Brixen

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This article is about Brixen - Bressanone, Italy. Brixen_sentence_0

For the Austrian town of a similar name, see Brixen im Thale. Brixen_sentence_1

Brixen_table_infobox_0

Brixen

Bressanone

Brixen  (German) Porsenù/Persenon  (Ladin)Brixen_header_cell_0_0_0

CountryBrixen_header_cell_0_1_0 ItalyBrixen_cell_0_1_1
RegionBrixen_header_cell_0_2_0 Trentino-Alto Adige/SüdtirolBrixen_cell_0_2_1
ProvinceBrixen_header_cell_0_3_0 South Tyrol (BZ)Brixen_cell_0_3_1
FrazioniBrixen_header_cell_0_4_0 see listBrixen_cell_0_4_1
GovernmentBrixen_header_cell_0_5_0
MayorBrixen_header_cell_0_6_0 Peter BrunnerBrixen_cell_0_6_1
AreaBrixen_header_cell_0_7_0
TotalBrixen_header_cell_0_8_0 84.86 km (32.76 sq mi)Brixen_cell_0_8_1
ElevationBrixen_header_cell_0_9_0 560 m (1,840 ft)Brixen_cell_0_9_1
Population (31 August 2015)Brixen_header_cell_0_10_0
TotalBrixen_header_cell_0_11_0 21,416Brixen_cell_0_11_1
DensityBrixen_header_cell_0_12_0 250/km (650/sq mi)Brixen_cell_0_12_1
DemonymsBrixen_header_cell_0_13_0 German: Brixner

Italian: brissinesiBrixen_cell_0_13_1

Time zoneBrixen_header_cell_0_14_0 UTC+1 (CET)Brixen_cell_0_14_1
Summer (DST)Brixen_header_cell_0_15_0 UTC+2 (CEST)Brixen_cell_0_15_1
Postal codeBrixen_header_cell_0_16_0 39042Brixen_cell_0_16_1
Dialing codeBrixen_header_cell_0_17_0 0472Brixen_cell_0_17_1
Patron saintBrixen_header_cell_0_18_0 Saint Albuin

Saint IngenuinBrixen_cell_0_18_1

Saint dayBrixen_header_cell_0_19_0 February 2Brixen_cell_0_19_1
WebsiteBrixen_header_cell_0_20_0 Brixen_cell_0_20_1

Brixen (German pronunciation: [ˈbrɪksn̩; Italian: Bressanone [bressaˈnoːne; Ladin: Porsenù or Persenon) is a town in South Tyrol in northern Italy, located about 40 kilometres (25 mi) north of Bolzano. Brixen_sentence_2

Geography Brixen_section_0

First mentioned in 901, Brixen is the third largest city and oldest town in the province, and the artistic and cultural capital of the valley. Brixen_sentence_3

It is located at the confluence of the Eisack and Rienz rivers, 40 kilometres (25 mi) north of Bolzano and 45 kilometres (28 mi) south of the Brenner Pass, on the Italy-Austrian border. Brixen_sentence_4

It is flanked on the eastern side by the Plose and Telegraph (Monte Telegrafo) mountains (2,504 m) and on the western side by the Königsanger (Monte Pascolo) (2,436 m) mountain. Brixen_sentence_5

Brixen is especially known as a major skiing resort (the Plose). Brixen_sentence_6

Other activities include hydroelectric power, orchards, and vineyards. Brixen_sentence_7

Frazioni Brixen_section_1

Frazioni / incorporated villages: Afers (Eores), Albeins (Albes), Elvas, Gereuth, Karnol, Klerant (Cleran), Kranebitt (Costa d'Elvas), Mahr (La Mara), Mairdorf, Mellaun (Meluno), Milland, Pairdorf (Perara), Pinzagen (Pinzago), Plabach, Rutzenberg, St. Andrä (S.Andrea), St. Leonhard (S.Leonardo), Sarns (Sarnes), Tils (Tiles), Tötschling (Tecelinga), Tschötsch (Scezze), Untereben. Brixen_sentence_8

History Brixen_section_2

Main article: Bishopric of Brixen Brixen_sentence_9

The area of Brixen has been settled since the Upper Paleolithic (8th millennium BC). Brixen_sentence_10

Other settlements from the late Stone Age have been found and in 15 BC, the area was conquered by the Romans, who had their main settlement in the nearby Säben (Sabiona). Brixen_sentence_11

They held it until around 590, when it was occupied by Bavarians. Brixen_sentence_12

The first mention of Brixen dates to 901 in a document issued by the King of Germany, Louis III the Child, in it a territory called Prihsna is assigned to Zacharias, bishop of Säben. Brixen_sentence_13

As time passed, "Prihsna" turned into the current name of Brixen. Brixen_sentence_14

The bishops moved here from Säben in 992, after the Cathedral had been finished. Brixen_sentence_15

In 1039, the Bishop of Brixen, Poppo, was elevated to Pope by emperor Henry III. Brixen_sentence_16

However his reign lasted for only 23 days. Brixen_sentence_17

In the same century, Brixen became the seat of an independent ecclesiastical principate which, in the following years, struggled for existence against the neighbouring county of Tyrol. Brixen_sentence_18

In 1080, the synod of Brixen condemned Pope Gregory VII. Brixen_sentence_19

In 1115, a first line of walls encircling Brixen was completed. Brixen_sentence_20

The bishopric was secularized in 1803 and annexed by the Austrian Empire. Brixen_sentence_21

Between 1851 and 1855, the Czech journalist and writer Karel Havlíček Borovský was exiled by the Austrian government to Brixen. Brixen_sentence_22

After the end of World War I, Brixen was annexed by Italy. Brixen_sentence_23

Coat-of-arms Brixen_section_3

The oldest coat of arms dates back to 1297 with the lamb, known then from 1304 as a symbol of the lamb. Brixen_sentence_24

On 13 November 1928, a shield with the city walls and a gate on the lawn in the upper half and the lamb in the lower was adopted. Brixen_sentence_25

The emblem is a turned argent lamb with an or halo on a gules background; the right foreleg supports a flag with a gules cross. Brixen_sentence_26

The emblem was granted in 1966. Brixen_sentence_27

Main sights Brixen_section_4

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  • The Cathedral (10th century), dedicated to Santa Maria Assunta, was rebuilt in the 13th century and again in 1745–54 along Baroque lines. The ceiling of the nave has a large fresco by Paul Troger portraying the Adoration of the Lamb.Brixen_item_0_0
  • The Hofburg, a Renaissance Bishop's Palace (started in the 13th century), one of the main noble residences in South Tyrol. The Diocesan Museum has several artworks, including a presepe with 5,000 figures created for Bishop Karl Franz Lodron.Brixen_item_0_1
  • The round parish church of Saint Michael (11th century). The Gothic choir and the bell tower are from the 15th century while the nave is from the 16th. The main artwork is a wooden Cireneus from the 15th century.Brixen_item_0_2
  • The Pharmacy Museum (Pharmaziemuseum Brixen), located in a nearly 500-year-old townhouse, shows the development and changes of the local pharmacy. The Peer family (now the 7th generation) has run this pharmacy since 1787, always in the same location. The museum's carefully restored rooms illustrate the development of the pharmaceutical profession over the centuries and the changes in remedies used, from the testicles of a beaver and pieces of an ancient Egyptian mummy to modern plasters and lyophilisates. All the objects and medicines on display were in use over the centuries. The Museum also has a library for historical research and the archive of the Peer family. In a separate room there is a multimedia display of the history of the family.Brixen_item_0_3
  • The White Tower (also known as "Weißer Turm") was completed in 1591, but subsequently modified. The 72 meter tall tower, which is located next to the parish church of Saint Michael, is inside the city walls in the historic center of Brixen. It contains a complex carillon mechanism of 43 bells, which ring every day at 11.00 a.m. and can play more than a hundred different tunes. On the top floor there is a large roof where it is possible to observe the circumstances. The Tower also has a lunar clock. The architecture of the tower belongs to the Gothic Architecture and is one of the few remaining in South Tyrol. It is the cultural heritage monument with the number 14186 in South Tyrol. The White Tower is used as a museum since 2007.Brixen_item_0_4

Outside the city is Rodeneck Castle, one of the most powerful of its time. Brixen_sentence_28

It has precious frescoes from the early 13th century. Brixen_sentence_29

Also important are Reifenstein Castle and Trostburg Castle in Waidbruck. Brixen_sentence_30

In the latter lived the adventurer and minstrel Oswald von Wolkenstein. Brixen_sentence_31


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brixen.