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This article is about the metropolis in Australia. Brisbane_sentence_0

For the local government area which most inner suburbs are located, see City of Brisbane. Brisbane_sentence_1

For other uses, see Brisbane (disambiguation). Brisbane_sentence_2

Brisbane (/ˈbrɪzbən/ (listen) BRIZ-bən) is the capital of and the most populated city in the Australian state of Queensland, and the third most populous city in Australia. Brisbane_sentence_3

Brisbane's metropolitan area has a population of over 2.5 million, and the South East Queensland metropolitan region, centred on Brisbane, encompasses a population of more than 3.6 million. Brisbane_sentence_4

The Brisbane central business district stands on the historic European settlement and is situated inside a peninsula of the Brisbane River, about 15 kilometres (9 miles) from its mouth at Moreton Bay, a bay of the Coral Sea. Brisbane_sentence_5

The metropolitan area extends in all directions along the hilly floodplain of the Brisbane River Valley between Moreton Bay and the Taylor and D'Aguilar mountain ranges. Brisbane_sentence_6

It sprawls across several of Australia's most populous local government areas (LGAs)—most centrally the City of Brisbane, which is by far the most populous LGA in the nation. Brisbane_sentence_7

The demonym of Brisbane is "Brisbanite", whilst common nicknames include "Brissy", "River City" and "Brisvegas". Brisbane_sentence_8

One of the oldest cities in Australia, Brisbane was founded upon the ancient traditional lands of the Jagera people, including the Turrbal group, who named the area Meanjin. Brisbane_sentence_9

Named after the Brisbane River on which it is located—which in turn takes its name from Scotsman Sir Thomas Brisbane, the Governor of New South Wales at the time of the city's founding—the area was chosen as a place for secondary offenders from the Sydney Colony. Brisbane_sentence_10

The Moreton Bay penal settlement was founded in 1824 at Redcliffe, 28 kilometres (17 mi) north of the central business district, but was soon abandoned and moved to North Quay in 1825, opening to free settlement in 1842. Brisbane_sentence_11

Brisbane was chosen as the capital when Queensland was proclaimed a separate colony from New South Wales in 1859. Brisbane_sentence_12

During World War II, Brisbane played a central role in the Allied campaign and served as the South West Pacific headquarters for United States Army General Douglas MacArthur. Brisbane_sentence_13

A diverse city with 32.2% of its metropolitan population being foreign born, Brisbane is classified as a global city (Beta +), and ranks highly in ratings of liveable cities. Brisbane_sentence_14

Brisbane is well known for its distinct Queenslander architecture which forms much of the city's built heritage. Brisbane_sentence_15

The city is noted for its cuisine brunches, outdoor dining, and rooftop bar scene. Brisbane_sentence_16

Brisbane was also the origin of the Anzac Day tradition through the works of Canon David John Garland. Brisbane_sentence_17

A transportation hub, Brisbane is served by a large suburban rail network, popular bus and ferry networks as well as Australia's third-busiest airport and seaport. Brisbane_sentence_18

Brisbane is a popular tourist destination. Brisbane_sentence_19

Major landmarks and attractions include South Bank Parklands, the Queensland Cultural Centre (home to the Queensland Museum, the Queensland Art Gallery, the Gallery of Modern Art and other institutions), the Story Bridge, Fortitude Valley, the Riverwalk network, the D'Aguilar National Park, Lone Pine Koala Sanctuary, Mount Coot-tha Reserve and Moreton Bay. Brisbane_sentence_20

History Brisbane_section_0

Main articles: History of Brisbane and Timeline of Brisbane Brisbane_sentence_21

Prehistory Brisbane_section_1

Aboriginal Australians lived in coastal South East Queensland (SEQ) for at least 22,000 years, with an estimated population between 6,000 and 10,000 individuals before European settlers arrived in the 1820s. Brisbane_sentence_22

At this time the Brisbane area was inhabited by the Jagera people, including the Turrbal group, who knew the area that is now the central business district as Mian-jin, meaning "place shaped as a spike". Brisbane_sentence_23

Archaeological evidence suggests frequent habitation around the Brisbane River, and notably at the site now known as Musgrave Park. Brisbane_sentence_24

Jagara (also known as Turrbal, Jagera, Yagara, and Yuggera) and Yugarabul (also known as Ugarapul and Yuggerabul) are Australian Aboriginal languages of South-East Queensland. Brisbane_sentence_25

There is some uncertainty over the status of Jagara as a language, dialect or perhaps a group or clan within the present-day local-government boundaries of City of Ipswich, Lockyer Valley Region and the Somerset Region. Brisbane_sentence_26

The languages of Greater Brisbane are related – there is uncertainty over which dialects belong to which language. Brisbane_sentence_27

The Yugarabul language region includes the landscape within the local-government boundaries of City of Brisbane, City of Ipswich and the Scenic Rim Region. Brisbane_sentence_28

18th century Brisbane_section_2

Matthew Flinders initially explored the Moreton Bay area on behalf of European colonisers. Brisbane_sentence_29

On 17 July 1799, Flinders landed at present-day Woody Point, which he named "Red Cliff Point" after the red-coloured cliffs visible from the bay. Brisbane_sentence_30

19th century Brisbane_section_3

In 1823 the Governor of New South Wales, Sir Thomas Brisbane, gave instructions for the development of a new northern penal settlement be developed, and an exploration party led by John Oxley further explored Moreton Bay in November 1823. Brisbane_sentence_31

Oxley claimed, named, and explored the Brisbane River as far as Goodna, 20 km (12 mi) upstream from the present-day central business district of Brisbane. Brisbane_sentence_32

Oxley recommended Red Cliff Point for the new colony, reporting that ships could land at any tide and easily get close to the shore. Brisbane_sentence_33

The convict settlement party landed in Redcliffe on 13 September 1824, under the command of Lieutenant Henry Miller – the group included 14 soldiers (some with wives and children) and 29 convicts. Brisbane_sentence_34

However, the settlers abandoned this site after a year and moved to an area on the Brisbane River now known as North Quay, 28 km (17 mi) south, which offered a more reliable water-supply. Brisbane_sentence_35

The newly selected Brisbane region, at the time, was plagued by mosquitos. Brisbane_sentence_36

After visiting the Redcliffe settlement, Sir Thomas Brisbane then travelled 45 km (28 mi) up the Brisbane River in December 1824. Brisbane_sentence_37

Governor Brisbane stayed overnight in a tent and often landed ashore, thus bestowing upon the future Brisbane City the distinction of being the only Australian capital city visited by its namesake. Brisbane_sentence_38

Chief Justice Forbes gave the new settlement the name of "Edenglassie" before it was named "Brisbane". Brisbane_sentence_39

Non-convict European settlement of the Brisbane region commenced in 1838 and the population grew strongly thereafter, with free settlers soon far outstripping the convict population. Brisbane_sentence_40

German missionaries settled at Zions Hill, Nundah as early as 1837, five years before Brisbane was officially declared a free settlement. Brisbane_sentence_41

The band consisted of ministers Christopher Eipper (1813–1894), Carl Wilhelm Schmidt, and lay missionaries Haussmann, Johann Gottried Wagner, Niquet, Hartenstein, Zillman, Franz, Rode, Doege and Schneider. Brisbane_sentence_42

They were allocated 260 hectares and set about establishing the mission, which became known as the German Station. Brisbane_sentence_43

Later in the 1860s many German immigrants from the Uckermark region in Prussia as well as from other German regions settled in the areas of Bethania, Beenleigh and the Darling Downs. Brisbane_sentence_44

These immigrants were selected and assisted through immigration programs established by John Dunmore Lang and Johann Christian Heussler and were offered free passage, good wages, and selections of land. Brisbane_sentence_45

The penal settlement under the control of Captain Patrick Logan (Commandant from 1826 to 1830) flourished, with the numbers of convicts increasing dramatically from around 200 to over 1,000 men. Brisbane_sentence_46

He developed a substantial settlement of brick and stone buildings, complete with school and hospital. Brisbane_sentence_47

He formed additional outstations and made several important journeys of exploration. Brisbane_sentence_48

Logan became infamous for his extreme use of the cat o' nine tails on convicts. Brisbane_sentence_49

The maximum allowed limit of lashes was 50; however, Logan regularly applied sentences of 150 lashes. Brisbane_sentence_50

Between 1824 and 1842, almost 2,400 men and 145 women were detained at the Moreton Bay convict settlement under the control of military commandants. Brisbane_sentence_51

Free settlers entered the area from 1835, and by the end of 1840, Robert Dixon had begun work on the first plan of Brisbane Town, in anticipation of future development. Brisbane_sentence_52

Letters patent dated 6 June 1859, proclaimed by Sir George Ferguson Bowen on 10 December 1859, separated Queensland from New South Wales, whereupon Sir George became Queensland's first governor, with Brisbane chosen as the capital. Brisbane_sentence_53

In 1893 Brisbane was affected by the Black February flood, when the Brisbane River burst its banks on three occasions in February and again in June in the same year, with the city receiving more than a year's rainfall during February 1893, leaving much of the city's population homeless. Brisbane_sentence_54

20th century Brisbane_section_4

Over 20 small municipalities and shires were amalgamated in 1925 to form the City of Brisbane, governed by the Brisbane City Council. Brisbane_sentence_55

A significant year for Brisbane was 1930, with the completion of Brisbane City Hall, then the city's tallest building and the Shrine of Remembrance, in ANZAC Square, which has become Brisbane's main war memorial. Brisbane_sentence_56

These historic buildings, along with the Story Bridge which opened in 1940, are key landmarks that help define the architectural character of the city. Brisbane_sentence_57

During World War II, Brisbane became central to the Allied campaign when the AMP Building (now called MacArthur Central) was used as the South West Pacific headquarters for General Douglas MacArthur, chief of the Allied Pacific forces, until his headquarters were moved to Hollandia in August 1944. Brisbane_sentence_58

MacArthur had previously rejected use of the University of Queensland complex as his headquarters, as the distinctive bends in the river at St Lucia could have aided enemy bombers. Brisbane_sentence_59

Also used as a headquarters by the American troops during World War II was the T & G Building. Brisbane_sentence_60

About one million US troops passed through Australia during the war, as the primary co-ordination point for the South West Pacific. Brisbane_sentence_61

In 1942, Brisbane was the site of a violent clash between visiting US military personnel and Australian servicemen and civilians, which resulted in one death and hundreds of injuries. Brisbane_sentence_62

This incident became known colloquially as the Battle of Brisbane. Brisbane_sentence_63

Post-war Brisbane had developed a "big country town" stigma, an image the city's politicians and marketers were very keen to remove. Brisbane_sentence_64

In the late 1950s, an anonymous poet known as The Brisbane Bard generated much attention to the city which helped shake this stigma. Brisbane_sentence_65

Despite steady growth, Brisbane's development was punctuated by infrastructure problems. Brisbane_sentence_66

The state government under Joh Bjelke-Petersen began a major programme of change and urban renewal, beginning with the central business district and inner suburbs. Brisbane_sentence_67

Trams in Brisbane were a popular mode of public transport until the network was closed in 1969, leaving Melbourne and one line in Adelaide as the last Australian state capitals to operate trams until Sydney began operation of a new system in 1997. Brisbane_sentence_68

The 1974 Brisbane flood was a major disaster which temporarily crippled the city. Brisbane_sentence_69

During this era, Brisbane grew and modernised, rapidly becoming a destination of interstate migration. Brisbane_sentence_70

Some of Brisbane's popular landmarks were lost to development in controversial circumstances, including the Bellevue Hotel in 1979 and Cloudland in 1982. Brisbane_sentence_71

Major public works included the Riverside Expressway, the Gateway Bridge, and later, the redevelopment of South Bank, starting with the Queensland Art Gallery. Brisbane_sentence_72

Between 1968 and 1987, when Queensland was governed by Premier Joh Bjelke-Petersen, whose government was characterised by strong social conservatism and the use of police force against demonstrators, and which ended with the Fitzgerald Inquiry into police corruption, Brisbane developed a counterculture focussed on the University of Queensland, street marches and Brisbane punk rock music. Brisbane_sentence_73

Brisbane hosted the 1982 Commonwealth Games and the 1988 World Exposition (known locally as World Expo 88). Brisbane_sentence_74

These events were accompanied by a scale of public expenditure, construction, and development not previously seen in the state of Queensland. Brisbane_sentence_75

Brisbane's population growth far exceeded the national average in the last two decades of the 20th century, with a high level of interstate migration from Victoria and New South Wales. Brisbane_sentence_76

21st century Brisbane_section_5

After three decades of record population growth, Brisbane was hit again by a major flood in January 2011. Brisbane_sentence_77

The Brisbane River did not reach the same height as the previous 1974 flood, but still caused extensive damage and disruption to the city. Brisbane_sentence_78

Brisbane also hosted major international events including the final Goodwill Games in 2001, the Rugby League World Cup Final in 2008 and again in 2017, as well as the 2014 G20 Brisbane summit. Brisbane_sentence_79

Population growth has continued to be among the highest of the Australian capital cities in the first two decades of the 21st century, and major infrastructure including the Howard Smith Wharves, Roma Street Parklands, Queens Wharf, the Brisbane Riverwalk, the Queen's Wharf casino and resort precinct, the Brisbane International Cruise Terminal, the Clem Jones, Airport Link, and Legacy Way road tunnels, and the Airport, Springfield, Redcliffe Peninsula and Cross River Rail railway lines have been completed or are under construction. Brisbane_sentence_80

Geography and environment Brisbane_section_6

Main article: Geography of Brisbane Brisbane_sentence_81

Brisbane is in the southeast corner of Queensland. Brisbane_sentence_82

The city is centred along the Brisbane River, and its eastern suburbs line the shores of Moreton Bay, a bay of the Coral Sea in the Pacific Ocean. Brisbane_sentence_83

The greater Brisbane region is on the coastal plain east of the Great Dividing Range, with the Taylor and D'Aguilar ranges extending into the metropolitan area. Brisbane_sentence_84

Brisbane's metropolitan area sprawls along the Moreton Bay floodplain between the Gold and Sunshine coasts, approximately from Caboolture in the north to Beenleigh in the south, and across to Ipswich in the south west. Brisbane_sentence_85

The Brisbane River is a wide tidal estuary and its waters throughout most of the metropolitan area are brackish and navigable. Brisbane_sentence_86

The river takes a winding course through the metropolitan area with many steep curves from the southwest to its mouth at Moreton Bay in the east. Brisbane_sentence_87

The metropolitan area is also traversed by several other rivers and creeks including the North Pine and South Pine rivers in the northern suburbs, which converge to form the Pine River estuary at Bramble Bay, the Caboolture River further north, the Logan and Albert rivers in the south-eastern suburbs, and tributaries of the Brisbane River including the Bremer River in the south-western suburbs, Breakfast Creek in the inner-north, Norman Creek in the inner-south, Oxley Creek in the south, Bulimba Creek in the inner south-east and Moggill Creek in the west. Brisbane_sentence_88

The city is on a low-lying floodplain, with the risk of flooding addressed by the Brisbane City Council's FloodSmart Future Strategy 2012–2031. Brisbane_sentence_89

The waters of Moreton Bay are sheltered from large swells by Moreton, Stradbroke and Bribie islands, so whilst the bay can become rough in windy conditions, the waves at Moreton Bay beaches are generally not surfable. Brisbane_sentence_90

Unsheltered surf beaches lie on the eastern coasts of Moreton, Stradbroke and Bribie islands islands and on the Gold Coast and Sunshine Coast to the north and south. Brisbane_sentence_91

The southern part of Moreton Bay also contains smaller islands such as St Helena Island, Peel Island, Coochiemudlo Island, Russell Island, Lamb Island and Macleay Island. Brisbane_sentence_92

The city of Brisbane is hilly. Brisbane_sentence_93

The urban area, including the central business district, are partially elevated by spurs of the Herbert Taylor Range, such as the summit of Mount Coot-tha, reaching up to 300 m (980 ft) and the smaller Enoggera Hill. Brisbane_sentence_94

The D'Aguilar National Park, encompassing the D'Aguilar Range, bounds the north-west of Brisbane's built-up area, and contains the taller peaks of Mount Nebo, Camp Mountain, Mount Pleasant, Mount Glorious, Mount Samson and Mount Mee. Brisbane_sentence_95

Other prominent rises in Brisbane are Mount Gravatt and nearby Toohey Mountain. Brisbane_sentence_96

Mount Petrie at 170 m (560 ft) and the lower rises of Highgate Hill, Mount Ommaney, Stephens Mountain, and Whites Hill are dotted across the city. Brisbane_sentence_97

Much of the rock upon which Brisbane is located is the characteristic Brisbane tuff, a form of welded ignimbrite, which is most prominently found at the Kangaroo Point Cliffs at Kangaroo Point and the New Farm Cliffs on the Petrie Bight reach of the Brisbane River. Brisbane_sentence_98

The stone was used in the construction of historical buildings such as the Commissariat Store and Cathedral of St Stephen, and the roadside kerbs in inner areas of Brisbane are still manufactured of Brisbane tuff. Brisbane_sentence_99

Ecology Brisbane_section_7

Brisbane is located within the South East Queensland biogeographic region, and is home to numerous Eucalyptus varieties. Brisbane_sentence_100

Trees considered iconic to Brisbane include the Moreton Bay fig, a very large evergreen banyan with imposing buttress roots named for the region which are often lit with decorative lights in the inner city, as well as the jacaranda, a subtropical tree native to South America which line avenues and parks throughout Brisbane and bloom with purple flowers during October, referred to locally as 'jacaranda season'. Brisbane_sentence_101

Other trees common to the metropolitan area include Moreton Bay chestnut, broad-leaved paperbark, poinciana, weeping lilli pilli and Bangalow palm. Brisbane_sentence_102

Some of the banks of the Brisbane River and Moreton Bay are home to mangrove wetlands. Brisbane_sentence_103

Brisbane is home to numerous bird species, with common species including rainbow lorikeets, kookaburras, galahs, Australian white ibises, Australian brushturkeys, Torresian crows, Australian magpies and noisy miners. Brisbane_sentence_104

Common reptiles include common garden skinks, Australian water dragons, bearded dragons and blue-tongued lizards. Brisbane_sentence_105

Common ringtail possums and flying foxes are common in parks and yards throughout the city, as are common crow butterflies, blue triangle butterflies, golden orb-weaver spiders and St Andrew's Cross spiders. Brisbane_sentence_106

The Brisbane River is home to many fish species including yellowfin bream, flathead, Australasian snapper, and bull sharks. Brisbane_sentence_107

The waters of Moreton Bay are home to dugongs, humpback whales, dolphins, mud crabs, soldier crabs, Moreton Bay bugs and numerous shellfish species. Brisbane_sentence_108

Climate Brisbane_section_8

Main article: Climate of Brisbane Brisbane_sentence_109

Brisbane has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification: Cfa) with hot, wet summers and moderately dry, moderately warm winters. Brisbane_sentence_110

Brisbane experiences an annual mean minimum of 16.6 °C (62 °F) and mean maximum of 26.6 °C (80 °F), making it Australia's second-hottest capital city after Darwin. Brisbane_sentence_111

Seasonality is not pronounced, and average maximum temperatures of above 26 °C (79 °F) persist from October through to April. Brisbane_sentence_112

Due to its proximity to the Coral Sea and a warm ocean current, Brisbane's overall temperature variability is somewhat less than most Australian capitals. Brisbane_sentence_113

Summers are long, hot, and wet, but temperatures only occasionally reach 35 °C (95 °F) or more. Brisbane_sentence_114

Eighty percent of summer days record a maximum temperature of 27 to 33 °C (81 to 91 °F). Brisbane_sentence_115

Winters are short and warm, with average maximums of about 22 °C (72 °F); maximum temperatures below 20 °C (68 °F) are rare. Brisbane_sentence_116

The city's highest recorded temperature was 43.2 °C (109.8 °F) on Australia Day 1940 at the Brisbane Regional Office, with the highest temperature at the current station being 41.7 °C (107.1 °F) on 22 February 2004; but temperatures above 38 °C (100 °F) are uncommon. Brisbane_sentence_117

On 19 July 2007, Brisbane's temperature fell below the freezing point for the first time since records began, registering −0.1 °C (31.8 °F) at the airport station. Brisbane_sentence_118

The city station has never dropped below 2 °C (36 °F), with the average coldest night during winter being around 6 °C (43 °F), however locations in the west of the metropolitan area such as Ipswich have dropped as low as −5 °C (23 °F) with heavy ground frost. Brisbane_sentence_119

In 2009, Brisbane recorded its hottest winter day (from June to August) at 35.4 °C (95.7 °F) on 24 August; The average July day however is around 22 °C (72 °F) with sunny skies and low humidity, occasionally as high as 27 °C (81 °F), whilst maximum temperatures below 18 °C (64 °F) are uncommon and usually associated with brief periods of cloud and winter rain. Brisbane_sentence_120

The highest minimum temperature ever recorded in Brisbane was 28.0 °C (82.4 °F) on 29 January 1940 and again on 21 January 2017, whilst the lowest maximum temperature was 10.2 °C (50.4 °F) on 12 August 1954. Brisbane_sentence_121

Annual precipitation is ample. Brisbane_sentence_122

From November to March, thunderstorms are common over Brisbane, with the more severe events accompanied by large damaging hail stones, torrential rain and destructive winds. Brisbane_sentence_123

On an annual basis, Brisbane averages 124 clear days. Brisbane_sentence_124

Dewpoints in the summer average at around 20 °C (68 °F); the apparent temperature exceeds 30 °C (86 °F) on almost all summer days. Brisbane_sentence_125

Brisbane's wettest day occurred on 21 January 1887, when 465 millimetres (18.3 in) of rain fell on the city, the highest maximum daily rainfall of Australia's capital cities. Brisbane_sentence_126

The wettest month on record was February 1893, when 1,025.9 millimetres (40.39 in) of rain fell, although in the last 30 years the record monthly rainfall has been a much lower 479.8 millimetres (18.89 in) from December 2010. Brisbane_sentence_127

Very occasionally a whole month will pass with no recorded rainfall, the last time this happened was August 1991. Brisbane_sentence_128

The city has suffered three major floods since its founding, in February 1893, January 1974 (partially a result of Cyclone Wanda), and January 2011 (partially a result of Cyclone Tasha). Brisbane_sentence_129

Brisbane is within the southern reaches of the tropical cyclone risk zone. Brisbane_sentence_130

Full strength tropical cyclones rarely affect Brisbane, but they do occasionally. Brisbane_sentence_131

The biggest risk is ex-tropical cyclones which can cause destructive winds and flooding rains. Brisbane_sentence_132

The average annual temperature of the sea ranges from 21.0 °C (69.8 °F) in July to 27.0 °C (80.6 °F) in February. Brisbane_sentence_133

Urban structure Brisbane_section_9

The Brisbane central business district (CBD, colloquially referred to as 'the city') lies in a curve of the Brisbane river. Brisbane_sentence_134

The CBD covers 2.2 km (0.8 sq mi) and is walkable. Brisbane_sentence_135

Most central streets are named after members of the House of Hanover. Brisbane_sentence_136

Queen Street (named in honour of Queen Victoria) is Brisbane's traditional main street and contains its largest pedestrian mall, the Queen Street Mall. Brisbane_sentence_137

Streets named after female members (Adelaide, Alice, Ann, Charlotte, Elizabeth, Margaret, and Mary) run parallel to Queen Street and perpendicular to streets named after male members (Albert, Edward, George, and William). Brisbane_sentence_138

The CBD's squares include King George Square, Post Office Square and ANZAC Square (home to the city's central war memorial). Brisbane_sentence_139

Brisbane's metropolitan area is broadly and colloquially divided into the 'northside' and the 'southside', with the dividing line being the Brisbane River, as crossing one of the 15 bridges across the river is required to travel to the opposite side by land transport. Brisbane_sentence_140

This results in many areas which are south of the CBD being classified as located in the 'northside', and vice versa, as a result of the river's winding trajectory. Brisbane_sentence_141

In addition to being classified as located on the 'northside' or 'southside' there are further broad and colloquial regions such as the 'westside' for some areas to the southwest of the CBD and the 'bayside' for areas located on the coast of Moreton Bay. Brisbane_sentence_142

Greater Brisbane had a density of 148 inhabitants per square kilometre (380/sq mi) in 2016. Brisbane_sentence_143

Like most Australian and North American cities, Brisbane has a sprawling metropolitan area which takes in excess of one hour to traverse either north to south or east to west by car without traffic. Brisbane_sentence_144

From the 1970s onwards, there has been a large increase in the construction of apartment developments, including mid-rise and high rise buildings, which has quickened in the 21st century. Brisbane_sentence_145

At the 2016 census, 76.4% of residents lived in separate houses, 12.6% lived in apartments, and 10% lived in townhouses, terrace houses, or semidetached houses. Brisbane_sentence_146

Parklands Brisbane_section_10

Brisbane's major parklands include the riverside City Botanic Gardens at Gardens Point, Roma Street Parkland, the 27-hectare Victoria Park at Spring Hill and Herston, South Bank Parklands along the river at South Bank, the Brisbane Botanic Gardens at Mount Coot-tha and the riverside New Farm Park at New Farm. Brisbane_sentence_147

There are many national parks surrounding the Brisbane metropolitan area. Brisbane_sentence_148

The D'Aguilar National Park is a major national park along the northwest of the metropolitan area in the D'Aguilar Range. Brisbane_sentence_149

The Glass House Mountains National Park is located to the north of the metropolitan area in the Glass House Mountains and provides green space between the Brisbane metropolitan area and the Sunshine Coast. Brisbane_sentence_150

The Tamborine National Park at Tamborine Mountain is located in the Gold Coast hinterland to the south of the metropolitan area. Brisbane_sentence_151

The eastern metropolitan area is built along the Moreton Bay Marine Park, encompassing Moreton Bay. Brisbane_sentence_152

Significant areas of Moreton, North Stradbroke and Bribie islands also covered by the Moreton Island National Park, Naree Budjong Djara National Park and the Bribie Island National Park respectively. Brisbane_sentence_153

The Boondall Wetlands in the suburb of Boondall include 1,100 hectares of wetlands which are home to mangroves and shorebirds as well as walking tracks. Brisbane_sentence_154

Architecture Brisbane_section_11

Further information: List of tallest buildings in Brisbane and Queenslander (architecture) Brisbane_sentence_155

Brisbane has retained many heritage buildings, some of which date back to the 1820s, including The Old Windmill in Wickham Park, built by convict labour in 1824, which is the oldest surviving building in Brisbane, and the Commissariat Store on William Street, built by convict labour in 1828, was originally used as a grainhouse, and is now the home of the Royal Historical Society of Brisbane and contains a museum. Brisbane_sentence_156

Other 19th and early 20th-century buildings of architectural significance include the Treasury Building, City Hall, Customs House, the Land Administration Building, MacArthur Chambers, The Mansions and the National Australia Bank Building. Brisbane_sentence_157

Brisbane is the origin of a distinctive architectural style known as Queenslander architecture, which developed in the 1840s and characterises the majority of pre-war homes built in the metropolitan area. Brisbane_sentence_158

Queenslander homes typically feature timber construction with large verandahs, gabled corrugated iron roofs, high ceilings. Brisbane_sentence_159

Most of these houses are elevated on stumps (also called "stilts"), traditionally built of timber, which allow for a void under the houses which aid in cooling. Brisbane_sentence_160

Queenslander houses are considered iconic to Brisbane and are typically sold at a significant premium to equivalent modern houses. Brisbane_sentence_161

The relatively low cost of timber in south-east Queensland meant that until recently, most residences were constructed of timber, rather than brick or stone. Brisbane_sentence_162

Early legislation decreed a minimum size for residential blocks leading to few terrace houses being constructed in Brisbane. Brisbane_sentence_163

The high-density housing that historically existed came in the form of miniature Queenslander-style houses which resemble the much larger traditional styles, but are sometimes only one-quarter the size. Brisbane_sentence_164

These houses are most common in the inner-city suburbs. Brisbane_sentence_165

Brisbane is home to several of Australia's tallest buildings and it is ranked among world cities with the most skyscrapers. Brisbane_sentence_166

All of Brisbane's skyscrapers (buildings with a height greater than 150 metres) are located within the CBD, with large numbers of high-rise buildings also proliferating in the inner suburbs of South Brisbane, Kangaroo Point, Fortitude Valley, Newstead, Teneriffe, New Farm, Bowen Hills, Spring Hill, Milton, Auchenflower, Toowong, Taringa, St Lucia, West End and Woolloongabba. Brisbane_sentence_167

Brisbane's 91-metre City Hall was the city's tallest building for decades after its completion in 1930 and was finally surpassed in 1970, which marked the beginning of the widespread construction of high-rise buildings. Brisbane_sentence_168

Brisbane's tallest building is currently Brisbane Skytower, which has a height of 270 metres. Brisbane_sentence_169

Architecturally prominent skyscrapers include the Harry Seidler-designed Riparian Plaza, One One One Eagle Street, which incorporates LED lighting resembling the buttress roots of the Moreton Bay fig, and 1 William Street, the executive headquarters of the Queensland Government. Brisbane_sentence_170

Demographics Brisbane_section_12

Main article: Demographics of Brisbane Brisbane_sentence_171

Brisbane's Greater Capital City Statistical Area includes the Local Government Areas of City of Brisbane, City of Ipswich, Moreton Bay Region, Logan City and Redland City, as well as parts of Lockyer Valley Region, Scenic Rim Region and Somerset Region, which form a continuous metropolitan area. Brisbane_sentence_172

The Australian Bureau of Statistics estimates that the population of Greater Brisbane is 2,514,184 as of June 2019, making it the third largest city in Australia. Brisbane_sentence_173

Ancestry and immigration Brisbane_section_13


Country of birth (2016)Brisbane_header_cell_0_0_0
BirthplaceBrisbane_header_cell_0_1_0 PopulationBrisbane_header_cell_0_1_1
AustraliaBrisbane_cell_0_2_0 1,538,813Brisbane_cell_0_2_1
New ZealandBrisbane_cell_0_3_0 106,053Brisbane_cell_0_3_1
EnglandBrisbane_cell_0_4_0 90,086Brisbane_cell_0_4_1
Mainland ChinaBrisbane_cell_0_5_0 36,175Brisbane_cell_0_5_1
IndiaBrisbane_cell_0_6_0 35,335Brisbane_cell_0_6_1
South AfricaBrisbane_cell_0_7_0 22,068Brisbane_cell_0_7_1
PhilippinesBrisbane_cell_0_8_0 20,797Brisbane_cell_0_8_1
VietnamBrisbane_cell_0_9_0 16,731Brisbane_cell_0_9_1
South KoreaBrisbane_cell_0_10_0 12,202Brisbane_cell_0_10_1
TaiwanBrisbane_cell_0_11_0 11,976Brisbane_cell_0_11_1
ScotlandBrisbane_cell_0_12_0 11,691Brisbane_cell_0_12_1
MalaysiaBrisbane_cell_0_13_0 10,765Brisbane_cell_0_13_1

At the 2016 census, the most commonly nominated ancestries were: Brisbane_sentence_174

The 2016 census showed that 32.2% of Brisbane's inhabitants were born overseas and 50.9% of inhabitants had at least one parent born overseas. Brisbane_sentence_175

Brisbane has the 26th largest immigrant population among world metropolitan areas. Brisbane_sentence_176

Of inhabitants born outside of Australia, the four most prevalent countries of birth were New Zealand, England, Mainland China, and India. Brisbane_sentence_177

Brisbane has the largest New Zealand and Taiwanese-born populations of any city in Australia. Brisbane_sentence_178

The areas of Sunnybank, Sunnybank Hills, Stretton, Robertson, Calamvale, Macgregor, Eight Mile Plains, Runcorn and Rochedale, are home to a large proportion of Brisbane's Mainland China, Taiwan and Hong Kong-born population, with Chinese being the most commonly-reported ancestry in each of these areas. Brisbane_sentence_179

The Vietnamese-born are the largest immigrant group in Inala, Darra, Durack, Willawong, Richlands and Doolandella. Brisbane_sentence_180

The Indian-born are the largest immigrant group in Chermside. Brisbane_sentence_181

2.4% of the population, or 54,158 people, identified as Indigenous Australians (Aboriginal Australians and Torres Strait Islanders) in 2016. Brisbane_sentence_182

Language Brisbane_section_14

At the 2016 census, 78% of inhabitants spoke only English at home, with the next most common languages being Mandarin (2.4%), Vietnamese (1.0%), Cantonese (0.9%), Spanish (0.7%), Hindi (0.6%), Samoan (0.6%), Korean (0.6%) and Punjabi (0.6%). Brisbane_sentence_183

Religion Brisbane_section_15

At the 2016 census, the most commonly cited religious affiliation was 'No religion' (30.6%). Brisbane_sentence_184

Brisbane's most popular religion at the 2016 census was Christianity, and the most popular denominations were Catholicism (21.5%) and Anglicanism (13.3%). Brisbane_sentence_185

Other Christian denominations including Uniting Church, Baptists, Pentecostalism, Lutheranism and Eastern Orthodox made up 18.8% of the population. Brisbane_sentence_186

All Christian denominations totalled 53.6% of the population. Brisbane_sentence_187

Brisbane's CBD is home to two cathedrals – St John's (Anglican) and St Stephen's (Catholic). Brisbane_sentence_188

The most popular non-Christian religions at the 2016 census were Buddhist (2%), Muslim (1.5%) and Hindu (1.5%). Brisbane_sentence_189

Economy Brisbane_section_16

Main articles: Economy of Brisbane and Port of Brisbane Brisbane_sentence_190

Categorised as a global city, Brisbane is among Asia-Pacific cities with largest GDPs and is one of the major business hubs in Australia, with strengths in mining, banking, insurance, transportation, information technology, real estate and food. Brisbane_sentence_191

Some of the largest companies headquartered in Brisbane, all among Australia's largest, include Suncorp Group, Virgin Australia, Aurizon, Bank of Queensland, Flight Centre, CUA, Sunsuper, QSuper, Domino's Pizza Enterprises, Star Entertainment Group, ALS, TechnologyOne, NEXTDC, Super Retail Group, New Hope Coal, Jumbo Interactive, National Storage, Collins Foods and Boeing Australia. Brisbane_sentence_192

Most major Australian companies, as well as numerous international companies, have contact offices in Brisbane. Brisbane_sentence_193

Brisbane throughout its history has been one of Australia's most important seaport cities. Brisbane_sentence_194

The Port of Brisbane located at the Brisbane River's mouth on Moreton Bay and on the adjacent Fisherman's Island, created by means of land reclamation. Brisbane_sentence_195

It is the 3rd busiest port in Australia for value of goods. Brisbane_sentence_196

Container freight, sugar, grain, coal and bulk liquids are the major exports. Brisbane_sentence_197

Most of the port facilities are less than three decades old and some are built on reclaimed mangroves and wetlands. Brisbane_sentence_198

The Port is a part of the Australia TradeCoast, which includes the Brisbane Airport along with large industrial estates located along both banks at the mouth of the Brisbane River. Brisbane_sentence_199

White-collar industries include information technology, financial services, higher education and public sector administration generally concentrated in and around the central business district and satellite hubs located in the inner suburbs such as South Brisbane, Fortitude Valley, Spring Hill, Milton and Toowong. Brisbane_sentence_200

Blue-collar industries, including petroleum refining, stevedoring, paper milling, metalworking and QR railway workshops, tend to be located on the lower reaches of the Brisbane River proximal to the Port of Brisbane and in new industrial zones on the urban fringe. Brisbane_sentence_201

Tourism is an important part of the Brisbane economy, both in its own right and as a gateway to other areas of Queensland, as international education, with over 95,000 international students enrolled in universities and other tertiary education institutions in the central City of Brisbane local government area alone in 2018. Brisbane_sentence_202

Retail Brisbane_section_17

Retail in the CBD is centred around the Queen Street Mall, which is Queensland's largest pedestrian mall. Brisbane_sentence_203

Shopping centres in the CBD include the Myer Centre, the Wintergarden, MacArthur Central and QueensPlaza, with the last of these along with Edward Street forming the city's focus for luxury brands. Brisbane_sentence_204

There are historical shopping arcades at Brisbane Arcade and Tattersalls Arcade. Brisbane_sentence_205

Suburbs adjacent to the CBD such as Fortitude Valley (particularly James Street), South Brisbane and West End are also a major inner-city retail hubs. Brisbane_sentence_206

Outside of the inner-city, retail is focused on indoor shopping centres, including numerous regional shopping centres along with six super regional shopping centres, all of which are among Australia's largest, namely: Westfield Chermside in the north; Westfield Garden City in the south; Westfield Carindale in the east; Indooroopilly Shopping Centre in the west; Westfield North Lakes in the outer-north; and Logan Hyperdome in the outer-south. Brisbane_sentence_207

Brisbane's major factory outlet centres are the Direct Factory Outlets at Skygate and Jindalee. Brisbane_sentence_208

The 100 hectare Brisbane Markets at Rocklea are Brisbane's largest wholesale markets, whilst smaller markets operate at numerous locations throughout the city including South Bank Parklands, Davies Park in West End, Queensland and the Eat Street Markets at Hamilton. Brisbane_sentence_209

Culture and sport Brisbane_section_18

Main article: Culture of Brisbane Brisbane_sentence_210

See also: Popular entertainment in Brisbane, Brisbane punk rock, and Cuisine of Brisbane Brisbane_sentence_211

Brisbane is home to several art galleries, the largest of which are the Queensland Art Gallery and the Queensland Gallery of Modern Art (GOMA), which is the largest modern art gallery in Australia. Brisbane_sentence_212

GOMA holds the Asia Pacific Triennial (APT) which focuses on contemporary art from the Asia and Pacific in a variety of media from painting to video work. Brisbane_sentence_213

In addition, its size enables the gallery to exhibit particularly large shows. Brisbane_sentence_214

Dramatic and musical theatre performances are held at the multiple large theatres located at Queensland Performing Arts Centre (QPAC). Brisbane_sentence_215

The Brisbane Powerhouse in New Farm and the Judith Wright Arts Centre in Fortitude Valley also feature diverse programmes featuring exhibitions and festivals of visual art, music and dance. Brisbane_sentence_216

Brisbane is also home to numerous small theatres including the Brisbane Arts Theatre in Petrie Terrace, the La Boite Theatre Company which performs at the Roundhouse Theatre at Kelvin Grove, the Twelfth Night Theatre at Bowen Hills, the Metro Arts Theatre in Edward Street, and the Queensland Theatre Company's Bille Brown Theatre in West End. Brisbane_sentence_217

The Queensland Performing Arts Centre (QPAC) at South Bank, consists of the Lyric Theatre, the Concert Hall, the Cremorne Theatre and the Playhouse Theatre and is home to the Queensland Ballet, Opera Queensland, the Queensland Theatre Company, and the Queensland Symphony Orchestra. Brisbane_sentence_218

The Queensland Conservatorium, a musical conservatorium in which professional music companies and conservatorium students also stage performances, is located within the South Bank Parklands. Brisbane_sentence_219

Numerous choirs present performances across the city annually. Brisbane_sentence_220

These choirs include the Brisbane Chorale, Queensland Choir, Brisbane Chamber Choir, Canticum Chamber Choir, Brisbane Concert Choir, Imogen Children's Chorale and Brisbane Birralee Voices. Brisbane_sentence_221

Brisbane has maintained a constantly evolving live music scene, producing acts spanning genres including punk (see Brisbane punk rock), indie rock, electronic music, experimental music, noise rock, metal and post-punk. Brisbane_sentence_222

Brisbane's live music history is often intertwined with social unrest and authoritarian politics, as retold by journalist Andrew Stafford in Pig City: From The Saints to Savage Garden, Radical Brisbane: An Unruly History, edited by academics Raymond Evans and Carole Ferrier, and BNE – The Definitive Archive: Brisbane Independent Electronic Music Production 1979–2014, produced by record label director Dennis Remmer. Brisbane_sentence_223

There are also popular entertainment pubs and clubs within both the City and Fortitude Valley. Brisbane_sentence_224

The Brisbane Entertainment Centre at Boondall is an arena which hosts many musical concerts, with some of the largest being held at Lang Park. Brisbane_sentence_225

Musicians from Brisbane include the Bee Gees (raised in Redcliffe and Cribb Island), Powderfinger (who met at Brisbane Grammar School and the University of Queensland), The Go-Betweens (after whom Brisbane's Go Between Bridge is named, and whose songs and albums, such as Spring Hill Fair, reflect the attitude of 1980s Brisbane), The Veronicas (born and raised in Albany Creek), The Saints (based in Brisbane since 1974, one of the first punk rock bands), Savage Garden, Sheppard, Pete Murray, Ball Park Music, and Twoset Violin. Brisbane_sentence_226

The city is featured in music including The Saints' "Brisbane (Security City)" (1978); The Stranglers' "Nuclear Device" (1979) about Joh Bjelke-Petersen; Midnight Oil's single "Dreamworld" (1987); and Powderfinger's album Vulture Street (2003). Brisbane_sentence_227

Prominent writers from Brisbane include David Malouf (whose 1975 novel Johnno is set in Brisbane and at Brisbane Grammar School during World War II), Nick Earls (whose 1996 novel Zigzag Street is set at Zigzag Street in Red Hill), and Li Cunxin, author of Mao's Last Dancer and artistic director of the Queensland Ballet. Brisbane_sentence_228

The State Library of Queensland, the state's largest library, is located at the Queensland Cultural Centre. Brisbane_sentence_229

Brisbane is home to over 6,000 restaurants and dining establishments, with outdoor dining featuring prominently. Brisbane_sentence_230

The most popular cuisines by number of dining establishments are Japanese, Chinese, Modern Australian, Italian, American, Indian, and Vietnamese. Brisbane_sentence_231

Moreton Bay bugs, less commonly known as flathead lobsters, are an ingredient named for the Brisbane region and which feature commonly in the city's cuisine, along with macadamia nuts, also native to the region. Brisbane_sentence_232

Annual events Brisbane_section_19

The Royal Queensland Exhibition (known locally as the Ekka), an agricultural exhibition held each August at the Brisbane Showgrounds in Bowen Hills is the longest-running major annual event held in Brisbane, during which there is a public holiday for each local government area across Brisbane so as to enable widespread public attendance. Brisbane_sentence_233

The Brisbane Festival, which includes one of the nation's largest annual fireworks displays called 'Riverfire', and which is held each September at South Bank Parklands, the CBD and surrounding areas is the second of Brisbane's major annual events, with the 'Riverfire' fireworks displays attended by hundreds of thousands of residents annually. Brisbane_sentence_234

The Brisbane International Film Festival (BIFF) is held in July/August each year in a variety of venues around Brisbane. Brisbane_sentence_235

BIFF features new films and retrospectives by domestic and international filmmakers along with seminars and awards. Brisbane_sentence_236

The Buddha Birth Day festival at South Bank parklands attracts over 200,000 visitors each year, and is the largest event of its type in Australia. Brisbane_sentence_237

There are also many smaller community events such as the Paniyiri festival (a Greek cultural festival held over two days in May), the Brisbane Medieval Fayre and Tournament (held each June), the Bridge to Brisbane charity fun run, the Anywhere Festival and the Caxton Street Seafood and Wine Festival. Brisbane_sentence_238

Major events are often held at the 171,000 square metre Brisbane Convention & Exhibition Centre in South Brisbane. Brisbane_sentence_239

Sport Brisbane_section_20

Main article: Sport in Brisbane Brisbane_sentence_240

Brisbane has hosted several major sporting events including the 1982 Commonwealth Games and the 2001 Goodwill Games, as well as events during the 1987 Rugby World Cup, 1992 Cricket World Cup, 2000 Sydney Olympics, 2003 Rugby World Cup, 2008 Rugby League World Cup, 2017 Rugby League World Cup and the 2018 Commonwealth Games. Brisbane_sentence_241

It holds the Brisbane International tennis competition every year. Brisbane_sentence_242

Rugby league is popular in Brisbane and the city hosts the Brisbane Broncos, who play in the National Rugby League competition and the Queensland Maroons who play in the State of Origin series. Brisbane_sentence_243

In rugby union the city hosts the Queensland Reds who play in the Super Rugby competition. Brisbane_sentence_244

Cricket is popular in the Brisbane and the city hosts the Brisbane Heat who play in the Big Bash League and the Queensland Bulls who play in the Sheffield Shield and the Ryobi One Day Cup. Brisbane_sentence_245

Brisbane also hosts an A-League soccer team, the Brisbane Roar FC; an Australian Football League team, the Brisbane Lions; a basketball team, the Brisbane Bullets; a baseball team, the Brisbane Bandits; a netball team, the Queensland Firebirds; a field hockey team, the Brisbane Blaze; and water polo teams the Brisbane Barracudas and Queensland Breakers. Brisbane_sentence_246

The city's major stadiums and sporting venues include the Gabba (a 42,000 seat round stadium at Woolloongabba), Lang Park (a 52,500 seat rectangular stadium at Milton also known by its corporate name Suncorp Stadium), Ballymore Stadium, the Queensland Sport and Athletics Centre, the Sleeman Centre (swimming), the State Tennis Centre, the Eagle Farm Racecourse and the Doomben Racecourse. Brisbane_sentence_247

The city is also home to numerous golf courses, with the largest being the Indooroopilly Golf Club at Indooroopilly, Queensland, the Brookwater Golf and Country Club at Brookwater, the Keperra Country Golf Club at Keperra and the Royal Queensland Golf Club at Eagle Farm. Brisbane_sentence_248

In addition to its flagship sport franchises, Brisbane and its regions and suburbs have numerous teams in secondary leagues including the Intrust Super Cup, National Rugby Championship, Queensland Premier Rugby, National Premier League Queensland, North East Australian Football League, National Basketball League, ANZ Championship, Australian Baseball League, Hockey One, National Water Polo League and F-league. Brisbane_sentence_249

Tourism and recreation Brisbane_section_21

Main article: Tourism in Brisbane Brisbane_sentence_250

Tourism plays a major role in Brisbane's economy, being the third-most popular destination for international tourists after Sydney and Melbourne. Brisbane_sentence_251

Popular tourist and recreation areas in Brisbane include the South Bank Parklands (including the Wheel of Brisbane), the City Botanic Gardens, Roma Street Parkland, New Farm Park, the Howard Smith Wharves, the Lone Pine Koala Sanctuary, the Teneriffe woolstores precinct, Fortitude Valley (including James Street and Chinatown), West End, City Hall (including the Museum of Brisbane), the Parliament of Queensland, the Story Bridge and bridge climb; St John's Cathedral, ANZAC Square and the Queensland Cultural Centre (including the Queensland Museum, Queensland Performing Arts Centre, Queensland Art Gallery, the Gallery of Modern Art and the State Library of Queensland), the Kangaroo Point Cliffs and park, and the Queensland Maritime Museum. Brisbane_sentence_252

Brisbane is notable for its Brisbane Riverwalk network, which runs along much of the Brisbane River foreshore throughout the inner-city area, with the longest span running between Newstead and Toowong. Brisbane_sentence_253

Another popular stretch runs beneath the Kangaroo Point Cliffs between South Brisbane and Kangaroo Point. Brisbane_sentence_254

Several spans of the Riverwalk are built out over the Brisbane River. Brisbane_sentence_255

Brisbane also has over 27 km (17 mi) of bicycle pathways, mostly surrounding the Brisbane River and city centre. Brisbane_sentence_256

Other popular recreation activities include the Story Bridge adventure climb and rock climbing at the Kangaroo Point Cliffs. Brisbane_sentence_257

Moreton Bay and its marine park is also a major attraction, and its three primary islands Moreton Island, North Stradbroke Island and Bribie Island, accessible by ferry, contain popular surf beaches and resorts. Brisbane_sentence_258

Tangalooma resort on Moreton Island is popular for its nightly wild dolphin feeding attraction, and for operating Australia's longest running whale watching cruises. Brisbane_sentence_259

The Fort Lytton National Park including a colonial defence fort and museum is also a historical bayside attraction. Brisbane_sentence_260

Beachside suburbs such as those on the Redcliffe Peninsula, as well as Shorncliffe, Sandgate, Wynnum, Manly and Wellington Point are also popular attractions for their bayside beaches, piers, and infrastructure for boating, sailing, fishing and kitesurfing. Brisbane_sentence_261

The Mount Coot-tha Reserve, including Mount Coot-tha, the Mount Coot-tha Lookout, the Mount Coot-tha Botanic Gardens and the Sir Thomas Brisbane Planetarium is a popular recreational attraction for hiking and bushwalking. Brisbane_sentence_262

There are many national parks surrounding the Brisbane metropolitan area which are popular recreational attractions for hiking and bushwalking. Brisbane_sentence_263

The D'Aguilar National Park runs along the northwest of the metropolitan area in the D'Aguilar Range, and contains popular bushwalking and hiking peaks at Mount Nebo, Camp Mountain, Mount Pleasant, Mount Glorious, Mount Samson and Mount Mee. Brisbane_sentence_264

The Glass House Mountains National Park is located to the north of the metropolitan area in the Glass House Mountains between it and that of the Sunshine Coast. Brisbane_sentence_265

The Tamborine National Park at Tamborine Mountain is located in the Gold Coast hinterland to the south of the metropolitan area. Brisbane_sentence_266

Moreton, North Stradbroke and Bribie islands are substantially covered by the Moreton Island National Park, Naree Budjong Djara National Park and the Bribie Island National Park respectively. Brisbane_sentence_267

The Boondall Wetlands in the suburb of Boondall are protected mangrove wetlands with floating walking trails. Brisbane_sentence_268

Immediately to the south and north of Brisbane are the Gold Coast and Sunshine Coast respectively, which are home to several of Australia's most popular swimming and surfing beaches, and are popular day and weekend destinations for Brisbanites. Brisbane_sentence_269

In 2015, a competition by travel guidebook Rough Guides saw Brisbane elected as one of the top ten most beautiful cities in the world, citing reasons such as "its winning combination of high-rise modern architecture, lush green spaces and the enormous Brisbane River that snakes its way through the centre before emptying itself into the azure Moreton Bay". Brisbane_sentence_270

Governance Brisbane_section_22

Main articles: City of Brisbane, Logan City, Moreton Bay Region, City of Ipswich, Redland City, Scenic Rim Region, and Government of Queensland Brisbane_sentence_271

Unlike other Australian capital cities, a large portion of the greater metropolitan area, or Greater Capital City Statistical Area (GCCSA) of Brisbane is controlled by a single local government area, the City of Brisbane, which is the largest local government area (in terms of population and budget) in Australia, serving more than 40% of the GCCSA's population. Brisbane_sentence_272

It was formed by the merger of twenty smaller LGAs in 1925, and covers an area of 1,367 km (528 sq mi). Brisbane_sentence_273

The remainder of the metropolitan area falls into the LGAs of Logan City to the south, Moreton Bay Region in the northern suburbs, the City of Ipswich to the south west, Redland City to the south east, and into the Somerset, Scenic Rim and Lockyer Valley regions on the urban periphery. Brisbane_sentence_274

Several of these are also among the nation's most populous LGAs. Brisbane_sentence_275

Each LGA is governed under a similar structure, including a directly elected mayor (including the Lord Mayor of Brisbane), as well as a council composed of councillors representing geographical wards. Brisbane_sentence_276

City Hall is the seat of the Brisbane City Council, the governing corporation of the City of Brisbane LGA, and the bulk of its executive offices are located at the Brisbane Square skyscraper. Brisbane_sentence_277

As the capital city of Queensland, Brisbane is home to the Parliament of Queensland at Parliament House at Gardens Point in the CBD, adjacent to Old Government House. Brisbane_sentence_278

Queensland's current Government House is located in Paddington. Brisbane_sentence_279

The bulk of the state government's executive offices are located at the 1 William Street skyscraper. Brisbane_sentence_280

The Queensland Supreme and District courts are located at the Queen Elizabeth II Courts of Law in George Street, while the Magistrates court is located at the adjacent Brisbane Magistrates Court building. Brisbane_sentence_281

The various federal courts are loced at the Commonwealth Law Courts building on North Quay. Brisbane_sentence_282

The Australian Army's Enoggera Barracks is located in Enoggera, while the historic Victoria Barracks in Petrie Terrace now hosts a military museum. Brisbane_sentence_283

The Royal Australian Navy's HMAS Moreton base is located at Bulimba. Brisbane_sentence_284

The Royal Australian Air Force's RAAF Base Amberley is located in Amberley in the outer south-west of the metropolitan area. Brisbane_sentence_285

Brisbane's largest prisons and correctional facilities, the Brisbane Correctional Centre, Brisbane Women's Correctional Centre, Arthur Gorrie Correctional Centre and Wolston Correctional Centre are located at Wacol, while the city's main historical prison, the Boggo Road Gaol, is now a museum. Brisbane_sentence_286

Education Brisbane_section_23

See also: Lists of schools in Queensland Brisbane_sentence_287

There are five major multi-campus universities with campuses in Brisbane's metropolitan area, namely: Brisbane_sentence_288


Other universities which have campuses in Brisbane include the Australian Catholic University, Central Queensland University, James Cook University and the University of the Sunshine Coast. Brisbane_sentence_289

Brisbane is a major destination for international students, who constitute a large proportion of enrolments in Brisbane's universities and are important to the city's economy and real estate market. Brisbane_sentence_290

In 2018, there were over 95,000 international students enrolled in universities and other tertiary education institutions in the central City of Brisbanel local government area alone. Brisbane_sentence_291

The majority of Brisbane's international students originate from China, India and other countries in the Asia-Pacific region. Brisbane_sentence_292

There are biotechnology and research facilities at several universities in Brisbane, including the Institute for Molecular Bioscience and CSIRO at the University of Queensland and the Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation at Queensland University of Technology. Brisbane_sentence_293

There are three major TAFE colleges in Brisbane; the Brisbane North Institute of TAFE, the Metropolitan South Institute of TAFE, and the Southbank Institute of TAFE. Brisbane_sentence_294

Brisbane is also home to numerous other independent tertiary providers, including the Australian College of Natural Medicine, the Queensland Theological College, the Brisbane College of Theology, SAE Institute, Jschool: Journalism Education & Training, JMC Academy, and American College and the Aboriginal Centre for the Performing Arts. Brisbane_sentence_295

Many of Brisbane's pre-school, primary, and secondary schools are under the jurisdiction of Education Queensland, a branch of the Queensland Government. Brisbane_sentence_296

Independent (private), Roman Catholic and other religious schools also constitute a large share of Brisbane's primary and secondary schooling sectors, with the oldest such independent schools composing the memberships of the Great Public Schools Association of Queensland (GPS) for boys' schools and Queensland Girls' Secondary Schools Sports Association (QGSSSA) for girls' schools. Brisbane_sentence_297

Infrastructure Brisbane_section_24

Main article: Transport in Brisbane Brisbane_sentence_298

See also: TransLink (South East Queensland), Queensland Rail City network, Transdev Brisbane Ferries, Port of Brisbane, Brisbane Airport, and Bridges over the Brisbane River Brisbane_sentence_299

Transport Brisbane_section_25

Brisbane has an extensive transportation network within the city, as well as connections to regional centres, interstate and to overseas destinations. Brisbane_sentence_300

Like all Australian cities, the most popular mode of transport is private car. Brisbane_sentence_301

Public transport is provided by rail, bus and ferry services and is co-ordinated by TransLink, which provides a unified ticketing and electronic payment system (known as 'go card') for South East Queensland. Brisbane_sentence_302

The region is divided into seven fare zones radiating outwards from the Brisbane central business district (CBD), with Brisbane's built-up area falling within zones 1–3. Brisbane_sentence_303

Bus services are operated by public and private operators whereas trains and ferries are operated by public agencies. Brisbane_sentence_304

The CBD is the central hub for all public transport services with services focusing on Roma Street, Central and Fortitude Valley railway stations; King George Square, Queen Street and Roma Street busway stations; and North Quay, Riverside and QUT Gardens Point ferry wharves. Brisbane_sentence_305

Roads Brisbane_section_26

Brisbane is served by a large network of urban and inter-urban motorways. Brisbane_sentence_306

The Pacific Motorway (M3/M1) connects the inner-city with the southern suburbs, Gold Coast and New South Wales. Brisbane_sentence_307

The Ipswich Motorway (M7/M2) connects the inner-city with the outer south-western suburbs. Brisbane_sentence_308

The Western Freeway and Centenary Motorway (M5) connect the city's inner-west and outer south-west. Brisbane_sentence_309

The Bruce Highway and Gympie Arterial Road (M1/M3) connect the city's northern suburbs with the Sunshine Coast and northern Queensland. Brisbane_sentence_310

The Logan Motorway (M2/M6) connects the southern and south-western suburbs. Brisbane_sentence_311

The Gateway Motorway is a toll road which connects the Gold and Sunshine Coast. Brisbane_sentence_312

The Port of Brisbane Motorway links the Gateway Motorway to the Port of Brisbane. Brisbane_sentence_313

The Inner City Bypass and Riverside Expressway serve as an inner ring freeway system to prevent motorists from travelling through the city's congested centre. Brisbane_sentence_314

Brisbane also has a large network of major road tunnels under the metropolitan area, known as the TransApex network, which include the Clem Jones Tunnel between the inner-north and inner-south, the Airport Link tunnel in the north-east and the Legacy Way tunnel in the south-west. Brisbane_sentence_315

They are the three longest road tunnels in Australia. Brisbane_sentence_316

Bridges Brisbane_section_27

The Brisbane River creates a barrier to road transport routes. Brisbane_sentence_317

In total there are sixteen bridges over the river, mostly concentrated in the inner city area. Brisbane_sentence_318

The road bridges (which usually also include provision for pedestrians and cyclists) by distance from the river mouth are the Sir Leo Hielscher Bridges, the Story Bridge, the Captain Cook Bridge, the Victoria Bridge, the William Jolly Bridge, the Go Between Bridge, the Eleanor Schonell Bridge, the Walter Taylor Bridge the Centenary Bridge and Colleges Crossing. Brisbane_sentence_319

There are three railway bridges, namely the Merivale Bridge, the Albert Bridge and the Indooroopilly Railway Bridge. Brisbane_sentence_320

There are also three pedestrian only bridges: the Goodwill Bridge, the Kurilpa Bridge and the Jack Pesch Bridge. Brisbane_sentence_321

The Houghton Highway (northbound) and Ted Smout Memorial Bridge (southbound) bridges, over Bramble Bay between Brighton and the Redcliffe Peninsula, are the longest bridges in the state. Brisbane_sentence_322

The abutment arches of the original crossing The Hornibrook Bridge still remain in place. Brisbane_sentence_323

Rail Brisbane_section_28

The Queensland Rail City network consists of 152 train stations along 13 suburban rail lines and across the metropolitan area, namely: the Airport line; the Beenleigh line; the Caboolture line; the Cleveland line; the Doomben line; the Exhibition line; the Ferny Grove line; the Ipswich/Rosewood line; the Redcliffe Peninsula line; the Shorncliffe line; and the Springfield line. Brisbane_sentence_324

The network extends to the Gold and Sunshine coasts, which are fully integrated into the network on the Gold Coast line and Sunshine Coast line. Brisbane_sentence_325

The Airtrain service which runs on the Airport line is jointly operated between the City of Brisbane and Brisbane Airport. Brisbane_sentence_326

55 million passenger trips were taken across the network in 2018–19. Brisbane_sentence_327

Construction of the network began in 1865 and has been progressively expanded in the subsequent centuries. Brisbane_sentence_328

Electrification of the network was completed between 1979 and 1988. Brisbane_sentence_329

The Cross River Rail project includes a twin rail tunnel (5.9 kilometres (3.7 mi) long) which will pass under the Brisbane River to link two new railway stations at Albert Street in the CBD and Wooloongabba is under construction and scheduled to be completed in 2024. Brisbane_sentence_330

Bus Brisbane_section_29

Brisbane has a large dedicated bus rapid transit network, the Brisbane busway network. Brisbane_sentence_331

The network comprises the South East Busway, the Northern Busway and the Eastern Busway. Brisbane_sentence_332

The main network hubs are the King George Square, Queen Street, and Roma Street busway stations. Brisbane_sentence_333

There are also numerous suburban bus routes operating throughout the metropolitan area, including the high-frequency Blue and Maroon CityGlider routes which run between Newstead and West End (Blue), and Ashgrove and Stones Corner (Maroon) respectively. Brisbane_sentence_334

Ferry Brisbane_section_30

RiverCity Ferries operates three ferry services along the Brisbane River, CityCat, Cross River and CityHopper. Brisbane_sentence_335

Brisbane's ferries, and particularly its catamaran CityCats, are considered iconic to the city. Brisbane_sentence_336

The CityCat high-speed catamaran ferry service, popular with tourists and commuters, operates services along the Brisbane River between the University of Queensland and Northshore Hamilton, with wharves at UQ St Lucia, West End, Guyatt Park, Regatta, Milton, North Quay, South Bank, QUT Gardens Point, Riverside, Sydney Street, Mowbray Park, New Farm Park, Hawthorne, Bulimba, Teneriffe, Bretts Wharf, Apollo Road and Northshore Hamilton. Brisbane_sentence_337

The Cross River services operate smaller vessels for popular cross-river routes, namely: BulimbaTeneriffe and Holman StreetRiverside. Brisbane_sentence_338

The free CityHopper service operates smaller vessels along a route between North Quay and Sydney Street, stopping at South Bank, Maritime Museum, Riverside and Holman Street. Brisbane_sentence_339

Pedestrian Brisbane_section_31

An extensive network of pedestrian and cyclist pathways span the banks of the Brisbane River in the inner suburbs to form the Riverwalk network. Brisbane_sentence_340

In some segments, the Riverwalk is built over the river. Brisbane_sentence_341

The longest span of the Riverwalk connects Newstead in the east with Toowong in the west. Brisbane_sentence_342

Airports Brisbane_section_32

Brisbane Airport (IATA code: BNE) is the city's main airport, the third busiest in Australia after Sydney Airport and Melbourne Airport. Brisbane_sentence_343

It is located north-east of the city centre on Moreton Bay and provides domestic and international passenger services. Brisbane_sentence_344

In the 2017, Brisbane Airport handled over 23 million passengers. Brisbane_sentence_345

The airport is an airline hub for Qantas, Virgin Australia and Jetstar as well as a number of minor and freight airlines. Brisbane_sentence_346

The airport is served by the Airtrain service which runs on the Airport line, providing a direct service to the CBD. Brisbane_sentence_347

Archerfield Airport in Brisbane's southern suburbs, Redcliffe Airport on the Redcliffe Peninsula and Caboolture Airfield in the far north of the metropolitan area serve Brisbane as general aviation airports. Brisbane_sentence_348

Brisbane is also served by other major airports in South East Queensland, including Gold Coast Airport at Coolangatta, Sunshine Coast Airport at Marcoola and Toowoomba Wellcamp Airport at Wellcamp. Brisbane_sentence_349

Seaport Brisbane_section_33

The Port of Brisbane is located at the mouth of the Brisbane River on Moreton Bay and on the adjacent Fisherman's Island, an artificial island created by land reclamation. Brisbane_sentence_350

It is the third busiest port in Australia for value of goods. Brisbane_sentence_351

The port is the endpoint of the main shipping channel across Moreton Bay which extends 90 kilometres north near Mooloolaba. Brisbane_sentence_352

The port has 29 operating berths including nine deep-water container berths and three deep-water bulk berths as well as 17 bulk and general cargo berths. Brisbane_sentence_353

There are two cruise ship terminals in Brisbane. Brisbane_sentence_354

Portside Wharf at Hamilton is an international standard facility for cruise liners. Brisbane_sentence_355

Due to the height of the Gateway Bridge which must be passed to reach the terminal, the wharf services small and medium-sized cruise ships. Brisbane_sentence_356

The Brisbane International Cruise Terminal at Luggage Point in Pinkenba is able to accommodate the largest cruise vessels in the world, and will be opened in 2020. Brisbane_sentence_357

Healthcare Brisbane_section_34

Brisbane is covered by Queensland Health's "Metro North" and "Metro South" Health Service Networks. Brisbane_sentence_358

Within the greater Brisbane area there are eight major public hospitals, four major private hospitals, and numerous smaller public and private facilities. Brisbane_sentence_359

The Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital and the Princess Alexandra Hospital are two of Queensland's three major trauma centres. Brisbane_sentence_360

Standing alone, they are the largest hospitals in Australia. Brisbane_sentence_361

The Princess Alexandra Hospital houses the Translational Research Institute (Australia) along with the state's renal and liver transplant services. Brisbane_sentence_362

The Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital includes a specialist burns unit. Brisbane_sentence_363

The Prince Charles Hospital is the state's major cardiac transplant centre. Brisbane_sentence_364

Other major public hospitals include the Mater Hospital, the Queen Elizabeth II Jubilee Hospital, and the Queensland Children's Hospital. Brisbane_sentence_365

Specialist and general medical practices are located in the CBD, and most suburbs and localities. Brisbane_sentence_366

Brisbane is also home to the headquarters of the Queensland Ambulance Service central executive, located at the Emergency Services Complex Kedron Park, along with the headquarters of the Queensland Fire and Emergency Services and the Queensland Emergency Operations Centre. Brisbane_sentence_367

Other utilities Brisbane_section_35

Water storage, treatment and delivery for Brisbane is handled by SEQ Water, which sells on to Queensland Urban Utilities (previously Brisbane Water) for distribution to the greater Brisbane area. Brisbane_sentence_368

Water for the area is stored in three major dams to the north-west of the metropolitan area: Wivenhoe, Somerset and North Pine. Brisbane_sentence_369

There is an open market in relation to the supply of electricity and gas in Brisbane with the largest providers being Energex (electricity) and Origin Energy (gas). Brisbane_sentence_370

Metropolitan Brisbane is serviced by all major and most minor telecommunications companies and their networks, including Telstra, Optus and Vodafone Australia. Brisbane_sentence_371

Brisbane is home to numerous cemeteries including the following large 19th-century historical cemeteries: the 44-hectare Toowong Cemetery (the largest cemetery in Queensland, which is a popular destination for walkers and joggers), Balmoral Cemetery, Lutwyche Cemetery, Nudgee Cemetery, Nundah Cemetery and South Brisbane Cemetery. Brisbane_sentence_372

Media Brisbane_section_36

Print Brisbane_section_37

The main local print newspapers of Brisbane are The Courier-Mail and its sibling The Sunday Mail, both owned by News Corporation. Brisbane_sentence_373

Brisbane also receives the national daily, The Australian, its sibling the Weekend Australian, as well as The Australian Financial Review. Brisbane_sentence_374

Sydney's The Sydney Morning Herald and Melbourne's The Age also sell in Brisbane in smaller numbers. Brisbane_sentence_375

The Brisbane Times is Brisbane's second major local news source, owned by Nine, and is online only. Brisbane_sentence_376

There are community and suburban newspapers throughout the metropolitan area, including Brisbane News and City News, many of which are produced by Quest Community Newspapers. Brisbane_sentence_377

Television Brisbane_section_38

Brisbane is served by all five major television networks in Australia, which broadcast from prominent television transmission towers on the summit of Mount Coot-tha. Brisbane_sentence_378

The three commercial stations, Seven, Nine, and Ten, are accompanied by two government networks, ABC and SBS. Brisbane_sentence_379

Channels provided by these networks include 10 Bold, 10 Peach, TVSN, Spree TV, ABC HD (ABC broadcast in HD), ABC COMEDY/KIDS, ABC ME, ABC News, SBS HD (SBS broadcast in HD), SBS Viceland, SBS Viceland HD (SBS Viceland broadcast in HD), Food Network, NITV, 7HD (Seven broadcast in HD), 7Two, 7mate, 7flix, TV4ME, RACING.COM, 9HD (Nine broadcast in HD), 9Gem, 9Go! Brisbane_sentence_380 , 9Life and 9Rush. Brisbane_sentence_381

31, a community station, also broadcasts in Brisbane. Brisbane_sentence_382

Optus and Foxtel operate PayTV services in Brisbane, via cable and satellite means. Brisbane_sentence_383

Radio Brisbane_section_39

Brisbane is serviced by five major public radio stations including major commercial radio stations, including 612 ABC Brisbane (local news, current affairs and talk); ABC Radio National (national news and current affairs); ABC NewsRadio (national news); ABC Classic FM (classical music); Triple J (alternative music); and SBS Radio (multicultural broadcasting). Brisbane_sentence_384

Brisbane is serviced by numerous major commercial and community radio stations including 4BC (local and national talk, news and current affairs); 4KQ (oldies); Magic 882 (oldies); 4BH; 97.3 (pop); B105 (pop); Nova 106.9 (pop); Triple M (rock); 96five Family FM (pop); Radio TAB (betting) and 4MBS (classical). Brisbane_sentence_385

Brisbane is also serviced by community radio stations such as VAC Radio (Mandarin); Radio Brisvaani (Hindi); Radio Arabic (Arabic); 4EB (multiple languages); 98.9 FM (indigenous); 4RPH (vision impaired); Switch 1197 (youth broadcasting); 4ZZZ (community radio); and Vision Christian Radio (Christian). Brisbane_sentence_386

Additional channels are also available via DAB digital radio. Brisbane_sentence_387

See also Brisbane_section_40


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