Genu varum

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"Bow legs" redirects here. Genu varum_sentence_0

For other uses, see Bowlegs (disambiguation). Genu varum_sentence_1

"Bow-leg" redirects here. Genu varum_sentence_2

For the robotic leg, see Bow Leg. Genu varum_sentence_3

Genu varum_table_infobox_0

Genu varumGenu varum_header_cell_0_0_0
Other namesGenu varum_header_cell_0_1_0 Bow-leggednessGenu varum_cell_0_1_1
SpecialtyGenu varum_header_cell_0_2_0 Medical genetics Q1550742?uselang=en#P1995Genu varum_cell_0_2_1

Genu varum (also called bow-leggedness, bandiness, bandy-leg, and tibia vara), is a varus deformity marked by (outward) bowing at the knee, which means that the lower leg is angled inward (medially) in relation to the thigh's axis, giving the limb overall the appearance of an archer's bow. Genu varum_sentence_4

Usually medial angulation of both lower limb bones (femur and tibia) is involved. Genu varum_sentence_5

Causes Genu varum_section_0

If a child is sickly, either with rickets or any other ailment that prevents ossification of the bones, or is improperly fed, the bowed condition may persist. Genu varum_sentence_6

Thus the chief cause of this deformity is rickets. Genu varum_sentence_7

Skeletal problems, infection, and tumors can also affect the growth of the leg, sometimes giving rise to a one-sided bow-leggedness. Genu varum_sentence_8

The remaining causes are occupational, especially among jockeys, and from physical trauma, the condition being very likely to supervene after accidents involving the condyles of the femur. Genu varum_sentence_9

Childhood Genu varum_section_1

Children until the age of 3 to 4 have a degree of genu varum. Genu varum_sentence_10

The child sits with the soles of the feet facing one another; the tibia and femur are curved outwards; and, if the limbs are extended, although the ankles are in contact, there is a distinct space between the knee-joints. Genu varum_sentence_11

During the first year of life, a gradual change takes place. Genu varum_sentence_12

The knee-joints approach one another; the femur slopes downward and inward towards the knee joints; the tibia become straight; and the sole of the foot faces almost directly downwards. Genu varum_sentence_13

While these changes are occurring, the bones, which at first consist principally of cartilage, are gradually becoming ossified. Genu varum_sentence_14

By the time a normal child begins to walk, the lower limbs are prepared, both by their general direction and by the rigidity of the bones which form them, to support the weight of the body. Genu varum_sentence_15

Rickets Genu varum_section_2

Nutritional rickets is an important cause of childhood genu varum or bow legs in some parts of the world. Genu varum_sentence_16

Nutritional rickets is due to unhealthy life style habits as insufficient exposure to sun light which is the main source of vitamin D. Insufficient dietary intake of calcium is another contributing factor. Genu varum_sentence_17

Rickets may also have genetic causes, occasionally called resistant rickets. Genu varum_sentence_18

Rickets usually causes bone deformities in all four extremities. Genu varum_sentence_19

Genu varum may resolve spontaneously with modification of life style activities or after receiving medical treatment. Genu varum_sentence_20

Some deformities do not correct spontaneously and need surgical intervention especially if they are severe and causing gait difficulties. Genu varum_sentence_21

The main surgical modality used to treat genu varum arising from rickets is guided growth surgery, also known as growth modulation surgery. Genu varum_sentence_22

Blount's disease Genu varum_section_3

Blount's disease is a deformity in the legs, mostly from the knees to the ankles. Genu varum_sentence_23

The affected bone curves in or out and forms the usual "archers bow" which can also be called bow-legs. Genu varum_sentence_24

There are two types of Blount's disease. Genu varum_sentence_25

The first type is Infantile: this means that children under four are diagnosed with this disease. Genu varum_sentence_26

Blount's disease in this age is very risky because sometimes it is not detected and it passes to the second type of Blount's disease. Genu varum_sentence_27

The second type of Blount's disease is found mostly in older children and in teenagers, sometimes in one leg and sometimes in both; the patient's age determines how severe the diagnosis is. Genu varum_sentence_28

Osteochondrodysplasia Genu varum_section_4

Osteochondrodysplasia are a diverse group of genetic bone diseases or genetic skeletal dysplasias that manifest in generalized bone deformities involving the extremities and the spine. Genu varum_sentence_29

Bow legs or genu varum is one of these deformities. Genu varum_sentence_30

The characteristic bone X-ray survey findings are important to confirm the diagnosis. Genu varum_sentence_31

Diagnosis Genu varum_section_5

On projectional radiography, the degree of varus or valgus deformity can be quantified by the hip-knee-ankle angle, which is an angle between the femoral mechanical axis and the center of the ankle joint. Genu varum_sentence_32

It is normally between 1.0° and 1.5° of varus in adults. Genu varum_sentence_33

Normal ranges are different in children. Genu varum_sentence_34

Genu varum_unordered_list_0

  • Genu varum_item_0_0

Treatment Genu varum_section_6

Generally, no treatment is required for idiopathic presentation as it is a normal anatomical variant in young children. Genu varum_sentence_35

Treatment is indicated when it persists beyond 3 and a half years old. Genu varum_sentence_36

In the case of unilateral presentation or progressive worsening of the curvature, when caused by rickets, the most important thing is to treat the constitutional disease, at the same time instructing the care-giver never to place the child on its feet. Genu varum_sentence_37

In many cases this is quite sufficient in itself to effect a cure, but matters can be hastened somewhat by applying splints. Genu varum_sentence_38

When the deformity arises in older patients, either from trauma or occupation, the only permanent treatment is surgery, but orthopaedic bracing can provide relief. Genu varum_sentence_39

Rickets Genu varum_section_7

Rickets usually causes bone deformities in all four extremities. Genu varum_sentence_40

Genu varum may resolve spontaneously with modification of life style activities or after receiving medical treatment. Genu varum_sentence_41

Some deformities do not correct spontaneously and need surgical intervention especially if they are severe and causing gait difficulties. Genu varum_sentence_42

The main surgical modality used to treat genu varum arising from rickets is guided growth surgery, also known as growth modulation surgery. Genu varum_sentence_43

Blount's disease Genu varum_section_8

Treatment for children with Blount's disease is typically braces but surgery may also be necessary. Genu varum_sentence_44

In children guided growth surgery is used to gradually correct/straighten the bow legs. Genu varum_sentence_45

For teenagers osteotomy or bone cutting is often used to correct the bone deformity. Genu varum_sentence_46

The operation consists of removing a piece of tibia, breaking the fibula and straightening out the bone; there is also a choice of elongating the legs. Genu varum_sentence_47

If not treated early enough, the condition worsens quickly. Genu varum_sentence_48

Osteochondrodysplasia Genu varum_section_9

Guided growth surgery in children is widely used to achieve gradual correction of knee deformities arising from Osteochondrodysplasia including genu varum. Genu varum_sentence_49

Yet, this treatment is associated with a high incidence of recurrence and repeated surgeries may be needed to maintain proper bone alignment. Genu varum_sentence_50

Prognosis Genu varum_section_10

In most cases persisting after childhood, there is little or no effect on the ability to walk. Genu varum_sentence_51

Due to uneven stress and wear on the knees, however, even milder manifestations can see an accelerated onset of arthritis. Genu varum_sentence_52

See also Genu varum_section_11

Genu varum_unordered_list_1


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genu varum.