Brazil

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This article is about the country in South America. Brazil_sentence_0

For other uses, see Brazil (disambiguation). Brazil_sentence_1

Brazil_table_infobox_0

Federative Republic of Brazil

República Federativa do Brasil  (Portuguese)Brazil_header_cell_0_0_0

CapitalBrazil_header_cell_0_1_0 BrasíliaBrazil_cell_0_1_1
Largest cityBrazil_header_cell_0_2_0 São PauloBrazil_cell_0_2_1
Official language

and national languageBrazil_header_cell_0_3_0

PortugueseBrazil_cell_0_3_1
Ethnic groups (2010)Brazil_header_cell_0_4_0 Brazil_cell_0_4_1
Religion (2010)Brazil_header_cell_0_5_0 86.8% Christianity

—64.6% Roman Catholicism —22.2% Protestantism 8.0% No religion 2.0% Spiritism 3.2% Other religionsBrazil_cell_0_5_1

Demonym(s)Brazil_header_cell_0_6_0 BrazilianBrazil_cell_0_6_1
GovernmentBrazil_header_cell_0_7_0 Federal presidential constitutional republicBrazil_cell_0_7_1
PresidentBrazil_header_cell_0_8_0 Jair BolsonaroBrazil_cell_0_8_1
Vice PresidentBrazil_header_cell_0_9_0 Hamilton MourãoBrazil_cell_0_9_1
President of the

Chamber of DeputiesBrazil_header_cell_0_10_0

Rodrigo MaiaBrazil_cell_0_10_1
President of the

Federal SenateBrazil_header_cell_0_11_0

Davi AlcolumbreBrazil_cell_0_11_1
President of the

Supreme Federal CourtBrazil_header_cell_0_12_0

Luiz FuxBrazil_cell_0_12_1
LegislatureBrazil_header_cell_0_13_0 National CongressBrazil_cell_0_13_1
Upper houseBrazil_header_cell_0_14_0 Federal SenateBrazil_cell_0_14_1
Lower houseBrazil_header_cell_0_15_0 Chamber of DeputiesBrazil_cell_0_15_1
Independence from the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the AlgarvesBrazil_header_cell_0_16_0
DeclaredBrazil_header_cell_0_17_0 7 September 1822Brazil_cell_0_17_1
RecognizedBrazil_header_cell_0_18_0 29 August 1825Brazil_cell_0_18_1
RepublicBrazil_header_cell_0_19_0 15 November 1889Brazil_cell_0_19_1
Current constitutionBrazil_header_cell_0_20_0 5 October 1988Brazil_cell_0_20_1
Area Brazil_header_cell_0_21_0
TotalBrazil_header_cell_0_22_0 8,515,767 km (3,287,956 sq mi) (5th)Brazil_cell_0_22_1
Water (%)Brazil_header_cell_0_23_0 0.65Brazil_cell_0_23_1
PopulationBrazil_header_cell_0_24_0
2019 estimateBrazil_header_cell_0_25_0 210,147,125 (6th)Brazil_cell_0_25_1
DensityBrazil_header_cell_0_26_0 25/km (64.7/sq mi) (200th)Brazil_cell_0_26_1
GDP (PPP)Brazil_header_cell_0_27_0 2020 estimateBrazil_cell_0_27_1
TotalBrazil_header_cell_0_28_0 $3.078 trillion (8th)Brazil_cell_0_28_1
Per capitaBrazil_header_cell_0_29_0 $14,563 (83rd)Brazil_cell_0_29_1
GDP (nominal)Brazil_header_cell_0_30_0 2020 estimateBrazil_cell_0_30_1
TotalBrazil_header_cell_0_31_0 $1.363 trillion (12th)Brazil_cell_0_31_1
Per capitaBrazil_header_cell_0_32_0 $6,450 (83rd)Brazil_cell_0_32_1
Gini (2018)Brazil_header_cell_0_33_0 53.9

high · 10thBrazil_cell_0_33_1

HDI (2018)Brazil_header_cell_0_34_0 0.761

high · 79thBrazil_cell_0_34_1

CurrencyBrazil_header_cell_0_35_0 Real (R$) (BRL)Brazil_cell_0_35_1
Time zoneBrazil_header_cell_0_36_0 UTC−2 to −5 (BRT)Brazil_cell_0_36_1
Date formatBrazil_header_cell_0_37_0 dd/mm/yyyy (CE)Brazil_cell_0_37_1
Driving sideBrazil_header_cell_0_38_0 rightBrazil_cell_0_38_1
Calling codeBrazil_header_cell_0_39_0 +55Brazil_cell_0_39_1
ISO 3166 codeBrazil_header_cell_0_40_0 BRBrazil_cell_0_40_1
Internet TLDBrazil_header_cell_0_41_0 .brBrazil_cell_0_41_1

Brazil (Portuguese: Brasil; Brazilian Portuguese: [bɾaˈziw), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. Brazil_sentence_2

At 8.5 million square kilometers (3.2 million square miles) and with over 211 million people, Brazil is the world's fifth-largest country by area and the sixth most populous. Brazil_sentence_3

Its capital is Brasília, and its most populous city is São Paulo. Brazil_sentence_4

The federation is composed of the union of the 26 states and the Federal District. Brazil_sentence_5

It is the largest country to have Portuguese as an official language and the only one in the Americas; it is also one of the most multicultural and ethnically diverse nations, due to over a century of mass immigration from around the world; as well as the most populous Roman Catholic-majority country. Brazil_sentence_6

Bounded by the Atlantic Ocean on the east, Brazil has a coastline of 7,491 kilometers (4,655 mi). Brazil_sentence_7

It borders all other countries in South America except Ecuador and Chile and covers 47.3% of the continent's land area. Brazil_sentence_8

Its Amazon basin includes a vast tropical forest, home to diverse wildlife, a variety of ecological systems, and extensive natural resources spanning numerous protected habitats. Brazil_sentence_9

This unique environmental heritage makes Brazil one of 17 megadiverse countries, and is the subject of significant global interest and debate regarding deforestation and environmental protection. Brazil_sentence_10

Brazil was inhabited by numerous tribal nations prior to the landing in 1500 of explorer Pedro Álvares Cabral, who claimed the area for the Portuguese Empire. Brazil_sentence_11

Brazil remained a Portuguese colony until 1808 when the capital of the empire was transferred from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro. Brazil_sentence_12

In 1815, the colony was elevated to the rank of kingdom upon the formation of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves. Brazil_sentence_13

Independence was achieved in 1822 with the creation of the Empire of Brazil, a unitary state governed under a constitutional monarchy and a parliamentary system. Brazil_sentence_14

The ratification of the first constitution in 1824 led to the formation of a bicameral legislature, now called the National Congress. Brazil_sentence_15

The country became a presidential republic in 1889 following a military coup d'état. Brazil_sentence_16

An authoritarian military junta came to power in 1964 and ruled until 1985, after which civilian governance resumed. Brazil_sentence_17

Brazil's current constitution, formulated in 1988, defines it as a democratic federal republic. Brazil_sentence_18

Due to its rich culture and history, the country ranks thirteenth in the world by number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Brazil_sentence_19

Brazil is classified as an upper-middle income economy by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country, with the largest share of global wealth in Latin America. Brazil_sentence_20

It is considered an advanced emerging economy, having the ninth largest GDP in the world by nominal, and eighth by PPP measures. Brazil_sentence_21

It is one of the world's major breadbaskets, being the largest producer of coffee for the last 150 years. Brazil_sentence_22

Brazil is a regional power and sometimes considered a great or a middle power in international affairs. Brazil_sentence_23

On account of its international recognition and influence, the country is subsequently classified as an emerging power and a potential superpower by several analysts. Brazil_sentence_24

Brazil is a founding member of the United Nations, the G20, BRICS, Mercosul, Organization of American States, Organization of Ibero-American States and the Community of Portuguese Language Countries. Brazil_sentence_25

Etymology Brazil_section_0

Main article: Name of Brazil Brazil_sentence_26

The word "Brazil" likely comes from the Portuguese word for brazilwood, a tree that once grew plentifully along the Brazilian coast. Brazil_sentence_27

In Portuguese, brazilwood is called pau-brasil, with the word brasil commonly given the etymology "red like an ember", formed from brasa ("ember") and the suffix -il (from -iculum or -ilium). Brazil_sentence_28

As brazilwood produces a deep red dye, it was highly valued by the European textile industry and was the earliest commercially exploited product from Brazil. Brazil_sentence_29

Throughout the 16th century, massive amounts of brazilwood were harvested by indigenous peoples (mostly Tupi) along the Brazilian coast, who sold the timber to European traders (mostly Portuguese, but also French) in return for assorted European consumer goods. Brazil_sentence_30

The official Portuguese name of the land, in original Portuguese records, was the "Land of the Holy Cross" (Terra da Santa Cruz), but European sailors and merchants commonly called it simply the "Land of Brazil" (Terra do Brasil) because of the brazilwood trade. Brazil_sentence_31

The popular appellation eclipsed and eventually supplanted the official Portuguese name. Brazil_sentence_32

Some early sailors called it the "Land of Parrots". Brazil_sentence_33

In the Guarani language, an official language of Paraguay, Brazil is called "Pindorama". Brazil_sentence_34

This was the name the indigenous population gave to the region, meaning "land of the palm trees". Brazil_sentence_35

History Brazil_section_1

Main articles: History of Brazil and Timeline of Brazilian history Brazil_sentence_36

Pre-Cabraline era Brazil_section_2

Some of the earliest human remains found in the Americas, Luzia Woman, were found in the area of Pedro Leopoldo, Minas Gerais and provide evidence of human habitation going back at least 11,000 years. Brazil_sentence_37

The earliest pottery ever found in the Western Hemisphere was excavated in the Amazon basin of Brazil and radiocarbon dated to 8,000 years ago (6000 BC). Brazil_sentence_38

The pottery was found near Santarém and provides evidence that the tropical forest region supported a complex prehistoric culture. Brazil_sentence_39

The Marajoara culture flourished on Marajó in the Amazon delta from 400 CE to 1400 CE, developing sophisticated pottery, social stratification, large populations, mound building, and complex social formations such as chiefdoms. Brazil_sentence_40

Around the time of the Portuguese arrival, the territory of current day Brazil had an estimated indigenous population of 7 million people, mostly semi-nomadic, who subsisted on hunting, fishing, gathering, and migrant agriculture. Brazil_sentence_41

The indigenous population of Brazil comprised several large indigenous ethnic groups (e.g. the Tupis, Guaranis, Gês and Arawaks). Brazil_sentence_42

The Tupí people were subdivided into the Tupiniquins and Tupinambás, and there were also many subdivisions of the other groups. Brazil_sentence_43

Before the arrival of the Europeans, the boundaries between these groups and their subgroups were marked by wars that arose from differences in culture, language and moral beliefs. Brazil_sentence_44

These wars also involved large-scale military actions on land and water, with cannibalistic rituals on prisoners of war. Brazil_sentence_45

While heredity had some weight, leadership status was more subdued over time, than allocated in succession ceremonies and conventions. Brazil_sentence_46

Slavery among the Indians had a different meaning than it had for Europeans, since it originated from a diverse socioeconomic organization, in which asymmetries were translated into kinship relations. Brazil_sentence_47

Portuguese colonization Brazil_section_3

Main articles: Colonial Brazil, War of the Emboabas, and Inconfidência Mineira Brazil_sentence_48

The land now called Brazil was claimed for the Portuguese Empire on 22 April 1500, with the arrival of the Portuguese fleet commanded by Pedro Álvares Cabral. Brazil_sentence_49

The Portuguese encountered indigenous peoples divided into several tribes, most of whom spoke languages of the Tupi–Guarani family, and fought among themselves. Brazil_sentence_50

Though the first settlement was founded in 1532, colonization effectively began in 1534, when King John III of Portugal divided the territory into the fifteen private and autonomous Captaincy Colonies of Brazil. Brazil_sentence_51

However, the decentralized and unorganized tendencies of the captaincy colonies proved problematic, and in 1549 the Portuguese king restructured them into the Governorate General of Brazil in the city of Salvador, which became the capital of a single and centralized Portuguese colony in South America. Brazil_sentence_52

In the first two centuries of colonization, Indigenous and European groups lived in constant war, establishing opportunistic alliances in order to gain advantages against each other. Brazil_sentence_53

By the mid-16th century, cane sugar had become Brazil's most important export, and slaves purchased in Sub-Saharan Africa, in the slave market of Western Africa (not only those from Portuguese allies of their colonies in Angola and Mozambique), had become its largest import, to cope with plantations of sugarcane, due to increasing international demand for Brazilian sugar. Brazil_sentence_54

Portuguese Brazil received more than 2.8 million slaves from Africa between the years of 1500 to 1800. Brazil_sentence_55

By the end of the 17th century, sugarcane exports began to decline, and the discovery of gold by bandeirantes in the 1690s would become the new backbone of the colony's economy, fostering a Brazilian Gold Rush which attracted thousands of new settlers to Brazil from Portugal and all Portuguese colonies around the world. Brazil_sentence_56

This increased level of immigration in turn caused some conflicts between newcomers and old settlers. Brazil_sentence_57

Portuguese expeditions known as Bandeiras gradually advanced the Portugal colonial original frontiers in South America to approximately the current Brazilian borders. Brazil_sentence_58

In this era other European powers tried to colonize parts of Brazil, in incursions that the Portuguese had to fight, notably the French in Rio during the 1560s, in Maranhão during the 1610s, and the Dutch in Bahia and Pernambuco, during the Dutch–Portuguese War, after the end of Iberian Union. Brazil_sentence_59

The Portuguese colonial administration in Brazil had two objectives that would ensure colonial order and the monopoly of Portugal's wealthiest and largest colony: to keep under control and eradicate all forms of slave rebellion and resistance, such as the Quilombo of Palmares, and to repress all movements for autonomy or independence, such as the Minas Conspiracy. Brazil_sentence_60

United Kingdom with Portugal Brazil_section_4

Main article: United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves Brazil_sentence_61

In late 1807, Spanish and Napoleonic forces threatened the security of continental Portugal, causing Prince Regent João, in the name of Queen Maria I, to move the royal court from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro. Brazil_sentence_62

There they established some of Brazil's first financial institutions, such as its local stock exchanges, and its National Bank, additionally ending the Portuguese monopoly on Brazilian trade and opening Brazil to other nations. Brazil_sentence_63

In 1809, in retaliation for being forced into exile, the Prince Regent ordered the Portuguese conquest of French Guiana. Brazil_sentence_64

With the end of the Peninsular War in 1814, the courts of Europe demanded that Queen Maria I and Prince Regent João return to Portugal, deeming it unfit for the head of an ancient European monarchy to reside in a colony. Brazil_sentence_65

In 1815, to justify continuing to live in Brazil, where the royal court had thrived for six years, the Crown established the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil, and the Algarves, thus creating a pluricontinental transatlantic monarchic state. Brazil_sentence_66

However, the leadership in Portugal, resentful of the new status of its larger colony, continued to demand the return of the court to Lisbon (v. Liberal Revolution of 1820). Brazil_sentence_67

In 1821, acceding to the demands of revolutionaries who had taken the city of Porto, D. João VI departed for Lisbon. Brazil_sentence_68

There he swore an oath to the new constitution, leaving his son, Prince Pedro de Alcântara, as Regent of the Kingdom of Brazil. Brazil_sentence_69

Independent empire Brazil_section_5

Main articles: Independence of Brazil and Empire of Brazil Brazil_sentence_70

Tensions between Portuguese and Brazilians increased, and the Portuguese Cortes, guided by the new political regime imposed by the 1820 Liberal Revolution, tried to re-establish Brazil as a colony. Brazil_sentence_71

The Brazilians refused to yield, and Prince Pedro decided to stand with them, declaring the country's independence from Portugal on 7 September 1822. Brazil_sentence_72

A month later, Prince Pedro was declared the first Emperor of Brazil, with the royal title of Dom Pedro I, resulting in the foundation of the Empire of Brazil. Brazil_sentence_73

The Brazilian War of Independence, which had already begun along this process, spread through the northern, northeastern regions and in Cisplatina province. Brazil_sentence_74

The last Portuguese soldiers surrendered on 8 March 1824; Portugal officially recognized Brazil on 29 August 1825. Brazil_sentence_75

On 7 April 1831, worn down by years of administrative turmoil and political dissent with both liberal and conservative sides of politics, including an attempt of republican secession, and unreconciled to the way that absolutists in Portugal had given in the succession of King John VI, Pedro I went to Portugal to reclaim his daughter's crown, abdicating the Brazilian throne in favor of his five-year-old son and heir (who thus became the Empire's second monarch, with the royal title of Dom Pedro II). Brazil_sentence_76

As the new Emperor could not exert his constitutional powers until he came of age, a regency was set up by the National Assembly. Brazil_sentence_77

In the absence of a charismatic figure who could represent a moderate face of power, during this period a series of localized rebellions took place, such as the Cabanagem in Grão-Pará Province, the Malê Revolt in Salvador da Bahia, the Balaiada (Maranhão), the Sabinada (Bahia), and the Ragamuffin War, which began in Rio Grande do Sul and was supported by Giuseppe Garibaldi. Brazil_sentence_78

These emerged from the dissatisfaction of the provinces with the central power, coupled with old and latent social tensions peculiar to a vast, slaveholding and newly independent nation state. Brazil_sentence_79

This period of internal political and social upheaval, which included the Praieira revolt in Pernambuco, was overcome only at the end of the 1840s, years after the end of the regency, which occurred with the premature coronation of Pedro II in 1841. Brazil_sentence_80

During the last phase of the monarchy, internal political debate centered on the issue of slavery. Brazil_sentence_81

The Atlantic slave trade was abandoned in 1850, as a result of the British Aberdeen Act, but only in May 1888 after a long process of internal mobilization and debate for an ethical and legal dismantling of slavery in the country, was the institution formally abolished. Brazil_sentence_82

The foreign-affairs policies of the monarchy dealt with issues with the countries of the Southern Cone with whom Brazil had borders. Brazil_sentence_83

Long after the Cisplatine War that resulted in independence for Uruguay, Brazil won three international wars during the 58-year reign of Pedro II. Brazil_sentence_84

These were the Platine War, the Uruguayan War and the devastating Paraguayan War, the largest war effort in Brazilian history. Brazil_sentence_85

Although there was no desire among the majority of Brazilians to change the country's form of government, on 15 November 1889, in disagreement with the majority of Army officers, as well as with rural and financial elites (for different reasons), the monarchy was overthrown by a military coup. Brazil_sentence_86

15 November is now Republic Day, a national holiday. Brazil_sentence_87

Early republic Brazil_section_6

Main articles: First Brazilian Republic, Vargas Era § Estado Novo, and Second Brazilian Republic Brazil_sentence_88

The early republican government was nothing more than a military dictatorship, with army dominating affairs both in Rio de Janeiro and in the states. Brazil_sentence_89

Freedom of the press disappeared and elections were controlled by those in power. Brazil_sentence_90

Not until 1894, following an economic crisis and a military one, did civilians take power, remaining there until October 1930. Brazil_sentence_91

If in relation to its foreign policy, the country in this first republican period maintained a relative balance characterized by a success in resolving border disputes with neighboring countries, only broken by the Acre War (1899–1902) and its involvement in World War I (1914–1918), followed by a failed attempt to exert a prominent role in the League of Nations; Internally, from the crisis of Encilhamento and the Armada Revolts, a prolonged cycle of financial, political and social instability began until the 1920s, keeping the country besieged by various rebellions, both civilian and military. Brazil_sentence_92

Little by little, a cycle of general instability sparked by these crises undermined the regime to such an extent that in the wake of the murder of his running mate, the defeated opposition presidential candidate Getúlio Vargas, supported by most of the military, successfully led the October 1930 Coup. Brazil_sentence_93

Vargas and the military were supposed to assume power temporarily, but instead closed the Congress, extinguished the Constitution, ruled with emergency powers and replaced the states' governors with their own supporters. Brazil_sentence_94

In the 1930s, three failed attempts to remove Vargas and his supporters from power occurred. Brazil_sentence_95

The first was the Constitutionalist Revolution in 1932, led by the Paulista oligarchy. Brazil_sentence_96

The second was a Communist uprising in November 1935, and the last one a putsch attempt by local fascists in May 1938. Brazil_sentence_97

The 1935 uprising created a security crisis in which the Congress transferred more power to the executive. Brazil_sentence_98

The 1937 coup d'état resulted in the cancellation of the 1938 election, formalized Vargas as dictator, beginning the Estado Novo era, which was noted for government brutality and censorship of the press. Brazil_sentence_99

Foreign policy during the Vargas years was marked by the antecedents and World War II. Brazil_sentence_100

Brazil remained neutral until August 1942, when the country entered on the allied side, after suffering retaliation by Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy, in a strategic dispute over the South Atlantic. Brazil_sentence_101

In addition to its participation in the battle of the Atlantic, Brazil also sent an expeditionary force to fight in the Italian campaign. Brazil_sentence_102

With the Allied victory in 1945 and the end of the Nazi-fascist regimes in Europe, Vargas's position became unsustainable and he was swiftly overthrown in another military coup, with democracy "reinstated" by the same army that had ended it 15 years earlier. Brazil_sentence_103

Vargas committed suicide in August 1954 amid a political crisis, after having returned to power by election in 1950. Brazil_sentence_104

Contemporary era Brazil_section_7

Main articles: Military dictatorship in Brazil and History of Brazil since 1985 Brazil_sentence_105

Several brief interim governments followed Vargas's suicide. Brazil_sentence_106

Juscelino Kubitschek became president in 1956 and assumed a conciliatory posture towards the political opposition that allowed him to govern without major crises. Brazil_sentence_107

The economy and industrial sector grew remarkably, but his greatest achievement was the construction of the new capital city of Brasília, inaugurated in 1960. Brazil_sentence_108

Kubitschek's successor, Jânio Quadros, resigned in 1961 less than a year after taking office. Brazil_sentence_109

His vice-president, João Goulart, assumed the presidency, but aroused strong political opposition and was deposed in April 1964 by a coup that resulted in a military regime. Brazil_sentence_110

The new regime was intended to be transitory but gradually closed in on itself and became a full dictatorship with the promulgation of the Fifth Institutional Act in 1968. Brazil_sentence_111

Oppression was not limited to those who resorted to guerrilla tactics to fight the regime, but also reached institutional opponents, artists, journalists and other members of civil society, inside and outside the country through the infamous "Operation Condor". Brazil_sentence_112

Despite its brutality, like other authoritarian regimes, due to an economic boom, known as an "economic miracle", the regime reached a peak in popularity in the early 1970s. Brazil_sentence_113

Slowly, however, the wear and tear of years of dictatorial power that had not slowed the repression, even after the defeat of the leftist guerrillas, plus the inability to deal with the economic crises of the period and popular pressure, made an opening policy inevitable, which from the regime side was led by Generals Ernesto Geisel and Golbery do Couto e Silva. Brazil_sentence_114

With the enactment of the Amnesty Law in 1979, Brazil began a slow return to democracy, which was completed during the 1980s. Brazil_sentence_115

Civilians returned to power in 1985 when José Sarney assumed the presidency. Brazil_sentence_116

He became unpopular during his tenure through failure to control the economic crisis and hyperinflation he inherited from the military regime. Brazil_sentence_117

Sarney's unsuccessful government led to the election in 1989 of the almost-unknown Fernando Collor, subsequently impeached by the National Congress in 1992. Brazil_sentence_118

Collor was succeeded by his vice-president, Itamar Franco, who appointed Fernando Henrique Cardoso Minister of Finance. Brazil_sentence_119

In 1994, Cardoso produced a highly successful Plano Real, that, after decades of failed economic plans made by previous governments attempting to curb hyperinflation, finally stabilized the Brazilian economy. Brazil_sentence_120

Cardoso won the 1994 election, and again in 1998. Brazil_sentence_121

The peaceful transition of power from Cardoso to his main opposition leader, Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (elected in 2002 and re-elected in 2006), was seen as proof that Brazil had achieved a long-sought political stability. Brazil_sentence_122

However, sparked by indignation and frustrations accumulated over decades from corruption (including that of then President Rouseff), police brutality, inefficiencies of the political establishment and public service, numerous peaceful protests erupted in Brazil from the middle of first term of Dilma Rousseff, who had succeeded Lula after winning election in 2010. Brazil_sentence_123

Enhanced by political and economic crises with evidence of involvement by politicians from all the primary political parties in several bribery and tax evasion schemes, with large street protests for and against her, Rousseff was impeached by the Brazilian Congress in 2016. Brazil_sentence_124

In 2017, the Supreme Court asked for the investigation of 71 Brazilian lawmakers and nine ministers in President Michel Temer's cabinet allegedly linked to the Petrobras corruption scandal. Brazil_sentence_125

President Temer is himself accused of corruption. Brazil_sentence_126

In 2018, 62% of the population on a poll claimed that corruption was Brazil's biggest problem. Brazil_sentence_127

Starting in 2013, there is a total change in Brazilian politics, with the overthrow of the left and the rise of conservatism in right. Brazil_sentence_128

With the discovery that the PT governments have practically gone bankrupt in Petrobras, Correios and many other state companies, through a great diversion of public funds and the use of their funds to bribe the National Congress, the Brazilian Senate and Judiciary, in addition to the indiscriminate use of BNDES to finance socialist dictatorships in Cuba, Venezuela, Latin America, Africa and the Middle East (with Lula and Dilma openly supporting controversial figures such as Hugo Chávez, Nicolás Maduro, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, Evo Morales, Vladimir Putin, Kim Jong-un and the Chinese Communist Party, among others), also counting on the attempts of Dilma Roussef to install "Popular Councils" to replace the power of the federal deputies, Jair Bolsonaro, former captain of the army and candidate of the right, is elected. Brazil_sentence_129

Through the Operation Car Wash, the Federal Police of Brazil has since acted on the deviations and corruption of the PT and allied parties at that time. Brazil_sentence_130

In the 2018 elections, candidate Jair Bolsonaro of the Social Liberal Party (PSL) was elected president, who won in the second round Fernando Haddad, of the Workers Party (PT), with the support of 55.13% of the valid votes. Brazil_sentence_131

Geography Brazil_section_8

Main article: Geography of Brazil Brazil_sentence_132

Brazil occupies a large area along the eastern coast of South America and includes much of the continent's interior, sharing land borders with Uruguay to the south; Argentina and Paraguay to the southwest; Bolivia and Peru to the west; Colombia to the northwest; and Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname and France (French overseas region of French Guiana) to the north. Brazil_sentence_133

It shares a border with every South American country except Ecuador and Chile. Brazil_sentence_134

It also encompasses a number of oceanic archipelagos, such as Fernando de Noronha, Rocas Atoll, Saint Peter and Paul Rocks, and Trindade and Martim Vaz. Brazil_sentence_135

Its size, relief, climate, and natural resources make Brazil geographically diverse. Brazil_sentence_136

Including its Atlantic islands, Brazil lies between latitudes 6°N and 34°S, and longitudes 28° and 74°W. Brazil_sentence_137

Brazil is the fifth largest country in the world, and third largest in the Americas, with a total area of 8,515,767.049 km (3,287,956 sq mi), including 55,455 km (21,411 sq mi) of water. Brazil_sentence_138

It spans four time zones; from UTC−5 comprising the state of Acre and the westernmost portion of Amazonas, to UTC−4 in the western states, to UTC−3 in the eastern states (the national time) and UTC−2 in the Atlantic islands. Brazil_sentence_139

Brazil is the longest country in the world, spanning 4,395 km (2,731 mi) from north to south. Brazil_sentence_140

Brazil is also the only country in the world that has the equator and the Tropic of Capricorn running through it. Brazil_sentence_141

Brazilian topography is also diverse and includes hills, mountains, plains, highlands, and scrublands. Brazil_sentence_142

Much of the terrain lies between 200 metres (660 ft) and 800 metres (2,600 ft) in elevation. Brazil_sentence_143

The main upland area occupies most of the southern half of the country. Brazil_sentence_144

The northwestern parts of the plateau consist of broad, rolling terrain broken by low, rounded hills. Brazil_sentence_145

The southeastern section is more rugged, with a complex mass of ridges and mountain ranges reaching elevations of up to 1,200 metres (3,900 ft). Brazil_sentence_146

These ranges include the Mantiqueira and Espinhaço mountains and the Serra do Mar. Brazil_sentence_147

In the north, the Guiana Highlands form a major drainage divide, separating rivers that flow south into the Amazon Basin from rivers that empty into the Orinoco River system, in Venezuela, to the north. Brazil_sentence_148

The highest point in Brazil is the Pico da Neblina at 2,994 metres (9,823 ft), and the lowest is the Atlantic Ocean. Brazil_sentence_149

Brazil has a dense and complex system of rivers, one of the world's most extensive, with eight major drainage basins, all of which drain into the Atlantic. Brazil_sentence_150

Major rivers include the Amazon (the world's second-longest river and the largest in terms of volume of water), the Paraná and its major tributary the Iguaçu (which includes the Iguazu Falls), the Negro, São Francisco, Xingu, Madeira and Tapajós rivers. Brazil_sentence_151

Climate Brazil_section_9

Main article: Climate of Brazil Brazil_sentence_152

The climate of Brazil comprises a wide range of weather conditions across a large area and varied topography, but most of the country is tropical. Brazil_sentence_153

According to the Köppen system, Brazil hosts six major climatic subtypes: desert, equatorial, tropical, semiarid, oceanic and subtropical. Brazil_sentence_154

The different climatic conditions produce environments ranging from equatorial rainforests in the north and semiarid deserts in the northeast, to temperate coniferous forests in the south and tropical savannas in central Brazil. Brazil_sentence_155

Many regions have starkly different microclimates. Brazil_sentence_156

An equatorial climate characterizes much of northern Brazil. Brazil_sentence_157

There is no real dry season, but there are some variations in the period of the year when most rain falls. Brazil_sentence_158

Temperatures average 25 °C (77 °F), with more significant temperature variation between night and day than between seasons. Brazil_sentence_159

Over central Brazil rainfall is more seasonal, characteristic of a savanna climate. Brazil_sentence_160

This region is as extensive as the Amazon basin but has a very different climate as it lies farther south at a higher altitude. Brazil_sentence_161

In the interior northeast, seasonal rainfall is even more extreme. Brazil_sentence_162

The semiarid climatic region generally receives less than 800 millimetres (31.5 in) of rain, most of which generally falls in a period of three to five months of the year and occasionally less than this, creating long periods of drought. Brazil_sentence_163

Brazil's 1877–78 Grande Seca (Great Drought), the worst in Brazil's history, caused approximately half a million deaths. Brazil_sentence_164

A similarly devastating drought occurred in 1915. Brazil_sentence_165

South of Bahia, near the coasts, and more southerly most of the state of São Paulo, the distribution of rainfall changes, with rain falling throughout the year. Brazil_sentence_166

The south enjoys subtropical conditions, with cool winters and average annual temperatures not exceeding 18 °C (64.4 °F); winter frosts and snowfall are not rare in the highest areas. Brazil_sentence_167

Biodiversity and environment Brazil_section_10

Main articles: Wildlife of Brazil, Deforestation in Brazil, and Conservation in Brazil Brazil_sentence_168

Brazil's large territory comprises different ecosystems, such as the Amazon rainforest, recognized as having the greatest biological diversity in the world, with the Atlantic Forest and the Cerrado, sustaining the greatest biodiversity. Brazil_sentence_169

In the south, the Araucaria pine forest grows under temperate conditions. Brazil_sentence_170

The rich wildlife of Brazil reflects the variety of natural habitats. Brazil_sentence_171

Scientists estimate that the total number of plant and animal species in Brazil could approach four million, mostly invertebrates. Brazil_sentence_172

Larger mammals include carnivores pumas, jaguars, ocelots, rare bush dogs, and foxes, and herbivores peccaries, tapirs, anteaters, sloths, opossums, and armadillos. Brazil_sentence_173

Deer are plentiful in the south, and many species of New World monkeys are found in the northern rain forests. Brazil_sentence_174

Concern for the environment has grown in response to global interest in environmental issues. Brazil_sentence_175

Brazil's Amazon Basin is home to an extremely diverse array of fish species, including the red-bellied piranha. Brazil_sentence_176

By 2013, Brazil's "dramatic policy-driven reduction in Amazon Basin deforestation" was a "global exception in terms of forest change", according to scientific journal Science. Brazil_sentence_177

From 2003 to 2011, compared to all other countries in the world, Brazil had the "largest decline in annual forest loss", as indicated in the study using high-resolution satellite maps showing global forest cover changes. Brazil_sentence_178

The annual loss of forest cover decreased from a 2003/2004 record high of more than 40,000 square kilometres (4,000×10^ ha; 9.9×10^ acres; 15,000 sq mi) to a 2010/2011 low of under 20,000 square kilometres (2,000×10^ ha; 4.9×10^ acres; 7,700 sq mi), reversing widespread deforestation from the 1970s to 2003. Brazil_sentence_179

However, in 2019, when the Bolsonaro government came to power, the rate of deforestation of the Amazon rainforest increased sharply threatening to reach a tipping point after it the forest will collapse, having severe consequences for the world. Brazil_sentence_180

(see Tipping points in the climate system) This can also complicate the trade agreement with the European Union Speaking at the UN General Assembly, Bolsonaro criticised what he described as sensational reporting in the international media. Brazil_sentence_181

"It is a fallacy to say that the Amazon is the heritage of humankind, and a misconception, as confirmed by scientists, to say that our Amazonian forests are the lungs of world. Brazil_sentence_182

Using these fallacies, certain countries instead of helping, embarked on the media lies and behaved in a disrespectful manner and with a colonialist spirit." Brazil_sentence_183

he said. Brazil_sentence_184

President Jair Bolsonaro asserted Brazil's sovereignty over the Amazon. Brazil_sentence_185

According to a 2008 GreenPeace article, the natural heritage of Brazil is severely threatened by cattle ranching and agriculture, logging, mining, resettlement, oil and gas extraction, over-fishing, wildlife trade, dams and infrastructure, water pollution, climate change, fire, and invasive species. Brazil_sentence_186

In many areas of the country, the natural environment is threatened by development. Brazil_sentence_187

The construction of highways has opened up previously remote areas for agriculture and settlement; dams have flooded valleys and inundated wildlife habitats; and mines have scarred and polluted the landscape. Brazil_sentence_188

At least 70 dams are said to be planned for the Amazon region, including the controversial Belo Monte hydroelectric dam. Brazil_sentence_189

In summer 2019, 2 states in Brazil Paraná and Santa Catarina banned fracking, what will have positive effects on the climate and water quality, because the shale gas and shale oil reserves in the state of Parana are the larger in the southern hemisphere. Brazil_sentence_190

Government and politics Brazil_section_11

Main articles: Politics of Brazil, Federal government of Brazil, and Elections in Brazil Brazil_sentence_191

The form of government is a democratic federative republic, with a presidential system. Brazil_sentence_192

The president is both head of state and head of government of the Union and is elected for a four-year term, with the possibility of re-election for a second successive term. Brazil_sentence_193

The current president is Jair Bolsonaro. Brazil_sentence_194

The previous president, Michel Temer, replaced Dilma Rousseff after her impeachment. Brazil_sentence_195

The President appoints the Ministers of State, who assist in government. Brazil_sentence_196

Legislative houses in each political entity are the main source of law in Brazil. Brazil_sentence_197

The National Congress is the Federation's bicameral legislature, consisting of the Chamber of Deputies and the Federal Senate. Brazil_sentence_198

Judiciary authorities exercise jurisdictional duties almost exclusively. Brazil_sentence_199

Brazil is a democracy, according to the Democracy Index 2010. Brazil_sentence_200

The political-administrative organization of the Federative Republic of Brazil comprises the Union, the states, the Federal District, and the municipalities. Brazil_sentence_201

The Union, the states, the Federal District, and the municipalities, are the "spheres of government". Brazil_sentence_202

The federation is set on five fundamental principles: sovereignty, citizenship, dignity of human beings, the social values of labor and freedom of enterprise, and political pluralism. Brazil_sentence_203

The classic tripartite branches of government (executive, legislative and judicial under a checks and balances system) are formally established by the Constitution. Brazil_sentence_204

The executive and legislative are organized independently in all three spheres of government, while the judiciary is organized only at the federal and state and Federal District spheres. Brazil_sentence_205

All members of the executive and legislative branches are directly elected. Brazil_sentence_206

Judges and other judicial officials are appointed after passing entry exams. Brazil_sentence_207

For most of its democratic history, Brazil has had a multi-party system, proportional representation. Brazil_sentence_208

Voting is compulsory for the literate between 18 and 70 years old and optional for illiterates and those between 16 and 18 or beyond 70. Brazil_sentence_209

Together with several smaller parties, four political parties stand out: Workers' Party (PT), Brazilian Social Democracy Party (PSDB), Brazilian Democratic Movement (MDB) and Democrats (DEM). Brazil_sentence_210

Fifteen political parties are represented in Congress. Brazil_sentence_211

It is common for politicians to switch parties, and thus the proportion of congressional seats held by particular parties changes regularly. Brazil_sentence_212

Almost all governmental and administrative functions are exercised by authorities and agencies affiliated to the Executive. Brazil_sentence_213

The country has more than 40 active political parties, and only one of them defines itself as a right-wing party (PSL), with a clear political imbalance. Brazil_sentence_214

The country has several far-left parties like PSOL, PCO, PSTU, PCB, PC do B, left parties like PT, PSB, PDT, PV, Rede and Solidariedade and center-left like PSDB, DEM, PMN and Cidadania. Brazil_sentence_215

Ten parties declare themselves as the center: MDB, PL, PSD, PTC, DC, PROS, Avante, Patriota, Podemos and PMB. Brazil_sentence_216

Five parties declare themselves as center-right: PTB, Progressistas, PSC, PRTB and Republicanos. Brazil_sentence_217

The only party that claims to be purely liberal, without further consideration, is Novo. Brazil_sentence_218

When asked about their ideological spectrum, Brazilian parties tend to give obtuse and non-conclusive answers on the subject. Brazil_sentence_219

Law Brazil_section_12

Main articles: Law of Brazil, Law enforcement in Brazil, and Crime in Brazil Brazil_sentence_220

Brazilian law is based on the civil law legal system and civil law concepts prevail over common law practice. Brazil_sentence_221

Most of Brazilian law is codified, although non-codified statutes also represent a substantial part, playing a complementary role. Brazil_sentence_222

Court decisions set out interpretive guidelines; however, they are seldom binding on other specific cases. Brazil_sentence_223

Doctrinal works and the works of academic jurists have strong influence in law creation and in law cases. Brazil_sentence_224

The legal system is based on the Federal Constitution, promulgated on 5 October 1988, and the fundamental law of Brazil. Brazil_sentence_225

All other legislation and court decisions must conform to its rules. Brazil_sentence_226

As of April 2007, there have been 53 amendments. Brazil_sentence_227

States have their own constitutions, which must not contradict the Federal Constitution. Brazil_sentence_228

Municipalities and the Federal District have "organic laws" (leis orgânicas), which act in a similar way to constitutions. Brazil_sentence_229

Legislative entities are the main source of statutes, although in certain matters judiciary and executive bodies may enact legal norms. Brazil_sentence_230

Jurisdiction is administered by the judiciary entities, although in rare situations the Federal Constitution allows the Federal Senate to pass on legal judgments. Brazil_sentence_231

There are also specialized military, labor, and electoral courts. Brazil_sentence_232

The highest court is the Supreme Federal Court. Brazil_sentence_233

This system has been criticized over the last few decades for the slow pace of decision-making. Brazil_sentence_234

Lawsuits on appeal may take several years to resolve, and in some cases more than a decade elapses before definitive rulings. Brazil_sentence_235

Nevertheless, the Supreme Federal Tribunal was the first court in the world to transmit its sessions on television, and also via YouTube. Brazil_sentence_236

More recently, in December 2009, the Supreme Court adopted Twitter to display items on the day planner of the ministers, to inform the daily actions of the Court and the most important decisions made by them. Brazil_sentence_237

Military Brazil_section_13

Main article: Brazilian Armed Forces Brazil_sentence_238

The armed forces of Brazil are the largest in Latin America by active personnel and the largest in terms of military equipment. Brazil_sentence_239

It consists of the Brazilian Army (including the Army Aviation Command), the Brazilian Navy (including the Marine Corps and Naval Aviation), and the Brazilian Air Force. Brazil_sentence_240

Brazil's conscription policy gives it one of the world's largest military forces, estimated at more than 1.6 million reservists annually. Brazil_sentence_241

Numbering close to 236,000 active personnel, the Brazilian Army has the largest number of armored vehicles in South America, including armored transports and tanks. Brazil_sentence_242

It is also unique in Latin America for its large, elite forces specializing in unconventional missions, the Brazilian Special Operations Command, and the versatile Strategic Rapid Action Force, made up of highly mobilized and prepared Special Operations Brigade, Infantry Brigade Parachutist, 1st Jungle Infantry Battalion (Airmobile) and 12th Brigade Light Infantry (Airmobile) able to act anywhere in the country, on short notice, to counter external aggression. Brazil_sentence_243

The states' Military Police and the Military Firefighters Corps are described as an ancillary forces of the Army by the constitution, but are under the control of each state's governor. Brazil_sentence_244

Brazil's navy, the second-largest in the Americas, once operated some of the most powerful warships in the world with the two Minas Geraes-class dreadnoughts, which sparked a South American dreadnought race between Argentina, Brazil, and Chile. Brazil_sentence_245

Today, it is a green water force and has a group of specialized elite in retaking ships and naval facilities, GRUMEC, unit specially trained to protect Brazilian oil platforms along its coast. Brazil_sentence_246

It is the only navy in Latin America that operates an aircraft carrier, PHM Atlantico, and one of the ten navies of the world to operate one. Brazil_sentence_247

The Air Force is the largest in Latin America and has about 700 manned aircraft in service and effective about 67,000 personnel. Brazil_sentence_248

Brazil has not been invaded since 1865 during the Paraguayan War. Brazil_sentence_249

Additionally, Brazil has no contested territorial disputes with any of its neighbors and neither does it have rivalries, like Chile and Bolivia have with each other. Brazil_sentence_250

The Brazilian military has also three times intervened militarily to overthrow the Brazilian government. Brazil_sentence_251

It has built a tradition of participating in UN peacekeeping missions such as in Haiti, East Timor and Central African Republic. Brazil_sentence_252

Brazil signed the UN treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons. Brazil_sentence_253

Foreign policy Brazil_section_14

Main article: Foreign relations of Brazil Brazil_sentence_254

Brazil's international relations are based on Article 4 of the Federal Constitution, which establishes non-intervention, self-determination, international cooperation and the peaceful settlement of conflicts as the guiding principles of Brazil's relationship with other countries and multilateral organizations. Brazil_sentence_255

According to the Constitution, the President has ultimate authority over foreign policy, while the Congress is tasked with reviewing and considering all diplomatic nominations and international treaties, as well as legislation relating to Brazilian foreign policy. Brazil_sentence_256

Brazil's foreign policy is a by-product of the country's position as a regional power in Latin America, a leader among developing countries, and an emerging world power. Brazil_sentence_257

Brazilian foreign policy has generally been based on the principles of multilateralism, peaceful dispute settlement, and non-intervention in the affairs of other countries. Brazil_sentence_258

Brazil is a founding member state of the Community of Portuguese Language Countries (CPLP), also known as the Lusophone Commonwealth, an international organization and political association of Lusophone nations across four continents, where Portuguese is an official language. Brazil_sentence_259

An increasingly well-developed tool of Brazil's foreign policy is providing aid as a donor to other developing countries. Brazil_sentence_260

Brazil does not just use its growing economic strength to provide financial aid, but it also provides high levels of expertise and most importantly of all, a quiet non-confrontational diplomacy to improve governance levels. Brazil_sentence_261

Total aid is estimated to be around $1 billion per year, which includes: Brazil_sentence_262

Brazil_unordered_list_0

  • technical cooperation of around $480 million ($30 million in 2010 provided directly by the Brazilian Cooperation Agency (ABC));Brazil_item_0_0
  • estimated $450 million for in-kind expertise provided by Brazilian institutions specializing in technical cooperation.Brazil_item_0_1

In addition, Brazil manages a peacekeeping mission in Haiti ($350 million) and makes in-kind contributions to the World Food Programme ($300 million). Brazil_sentence_263

This is in addition to humanitarian assistance and contributions to multilateral development agencies. Brazil_sentence_264

The scale of this aid places it on par with China and India. Brazil_sentence_265

The Brazilian South-South aid has been described as a "global model in waiting." Brazil_sentence_266

Law enforcement and crime Brazil_section_15

Main articles: Law enforcement in Brazil and Crime in Brazil Brazil_sentence_267

In Brazil, the Constitution establishes five different police agencies for law enforcement: Federal Police Department, Federal Highway Police, Federal Railroad Police, Military Police and Civil Police. Brazil_sentence_268

Of these, the first three are affiliated with federal authorities and the last two are subordinate to state governments. Brazil_sentence_269

All police forces are the responsibility of the executive branch of any of the federal or state powers. Brazil_sentence_270

The National Public Security Force also can act in public disorder situations arising anywhere in the country. Brazil_sentence_271

The country still has above-average levels of violent crime and particularly high levels of gun violence and homicide. Brazil_sentence_272

In 2012, the World Health Organization (WHO) estimated the number of 32 deaths per 100,000 inhabitants, one of the highest rates of homicide of the world. Brazil_sentence_273

The number considered tolerable by the WHO is about 10 homicides per 100,000 inhabitants. Brazil_sentence_274

In 2018, Brazil had a record 63,880 murders. Brazil_sentence_275

However, there are differences between the crime rates in the Brazilian states. Brazil_sentence_276

While in São Paulo the homicide rate registered in 2013 was 10.8 deaths per 100,000 inhabitants, in Alagoas it was 64.7 homicides per 100,000 inhabitants. Brazil_sentence_277

Brazil also has high levels of incarceration and the third largest prison population in the world (behind only China and the United States), with an estimated total of approximately 700,000 prisoners around the country (June 2014), an increase of about 300% compared to the index registered in 1992. Brazil_sentence_278

The high number of prisoners eventually overloaded the Brazilian prison system, leading to a shortfall of about 200,000 accommodations. Brazil_sentence_279

Administrative divisions Brazil_section_16

Main articles: States of Brazil and Municipalities of Brazil Brazil_sentence_280

See also: Regions of Brazil Brazil_sentence_281

Brazil_table_infobox_1

Brazil is a federation composed of 26 states, one federal district, and the 5570 municipalities. Brazil_sentence_282

States have autonomous administrations, collect their own taxes and receive a share of taxes collected by the Federal government. Brazil_sentence_283

They have a governor and a unicameral legislative body elected directly by their voters. Brazil_sentence_284

They also have independent Courts of Law for common justice. Brazil_sentence_285

Despite this, states have much less autonomy to create their own laws than in the United States. Brazil_sentence_286

For example, criminal and civil laws can be voted by only the federal bicameral Congress and are uniform throughout the country. Brazil_sentence_287

The states and the federal district may be grouped into regions: Northern, Northeast, Central-West, Southeast and Southern. Brazil_sentence_288

The Brazilian regions are merely geographical, not political or administrative divisions, and they do not have any specific form of government. Brazil_sentence_289

Although defined by law, Brazilian regions are useful mainly for statistical purposes, and also to define the distribution of federal funds in development projects. Brazil_sentence_290

Municipalities, as the states, have autonomous administrations, collect their own taxes and receive a share of taxes collected by the Union and state government. Brazil_sentence_291

Each has a mayor and an elected legislative body, but no separate Court of Law. Brazil_sentence_292

Indeed, a Court of Law organized by the state can encompass many municipalities in a single justice administrative division called comarca (county). Brazil_sentence_293

Economy Brazil_section_17

Main article: Economy of Brazil Brazil_sentence_294

See also: Brazilian real, Agriculture in Brazil, Mining in Brazil, and Industry in Brazil Brazil_sentence_295

Brazil is the largest national economy in Latin America, the world's ninth largest economy and the eighth largest in purchasing power parity (PPP) according to 2018 estimates. Brazil_sentence_296

Brazil has a mixed economy with abundant natural resources. Brazil_sentence_297

After rapid growth in preceding decades, the country entered an ongoing recession in 2014 amid a political corruption scandal and nationwide protests. Brazil_sentence_298

Its Gross domestic product (PPP) per capita was $15,919 in 2017 putting Brazil in the 77th position according to IMF data. Brazil_sentence_299

Active in agricultural, mining, manufacturing and service sectors Brazil has a labor force of over 107 million (ranking 6th worldwide) and unemployment of 6.2% (ranking 64th worldwide). Brazil_sentence_300

The country has been expanding its presence in international financial and commodities markets, and is one of a group of four emerging economies called the BRIC countries. Brazil_sentence_301

Brazil has been the world's largest producer of coffee for the last 150 years. Brazil_sentence_302

Brazil's diversified economy includes agriculture, industry, and a wide range of services. Brazil_sentence_303

Agriculture and allied sectors like forestry, logging and fishing accounted for 5.1% of the GDP in 2007. Brazil_sentence_304

Brazil is the largest producer of sugar cane, soybeans, coffee, orange, and is the 2nd largest producer in the world of papaya, 3rd largest of maize, tobacco and pineapple, 4th place in cotton and cassava, 5th place in coconut and lemon, 6th in cocoa and avocado, 9th in rice, 10th in tomato and 11th in grape and apple. Brazil_sentence_305

The country is also one of the 3 largest banana producers in the world, but almost all production is destined for national consumption. Brazil_sentence_306

The country also produces large quantities of beans, peanut, potato, carrot, cashew nuts, tangerine, persimmon, strawberry, guaraná, guava, açaí, Brazil nut, yerba mate, wheat, among others. Brazil_sentence_307

Part of the production is exported, and another part goes to the domestic market. Brazil_sentence_308

In the production of animal proteins, Brazil is today one of the largest countries in the world. Brazil_sentence_309

In 2019, the country was the world's largest exporter of chicken meat. Brazil_sentence_310

It was also the second largest producer of beef, the world's third largest producer of milk, the world's fourth largest producer of pork and the seventh largest producer of eggs in the world. Brazil_sentence_311

In the mining sector, Brazil stands out in the extraction of iron ore (where it is the second world exporter), copper, gold, bauxite (one of the 5 largest producers in the world), manganese (one of the 5 largest producers in the world), tin (one of the largest producers in the world), niobium (concentrates 98% of reserves known to the world) and nickel. Brazil_sentence_312

In terms of precious stones, Brazil is the world's largest producer of amethyst, topaz, agate and one of the main producers of tourmaline, emerald, aquamarine and garnet. Brazil_sentence_313

Industry in Brazil – from automobiles, steel and petrochemicals to computers, aircraft and consumer durables – accounted for 30.8% of the gross domestic product. Brazil_sentence_314

Industry is highly concentrated in metropolitan São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Campinas, Porto Alegre, and Belo Horizonte. Brazil_sentence_315

Brazil has become the fourth largest car market in the world. Brazil_sentence_316

Major export products include aircraft, electrical equipment, automobiles, ethanol, textiles, footwear, iron ore, steel, coffee, orange juice, soybeans and corned beef. Brazil_sentence_317

In total, Brazil ranks 23rd worldwide in value of exports. Brazil_sentence_318

In the food industry, in 2019, Brazil was the second largest exporter of processed foods in the world. Brazil_sentence_319

In 2016, the country was the 2nd largest producer of pulp in the world and the 8th producer of paper. Brazil_sentence_320

In the footwear industry, in 2019, Brazil ranked 4th among world producers. Brazil_sentence_321

In 2019, the country was the 8th producer of vehicles and the 9th producer of steel in the world. Brazil_sentence_322

In 2018, the chemical industry of Brazil was the 8th in the world. Brazil_sentence_323

In textile industry, Brazil, although it was among the 5 largest world producers in 2013, is very little integrated in world trade. Brazil_sentence_324

Brazil pegged its currency, the real, to the U.S. dollar in 1994. Brazil_sentence_325

However, after the East Asian financial crisis, the Russian default in 1998 and the series of adverse financial events that followed it, the Central Bank of Brazil temporarily changed its monetary policy to a managed float regime scheme while undergoing a currency crisis, until definitively changing the exchange regime to free-float in January 1999. Brazil_sentence_326

Brazil received an International Monetary Fund (IMF) rescue package in mid-2002 of $30.4 billion, a record sum at the time. Brazil_sentence_327

Brazil's central bank repaid the IMF loan in 2005, although it was not due to be repaid until 2006. Brazil_sentence_328

One of the issues the Central Bank of Brazil recently dealt with was an excess of speculative short-term capital inflows to the country, which may have contributed to a fall in the value of the U.S. dollar against the real during that period. Brazil_sentence_329

Nonetheless, foreign direct investment (FDI), related to long-term, less speculative investment in production, is estimated to be $193.8 billion for 2007. Brazil_sentence_330

Inflation monitoring and control currently plays a major part in the Central bank's role in setting short-term interest rates as a monetary policy measure. Brazil_sentence_331

Between 1993 and 2010, 7012 mergers and acquisitions with a total known value of $707 billion with the involvement of Brazilian firms were announced. Brazil_sentence_332

The year 2010 was a new record in terms of value with US$115 billion in transactions. Brazil_sentence_333

The largest transaction with involvement of Brazilian companies was the Cia. Brazil_sentence_334

Vale do Rio Doce acquisition of Inco in a tender offer valued at US$18.9 billion. Brazil_sentence_335

Corruption costs Brazil almost $41 billion a year alone in 2010, with 69.9% of the country's firms identifying the issue as a major constraint in successfully penetrating the global market. Brazil_sentence_336

Local government corruption is so prevalent that voters perceive it as a problem only if it surpasses certain levels, and only if a local media e.g. a radio station is present to divulge the findings of corruption charges. Brazil_sentence_337

Initiatives, like this exposure, strengthen awareness which is indicated by the Transparency International's Corruption Perceptions Index; ranking Brazil 69th out of 178 countries in 2012. Brazil_sentence_338

The purchasing power in Brazil is eroded by the so-called Brazil cost. Brazil_sentence_339

Brazil also has a large cooperative sector that provides 50% of the food in the country. Brazil_sentence_340

The world's largest healthcare cooperative Unimed is also located in Brazil, and accounts for 32% of the healthcare insurance market in the country. Brazil_sentence_341

Energy Brazil_section_18

Main article: Energy in Brazil Brazil_sentence_342

Brazil is the world's tenth largest energy consumer with much of its energy coming from renewable sources, particularly hydroelectricity and ethanol; the Itaipu Dam is the world's largest hydroelectric plant by energy generation, and the country has other large plants like Belo Monte and Tucuruí. Brazil_sentence_343

The first car with an ethanol engine was produced in 1978 and the first airplane engine running on ethanol in 2005. Brazil_sentence_344

In total electricity generation, in 2019 Brazil reached 170,000 megawatts of installed capacity, more than 75% from renewable sources (the majority, hydroelectric plants). Brazil_sentence_345

Recent oil discoveries in the Pre-salt layer have opened the door for a large increase in oil production. Brazil_sentence_346

The governmental agencies responsible for the energy policy are the Ministry of Mines and Energy, the National Council for Energy Policy, the National Agency of Petroleum, Natural Gas and Biofuels, and the National Agency of Electricity. Brazil_sentence_347

In the beginning of 2020, in the production of oil and natural gas, the country exceeded 4 million barrels of oil equivalent per day, for the first time. Brazil_sentence_348

In January this year, 3.168 million barrels of oil per day and 138.753 million cubic meters of natural gas were extracted. Brazil_sentence_349

Tourism Brazil_section_19

Main article: Tourism in Brazil Brazil_sentence_350

Tourism in Brazil is a growing sector and key to the economy of several regions of the country. Brazil_sentence_351

The country had 6.36 million visitors in 2015, ranking in terms of the international tourist arrivals as the main destination in South America and second in Latin America after Mexico. Brazil_sentence_352

Revenues from international tourists reached US$6 billion in 2010, showing a recovery from the 2008–2009 economic crisis. Brazil_sentence_353

Historical records of 5.4 million visitors and US$6.8 billion in receipts were reached in 2011. Brazil_sentence_354

Natural areas are its most popular tourism product, a combination of ecotourism with leisure and recreation, mainly sun and beach, and adventure travel, as well as cultural tourism. Brazil_sentence_355

Among the most popular destinations are the Amazon Rainforest, beaches and dunes in the Northeast Region, the Pantanal in the Center-West Region, beaches at Rio de Janeiro and Santa Catarina, cultural tourism in Minas Gerais and business trips to São Paulo. Brazil_sentence_356

In terms of the 2015 Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Index (TTCI), which is a measurement of the factors that make it attractive to develop business in the travel and tourism industry of individual countries, Brazil ranked in the 28st place at the world's level, third in the Americas, after Canada and United States. Brazil_sentence_357

Brazil's main competitive advantages are its natural resources, which ranked 1st on this criteria out of all countries considered, and ranked 23rd for its cultural resources, due to its many World Heritage sites. Brazil_sentence_358

The TTCI report notes Brazil's main weaknesses: its ground transport infrastructure remains underdeveloped (ranked 116th), with the quality of roads ranking in 105th place; and the country continues to suffer from a lack of price competitiveness (ranked 114th), due in part to high ticket taxes and airport charges, as well as high prices and high taxation. Brazil_sentence_359

Safety and security have improved significantly: 75th in 2011, up from 128th in 2008. Brazil_sentence_360

According to the World Tourism Organization (WTO), international travel to Brazil accelerated in 2000, particularly during 2004 and 2005. Brazil_sentence_361

However, in 2006 a slow-down took place, and international arrivals had almost no growth in 2007–08. Brazil_sentence_362

In spite of this trend, revenues from international tourism continued to rise, from USD 4 billion in 2005 to 5 billion in 2007, despite 330 000 fewer arrivals. Brazil_sentence_363

This favorable trend is the result of the strong devaluation of the US dollar against the Brazilian Real, which began in 2004, but which makes Brazil a more expensive international destination. Brazil_sentence_364

This trend changed in 2009, when both visitors and revenues fell as a result of the Great Recession of 2008–09. Brazil_sentence_365

By 2010, the industry had recovered, and arrivals grew above 2006 levels to 5.2 million international visitors, and receipts from these visitors reached US$6 billion. Brazil_sentence_366

In 2011 the historical record was reached with 5.4 million visitors and US$6.8 billion in receipts. Brazil_sentence_367

Despite continuing record-breaking international tourism revenues, the number of Brazilian tourists travelling overseas has been growing steadily since 2003, resulting in a net negative foreign exchange balance, as more money is spent abroad by Brazilians than comes in as receipts from international tourists visiting Brazil. Brazil_sentence_368

Tourism expenditures abroad grew from US$5.8 billion in 2006, to US$8.2 billion in 2007, a 42% increase, representing a net deficit of US$3.3 billion in 2007, as compared to US$1.5 billion in 2006, a 125% increase from the previous year. Brazil_sentence_369

This trend is caused by Brazilians taking advantage of the stronger Real to travel and making relatively cheaper expenditures abroad. Brazil_sentence_370

Brazilians traveling overseas in 2006 represented 4% of the country's population. Brazil_sentence_371

In 2005, tourism contributed with 3.2% of the country's revenues from exports of goods and services, and represented 7% of direct and indirect employment in the Brazilian economy. Brazil_sentence_372

In 2006 direct employment in the sector reached 1.9 million people. Brazil_sentence_373

Domestic tourism is a fundamental market segment for the industry, as 51 million people traveled throughout the country in 2005, and direct revenues from Brazilian tourists reached US$22 billion, 5.6 times more receipts than international tourists in 2005. Brazil_sentence_374

In 2005, Rio de Janeiro, Foz do Iguaçu, São Paulo, Florianópolis and Salvador were the most visited cities by international tourists for leisure trips. Brazil_sentence_375

The most popular destinations for business trips were São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Porto Alegre. Brazil_sentence_376

In 2006 Rio de Janeiro and Fortaleza were the most popular destinations for business trips. Brazil_sentence_377

Infrastructure Brazil_section_20

Science and technology Brazil_section_21

Main article: Science and technology in Brazil Brazil_sentence_378

Technological research in Brazil is largely carried out in public universities and research institutes, with the majority of funding for basic research coming from various government agencies. Brazil_sentence_379

Brazil's most esteemed technological hubs are the Oswaldo Cruz Institute, the Butantan Institute, the Air Force's Aerospace Technical Center, the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation and the INPE. Brazil_sentence_380

The Brazilian Space Agency has the most advanced space program in Latin America, with significant resources to launch vehicles, and manufacture of satellites. Brazil_sentence_381

Owner of relative technological sophistication, the country develops submarines, aircraft, as well as being involved in space research, having a Vehicle Launch Center Light and being the only country in the Southern Hemisphere the integrate team building International Space Station (ISS). Brazil_sentence_382

The country is also a pioneer in the search for oil in deep water, from where it extracts 73% of its reserves. Brazil_sentence_383

Uranium is enriched at the Resende Nuclear Fuel Factory, mostly for research purposes (as Brazil obtains 88% from its electricity from hydroelectricity) and the country's first nuclear submarine was delivered in 2015 (by France). Brazil_sentence_384

Brazil is one of the three countries in Latin America with an operational Synchrotron Laboratory, a research facility on physics, chemistry, material science and life sciences, and Brazil is the only Latin American country to have a semiconductor company with its own fabrication plant, the CEITEC. Brazil_sentence_385

According to the Global Information Technology Report 2009-2010 of the World Economic Forum, Brazil is the world's 61st largest developer of information technology. Brazil_sentence_386

Brazil also has a large number of outstanding scientific personalities. Brazil_sentence_387

Among the most renowned Brazilian inventors are priests Bartolomeu de Gusmão, Landell de Moura and Francisco João de Azevedo, besides Alberto Santos-Dumont, Evaristo Conrado Engelberg, Manuel Dias de Abreu, Andreas Pavel and Nélio José Nicolai. Brazil_sentence_388

Brazilian science is represented by the likes of César Lattes (Brazilian physicist Pathfinder of Pi Meson), Mário Schenberg (considered the greatest theoretical physicist of Brazil), José Leite Lopes (only Brazilian physicist holder of the UNESCO Science Prize), Artur Ávila (the first Latin American winner of the Fields Medal) and Fritz Müller (pioneer in factual support of the theory of evolution by Charles Darwin). Brazil_sentence_389

Transport Brazil_section_22

Main article: Transport in Brazil Brazil_sentence_390

Brazilian roads are the primary carriers of freight and passenger traffic. Brazil_sentence_391

The road system totaled 1.98 million km (1.23 million mi) in 2002. Brazil_sentence_392

The total of paved roads increased from 35,496 km (22,056 mi) in 1967 to 184,140 km (114,419 mi) in 2002. Brazil_sentence_393

The country has about 14,000 km (8,699 mi) of divided highways, 5,000 km (3,107 mi) only in the State of São Paulo. Brazil_sentence_394

Currently it's possible to travel from Rio Grande, in the extreme south of the country, to Brasília (2,580 km (1,603 mi)) or Casimiro de Abreu, in the state of Rio de Janeiro (2,045 km (1,271 mi)), only on divided highways. Brazil_sentence_395

The first investments in road infrastructure have given up in the 1920s, the government of Washington Luis, being pursued in the governments of Getúlio Vargas and Eurico Gaspar Dutra. Brazil_sentence_396

President Juscelino Kubitschek (1956–61), who designed and built the capital Brasília, was another supporter of highways. Brazil_sentence_397

Kubitschek was responsible for the installation of major car manufacturers in the country (Volkswagen, Ford and General Motors arrived in Brazil during his rule) and one of the points used to attract them was support for the construction of highways. Brazil_sentence_398

With the implementation of Fiat in 1976 ending an automobile market closed loop, from the end of the 1990s the country has received large foreign direct investments installing in its territory other major car manufacturers and utilities, such as Iveco, Renault, Peugeot, Citroen, Honda, Mitsubishi, Mercedes-Benz, BMW, Hyundai, Toyota among others. Brazil_sentence_399

Brazil is the seventh most important country in the auto industry. Brazil_sentence_400

Brazil's railway system has been declining since 1945, when emphasis shifted to highway construction. Brazil_sentence_401

The total length of railway track was 30,875 km (19,185 mi) in 2002, as compared with 31,848 km (19,789 mi) in 1970. Brazil_sentence_402

Most of the railway system belonged to the Federal Railroad Corporation RFFSA, which was privatized in 2007. Brazil_sentence_403

The São Paulo Metro was the first underground transit system in Brazil. Brazil_sentence_404

The other metro systems are in Rio de Janeiro, Porto Alegre, Recife, Belo Horizonte, Brasília, Teresina and Fortaleza. Brazil_sentence_405

The country has an extensive rail network of 28,538 kilometres (17,733 miles) in length, the tenth largest network in the world. Brazil_sentence_406

Currently, the Brazilian government, unlike the past, seeks to encourage this mode of transport; an example of this incentive is the project of the Rio–São Paulo high-speed rail, that will connect the two main cities of the country to carry passengers. Brazil_sentence_407

There are about 2,500 airports in Brazil, including landing fields: the second largest number in the world, after the United States. Brazil_sentence_408

São Paulo–Guarulhos International Airport, near São Paulo, is the largest and busiest airport with nearly 20 million passengers annually, while handling the vast majority of commercial traffic for the country. Brazil_sentence_409

For freight transport waterways are of importance, e.g. the industrial zones of Manaus can be reached only by means of the Solimões–Amazonas waterway (3,250 kilometres (2,020 miles) with 6 metres (20 feet) minimum depth). Brazil_sentence_410

The country also has 50,000 kilometres (31,000 miles) of waterways. Brazil_sentence_411

Coastal shipping links widely separated parts of the country. Brazil_sentence_412

Bolivia and Paraguay have been given free ports at Santos. Brazil_sentence_413

Of the 36 deep-water ports, Santos, Itajaí, Rio Grande, Paranaguá, Rio de Janeiro, Sepetiba, Vitória, Suape, Manaus and São Francisco do Sul are the most important. Brazil_sentence_414

Bulk carriers have to wait up to 18 days before being serviced, container ships 36.3 hours on average. Brazil_sentence_415

Health Brazil_section_23

Main article: Health in Brazil Brazil_sentence_416

The Brazilian public health system, the Unified Health System (SUS), is managed and provided by all levels of government, being the largest system of this type in the world. Brazil_sentence_417

On the other hand, private healthcare systems play a complementary role. Brazil_sentence_418

Public health services are universal and offered to all citizens of the country for free. Brazil_sentence_419

However, the construction and maintenance of health centers and hospitals are financed by taxes, and the country spends about 9% of its GDP on expenditures in the area. Brazil_sentence_420

In 2012, Brazil had 1.85 doctors and 2.3 hospital beds for every 1,000 inhabitants. Brazil_sentence_421

Despite all the progress made since the creation of the universal health care system in 1988, there are still several public health problems in Brazil. Brazil_sentence_422

In 2006, the main points to be solved were the high infant (2.51%) and maternal mortality rates (73.1 deaths per 1000 births). Brazil_sentence_423

The number of deaths from noncommunicable diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases (151.7 deaths per 100,000 inhabitants) and cancer (72.7 deaths per 100,000 inhabitants), also has a considerable impact on the health of the Brazilian population. Brazil_sentence_424

Finally, external but preventable factors such as car accidents, violence and suicide caused 14.9% of all deaths in the country. Brazil_sentence_425

The Brazilian health system was ranked 125th among the 191 countries evaluated by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2000. Brazil_sentence_426

Education Brazil_section_24

Main article: Education in Brazil Brazil_sentence_427

The Federal Constitution and the Law of Guidelines and Bases of National Education determine that the Union, the states, the Federal District, and the municipalities must manage and organize their respective education systems. Brazil_sentence_428

Each of these public educational systems is responsible for its own maintenance, which manages funds as well as the mechanisms and funding sources. Brazil_sentence_429

The constitution reserves 25% of the state budget and 18% of federal taxes and municipal taxes for education. Brazil_sentence_430

According to the IBGE, in 2011, the literacy rate of the population was 90.4%, meaning that 13 million (9.6% of population) people are still illiterate in the country; functional illiteracy has reached 21.6% of the population. Brazil_sentence_431

Illiteracy is highest in the Northeast, where 19.9% of the population is illiterate. Brazil_sentence_432

Higher education starts with undergraduate or sequential courses, which may offer different options of specialization in academic or professional careers. Brazil_sentence_433

Depending on the choice, students can improve their educational background with courses of post-graduate studies or broad sense. Brazil_sentence_434

Attending an institution of higher education is required by Law of Guidelines and Bases of Education. Brazil_sentence_435

Kindergarten, elementary and medium education are required of all students, provided the student does not hold any disability, whether physical, mental, visual or hearing. Brazil_sentence_436

The University of São Paulo is the second best university in Latin America, according to recent 2019 QS World University Rankings. Brazil_sentence_437

Of the top 20 Latin American universities, eight are Brazilian. Brazil_sentence_438

Most of them are public. Brazil_sentence_439

Brazil's private institutions tend to be more exclusive and offer better quality education, so many high-income families send their children there. Brazil_sentence_440

The result is a segregated educational system that reflects extreme income disparities and reinforces social inequality. Brazil_sentence_441

However, efforts to change this are making impacts. Brazil_sentence_442

Media and communication Brazil_section_25

Main articles: Telecommunications in Brazil and Television in Brazil Brazil_sentence_443

See also: Concentration of media ownership § Brazil Brazil_sentence_444

The Brazilian press was officially born in Rio de Janeiro on 13 May 1808 with the creation of the Royal Printing National Press by the Prince Regent Dom João. Brazil_sentence_445

The Gazeta do Rio de Janeiro, the first newspaper published in the country, began to circulate on 10 September 1808. Brazil_sentence_446

The largest newspapers nowadays are Folha de S.Paulo, Super Notícia, O Globo and O Estado de S. Paulo. Brazil_sentence_447

Radio broadcasting began on 7 September 1922, with a speech by then President Pessoa, and was formalized on 20 April 1923 with the creation of "Radio Society of Rio de Janeiro." Brazil_sentence_448

Television in Brazil began officially on 18 September 1950, with the founding of TV Tupi by Assis Chateaubriand. Brazil_sentence_449

Since then television has grown in the country, creating large commercial broadcast networks such as Globo, SBT, RecordTV, Bandeirantes and RedeTV. Brazil_sentence_450

Today it is the most important factor in popular culture of Brazilian society, indicated by research showing that as much as 67% of the general population follow the same daily soap opera broadcast. Brazil_sentence_451

Digital Television, using the SBTVD standard (based on the Japanese standard ISDB-T), was adopted on 29 June 2006 and launched on 2 November 2007. Brazil_sentence_452

In May 2010, the Brazilian government launched TV Brasil Internacional, an international television station, initially broadcasting to 49 countries. Brazil_sentence_453

Commercial television channels broadcast internationally include Globo Internacional, RecordTV Internacional and Band Internacional. Brazil_sentence_454

Demographics Brazil_section_26

Main articles: Demographics of Brazil and Brazilians Brazil_sentence_455

See also: Immigration to Brazil and List of Brazilian states by population density Brazil_sentence_456

The population of Brazil, as recorded by the 2008 PNAD, was approximately 190 million (22.31 inhabitants per square kilometre or 57.8/sq mi), with a ratio of men to women of 0.95:1 and 83.75% of the population defined as urban. Brazil_sentence_457

The population is heavily concentrated in the Southeastern (79.8 million inhabitants) and Northeastern (53.5 million inhabitants) regions, while the two most extensive regions, the Center-West and the North, which together make up 64.12% of the Brazilian territory, have a total of only 29.1 million inhabitants. Brazil_sentence_458

The first census in Brazil was carried out in 1872 and recorded a population of 9,930,478. Brazil_sentence_459

From 1880 to 1930, 4 million Europeans arrived. Brazil_sentence_460

Brazil's population increased significantly between 1940 and 1970, because of a decline in the mortality rate, even though the birth rate underwent a slight decline. Brazil_sentence_461

In the 1940s the annual population growth rate was 2.4%, rising to 3.0% in the 1950s and remaining at 2.9% in the 1960s, as life expectancy rose from 44 to 54 years and to 72.6 years in 2007. Brazil_sentence_462

It has been steadily falling since the 1960s, from 3.04% per year between 1950 and 1960 to 1.05% in 2008 and is expected to fall to a negative value of –0.29% by 2050 thus completing the demographic transition. Brazil_sentence_463

In 2008, the illiteracy rate was 11.48% and among the youth (ages 15–19) 1.74%. Brazil_sentence_464

It was highest (20.30%) in the Northeast, which had a large proportion of rural poor. Brazil_sentence_465

Illiteracy was high (24.18%) among the rural population and lower (9.05%) among the urban population. Brazil_sentence_466

Race and ethnicity Brazil_section_27

Main article: Race and ethnicity in Brazil Brazil_sentence_467

According to the National Research by Household Sample (PNAD) of 2008, 48.43% of the population (about 92 million) described themselves as White; 43.80% (about 83 million) as Pardo (brown), 6.84% (about 13 million) as Black; 0.58% (about 1.1 million) as Asian; and 0.28% (about 536 thousand) as Amerindian (officially called indígena, Indigenous), while 0.07% (about 130 thousand) did not declare their race. Brazil_sentence_468

In 2007, the National Indian Foundation estimated that Brazil has 67 different uncontacted tribes, up from their estimate of 40 in 2005. Brazil_sentence_469

Brazil is believed to have the largest number of uncontacted peoples in the world. Brazil_sentence_470

Since the arrival of the Portuguese in 1500, considerable genetic mixing between Amerindians, Europeans, and Africans has taken place in all regions of the country (with European ancestry being dominant nationwide according to the vast majority of all autosomal studies undertaken covering the entire population, accounting for between 65% to 77%). Brazil_sentence_471

Brazilian society is more markedly divided by social class lines, although a high income disparity is found between race groups, so racism and classism can be conflated. Brazil_sentence_472

Socially significant closeness to one racial group is taken in account more in the basis of appearance (phenotypes) rather than ancestry, to the extent that full siblings can pertain to different "racial" groups. Brazil_sentence_473

Socioeconomic factors are also significant, because a minority of pardos are likely to start declaring themselves White or Black if socially upward. Brazil_sentence_474

Skin color and facial features do not line quite well with ancestry (usually, Afro-Brazilians are evenly mixed and European ancestry is dominant in Whites and pardos with a significant non-European contribution, but the individual variation is great). Brazil_sentence_475

The brown population (officially called pardo in Portuguese, also colloquially ) is a broad category that includes caboclos (assimilated Amerindians in general, and descendants of Whites and Natives), mulatos (descendants of primarily Whites and Afro-Brazilians) and cafuzos (descendants of Afro-Brazilians and Natives). Brazil_sentence_476

People of considerable Amerindian ancestry form the majority of the population in the Northern, Northeastern and Center-Western regions. Brazil_sentence_477

Higher percents of Blacks, mulattoes and tri-racials can be found in the eastern coast of the Northeastern region from Bahia to Paraíba and also in northern Maranhão, southern Minas Gerais and in eastern Rio de Janeiro. Brazil_sentence_478

From the 19th century, Brazil opened its borders to immigration. Brazil_sentence_479

About five million people from over 60 countries migrated to Brazil between 1808 and 1972, most of them of Portuguese, Italian, Spanish, German, Ukrainian, Polish, Jewish, Russian, Chinese, Japanese, and Arab origin. Brazil_sentence_480

Brazil has the second largest Jewish community in Latin America making up 0.06% of its population. Brazil_sentence_481

Religion Brazil_section_28

Main article: Religion in Brazil Brazil_sentence_482

Further information: Catholic Church in Brazil and Protestantism in Brazil Brazil_sentence_483

Roman Catholicism is the country's predominant faith. Brazil_sentence_484

Brazil has the world's largest Catholic population. Brazil_sentence_485

According to the 2010 Demographic Census (the PNAD survey does not inquire about religion), 64.63% of the population followed Roman Catholicism; 22.2% Protestantism; 2.0% Kardecist spiritism; 3.2% other religions, undeclared or undetermined; while 8.0% have no religion. Brazil_sentence_486

Religion in Brazil was formed from the meeting of the Catholic Church with the religious traditions of enslaved African peoples and indigenous peoples. Brazil_sentence_487

This confluence of faiths during the Portuguese colonization of Brazil led to the development of a diverse array of syncretistic practices within the overarching umbrella of Brazilian Catholic Church, characterized by traditional Portuguese festivities, and in some instances, Allan Kardec's Spiritism (a religion which incorporates elements of spiritualism and Christianity). Brazil_sentence_488

Religious pluralism increased during the 20th century, and the Protestant community has grown to include over 22% of the population. Brazil_sentence_489

The most common Protestant denominations are Evangelical Pentecostal ones. Brazil_sentence_490

Other Protestant branches with a notable presence in the country include the Baptists, Seventh-day Adventists, Lutherans and the Reformed tradition. Brazil_sentence_491

However, in the last ten years Protestantism, particularly in forms of Pentecostalism and Evangelicalism, has spread in Brazil, while the proportion of Catholics has dropped significantly. Brazil_sentence_492

After Protestantism, individuals professing no religion are also a significant group, exceeding 8% of the population as of the 2010 census. Brazil_sentence_493

The cities of Boa Vista, Salvador, and Porto Velho have the greatest proportion of Irreligious residents in Brazil. Brazil_sentence_494

Teresina, Fortaleza, and Florianópolis were the most Roman Catholic in the country. Brazil_sentence_495

Greater Rio de Janeiro, not including the city proper, is the most irreligious and least Roman Catholic Brazilian periphery, while Greater Porto Alegre and Greater Fortaleza are on the opposite sides of the lists, respectively. Brazil_sentence_496

In October 2009, the Brazilian Senate approved and enacted by the President of Brazil in February 2010, an agreement with the Vatican, in which the Legal Statute of the Catholic Church in Brazil is recognized. Brazil_sentence_497

The agreement confirmed norms that were normally complied with regarding religious education in public elementary schools (which also ensures the teaching of other beliefs), marriage and spiritual assistance in prisons and hospitals. Brazil_sentence_498

The project was criticized by parliamentarians who understood the end of the secular state with the approval of the agreement. Brazil_sentence_499

Urbanization Brazil_section_29

Main articles: List of largest cities in Brazil and Municipalities of Brazil Brazil_sentence_500

According to IBGE (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics) urban areas already concentrate 84.35% of the population, while the Southeast region remains the most populated one, with over 80 million inhabitants. Brazil_sentence_501

The largest urban agglomerations in Brazil are São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, and Belo Horizonte – all in the Southeastern Region – with 21.1, 12.3, and 5.1 million inhabitants respectively. Brazil_sentence_502

The majority of state capitals are the largest cities in their states, except for Vitória, the capital of Espírito Santo, and Florianópolis, the capital of Santa Catarina. Brazil_sentence_503

Language Brazil_section_30

Main articles: Languages of Brazil, Portuguese language, Brazilian Portuguese, and List of endangered languages in Brazil Brazil_sentence_504

The official language of Brazil is Portuguese (Article 13 of the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Brazil), which almost all of the population speaks and is virtually the only language used in newspapers, radio, television, and for business and administrative purposes. Brazil_sentence_505

Brazil is the only Portuguese-speaking nation in the Americas, making the language an important part of Brazilian national identity and giving it a national culture distinct from those of its Spanish-speaking neighbors. Brazil_sentence_506

Brazilian Portuguese has had its own development, mostly similar to 16th-century Central and Southern dialects of European Portuguese (despite a very substantial number of Portuguese colonial settlers, and more recent immigrants, coming from Northern regions, and in minor degree Portuguese Macaronesia), with a few influences from the Amerindian and African languages, especially West African and Bantu restricted to the vocabulary only. Brazil_sentence_507

As a result, the language is somewhat different, mostly in phonology, from the language of Portugal and other Portuguese-speaking countries (the dialects of the other countries, partly because of the more recent end of Portuguese colonialism in these regions, have a closer connection to contemporary European Portuguese). Brazil_sentence_508

These differences are comparable to those between American and British English. Brazil_sentence_509

In 1990, the Community of Portuguese Language Countries (CPLP), which included representatives from all countries with Portuguese as the official language, reached an agreement on the reform of the Portuguese orthography to unify the two standards then in use by Brazil on one side and the remaining lusophone countries on the other. Brazil_sentence_510

This spelling reform went into effect in Brazil on 1 January 2009. Brazil_sentence_511

In Portugal, the reform was signed into law by the President on 21 July 2008 allowing for a six-year adaptation period, during which both orthographies will co-exist. Brazil_sentence_512

The remaining CPLP countries are free to establish their own transition timetables. Brazil_sentence_513

The sign language law legally recognized in 2002, (the law was regulated in 2005) the use of the Brazilian Sign Language, more commonly known by its Portuguese acronym LIBRAS, in education and government services. Brazil_sentence_514

The language must be taught as a part of the education and speech and language pathology curricula. Brazil_sentence_515

LIBRAS teachers, instructors and translators are recognized professionals. Brazil_sentence_516

Schools and health services must provide access ("inclusion") to deaf people. Brazil_sentence_517

Minority languages are spoken throughout the nation. Brazil_sentence_518

One hundred and eighty Amerindian languages are spoken in remote areas and a significant number of other languages are spoken by immigrants and their descendants. Brazil_sentence_519

In the municipality of São Gabriel da Cachoeira, Nheengatu (a currently endangered South American creole language – or an 'anti-creole', according to some linguists – with mostly Indigenous Brazilian languages lexicon and Portuguese-based grammar that, together with its southern relative língua geral paulista, once was a major lingua franca in Brazil, being replaced by Portuguese only after governmental prohibition led by major political changes), Baniwa and Tucano languages had been granted co-official status with Portuguese. Brazil_sentence_520

There are significant communities of German (mostly the Brazilian Hunsrückisch, a High German language dialect) and Italian (mostly the Talian, a Venetian dialect) origins in the Southern and Southeastern regions, whose ancestors' native languages were carried along to Brazil, and which, still alive there, are influenced by the Portuguese language. Brazil_sentence_521

Talian is officially a historic patrimony of Rio Grande do Sul, and two German dialects possess co-official status in a few municipalities. Brazil_sentence_522

Italian is also recognized as ethnic language in the Santa Teresa microregion and Vila Velha (Espirito Santo state), and is taught as mandatory second language at school. Brazil_sentence_523

Learning at least one second language (generally English or Spanish) is mandatory for all the 12 grades of the mandatory education system (primary and secondary education, there called ensino fundamental and ensino médio respectively). Brazil_sentence_524

Brazil is the first country in South America to offer Esperanto to secondary students. Brazil_sentence_525

Culture Brazil_section_31

Main article: Culture of Brazil Brazil_sentence_526

The core culture of Brazil is derived from Portuguese culture, because of its strong colonial ties with the Portuguese Empire. Brazil_sentence_527

Among other influences, the Portuguese introduced the Portuguese language, Roman Catholicism and colonial architectural styles. Brazil_sentence_528

The culture was, however, also strongly influenced by African, indigenous and non-Portuguese European cultures and traditions. Brazil_sentence_529

Some aspects of Brazilian culture were influenced by the contributions of Italian, German and other European as well as Japanese, Jewish and Arab immigrants who arrived in large numbers in the South and Southeast of Brazil during the 19th and 20th centuries. Brazil_sentence_530

The indigenous Amerindians influenced Brazil's language and cuisine; and the Africans influenced language, cuisine, music, dance and religion. Brazil_sentence_531

Brazilian art has developed since the 16th century into different styles that range from Baroque (the dominant style in Brazil until the early 19th century) to Romanticism, Modernism, Expressionism, Cubism, Surrealism and Abstractionism. Brazil_sentence_532

Brazilian cinema dates back to the birth of the medium in the late 19th century and has gained a new level of international acclaim since the 1960s. Brazil_sentence_533

Architecture Brazil_section_32

Main article: Architecture of Brazil Brazil_sentence_534

The architecture of Brazil is influenced by Europe, especially Portugal. Brazil_sentence_535

It has a history that goes back 500 years to the time when Pedro Cabral discovered Brazil in 1500. Brazil_sentence_536

Portuguese colonial architecture was the first wave of architecture to go to Brazil. Brazil_sentence_537

It is the basis for all Brazilian architecture of later centuries. Brazil_sentence_538

In the 19th century during the time of the Empire of Brazil, Brazil followed European trends and adopted Neoclassical and Gothic Revival architecture. Brazil_sentence_539

Then in the 20th century especially in Brasilia, Brazil experimented with Modernist architecture. Brazil_sentence_540

The colonial architecture of Brazil dates to the early 16th century when Brazil was first explored, conquered and settled by the Portuguese. Brazil_sentence_541

The Portuguese built architecture familiar to them in Europe in their aim to colonize Brazil. Brazil_sentence_542

They built Portuguese colonial architecture which included churches, civic architecture including houses and forts in Brazilian cities and the countryside. Brazil_sentence_543

During 19th century Brazilian architecture saw the introduction of more European styles to Brazil such as Neoclassical and Gothic Revival architecture. Brazil_sentence_544

This was usually mixed with Brazilian influences from their own heritage which produced a unique form of Brazilian architecture. Brazil_sentence_545

In the 1950s the modernist architecture was introduced when Brasilia was built as new federal capital in the interior of Brazil to help develop the interior. Brazil_sentence_546

The architect Oscar Niemeyer idealized and built government buildings, churches and civic buildings in the modernist style. Brazil_sentence_547

Music Brazil_section_33

Main article: Music of Brazil Brazil_sentence_548

The music of Brazil was formed mainly from the fusion of European and African elements. Brazil_sentence_549

Until the nineteenth century, Portugal was the gateway to most of the influences that built Brazilian music, although many of these elements were not of Portuguese origin, but generally European. Brazil_sentence_550

The first was José Maurício Nunes Garcia, author of sacred pieces with influence of Viennese classicism. Brazil_sentence_551

The major contribution of the African element was the rhythmic diversity and some dances and instruments that had a bigger role in the development of popular music and folk, flourishing especially in the twentieth century. Brazil_sentence_552

Popular music since the late eighteenth century began to show signs of forming a characteristically Brazilian sound, with samba considered the most typical and on the UNESCO cultural heritage list. Brazil_sentence_553

Maracatu and Afoxê are two Afro-Brazilian music traditions that have been popularized by their appearance in the annual Brazilian Carnivals. Brazil_sentence_554

The sport of capoeira is usually played with its own music referred to as capoeira music, which is usually considered to be a call-and-response type of folk music. Brazil_sentence_555

Forró is a type of folk music prominent during the Festa Junina in northeastern Brazil. Brazil_sentence_556

Jack A. Draper III, a professor of Portuguese at the University of Missouri, argues that Forró was used as a way to subdue feelings of nostalgia for a rural lifestyle. Brazil_sentence_557

Choro is a very popular music instrumental style. Brazil_sentence_558

Its origins are in 19th-century Rio de Janeiro. Brazil_sentence_559

In spite of the name, the style often has a fast and happy rhythm, characterized by virtuosity, improvisation, subtle modulations and full of syncopation and counterpoint. Brazil_sentence_560

Bossa nova is also a well-known style of Brazilian music developed and popularized in the 1950s and 1960s. Brazil_sentence_561

The phrase "bossa nova" means literally "new trend". Brazil_sentence_562

A lyrical fusion of samba and jazz, bossa nova acquired a large following starting in the 1960s. Brazil_sentence_563

Literature Brazil_section_34

Main article: Brazilian literature Brazil_sentence_564

Brazilian literature dates back to the 16th century, to the writings of the first Portuguese explorers in Brazil, such as Pêro Vaz de Caminha, filled with descriptions of fauna, flora and commentary about the indigenous population that fascinated European readers. Brazil_sentence_565

Brazil produced significant works in Romanticism – novelists like Joaquim Manuel de Macedo and José de Alencar wrote novels about love and pain. Brazil_sentence_566

Alencar, in his long career, also treated indigenous people as heroes in the Indigenist novels O Guarani, Iracema and Ubirajara. Brazil_sentence_567

Machado de Assis, one of his contemporaries, wrote in virtually all genres and continues to gain international prestige from critics worldwide. Brazil_sentence_568

Brazilian Modernism, evidenced by the Week of Modern Art in 1922, was concerned with a nationalist avant-garde literature, while Post-Modernism brought a generation of distinct poets like João Cabral de Melo Neto, Carlos Drummond de Andrade, Vinicius de Moraes, Cora Coralina, Graciliano Ramos, Cecília Meireles, and internationally known writers dealing with universal and regional subjects like Jorge Amado, João Guimarães Rosa, Clarice Lispector and Manuel Bandeira. Brazil_sentence_569

Cuisine Brazil_section_35

Main article: Brazilian cuisine Brazil_sentence_570

See also: List of Brazilian dishes Brazil_sentence_571

Brazilian cuisine varies greatly by region, reflecting the country's varying mix of indigenous and immigrant populations. Brazil_sentence_572

This has created a national cuisine marked by the preservation of regional differences. Brazil_sentence_573

Examples are Feijoada, considered the country's national dish; and regional foods such as beiju, feijão tropeiro, vatapá, moqueca, polenta (from Italian cuisine) and acarajé (from African cuisine). Brazil_sentence_574

The national beverage is coffee and cachaça is Brazil's native liquor. Brazil_sentence_575

Cachaça is distilled from sugar cane and is the main ingredient in the national cocktail, Caipirinha. Brazil_sentence_576

A typical meal consists mostly of rice and beans with beef, salad, french fries and a fried egg. Brazil_sentence_577

Often, it is mixed with cassava flour (farofa). Brazil_sentence_578

Fried potatoes, fried cassava, fried banana, fried meat and fried cheese are very often eaten in lunch and served in most typical restaurants. Brazil_sentence_579

Popular snacks are pastel (a fried pastry); coxinha (a variation of chicken croquete); pão de queijo (cheese bread and cassava flour / tapioca); pamonha (corn and milk paste); esfirra (a variation of Lebanese pastry); kibbeh (from Arabic cuisine); empanada (pastry) and empada, little salt pies filled with shrimps or heart of palm. Brazil_sentence_580

Brazil has a variety of desserts such as brigadeiros (chocolate fudge balls), bolo de rolo (roll cake with goiabada), cocada (a coconut sweet), beijinhos (coconut truffles and clove) and romeu e julieta (cheese with goiabada). Brazil_sentence_581

Peanuts are used to make paçoca, rapadura and pé-de-moleque. Brazil_sentence_582

Local common fruits like açaí, cupuaçu, mango, papaya, cocoa, cashew, guava, orange, lime, passionfruit, pineapple, and hog plum are turned in juices and used to make chocolates, ice pops and ice cream. Brazil_sentence_583

Cinema Brazil_section_36

Main article: Cinema of Brazil Brazil_sentence_584

The Brazilian film industry began in the late 19th century, during the early days of the Belle Époque. Brazil_sentence_585

While there were national film productions during the early 20th century, American films such as Rio the Magnificent were made in Rio de Janeiro to promote tourism in the city. Brazil_sentence_586

The films Limite (1931) and Ganga Bruta (1933), the latter being produced by Adhemar Gonzaga through the prolific studio Cinédia, were poorly received at release and failed at the box office, but are acclaimed nowadays and placed among the finest Brazilian films of all time. Brazil_sentence_587

The 1941 unfinished film It's All True was divided in four segments, two of which were filmed in Brazil and directed by Orson Welles; it was originally produced as part of the United States' Good Neighbor Policy during Getúlio Vargas' Estado Novo government. Brazil_sentence_588

During the 1960s, the Cinema Novo movement rose to prominence with directors such as Glauber Rocha, Nelson Pereira dos Santos, Paulo Cesar Saraceni and Arnaldo Jabor. Brazil_sentence_589

Rocha's films Deus e o Diabo na Terra do Sol (1964) and Terra em Transe (1967) are considered to be some of the greatest and most influential in Brazilian film history. Brazil_sentence_590

During the 1990s, Brazil saw a surge of critical and commercial success with films such as O Quatrilho (Fábio Barreto, 1995), O Que É Isso, Companheiro? Brazil_sentence_591

(Bruno Barreto, 1997) and Central do Brasil (Walter Salles, 1998), all of which were nominated for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film, the latter receiving a Best Actress nomination for Fernanda Montenegro. Brazil_sentence_592

The 2002 crime film City of God, directed by Fernando Meirelles, was critically acclaimed, scoring 90% on Rotten Tomatoes, being placed in Roger Ebert's Best Films of the Decade list and receiving four Academy Award nominations in 2004, including Best Director. Brazil_sentence_593

Notable film festivals in Brazil include the São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro International Film Festivals and the Gramado Festival. Brazil_sentence_594

Theatre Brazil_section_37

The theatre in Brazil has its origins in the period of Jesuit expansion when theater was used for the dissemination of Catholic doctrine in the 16th century. Brazil_sentence_595

in the 17th and 18th centuries the first dramatists who appeared on the scene of European derivation was for court or private performances. Brazil_sentence_596

During the 19th century, dramatic theater gained importance and thickness, whose first representative was Luis Carlos Martins Pena (1813–1848), capable of describing contemporary reality. Brazil_sentence_597

Always in this period the comedy of costume and comic production was imposed. Brazil_sentence_598

Significant, also in the nineteenth century, was also the playwright Antônio Gonçalves Dias. Brazil_sentence_599

There were also numerous operas and orchestras. Brazil_sentence_600

The Brazilian conductor Antônio Carlos Gomes became internationally known with operas like Il Guarany. Brazil_sentence_601

At the end of the 19th century orchestrated dramaturgias became very popular and were accompanied with songs of famous artists like the conductress Chiquinha Gonzaga. Brazil_sentence_602

Already in the early 20th century there was the presence of theaters, entrepreneurs and actor companies, but paradoxically the quality of the products staggered, and only in 1940 the Brazilian theater received a boost of renewal thanks to the action of Paschoal Carlos Magno and his student's theater, the comedians group and the Italian actors Adolfo Celi, Ruggero Jacobbi and Aldo Calvo, founders of the Teatro Brasileiro de Comedia. Brazil_sentence_603

From the 1960s it was attended by a theater dedicated to social and religious issues and to the flourishing of schools of dramatic art. Brazil_sentence_604

The most prominent authors at this stage were Jorge Andrade and Ariano Suassuna. Brazil_sentence_605

Visual arts Brazil_section_38

Main article: Brazilian painting Brazil_sentence_606

Brazilian painting emerged in the late 16th century, influenced by Baroque, Rococo, Neoclassicism, Romanticism, Realism, Modernism, Expressionism, Surrealism, Cubism and Abstracionism making it a major art style called Brazilian academic art. Brazil_sentence_607

The Missão Artística Francesa (French Artistic Mission) arrived in Brazil in 1816 proposing the creation of an art academy modeled after the respected Académie des Beaux-Arts, with graduation courses both for artists and craftsmen for activities such as modeling, decorating, carpentry and others and bringing artists like Jean-Baptiste Debret. Brazil_sentence_608

Upon the creation of the Imperial Academy of Fine Arts, new artistic movements spread across the country during the 19th century and later the event called Week of Modern Art broke definitely with academic tradition in 1922 and started a nationalist trend which was influenced by modernist arts. Brazil_sentence_609

Among the best-known Brazilian painters are Ricardo do Pilar and Manuel da Costa Ataíde (baroque and rococo), Victor Meirelles, Pedro Américo and Almeida Junior (romanticism and realism), Anita Malfatti, Ismael Nery, Lasar Segall, Emiliano di Cavalcanti, Vicente do Rego Monteiro, and Tarsila do Amaral (expressionism, surrealism and cubism), Aldo Bonadei, José Pancetti and Cândido Portinari (modernism). Brazil_sentence_610

Sports Brazil_section_39

Main article: Sport in Brazil Brazil_sentence_611

The most popular sport in Brazil is football. Brazil_sentence_612

The Brazilian men's national team is ranked among the best in the world according to the FIFA World Rankings, and has won the World Cup tournament a record five times. Brazil_sentence_613

Volleyball, basketball, auto racing, and martial arts also attract large audiences. Brazil_sentence_614

The Brazil men's national volleyball team, for example, currently holds the titles of the World League, World Grand Champions Cup, World Championship and the World Cup. Brazil_sentence_615

In auto racing, three Brazilian drivers have won the Formula One world championship eight times. Brazil_sentence_616

Some sport variations have their origins in Brazil: beach football, futsal (indoor football) and footvolley emerged in Brazil as variations of football. Brazil_sentence_617

In martial arts, Brazilians developed Capoeira, Vale tudo, and Brazilian jiu-jitsu. Brazil_sentence_618

Brazil has hosted several high-profile international sporting events, like the 1950 FIFA World Cup and recently has hosted the 2014 FIFA World Cup and 2019 Copa América. Brazil_sentence_619

The São Paulo circuit, Autódromo José Carlos Pace, hosts the annual Grand Prix of Brazil. Brazil_sentence_620

São Paulo organized the IV Pan American Games in 1963, and Rio de Janeiro hosted the XV Pan American Games in 2007. Brazil_sentence_621

On 2 October 2009, Rio de Janeiro was selected to host the 2016 Olympic Games and 2016 Paralympic Games, making it the first South American city to host the games and second in Latin America, after Mexico City. Brazil_sentence_622

Furthermore, the country hosted the FIBA Basketball World Cups in 1954 and 1963. Brazil_sentence_623

At the 1963 event, the Brazil national basketball team won one of its two world championship titles. Brazil_sentence_624

See also Brazil_section_40

Brazil_unordered_list_1


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brazil.