Botanical name

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A botanical name is a formal scientific name conforming to the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN) and, if it concerns a plant cultigen, the additional cultivar or Group epithets must conform to the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants (ICNCP). Botanical name_sentence_0

The code of nomenclature covers "all organisms traditionally treated as algae, fungi, or plants, whether fossil or non-fossil, including blue-green algae (Cyanobacteria), chytrids, oomycetes, slime moulds and photosynthetic protists with their taxonomically related non-photosynthetic groups (but excluding Microsporidia)." Botanical name_sentence_1

The purpose of a formal name is to have a single name that is accepted and used worldwide for a particular plant or plant group. Botanical name_sentence_2

For example, the botanical name Bellis perennis denotes a plant species which is native to most of the countries of Europe and the Middle East, where it has accumulated various names in many languages. Botanical name_sentence_3

Later, the plant was introduced worldwide, bringing it into contact with more languages. Botanical name_sentence_4

English names for this plant species include: daisy, English daisy, and lawn daisy. Botanical name_sentence_5

The cultivar Bellis perennis 'Aucubifolia' is a golden-variegated horticultural selection of this species. Botanical name_sentence_6

Type specimens and circumscription Botanical name_section_0

The botanical name itself is fixed by a type, which is a particular specimen (or in some cases a group of specimens) of an organism to which the scientific name is formally attached. Botanical name_sentence_7

In other words, a type is an example that serves to anchor or centralize the defining features of that particular taxon. Botanical name_sentence_8

The usefulness of botanical names is limited by the fact that taxonomic groups are not fixed in size; a taxon may have a varying circumscription, depending on the , thus, the group that a particular botanical name refers to can be quite small according to some people and quite big according to others. Botanical name_sentence_9

For example, the traditional view of the family Malvaceae has been expanded in some modern approaches to include what were formerly considered to be several closely related families. Botanical name_sentence_10

Some botanical names refer to groups that are very stable (for example Equisetaceae, Magnoliaceae) while for other names a careful check is needed to see which circumscription is being used (for example Fabaceae, Amygdaloideae, Taraxacum officinale). Botanical name_sentence_11

Forms of plant names Botanical name_section_1

Depending on rank, botanical names may be in one part (genus and above), two parts (various situations below the rank of genus) or three parts (below the rank of species). Botanical name_sentence_12

The names of cultivated plants are not necessarily similar to the botanical names, since they may instead involve "unambiguous common names" of species or genera. Botanical name_sentence_13

Cultivated plant names may also have an extra component, bringing a maximum of four parts: Botanical name_sentence_14

Botanical name_description_list_0

Botanical name_description_list_1

  • in two parts: Acacia subg. Phyllodineae (the wattles)Botanical name_item_1_7
  • lchemilla subsect. HeliodrosiumBotanical name_item_1_8
  • Berberis thunbergii (Japanese barberry) a species name, i.e., a combination consisting of a genus name and one epithetBotanical name_item_1_9
  • Syringa 'Charisma' – a cultivar within a genusBotanical name_item_1_10
  • Hydrangea Lacecap Group – a genus name and Group epithetBotanical name_item_1_11
  • Lilium Darkest Red Group – a genus name and Group epithetBotanical name_item_1_12
  • Paphiopedilum Greenteaicecreamandraspberries grexBotanical name_item_1_13
  • snowdrop 'John Gray' – an unambiguous common name for the genus Galanthus and a cultivar epithetBotanical name_item_1_14

Botanical name_description_list_2

  • in three parts: Calystegia sepium subsp. americana (American hedge bindweed), a combination consisting of a genus name and two epithetsBotanical name_item_2_15
  • Crataegus azarolus var. pontica (a Mediterranean hawthorn)Botanical name_item_2_16
  • Bellis perennis 'Aucubifolia' – a cultivarBotanical name_item_2_17
  • Brassica oleracea Gemmifera Group – a species name and Group epithetBotanical name_item_2_18

Botanical name_description_list_3

  • in four parts: Scilla hispanica var. campanulata 'Rose Queen' – a cultivar within a botanical varietyBotanical name_item_3_19
  • apart from cultivars, the name of a plant can never have more than three parts.Botanical name_item_3_20

Components of plant names Botanical name_section_2

A botanical name in three parts, i.e., an infraspecific name (a name for a taxon below the rank of species) needs a "connecting term" to indicate rank. Botanical name_sentence_15

In the Calystegia example above, this is "subsp. Botanical name_sentence_16

", for subspecies. Botanical name_sentence_17

In botany there are many ranks below that of species (in zoology there is only one such rank, subspecies, so that this "connecting term" is not used in zoology). Botanical name_sentence_18

A name of a "subdivision of a genus" also needs a connecting term (in the Acacia example above, this is "subg. Botanical name_sentence_19

", subgenus). Botanical name_sentence_20

The connecting term is not part of the name itself. Botanical name_sentence_21

A taxon may be indicated by a listing in more than three parts: "Saxifraga aizoon var. Botanical name_sentence_22

aizoon subvar. Botanical name_sentence_23

brevifolia f. multicaulis subf. Botanical name_sentence_24

surculosa Engl. Botanical name_sentence_25

& Irmsch." Botanical name_sentence_26

but this is a classification, not a formal botanical name. Botanical name_sentence_27

The botanical name is Saxifraga aizoon subf. Botanical name_sentence_28

surculosa Engl. Botanical name_sentence_29

& Irmsch. Botanical name_sentence_30

(ICN Art 24: Ex 1). Botanical name_sentence_31

Generic, specific, and infraspecific botanical names are usually printed in italics. Botanical name_sentence_32

The example set by the ICN is to italicize all botanical names, including those above genus, though the ICN preface states: "The Code sets no binding standard in this respect, as typography is a matter of editorial style and tradition not of nomenclature". Botanical name_sentence_33

Most peer-reviewed scientific botanical publications do not italicize names above the rank of genus, and non-botanical scientific publications do not, which is in keeping with two of the three other kinds of scientific name: zoological and bacterial (viral names above genus are italicized, a new policy adopted in the early 1990s). Botanical name_sentence_34

Binary name Botanical name_section_3

For botanical nomenclature, the ICN prescribes a two-part name or binary name for any taxon below the rank of genus down to, and including the rank of species. Botanical name_sentence_35

Taxa below the rank of species get a three part (infraspecific name). Botanical name_sentence_36

A binary name consists of the name of a genus and an epithet. Botanical name_sentence_37

Botanical name_unordered_list_4

  • In the case of a species this is a specific epithet:Botanical name_item_4_21

Botanical name_description_list_5

  • Bellis perennis is the name of a species, in which perennis is the specific epithet. There is no connecting term involved, to indicate the rank.Botanical name_item_5_22

Botanical name_unordered_list_6

  • In the case of a subdivision of a genus (subgenus, section, subsection, series, subseries, etc.) the name consists of the name of a genus and a subdivisional epithet. A connecting term should be placed before the subdivisional epithet to indicate the rank:Botanical name_item_6_23

Botanical name_description_list_7

  • Paraserianthes sect. FalcatariaBotanical name_item_7_24

In cultivated plants Botanical name_section_4

In the case of cultivated plants, there is an additional epithet which is an often non-Latin part, not written in italics. Botanical name_sentence_38

For cultivars, it is always given in single quotation marks. Botanical name_sentence_39

The cultivar, Group, or grex epithet may follow either the botanical name of the species, or the name of the genus only, or the unambiguous common name of the genus or species. Botanical name_sentence_40

The generic name, followed by a cultivar name, is often used when the parentage of a particular hybrid cultivar is not relevant in the context, or is uncertain. Botanical name_sentence_41

See also Botanical name_section_5

(specific to botany) Botanical name_sentence_42

Botanical name_unordered_list_8

(more general) Botanical name_sentence_43

Botanical name_unordered_list_9

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: name.