Border states (American Civil War)

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In the context of the American Civil War (1861–65), the border states were slave states that did not secede from the Union. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_0

They were Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky, and Missouri, and after 1863, the new state of West Virginia. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_1

To their north they bordered free states of the Union and to their south (except Delaware) they bordered Confederate slave states. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_2

Of the 34 U.S. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_3 states in 1861, nineteen were free states and fifteen were slave states but compared to the states to their south, the border states held a low percentage enslaved persons. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_4

Delaware, which had a comparatively small enslaved population, never declared a secession or adopted an ordinance. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_5

Maryland was largely prevented from seceding by local unionists and federal troops. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_6

Two others, Kentucky, and Missouri saw rival governments, although their territory mostly stayed in Union control. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_7

Four others did not declare secession until after the Battle of Fort Sumter and were briefly considered to be border states: Arkansas, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia—after this, they were less frequently called "border states". Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_8

Also included as a border state during the war is West Virginia, which was formed from 50 counties of Virginia and became a new state in the Union in 1863. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_9

In civil war Kentucky, and Missouri, there were both pro-Confederate and pro-Union governments. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_10

West Virginia was formed in 1862–63 after Virginia Unionists from the northwestern counties of the state, then occupied by the Union Army consisting of many newly-formed West Virginia regiments, had set up a loyalist "restored" state government of Virginia. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_11

Lincoln recognized this government and allowed them to divide the state. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_12

Kentucky and Missouri had adopted secession ordinances by their pro-Confederate governments (see Confederate government of Kentucky and Confederate government of Missouri), but they never fully were under official Confederate control, though at various points Confederate armies did enter those states and controlled certain parts of them. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_13

Besides formal combat between regular armies, the border region saw large-scale guerrilla warfare and numerous violent raids, feuds, and assassinations. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_14

Violence was especially severe in West Virginia, eastern Kentucky and western Missouri. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_15

The single bloodiest episode was the 1863 Lawrence Massacre in Kansas, in which at least 150 civilian men and boys were killed. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_16

It was launched in retaliation for an earlier, smaller raid into Missouri by Union men from Kansas. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_17

With geographic, social, political, and economic connections to both the North and the South, the border states were critical to the outcome of the war. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_18

They are considered still to delineate the cultural border that separates the North from the South. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_19

Reconstruction, as directed by Congress, did not apply to the border states because they never seceded from the Union. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_20

They did undergo their own process of readjustment and political realignment after passage of amendments abolishing slavery and granting citizenship and the right to vote to freedmen. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_21

After 1880 most of these jurisdictions were dominated by white Democrats, who passed laws to impose the Jim Crow system of legal segregation and second-class citizenship for blacks. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_22

However, in contrast to the Confederate States, where almost all blacks were disenfranchised during the first half to two-thirds of the twentieth century, for varying reasons blacks remained enfranchised in the border states despite movements for disfranchisement during the 1900s. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_23

Lincoln's 1863 Emancipation Proclamation did not apply to the border states. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_24

Of the states that were exempted from the proclamation, Maryland (1864), Missouri (1865), Tennessee (1865), and West Virginia (1865) abolished slavery before the war ended. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_25

However, Delaware  and Kentucky did not see the abolition of slavery until December 1865, when the Thirteenth Amendment was ratified. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_26

Background Border states (American Civil War)_section_0

In the border states, slavery was already dying out in urban areas and the regions without cotton, especially in cities that were rapidly industrializing, such as Baltimore, Louisville, and St. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_27 Louis. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_28

By 1860, more than half of the African Americans in Delaware were free, as were a high proportion in Maryland. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_29

Some slaveholders made a profit by selling surplus slaves to traders for transport to the markets of the Deep South, where the demand was still high for field hands on cotton plantations. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_30

In contrast to the near-unanimity of voters in the seven cotton states in the lower South, which held the highest number of slaves, the border slave states were bitterly divided about secession and were not eager to leave the Union. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_31

Border Unionists hoped that a compromise would be reached, and they assumed that Lincoln would not send troops to attack the South. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_32

Border secessionists paid less attention to the slavery issue in 1861, since their states' economies were based more on trade with the North than on cotton. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_33

Their main concern in 1861 was federal coercion; some residents viewed Lincoln's call to arms as a repudiation of the American traditions of states' rights, democracy, liberty, and a republican form of government. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_34

Secessionists insisted that Washington had usurped illegitimate powers in defiance of the Constitution, and thereby had lost its legitimacy. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_35

After Lincoln issued a call for troops, Virginia, Tennessee, Arkansas, and North Carolina promptly seceded and joined the Confederacy. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_36

A secession movement began in western Virginia, where most farmers were yeomen and not slaveholders, to break away and remain in the Union. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_37

Maryland, Kentucky, and Missouri, which had many areas with much stronger cultural and economic ties to the South than the North, were deeply divided; Kentucky tried to maintain neutrality. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_38

Union military forces were used to guarantee that these states remained in the Union. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_39

The western counties of Virginia rejected secession, set up a loyal government of Virginia (with representation in the U.S. Congress), and created the new state of West Virginia (although it included many counties which had voted for secession). Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_40

Divided loyalties Border states (American Civil War)_section_1

Though every slave state except South Carolina contributed white battalions to both the Union and Confederate armies (South Carolina Unionists fought in units from other Union states), the split was most severe in these border states. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_41

Sometimes men from the same family fought on opposite sides. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_42

About 170,000 border state men (including African Americans) fought in the Union Army and 86,000 in the Confederate Army. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_43

Thirty-five thousand Kentuckians served as Confederate soldiers; an estimated 125,000 Kentuckians served as Union soldiers. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_44

By the end of the war in 1865, nearly 110,000 Missourians had served in the Union Army and at least 30,000 in the Confederate Army. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_45

Some 50,000 citizens of Maryland signed up for the military, with most joining the United States Army. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_46

Approximately a tenth as many enlisted to "go South" and fight for the Confederacy. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_47

It has been estimated that, of the state's 1860 population of 687,000, about 4,000 Marylanders traveled south to fight for the Confederacy. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_48

While the number of Marylanders in Confederate service is often reported as 20,000–25,000 based on an oral statement of General Cooper to General Trimble, other contemporary reports refute this number and offer more detailed estimates in the range of 3,500 (Livermore) to just under 4,700 (McKim). Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_49

The five border states Border states (American Civil War)_section_2

Each of these five states shared a border with the free states and were aligned with the Union. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_50

All but Delaware also share borders with states that joined the Confederacy. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_51

Delaware Border states (American Civil War)_section_3

Main article: History of Delaware Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_52

By 1860 Delaware was integrated into the Northern economy, and slavery was rare except in the southern districts of the state; less than 2 percent of the population was enslaved. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_53

Both houses of the state General Assembly rejected secession overwhelmingly; the House of Representatives was unanimous. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_54

There was quiet sympathy for the Confederacy by some state leaders, but it was tempered by distance; Delaware was bordered by Union territory. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_55

Historian John Munroe concluded that the average citizen of Delaware opposed secession and was "strongly Unionist" but hoped for a peaceful solution even if it meant Confederate independence. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_56

Maryland Border states (American Civil War)_section_4

Main article: Maryland in the American Civil War Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_57

Union troops had to go through Maryland to reach the national capital at Washington, D.C. Had Maryland also joined the Confederacy, Washington would have been surrounded. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_58

There was popular support for the Confederacy in Baltimore as well as in Southern Maryland and the Eastern Shore, where there were numerous slaveholders and slaves. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_59

Baltimore was strongly tied to the cotton trade and related businesses of the South. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_60

The Maryland Legislature rejected secession in the spring of 1861, though it refused to reopen rail links with the North. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_61

It requested that Union troops be removed from Maryland. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_62

The state legislature did not want to secede, but it also did not want to aid in killing southern neighbors in order to force them back into the Union. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_63

Maryland's wish for neutrality within the Union was a major obstacle given Lincoln's desire to force the South back into the Union militarily. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_64

To protect the national capital, Lincoln suspended habeas corpus and imprisoned without charges or trials one sitting U.S. congressman as well the mayor, police chief, entire Board of Police, and the city council of Baltimore. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_65

Chief Justice Roger Taney, acting only as a circuit judge, ruled on June 4, 1861, in Ex parte Merryman that Lincoln's suspension of habeas corpus was unconstitutional, but the president ignored the ruling in order to meet a national emergency. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_66

On September 17, 1861, the day the legislature reconvened, federal troops arrested without charge 27 state legislators (one-third of the Maryland General Assembly). Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_67

They were held temporarily at Fort McHenry, and later released when Maryland was secured for the Union. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_68

Because a large part of the legislature was now imprisoned, the session was canceled and representatives did not consider any additional anti-war measures. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_69

The song "Maryland, My Maryland" was written to attack Lincoln's action in blocking pro-Confederate elements. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_70

Maryland contributed troops to both the Union (60,000) and the Confederate (25,000) armies. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_71

During the war, Maryland adopted a new state constitution in 1864 that prohibited slavery, thus emancipating all remaining slaves in the state. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_72

Kentucky Border states (American Civil War)_section_5

Main article: Kentucky in the American Civil War Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_73

Kentucky was strategic to Union victory in the Civil War. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_74

Lincoln once said, Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_75

Lincoln reportedly also declared, "I hope to have God on my side, but I must have Kentucky." Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_76

Kentucky Governor Beriah Magoffin proposed that slave states such as Kentucky should conform to the US Constitution, and remain in the Union. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_77

When Lincoln requested 1,000,000 men to serve in the Union army, however, Magoffin, a Southern sympathizer, countered that "Kentucky had no troops to furnish for the wicked purpose of subduing her sister Southern States." Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_78

The Kentucky legislature did not vote on any bill to secede, but passed two resolutions of neutrality, issuing a neutrality proclamation May 20, 1861, asking both sides to keep out. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_79

In elections on June 20 and August 5, 1861, Unionists won enough additional seats in the legislature to overcome any veto by the governor. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_80

After the elections, the strongest supporters of neutrality were the Southern sympathizers. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_81

While both sides had already been openly enlisting troops from the state, after the elections the Union army established recruitment camps within Kentucky. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_82

Neutrality was broken when Confederate General Leonidas Polk occupied Columbus, Kentucky, in the summer of 1861. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_83

In response, the Kentucky legislature passed a resolution on September 7 directing the governor to demand the evacuation of the Confederate forces from Kentucky soil. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_84

Magoffin vetoed the proclamation, but the legislature overrode his veto, and Magoffin issued the proclamation. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_85

The legislature decided to back General Ulysses S. Grant and his Union troops stationed in Paducah, Kentucky, on the grounds that the Confederacy voided the original pledge by entering Kentucky first. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_86

The General Assembly soon ordered the Union flag be raised over the state capitol in Frankfort, declaring its allegiance with the Union. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_87

Southern sympathizers were outraged at the legislature's decisions, citing that Polk's troops in Kentucky were only en route to counter Grant's forces. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_88

Later legislative resolutions passed by Unionists—such as inviting Union General Robert Anderson to enroll volunteers to expel the Confederate forces, requesting the governor to call out the militia, and appointing Union General Thomas L. Crittenden in command of Kentucky forces—incensed the Southerners. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_89

(Magoffin vetoed the resolutions but was overridden each time.) Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_90

In 1862, the legislature passed an act to disenfranchise citizens who enlisted in the Confederate States Army. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_91

Thus Kentucky's neutral status evolved into backing the Union. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_92

Most of those who originally sought neutrality turned to the Union cause. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_93

During the war, a faction known as the Russellville Convention formed a Confederate government of Kentucky, which was recognized by the Confederate States of America as a member state. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_94

Kentucky was represented by the central star on the Confederate battle flag. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_95

When Confederate General Albert Sidney Johnston occupied Bowling Green, Kentucky, in the summer of 1861, the pro-Confederates in western and central Kentucky moved to establish a Confederate state government in that area. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_96

The Russellville Convention met in Logan County on November 18, 1861. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_97

One hundred and sixteen delegates from sixty-eight counties elected to depose the current government, and create a provisional government loyal to Kentucky's new unofficial Confederate Governor, George W. Johnson. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_98

On December 10, 1861, Kentucky became the 13th state admitted to the Confederacy. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_99

Kentucky, along with Missouri, was a state with representatives in both Congresses, and with regiments in both Union and Confederate armies. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_100

Magoffin, still functioning as official governor in Frankfort, would not recognize the Kentucky Confederates, nor their attempts to establish a government in his state. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_101

He continued to declare Kentucky's official status in the war as a neutral state—even though the legislature backed the Union. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_102

Fed up with the party divisions within the population and legislature, Magoffin announced a special session of the legislature, and resigned his office in 1862. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_103

Bowling Green was occupied by the Confederates until February 1862, when General Grant moved from Missouri, through Kentucky, along the Tennessee line. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_104

Confederate Governor Johnson fled Bowling Green with the Confederate state records, headed south, and joined Confederate forces in Tennessee. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_105

After Johnson was killed fighting in the Battle of Shiloh, Richard Hawes was named Confederate governor of Kentucky. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_106

Shortly afterwards, the Provisional Confederate States Congress was adjourned on February 17, 1862, on the eve of inauguration of a permanent Congress. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_107

However, as Union occupation dominated the state after the failure of the Confederate Heartland Offensive to firmly take Kentucky from August to October 1862, the Kentucky Confederate government, as of 1863, existed only on paper. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_108

Its representation in the permanent Confederate Congress was minimal. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_109

It was dissolved when the Civil War ended in the spring of 1865. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_110

Missouri Border states (American Civil War)_section_6

Main article: Missouri in the American Civil War Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_111

After the secession of Southern states began, the newly elected governor of Missouri, Claiborne F. Jackson, called upon the legislature to authorize a state constitutional convention on secession. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_112

A special election approved of the convention, and delegates to it. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_113

This Missouri Constitutional Convention voted to remain within the Union, but rejected coercion of the Southern states by the United States. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_114

Jackson, who was pro-Confederate, was disappointed with the outcome. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_115

He called up the state militia to their districts for annual training. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_116

Jackson had designs on the St. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_117 Louis Arsenal, and had been in secret correspondence with Confederate President Jefferson Davis to obtain artillery for the militia in St. Louis. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_118

Aware of these developments, Union Captain Nathaniel Lyon struck first, encircling the camp and forcing the state militia to surrender. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_119

While his troops were marching the prisoners to the arsenal, a deadly riot erupted (the Camp Jackson Affair). Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_120

These events resulted in greater Confederate support within the state among some factions. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_121

The already pro-Southern Missouri State Legislature passed the governor's military bill creating the Missouri State Guard. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_122

Governor Jackson appointed Sterling Price, who had been president of the convention, as major general of this reformed militia. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_123

Price, and Union district commander Harney, came to an agreement known as the Price–Harney Truce, which calmed tensions in the state for several weeks. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_124

After Harney was removed, and Lyon placed in charge, a meeting was held in St. Louis at the Planters' House among Lyon, his political ally Francis P. Blair, Jr., Price, and Jackson. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_125

The negotiations went nowhere. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_126

After a few fruitless hours, Lyon declared, "this means war!" Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_127

Price and Jackson rapidly departed for the capital. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_128

Jackson, Price, and the pro-Confederate portions of the state legislature were forced to flee the state capital of Jefferson City on June 14, 1861, in the face of Lyon's rapid advance against the state government. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_129

In the absence of most of the now exiled state government, the Missouri Constitutional Convention reconvened in late July. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_130

On July 30, the convention declared the state offices vacant, and appointed a new provisional government with Hamilton Gamble as governor. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_131

President Lincoln's administration immediately recognized the legitimacy of Gamble's government, which provided both pro-Union militia forces for service within the state, and volunteer regiments for the Union Army. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_132

Fighting ensued between Union forces and a combined army of General Price's Missouri State Guard and Confederate troops from Arkansas and Texas, under General Ben McCulloch. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_133

After a string of victories in Cole Camp, Carthage, Wilson's Creek, Dry Wood Creek, Liberty and going up as far north as Lexington (located in the Missouri River Valley region of western Missouri), the secessionist forces retreated to southwestern Missouri, as they were under pressure from Union reinforcements. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_134

On October 30, 1861, in the town of Neosho, Jackson called the supporting parts of the exiled state legislature into session, where they enacted a secession ordinance. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_135

It was recognized by the Confederate Congress, and Missouri was admitted into the Confederacy on November 28. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_136

The exiled state government was forced to withdraw into Arkansas. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_137

For the rest of the war, it consisted of several wagon loads of civilian politicians attached to various Confederate armies. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_138

In 1865, it vanished. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_139

Missouri abolished slavery during the war in January 1865. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_140

Guerrilla warfare Border states (American Civil War)_section_7

Regular Confederate troops staged several large-scale raids into Missouri, but most of the fighting in the state for the next three years consisted of guerrilla warfare. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_141

The guerrillas were primarily Southern partisans, including William Quantrill, Frank and Jesse James, the Younger brothers, and William T. Anderson, and many personal feuds were played out in the violence. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_142

Small-unit tactics pioneered by the Missouri Partisan Rangers were used in occupied portions of the Confederacy during the Civil War. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_143

The James' brothers outlawry after the war has been seen as a continuation of guerrilla warfare. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_144

Stiles (2002) argues that Jesse James was an intensely political postwar neo-Confederate terrorist, rather than a social bandit or a plain bank robber with a hair-trigger temper. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_145

The Union response was to suppress the guerrillas. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_146

It achieved that in western Missouri, as Brigadier General Thomas Ewing issued General Order No. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_147 11 on 25 August 1863 in response to Quantrill's raid on Lawrence, Kansas. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_148

The order forced the total evacuation of four counties that fall within the area of modern-day Kansas City, Missouri. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_149

These had been centers of local support for the guerrillas. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_150

Lincoln approved Ewing's plan beforehand. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_151

About 20,000 civilians (chiefly women, children, and old men) had to leave their homes. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_152

Many never returned, and the counties were economically devastated for years. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_153

According to Glatthaar (2001), Union forces established "free-fire zones". Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_154

Union cavalry units would identify and track down scattered Confederate remnants, who had no places to hide and no secret supply bases. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_155

To gain recruits, and to threaten St. Louis, Confederate General Sterling Price raided Missouri with 12,000 men in September/October 1864. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_156

Price coordinated his moves with the guerrillas, but was nearly trapped, escaping to Arkansas with only half his force after a decisive Union victory at the Battle of Westport. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_157

The battle, which took place in the modern-day Westport neighborhood of Kansas City, is identified as the "Gettysburg of the West"; it marked a definitive end to organized Confederate incursions inside Missouri's borders. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_158

The Republicans made major gains in the fall 1864 elections on the basis of Union victories and Confederate ineptness. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_159

Quantrill's Raiders, after raiding Kansas in the Lawrence Massacre on August 21, 1863, killing 150 civilians, broke up in confusion. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_160

Quantrill and a handful of followers moved on to Kentucky, where he was ambushed and killed. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_161

West Virginia Border states (American Civil War)_section_8

Main article: West Virginia in the American Civil War Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_162

The serious divisions between the western and eastern sections of Virginia had been simmering for decades, related to class and social differences. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_163

The western areas were growing and were based on subsistence farms by yeomen; its residents held few slaves. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_164

The planters of the eastern section were wealthy slaveholders who dominated state government. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_165

By December 1860 secession was being publicly debated throughout Virginia. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_166

Leading eastern spokesmen called for secession, while westerners warned they would not be legislated into treason. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_167

A statewide convention first met on February 13; after the attack on Fort Sumter and Lincoln's call to arms, it voted for secession on April 17, 1861. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_168

The decision was dependent on ratification by a statewide referendum. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_169

Western leaders held mass rallies and prepared to separate, so that this area could remain in the Union. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_170

Unionists met at the Wheeling Convention with four hundred delegates from twenty-seven counties. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_171

The statewide vote in favor of secession was 132,201 to 37,451. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_172

An estimated vote on Virginia's ordinance of secession for the 50 counties that became West Virginia is 34,677 to 19,121 against secession, with 24 of the 50 counties favoring secession and 26 favoring the Union. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_173

The Second Wheeling Convention opened on June 11 with more than 100 delegates from 32 western counties; they represented nearly one-third of Virginia's total voting population. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_174

It announced that state offices were vacant and chose Francis H. Pierpont as governor of Virginia (not West Virginia) on June 20. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_175

Pierpont headed the Restored Government of Virginia, which granted permission for the formation of a new state on August 20, 1861. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_176

The new West Virginia state constitution was passed by the Unionist counties in the spring of 1862, and this was approved by the restored Virginia government in May 1862. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_177

The statehood bill for West Virginia was passed by the United States Congress in December and signed by President Lincoln on December 31, 1862. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_178

The ultimate decision about West Virginia was made by the armies in the field. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_179

The Confederates were defeated, the Union was triumphant, so West Virginia was born. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_180

In late spring 1861 Union troops from Ohio moved into western Virginia with the primary strategic goal of protecting the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_181

General George B. McClellan destroyed Confederate defenses in western Virginia. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_182

Raids and recruitment by the Confederacy took place throughout the war. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_183

Current estimates of soldiers from West Virginia are 20,000-22,000 men each to the Union and the Confederacy. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_184

West Virginia was required as part of its admission as a state to have a gradual emancipation clause in the new state's constitution. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_185

It later completely abolished slavery before the end of the war. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_186

The unique conditions attendant to the creation of the state led the Federal government to sometimes regard West Virginia as differing from the other border states in the post-war and Reconstruction Era. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_187

The terms of surrender granted to the Confederate army at Appomattox applied to the soldiers of the 11 Confederate states and West Virginia only. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_188

Returning Confederate soldiers from the other border states were required to obtain special permits from the War Department. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_189

Similarly, the Southern Claims Commission was originally designed to apply only to the 11 Confederate states and West Virginia, though claims from other states were sometimes honored. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_190

Other border areas Border states (American Civil War)_section_9

Tennessee Border states (American Civil War)_section_10

Main article: Tennessee in the American Civil War Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_191

Though Tennessee had officially seceded and West Tennessee and Middle Tennessee had voted overwhelmingly in favor of joining the Confederacy, East Tennessee in contrast was strongly pro-Union and had mostly voted against secession. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_192

The state even went as far as sending delegates for the East Tennessee Convention attempting to secede from the Confederacy and join the Union; however, the Confederate legislature of Tennessee rejected the convention and blocked its secession attempt. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_193

Jefferson Davis arrested over 3,000 men suspected of being loyal to the Union and held them without trial. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_194

Tennessee came under control of Union forces in 1862 and was occupied to the end of the war. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_195

For this reason, it was omitted from the Emancipation Proclamation. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_196

After the war, Tennessee was the first Confederate state to have its elected members readmitted to the US Congress. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_197

Indian Territory Border states (American Civil War)_section_11

Main article: Indian Territory in the American Civil War Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_198

In the Indian Territory (present-day Oklahoma), most Indian tribes owned black slaves, and they sided with the Confederacy. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_199

It had promised them an Indian state if victorious in the war. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_200

But some tribes and bands sided with the Union. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_201

A bloody civil war resulted in the territory, with severe hardships for all residents. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_202

Kansas Border states (American Civil War)_section_12

Main article: Kansas in the American Civil War Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_203

After years of small-scale civil war, Kansas was admitted into the Union as a free state under the "Wyandotte Constitution" on January 29, 1861. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_204

Most people gave strong support to the Union cause. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_205

However, guerrilla warfare and raids from pro-slavery forces, many spilling over from Missouri, occurred during the Civil War. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_206

Although only one battle of official forces occurred in Kansas, there were 29 Confederate raids into the state during the war and numerous deaths caused by the guerrillas. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_207

Lawrence came under attack on August 21, 1863, by guerrillas led by William Clarke Quantrill. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_208

He was retaliating for "Jayhawker" raids against pro-Confederate settlements in Missouri. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_209

His forces left more than 150 people dead in Lawrence. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_210

New Mexico/Arizona Territory Border states (American Civil War)_section_13

Main article: New Mexico Territory in the American Civil War Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_211

At the time the Civil War broke out, the present-day states of New Mexico and Arizona did not yet exist. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_212

There were various proposals, however, to create a new territory within the southern half of the New Mexico Territory prior to the war. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_213

The southern half of the territory was pro-Confederate while the northern half was pro-Union. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_214

The southern half was also a target of Confederate Texan forces under Charles L. Pyron and Henry Hopkins Sibley, who attempted to establish control there. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_215

They had plans to attack the Union states of California and Colorado Territory (both of which also had Southern sympathizers) as well as the eastern side of the Rocky Mountains, Fort Laramie, and Nevada Territory, followed by an invasion of the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Sonora, and Lower California. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_216

Ultimately their defeat at the Battle of Glorieta Pass prevented these plans from fruition and Sibley's Confederates fled back to East Texas. Border states (American Civil War)_sentence_217

See also Border states (American Civil War)_section_14

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: states (American Civil War).