130

Bolton attracts visitors to its shopping centres, markets, public houses, restaurants and cafes in the town centre as well retail parks and leisure facilities close to the town centre and in the surrounding towns and suburbs. Bolton_sentence_131

Tourism plays a part in the economy, visitor attractions include Hall i' th' Wood, Smithills Hall and Country Park, Last Drop Village, Barrow Bridge and the Bolton Steam Museum. Bolton_sentence_132

There are several regeneration projects planned for Bolton over the next ten years, including Church Wharf by Ask Developments and Bluemantle and Merchant's Quarter by local developer Charles Topham group, which together will contribute 1,000,000 square feet (93,000 m) of business space. Bolton_sentence_133

The Bolton Innovation Zone is a large £300 million development with the University of Bolton at its core. Bolton_sentence_134

Landmarks Bolton_section_10

See also: Grade I listed buildings in Greater Manchester, Grade II* listed buildings in Greater Manchester, and List of public art in Greater Manchester Bolton_sentence_135

Situated in the town centre on the site of a former market is the Grade II* listed town hall, an imposing neoclassical building designed by William Hill and opened in June 1873 by Albert Edward, Prince of Wales. Bolton_sentence_136

In the 1930s the building was extended by Bradshaw Gass & Hope. Bolton_sentence_137

Within the Town Hall are the Albert Halls and several function rooms. Bolton_sentence_138

The original, single Albert Hall was destroyed by fire on 14 November 1981. Bolton_sentence_139

After rebuilding work, it was replaced by the present Albert Halls, which were opened in 1985. Bolton_sentence_140

The Great Hall of Smithills Hall was built in the 14th century when William de Radcliffe received the Manor of Smithills from the Hultons, the chapel dates from the 16th century and was extended during the 19th. Bolton_sentence_141

Smithills Hall was where, in 1555, George Marsh was tried for heresy during the Marian Persecutions. Bolton_sentence_142

After being "examined" at Smithills, according to local tradition, George Marsh stamped his foot so hard to re-affirm his faith, that a footprint was left in the stone floor. Bolton_sentence_143

It is a Grade I listed building and is now a museum. Bolton_sentence_144

Hall i' th' Wood, now a museum, is a late mediaeval yeoman farmer's house built by Laurence Brownlow. Bolton_sentence_145

Around 1637 it was owned by the Norris family, who added the stone west wing. Bolton_sentence_146

In the 18th century it was divided up into tenements. Bolton_sentence_147

Samuel Crompton lived and worked there. Bolton_sentence_148

In the 19th century it deteriorated further until in 1895 it was bought by industrialist William Hesketh Lever, who restored it and presented it to Bolton Council in 1900. Bolton_sentence_149

Bolton's 26 conservation areas contain 700 listed buildings, many of which are in the town centre, and there is parkland including the Victorian Queen's Park, Leverhulme Park and other open spaces in the surrounding area. Bolton_sentence_150

These include Le Mans Crescent, Ye Olde Man & Scythe, Little Bolton Town Hall, the Market Place, Wood Street and Holy Trinity Church. Bolton_sentence_151

The Market Hall of 1854 is a Grade II listed building. Bolton_sentence_152

Outside the town centre can be found Mere Hall, Firwood Fold, Haulgh Hall, Park Cottage, St Mary's Church, Deane, Lostock Hall Gatehouse and All Souls Church. Bolton_sentence_153

Notable mills still overlooking parts of the town are Sir John Holden's Mill and Swan Lane Mills. Bolton_sentence_154

Most views northwards are dominated by Rivington Pike and the Winter Hill TV Mast on the West Pennine Moors above the town. Bolton_sentence_155

Transport Bolton_section_11

Bolton is well served by the local road network and national routes. Bolton_sentence_156

The A6, a major north–south trunk road, passes to the west through Hunger Hill and Westhoughton. Bolton_sentence_157

The A666 dual carriageway, sometimes referred to as the Devil's Highway because of its numeric designation, is a spur from the M61/M60 motorway interchange through the town centre to Astley Bridge, Egerton, Darwen and Blackburn. Bolton_sentence_158

The M61 has three dedicated junctions serving the borough. Bolton_sentence_159

A network of local buses coordinated by Transport for Greater Manchester serves the Bolton district and beyond; bus operators include Arriva North West and Diamond North West. Bolton_sentence_160

Bolton is also served by the National Express coach network. Bolton_sentence_161

The bus station on Moor Lane was scheduled to be replaced by a new interchange in the town centre next to the railway station by the end of 2014, at a cost of £48 million. Bolton_sentence_162

Bolton Interchange is managed by Northern; the railway station is part of a town centre transport interchange with services to Manchester, Wigan, Southport, Blackburn and intermediate stations operated by Northern and TransPennine Express. Bolton_sentence_163

Education Bolton_section_12

See also: List of schools in Bolton Bolton_sentence_164

Bolton School, an independent day school, was founded on a site next to the parish church in 1524 as a grammar school for boys; it merged around 1656 with a free grammar school (Lever's grammar) that had been founded shortly after 1641. Bolton_sentence_165

In 1898, it moved to its present site in Chorley New Road, and in 1913 merged with Bolton Girls' Day School. Bolton_sentence_166

In 1855 the Bolton Church Institute was founded by Canon James Slade near to the parish church. Bolton_sentence_167

The school became Canon Slade School, which has since relocated to Bradshaw. Bolton_sentence_168

The town's other secondary schools include Bolton St Catherine's Academy, Ladybridge High School, Sharples School, Smithills School, Thornleigh Salesian College and University Collegiate School. Bolton_sentence_169

Bolton College provides further education from sites throughout the borough. Bolton_sentence_170

Bolton Sixth Form College comprises the Town Centre Campus and Farnworth Campus. Bolton_sentence_171

The Bolton TIC (Technical Innovation Centre), opened in 2006, supports local schools by providing additional technical training. Bolton_sentence_172

The University of Bolton, formerly the Bolton Institute of Higher Education, gained university status in 2005. Bolton_sentence_173

Religion Bolton_section_13

See also: List of churches in Greater Manchester Bolton_sentence_174

Bolton_table_general_2

Religion in Bolton 2001Bolton_header_cell_2_0_0
UK Census 2001Bolton_header_cell_2_1_0 Bolton (borough)Bolton_header_cell_2_1_1 Greater ManchesterBolton_header_cell_2_1_2 EnglandBolton_header_cell_2_1_3
ChristianBolton_cell_2_2_0 74.56%Bolton_cell_2_2_1 78.01%Bolton_cell_2_2_2 71.74%Bolton_cell_2_2_3
No religionBolton_cell_2_3_0 8.75%Bolton_cell_2_3_1 10.48%Bolton_cell_2_3_2 14.59%Bolton_cell_2_3_3
MuslimBolton_cell_2_4_0 7.07%Bolton_cell_2_4_1 3.04%Bolton_cell_2_4_2 3.1%Bolton_cell_2_4_3
BuddhistBolton_cell_2_5_0 0.10%Bolton_cell_2_5_1 0.18%Bolton_cell_2_5_2 0.28%Bolton_cell_2_5_3
HinduBolton_cell_2_6_0 2.00%Bolton_cell_2_6_1 0.40%Bolton_cell_2_6_2 1.11%Bolton_cell_2_6_3
JewishBolton_cell_2_7_0 0.06%Bolton_cell_2_7_1 0.42%Bolton_cell_2_7_2 0.52%Bolton_cell_2_7_3
SikhBolton_cell_2_8_0 0.03%Bolton_cell_2_8_1 0.10%Bolton_cell_2_8_2 0.67%Bolton_cell_2_8_3
Other religionsBolton_cell_2_9_0 0.15%Bolton_cell_2_9_1 0.16%Bolton_cell_2_9_2 0.29%Bolton_cell_2_9_3
Religion not statedBolton_cell_2_10_0 7.28%Bolton_cell_2_10_1 7.23%Bolton_cell_2_10_2 7.69%Bolton_cell_2_10_3

There is evidence from Saxon times of Christian churches and at the time of the Civil War a Puritan and nonconformist presence in the town. Bolton_sentence_175

The Unitarians were among the early dissenting congregations which eventually included Methodists, Baptists, Seventh Day Adventist and other denominations. Bolton_sentence_176

More than forty churches were built during the Victorian era, but some have now been closed, demolished or converted to other uses. Bolton_sentence_177

Today, the parish of Bolton-le-Moors covers a small area in the town centre, but until the 19th century it covered a much larger area, divided into eighteen chapelries and townships. Bolton_sentence_178

The neighbouring ancient parish of Deane centred around St Mary's Church once covered a large area to the west and south of Bolton, and the township of Great Lever was part of the ancient parish of Middleton. Bolton_sentence_179

The Church of St Peter, commonly known as Bolton Parish Church, is an example of the gothic revival style. Bolton_sentence_180

Built between 1866 and 1871 of Longridge stone to designs by Paley, the church is 67 ft (20.4 m) in width, 156 ft (47.5 m) in length, and 82 ft (25.0 m) in height. Bolton_sentence_181

The tower is 180 ft (54.9 m) high with 13 bells. Bolton_sentence_182

The first church on the same site was built in Anglo-Saxon times. Bolton_sentence_183

It was rebuilt in Norman times and again in the early 15th century. Bolton_sentence_184

Little is known of the first two earlier churches, but the third building was a solid, squat building with a sturdy square tower at the west end. Bolton_sentence_185

It was modified over the years until it fell into disrepair and was demolished in 1866. Bolton_sentence_186

Fragments of stone and other artefacts from these first three buildings are displayed in the museum corner of the present church. Bolton_sentence_187

St Mary's Deane, once the only church in a parish of ten townships in the hundred of Salford, is a church established in Saxon times. Bolton_sentence_188

The current building dates from 1250 with extensions and restoration in the 19th century and is a Grade II* listed building. Bolton_sentence_189

St George's Church was built between 1794 and 1796 when Little Bolton was a separate township. Bolton_sentence_190

Built by Peter Rothwell and paid for by the Ainsworth family. Bolton_sentence_191

in 1975 it was leased to Bolton Council, and became a craft centre in 1994. Bolton_sentence_192

St Patrick's Roman Catholic Church on Great Moor Street, was built in 1861. Bolton_sentence_193

The New Zakaria Mosque, the first mosque in Bolton, served the Muslim community from Pakistan and India from the 1960s. Bolton_sentence_194

The first place of worship for Hindus was in the former St Barnabus Church, converted into a Hindu temple. Bolton_sentence_195

Sport Bolton_section_14

Bolton Wanderers F.C. is an English Football League club which was formed in 1874 and for 102 years played at Burnden Park. Bolton_sentence_196

The club moved to the University of Bolton Stadium in Horwich in 1997. Bolton_sentence_197

The club has won four FA Cups, the most recent in 1958, and spent 73 seasons in the top division of the English league – more than any club never to have been league champions. Bolton_sentence_198

Bolton Hockey Club fields women's men's and junior teams and has more than 120 playing members. Bolton_sentence_199

The town has a local cricket leagues, the Bolton Cricket League, Bolton also has a rugby union club, Bolton RUFC formed in 1872 situated on Avenue Street. Bolton_sentence_200

The club operates four senior teams, as well as women's and junior sections. Bolton_sentence_201

Bolton Robots of Doom is a baseball club started in 2003, playing home games at Stapleton Avenue. Bolton_sentence_202

In addition to the adult team there is a junior team, Bolton Bears. Bolton_sentence_203

Baseball in Bolton dates back to 1938 with a team called Bolton Scarlets. Bolton_sentence_204

An American football team, the Bolton Bulldogs, plays home games at Smithills School operating varsity and junior varsity teams. Bolton_sentence_205

Speedway racing, known as Dirt Track Racing, was staged at Raikes Park in the pioneering days of 1928, but the speedway was short-lived. Bolton_sentence_206

Greyhound racing took place at the Raikes Park Greyhound Stadium from 1927 until 1996. Bolton_sentence_207

Culture and society Bolton_section_15

According to a survey of the British Association for the Advancement of Science Boltonians are the friendliest people in Britain. Bolton_sentence_208

Humphrey Spender photographed Bolton calling it Worktown for the Mass-Observation Project, a social research organisation which aimed to record everyday life in Britain. Bolton_sentence_209

His photographs provide a record of ordinary people living and working in a British pre-War industrial town. Bolton_sentence_210

Bolton has several theatres including the Octagon and independent groups such as Bolton Little Theatre and the Phoenix Theatre Company. Bolton_sentence_211

Inside the Town Hall there is a theatre and conference complex, the Albert Halls. Bolton_sentence_212

Le Mans Crescent, home to the central library, museum, art gallery, aquarium, magistrates' court and town hall, is to be the centre of a new Cultural Quarter. Bolton_sentence_213

The library and museum are to be extended into the area now occupied by the Magistrates Court. Bolton_sentence_214

Bolton Museum and Art Gallery houses a collection of local and international art. Bolton_sentence_215

Bolton Steam Museum houses a variety of preserved steam engines in part of the old Atlas Mill. Bolton_sentence_216

Bolton Central Library was one of the earliest public libraries established after the Public Libraries Act 1850, opening in October 1853 in the Exchange Building on the old market square (Victoria Square) before moving to Le Mans Crescent in July 1938. Bolton_sentence_217

The Bolton Symphony Orchestra performs regular concerts at the Albert Halls and Victoria Hall in the town centre. Bolton_sentence_218

The 2008 BBC Radio 3 Adult Choir of the Year and five times gold-medal winning barbershop chorus The Cottontown Chorus is based in Bolton. Bolton_sentence_219

The town's daily newspaper is The Bolton News, formerly the Bolton Evening News. Bolton_sentence_220

There is a weekly free paper, the Bolton Journal and Bolton Council's monthly newspaper, Bolton Scene. Bolton_sentence_221

The town is part of the BBC North West and ITV Granada television regions, served by the Winter Hill transmitter near Belmont. Bolton_sentence_222

Local radio is provided by Tower FM, which broadcasts across Bolton and Bury; Bolton FM began broadcasting in 2009. Bolton_sentence_223

The fictional village of Newbank in Benjamin Disraeli's novel Coningsby was based in part on the industrial village of Barrow Bridge. Bolton_sentence_224

Spring and Port Wine by playwright, Bill Naughton was filmed and set in Bolton and The Family Way based on Naughton's play All in Good Time was also filmed and set in the town. Bolton_sentence_225

Peter Kay filmed comedy TV series That Peter Kay Thing in the town. Bolton_sentence_226

Bolton has been used as a setting for film and television drama. Bolton_sentence_227

Le Mans Crescent has featured as a London street in the Jeremy Brett version of Sherlock Holmes, a Russian secret service building in the 1990s comedy series Sleepers and in Peaky Blinders in 2014. Bolton_sentence_228

The 1990s BBC drama Between the Lines filmed an episode in Victoria Square. Bolton_sentence_229

The first Bolton LGBT+ Pride was held in 2015 and has been an ongoing annual event which since its second year has included a parade and live music. Bolton_sentence_230

Public services Bolton_section_16

See also: Healthcare in Greater Manchester Bolton_sentence_231

Bolton is policed by the Bolton Division of Greater Manchester Police. Bolton_sentence_232

The statutory emergency fire and rescue service is provided by the Greater Manchester Fire and Rescue Service, from Bolton Central, Bolton North, Horwich and Farnworth Fire Stations. Bolton_sentence_233

Hospital services are provided by the Bolton NHS Foundation Trust, which provides Accident and Emergency and other services at Royal Bolton Hospital in Farnworth. Bolton_sentence_234

Community health services, including GPs, district and community nurses, dentists and pharmacists, are co-ordinated by the Bolton Primary Care Trust. Bolton_sentence_235

Waste management is co-ordinated by the Greater Manchester Waste Disposal Authority. Bolton_sentence_236

Bolton's Distribution Network Operator for electricity is Electricity North West Ltd. United Utilities manage Bolton's drinking and waste water. Bolton_sentence_237

Notable people Bolton_section_17

Main article: List of people from Bolton Bolton_sentence_238

Among the notable people born in Bolton are the Protestant martyr George Marsh, 1515–55, the inventor of the spinning mule that revolutionised the textile industry, Samuel Crompton, 1753–1827, and industrialist Lord Leverhulme of Bolton-le-Moors, 1851–1925. Bolton_sentence_239

More recently, people born and raised in Bolton include Fred Dibnah, a steeplejack who became a popular television historian of Britain's industrial past; world champion boxer Amir Khan, who became the WBA World light-welterweight champion on 18 July 2009 at the age of 22, making him Britain's third-youngest world champion boxer; comedian Peter Kay; and President of the International Paralympic Committee Philip Craven. Bolton_sentence_240

Playwright and author Bill Naughton was born in Ireland but brought up in Bolton from an early age. Bolton_sentence_241

See also Bolton_section_18

Bolton_unordered_list_0


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bolton.